Causewayed Enclosure

Causewayed Enclosure is in Neolithic Monuments.

Around 3600BC. Whitehawk Camp is a causewayed enclosure near Brighton in Sussex. In 1929 R. P. Ross Williamson and E. Cecil Curwen undertook atn excavation at Whitehawk Camp. In 1930, the archaeologist E. Cecil Curwen identified sixteen sites that were definitely or probably Neolithic causewayed enclosures.

The Iron-Age Hill Fort consists of a well-defined bank and ditch, with a smaller outer bank, in an irregular nine-sided polygon. There are two gaps, at the east-northeast and west-southwest edges, indicating entrances. The depth of the ditch and the height of the bank vary, with the highest point reaching 5.5 m (6.0 yd) above the bottom of the ditch.

Around 3600BC. Barkdale Camp is a causewayed enclosure on the South Downs in West Sussex. In 1929, John Ryle noticed the earthworks at the site, and in 1930 E. Cecil Curwen and G.P. Burstow surveyed the site, and identified an interrupted ditch in the northern part of the site. In 1958 Veronica Seton-Williams began a series of excavations at Barkhale Camp; she dug for four seasons. Seton-Williams excavated six of the thirteen ditch segments that Curwen had identified

Around 3600BC. Combe Hill is a causewayed enclosure on the northern edge of the South Downs in Sussex. The enclosure has been excavated twice: in 1949, by Reginald Musson, and in 1962, by Veronica Seton-Williams. Musson found a large quantity of Ebbsfleet Ware pottery in one of the ditches.

Around 3600BC. The The Trundle is a causewayed enclosure that became an Iron Age Hill Forts in West Sussex. It rises above the neighbouring hills and so is clearly visible from all sides having an elevation of 206m. The causewayed enclosure consists of at least four circular or partly circular ditches enclosing 9300m2.

Knap Hill. Historic England 1005704.

Summary: The site of Knap Hill, a causewayed enclosure. It encompasses an area of circa 2.4 hectares and consists of a single circuit of sub-triangular plan, conforming to the contours of the hill and possibly incomplete on the steepest, southern side. Exceptionally compared to other enclosures, the causeways seem to correspond precisely to gaps in the bank. It is unclear if the earthworks ever formed a complete enclosure. Excavations by the Cunningtons in 1908-9 first demonstrated the causewayed nature of the earthworks, as well as recovering pottery which they felt to be Neolithic in date. Further excavations in 1961 confirmed the Cunningtons' observations. Romano British pottery and an extended inhumation probably relates to the adjacent, later earthwork enclosure. The site and its archaeological history were re-investigated as part of the RCHME project focusing on enclosure and industry in the Neolithic period in 1995. Knap Hill was also subsequently included in a research programme into the dating of the early Causewayed Enclosures of southern Britain and of Ireland. The results suggested that Knap Hill was probably constructed in the 35th century cal BC, (that is to say between 3500-4001cal BC) probably more than a century later than Windmill Hill and the West Kennet long barrow. It is unclear, however, for how long activity continued. On the basis that the ditch was left to infill naturally, that there is no sign of recutting, and because there is a scarcity of sherds and bones, a short duration, probably of well under a century and perhaps only a generation or two, is possible.

More information: (SU 12106368) Neolithic Camp (NR) Knap Hill (NAT).

A causewayed camp on Knap Hill (see plan), excavated by BH and ME Cunnington in 1908-9 and G Connah in 1961. The excavations revealed Windmill Hill sherds in the silting of the ditches, Beaker sherds on the surface of the ditches and Romano-British sherds, probably associated with the plateau enclosure (see SU 16 SW 13). Other finds nearly all from within a few feet of the bottom of the ditch include fragments of red deer antlers, a human jawbone, flint flakes and a few sarsen chips. The finds are now in Devizes Museum. Connah concludes from his excavations that the causewayed ditches undoubtedly belong to the Windmill Hill culture and that the scarcity of the pottery and occupation material may suggest that the camp was of a defensive character and abandoned at an early stage - perhaps before completion.

Radiocarbon dating of antler fragments from the primary rubble of the ditch - 4710+- 115 BP or 2760BC. Charcoal from the upper silting of the ditch - 3790+- 130BP or 1840BC.

SU 12106365 Knap Hill causewayed camp occupies a hill top position overlooking the Pewsey Vale to the S. The causewayed bank can be traced only on the N and W sides, but accepting the natural gradient of the hill for the eastern and southern extent, then the area enclosed would have been approximately 1.7 hectares. There is a bowl barrow (see SU 16 SW 23) and some flint digging disturbance within the camp, and in the E the perimeter of the IA/RB "plateau" enclosure obscures the terminal on the causewayed bank. Resurveyed in conjunction with RCHM manuscript plan at 1:2500.

The Neolithic causwayed enclosure and associated features described by the previous authorities have been mapped at 1:10,000 scale from aerial photographs and the 1:1000 plan produced as part of the industry and Enclosure in the Neolithic Project (Event UID 923509).

Surveyed by the RCHME as part of the above project.

Knap Hill encloses an area of 2.4 hectares and consists of a single circuit of sub-triangular plan, conforming to the contours of the hill and possibly incomplete on the steepest, southern side. Exceptionally to other enclosures, the causeways seem to correspond precisely to gaps in the bank.

Two radiocarbon dates were obtained by Connah following his 1961 excavations (Table 3.3: BM-205, -208; Connah 1969). They bracket the infilling of the ditch, the sample for BM-205 coming from near the base and that for BM-208 from the topmost fill. BM-205 was measured on an antler implement which had arguably been used to dig the ditch and would have been contemporary with that event. BM-208 was measured on an unidentified bulk charcoal sample which may have included material of diverse ages, and can hence provide only a terminus post quem for its context.

Knap Hill was included in a research programme into the dating of the early Causewayed Enclosures of southern Britain and of Ireland, using chronological estimates produced by Bayesian statistical analysis of radiocarbon dates. In addition to attempting to establish a construction date and duration for the monument, the proximity of the site to Windmill Hill and to a concentration of long barrows posed the question of its chronological relation to them. Six further radiocarbon measurements were therefore obtained. A model which incorporates this interpretation of the archaeological sequence with the radiocarbon dates was constructed. The model suggested that Knap Hill was probably constructed in the 35th century cal BC, probably rather more than a century later than both Windmill Hill and the West Kennet long barrow. It is unclear, however, for how long activity continued at this enclosure. On the basis that the ditch was left to infill naturally and there is no sign of recutting, and because there is a scarcity of sherds and bones, a short duration, probably of well under a century and perhaps only a generation or two, is plausible.

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3500BC. Knap Hill is a causewayed enclosure opposite Adam's Grave on the Avebury plateau southern scarp. It was the first to be identified in the summers of 1908 and 1909 when husband and wife Benjamin and Maud Cunnington undertook excavations.

3300BC. Windmill Hill is a causewayed enclosure around one mile north-west of the Avebury Henge. It was first occupied around 3800BC - the evidence being the presence of Hembury Ware.

Windmill Hill. Historic England 1008446.

The monument includes a causewayed enclosure, a small mortuary enclosure, part of an early prehistoric field system and a group of eight Bronze Age round barrows forming the core of a wider round barrow cemetery, all situated on Windmill Hill, a prominent but low hill north-west of Avebury. Until recently, the Causewayed Enclosure and broadly contemporary mortuary enclosure were thought to be the earliest evidence for human occupation of the hilltop. Prior to this date, however, it would appear that the hill was under cultivation. On the eastern side of Windmill Hill are a series of slight earthworks which form the outlines of field boundaries and enclosures. Recent survey work has suggested that this field system runs beneath the enclosure and is therefore of earlier date. The causewayed enclosure has a small circular area surrounded by three roughly concentric rings comprising banks and ditches, centred just north and downslope of the summit of Windmill Hill. The ditches are interrupted at regular intervals by causeways, created as a result of the gang construction method used to form the ditches and banks. The outer limits of the enclosure form an oval ring aligned roughly south-west to north-east. The overall dimensions of the enclosure are 400m by 300m at the widest points. Numerous excavations of the causewayed enclosure, originally by Keiller, then by Smith in the 1960s, and more recently by Whittle, have contributed much to our understanding of the site. Finds have included Neolithic flint artefacts such as arrowheads, axe-heads, a sickle blade and scrapers. Ceremonial chalk cups, animal bones and skulls have also been found.

A type of Neolithic pottery found on sites across Wessex was first identified here and has taken the name of the site. The enclosure was in use from about 3000BC to around 2500BC. Broadly contemporary with the causewayed enclosure, and situated to the east and located immediately outside a causeway leading into the outer ring of earthworks, is a mortuary enclosure. This was used for the exposure of human corpses prior to their formal burial in mounds or chambered tombs such as nearby West Kennet. Although not visible at ground level, it survives as a rectangular enclosure 33.5m long by 22m wide defined by a buried ditch 0.3m wide.

The history of burial at the site continued into the Bronze Age with the location on the hilltop of the core of a round barrow cemetery. Eight of the 19 burial mounds which make up the Windmill Hill cemetery are located within the monument and this includes three different types: bowl barrows, bell barrows and saucer barrows. The individual barrows are described as follows:

SU08597130. Bowl barrow 15m across and 0.3m high. Surrounding the mound is a ditch from which material was quarried during construction of the monument. This has become infilled over the years but survives as a buried feature c.2.5m wide.

SU08637135. Bowl barrow 19m across and 0.4m high. Surrounding the mound is a ditch which survives as a buried feature c.3m wide.

SU08677136. Bell barrow 22m across and 2.5m high. Surrounding the mound is a berm or platform 3.5m wide, surrounded by a ditch 3.5m wide and 0.7m deep.

SU08717140. Bowl barrow 30.5m across and 1.9m high. Surrounding the mound is a ditch 4m wide and 0.3m deep.

SU08887136. Bowl barrow 24m across and 2.3m high. Surrounding the mound is a ditch which survives as a buried feature c.2.5m wide.

SU08857142. Bowl barrow 24m across and 2.5m high. Surrounding the mound is an interrupted quarry ditch up to 4m wide and 0.75m deep.

SU08927143. Saucer barrow 9.8m across and 0.5m high. Surrounding the barrow is a berm 4.5m wide, surrounded by a ditch 4.5m wide and 0.8m deep.

SU08967146. Saucer barrow 15.2m across and 0.4m high. Surrounding the barrow is a ditch 2.4m wide and 0.3m deep.

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Around 2850BC. Hambledon Hill Causewayed Enclosure is two causewayed enclosure linked by a bank and ditch running northwest–southeast. A third enclosure is now known to underlie later earthworks. In all, the area of activity covered more than 1 km2. Radiocarbon analysis gives a date of 2850 BC.

Minns Close Tump Wood is a possible Causewayed Enclosure recently discovered ( August 2018 ) from aerial photography.

Hembury Causewayed Enclosure is a Causewayed Enclosure located in south-east Devon. It was excavated by Dorothy Liddell Archaeologist 1890-1938 between 1930 and 1935.

Heritage Gateway.

Liddell's excavations, 1930-35: Neolithic occupation is represented by an east to west causewayed ditch across the centre of the site; south of this was an "extensive habitation site" with numerous cooking pits (which produced a radiocarbon date of circa 3240 BC). A Neolithic ditch underlay the Iron Age defensive works by the ne entrance, and a dwelling hut (hut circle) was excavated by the west entrance. Finds included pottery (similar to Windmill Hill Pottery) both "local" and "imported", numerous flints and charred grain.

Causewayed Enclosures are areas of ground, typically high ground, enclosed by one or more discontinuous banks and ditches. The discontinuous nature of their banks and ditches suggests they weren't used for settlement. There are around seventy in England, one hundred in France. Excavations suggest the ditches were repeatedly re-cut and pottery and bones (animal and human) were deliberately deposited.

Etton is a Causewayed Enclosure. The causewayed enclosure, small by British standards, comprised a single, 'squashed oval' shaped ditch. Excavations revealed c 80% of the interior and most date the construction and use to the fourth millennium cal BC, that is, early in the tradition of British causewayed enclosures. Most of the excavated features are Early Neolithic; Late Neolithic and earlier Bronze Age features were associated with the ditch of a cursus, which traversed the enclosure diagonally. Causeways entered the enclosure on the north, which featured a substantial timber gateway, east, west, and possibly the south (which could not be examined). See Excavations at a Neolithic causewayed enclosure near Maxey Cambridgeshire, 1982-7. Pryor, F.

Burnham Causewayed Enclosure was a causewayed enclosure now more or less disappeared.

Etton Causewayed Enclosure

Etton is a Causewayed Enclosure. The causewayed enclosure, small by British standards, comprised a single, 'squashed oval' shaped ditch. Excavations revealed c 80% of the interior and most date the construction and use to the fourth millennium cal BC, that is, early in the tradition of British causewayed enclosures. Most of the excavated features are Early Neolithic; Late Neolithic and earlier Bronze Age features were associated with the ditch of a cursus, which traversed the enclosure diagonally. Causeways entered the enclosure on the north, which featured a substantial timber gateway, east, west, and possibly the south (which could not be examined). See Excavations at a Neolithic causewayed enclosure near Maxey Cambridgeshire, 1982-7. Pryor, F.

Minns Close Tump Wood

Minns Close Tump Wood is a possible Causewayed Enclosure recently discovered ( August 2018 ) from aerial photography.

Rams Hill Causewayed Enclosure

1200BC. Rams Hill is a possible causewayed enclosure although the date 1200BC suggests an early Iron Age Hill Fort:

A multi‐period enclosure site on the Berkshire Downs of south Oxfordshire overlooking the Vale of the White Horse and the middle Thames Valley. Extensively excavated between 1972 and 1975 by Richard Bradley and Ann Ellison, the site has four main structural phases and is critical for understanding the early development of hillforts in southern Britain. The earliest phase dates to the early 12th century bc and comprised a stone‐faced dump rampart inside a chalk‐cut ditch that defined a roughly oval‐shaped enclosure of about 1 ha. There were probably two or three entrances. In phase 2, the late 12th century bc, a timber‐laced rampart was constructed to replace the earlier defences. In the third phase, around the beginning of the 10th century bc, a double palisade was built on top of the former, by this time mainly silted‐up, ditch. In the final phase, dated to the 7th century bc, a much larger enclosure of 3.5 ha was built around the hilltop in the style of early hillforts. R. Bradley and A. Ellison, 1975, Ram's Hill: a Bronze Age defended enclosure and its landscape. Oxford: British Archaeological Reports British Series 19

Barkdale Camp, Prehistoric South-East England

Around 3600BC. Barkdale Camp is a causewayed enclosure on the South Downs in West Sussex. In 1929, John Ryle noticed the earthworks at the site, and in 1930 E. Cecil Curwen and G.P. Burstow surveyed the site, and identified an interrupted ditch in the northern part of the site. In 1958 Veronica Seton-Williams began a series of excavations at Barkhale Camp; she dug for four seasons. Seton-Williams excavated six of the thirteen ditch segments that Curwen had identified

Combe Hill, Prehistoric South-East England

Around 3600BC. Combe Hill is a causewayed enclosure on the northern edge of the South Downs in Sussex. The enclosure has been excavated twice: in 1949, by Reginald Musson, and in 1962, by Veronica Seton-Williams. Musson found a large quantity of Ebbsfleet Ware pottery in one of the ditches.

Whitehawk Camp, Prehistoric South-East England

Around 3600BC. Whitehawk Camp is a causewayed enclosure near Brighton in Sussex. In 1929 R. P. Ross Williamson and E. Cecil Curwen undertook atn excavation at Whitehawk Camp. In 1930, the archaeologist E. Cecil Curwen identified sixteen sites that were definitely or probably Neolithic causewayed enclosures.

The Iron-Age Hill Fort consists of a well-defined bank and ditch, with a smaller outer bank, in an irregular nine-sided polygon. There are two gaps, at the east-northeast and west-southwest edges, indicating entrances. The depth of the ditch and the height of the bank vary, with the highest point reaching 5.5 m (6.0 yd) above the bottom of the ditch.

Robin Hood's Ball Enclosure, Neolithic Stonehenge, Prehistoric South-West England

4000BC. Robin Hood's Ball Enclosure is a Causewayed Enclosure constructed around 4000BC and in use until 3000BC around 4.3km north-west of Stonehenge standing on a low hill affording views in all directions including Stonehenge. It has one causeway.