Henge

Henge is in Late Neolithic Early Bronze Age Monuments.

Henge. A Henge is a prehistoric monument with a ditch enclosed by a bank. Some have entrances: one, two or four. Some have stone circles inside them. Confusingly Stonehenge is not a Henge. Henges are usually dated around 2400BC typically known as Late Neolithic Early Bronze Age. Examples of Henges include Avebury in Wiltshire, Arbor Low Henge in Derbyshire. Henges appear to be a peculiarly British monument.

2500BC. Marden Henge is the largest Neolithic Henge enclosure discovered to date in Great Britain; its greatest width is 530m and area is 142,000 sq metres. Within the henge was the Hatfield Barrow which collapsed under excavation by William Cunnington 1754-1810 around 1805. It isn't known whether the Henge contained standing stones. Excavation has discovered a timber

2250BC. Woodhenge is a henge located 3km east-north-east of Stonehenge consisting of six concentric oval rings of postholes surrounded by a single flat-bottomed ditch 2.4m deep and up to 12m wide and an outer bank, about 10m wide and 1m high. The site has a single entrance at the north-east. At the centre of the rings was a crouched inhumation of a child whose remains were destroyed during the Blitz. Most of the 168 holes were found to have contained posts, some contained standing stones, some of the holes were 2m deep. The ditch has been dated to 2250BC ±250 years. Carbon Dating indicates the site was still in use in 1800BC.

Wilsford Henge is a Neolithic Henge on a gently sloping spur of land about 500m south of the River Avon West around 43 metres internal diameter. Excavation in 2015 discovered early Bronze Age crouched burial of an adolescent child which included sherds of beaker pottery and a collection of necklace beads.

Coneybury Henge is 14km south-east of Stonehenge - they are inter-visible. It has a north-east entrance, an internal circle of postholes, and fragments of bone and pottery. It is now almost completely flattened; it was identified by geophysical survey.Henge

Avebury Henge is, arguably, the largest prehistoric monument in Britain and Europe. The henge has a diameter of around 350m and a circumference of 1 kilometre. Its ditch was originally 10m or more deep, 4m wide at its bottom, and its bank around the same in height. When originally cut the bank and ditch may have been bright white chalk. Even today after four and a half thousand years of erosion it remains steep. The ditch inside the bank which suggest it was keep something in rather than out. It isn't clear whether the bank and ditch were built before, at the same time or after the stone circles. There are three stone circles. The Outer Circle forms the perimeter inside the ditch, and two, North and South, inside the larger one. In addition there are stones that appear to complete the South Avenue to the centre of the South Circle - these stones are the largest at around 40 tons.

Avebury has suffered much damage over time by the destruction of the stones, by the development of Avebury village inside the henge and by the laying of a major road through the henge.

Arbor Low Henge is a henge located on the Derbyshire limestone plateau equidistant from Monyash, Youlgreave and Hartington. Inside the ditch and bank are around forty-five or so limestone stones, much weathered, all recumbent, some broken. Not clear whether they were once standing. In the centre is believd to be a cove although the stones are now lying on the ground and its difficult to see whether it was a Cove or not. The views north are spectacular; around five miles of limestone plateau. Looking south you can't see anything since Arbor Low lies, curiously, on the side rather than the top of the hill from the top of the hill you can see Minning Low Chambered Tomb.

Nearby Gib Hill is very prominent. There are signs of an avenue or earthworks east..

Arbor Low Henge and the Bull Ring Henge are so similar as to be considered twins notwithstanding the absence of a stone circle at the Bull Ring.

Arbor Low is located next to farm whose farmyard you have to walk through to get there. There is a little tin which requests you donate a £1. There are around five parking spaces halfway up the lane into the farm.

Historic England: https://historicengland.org.uk/listing/the-list/list-entry/1011087.

The monument is situated in the central uplands of the limestone plateau of Derbyshire and includes, within two areas, Arbor Low henge and stone circle, the linear bank adjoining the henge, and the bowl barrow superimposed on the east side of the henge bank. The henge comprises a massive bank and internal quarry ditch surrounding an oval area with a diameter of c.40m by 52m. The ditch varies between 7m and 12m wide and has been demonstrated by Gray, who carried out partial excavations of the site in 1901-2, to have been 2-3m deep originally with steep rock-cut sides. The bank, which is c.2m high and between 8m and 10m wide, is roughly circular and has an external diameter of 90m by 85m. It is estimated originally to have been c.3m high and is broken by two entrances, one to the north-west and the other to the south-south-east. The ditch is crossed by causeways at the entrances, the former 9m wide and the latter 6m wide. Gray excavated both terminals of the ditch at the north-west entrance, uncovering the remains of bone and antler tools, flint flakes and a number of flint artefacts which included scrapers, a leaf shaped arrowhead and a barbed and tanged arrowhead. Traces of fire were also found, together with a series of ledges which Gray interpreted as steps. Antler tines were found at the south-south-east entrance and are also taken to be the remains of tools used to construct the henge. A stone in this entrance, and a corresponding pit in the north-west causeway, indicate that both entrances may originally have contained portal stones.

Within the henge are the remains of a large irregular stone circle originally comprising 41-43 upright limestone slabs. Of these, only one is still standing and several are broken so that there are now more than 50 stumps and fragments. The stones were roughly equally spaced in the ring and varied in height between 1m and nearly 3m with the tallest stones standing near the entrances of the henge. At the centre of the circle is a ruined stone-setting called the cove which consisted of at least six stones believed to have been set in a rectangle. Gray excavated part of the cove and found, on the east side, within an oval arrangement of large blocks, an extended skeleton laid with its head to the south-south-east. Several metres north-east of this he found traces of another human burial, in a pit disturbed by an earlier unrecorded excavation. A further burial was found outside the circle in 1845 when Thomas Bateman partially excavated the large bowl barrow superimposed on the south-east side of the henge.

This barrow, which is c.21m in diameter and survives to a height of c.2.5m, was at least partly constructed from material taken from the henge bank and so, in its present form, must be of later date. However, near the centre of the barrow, on the old land surface, Bateman found a limestone cist or grave containing, in addition to the remains of a human cremation and artefacts of flint and bone, two unusual pots which are similar to Late Neolithic Peterborough ware. The dating of these pots, and the location of the cist on the old land surface, indicate that the burial may in fact be earlier than the barrow and predates or is contemporary with the henge. The construction of the barrow suggests the later re-use of the burial place, probably in the Bronze Age. Leading southwards from the henge is a bank and ditch which extends for c.150m. To the south of this, a further section turns westward through Gib Hill plantation and is c.200m long. Between the two there is a gap of c.70m which contains no visible earthworks but may contain the buried remains of an intervening section of bank and ditch: however, this area is not included in the scheduling as the extent and state of survival of the remains is not sufficiently understood. In both upstanding sections of the earthwork, the bank is 2-3m wide and less than 1m high while the shallow ditch is c.6m wide and lies to the east of the bank. Gray carried out an excavation at the junction of the bank with the henge and found it to be later than or contemporary with the latter. Despite its sometimes being referred to as "the avenue", the feature is not thought to be a formal structure related to the henge as it does not lead to an entrance. Instead it is interpreted as a field boundary and has yet to be precisely dated. All modern field walls and fencing crossing the monument are excluded from the scheduling although the ground beneath these features is included. Together with nearby Gib Hill, the henge, stone circle and barrow have been in State care since 1884..

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Bull Ring Henge is a Henge located in Dove Holes next to the church and cricket pitch. If it had a stone circle, which isn't certain, it doesn't any more.

The Bull Ring Henge and Arbor Low Henge are so similar as to be considered twins notwithstanding the absence of a stone circle at the Bull Ring.

Historic England.

The monument is situated on the north-western edge of the limestone plateau of Derbyshire and includes, within a single area, Bull Ring henge and the adjacent oval barrow. Also included is the bowl barrow superimposed on the western end of the oval barrow. The henge has an external diameter of 93m by 90m and comprises a bank and internal quarry ditch surrounding an oval area measuring 53m from north to south by 46m from east to west. The steep-sided rock-cut ditch currently varies between 8m and 12m wide and between 0.5m and 1m deep. Partial excavations carried out by Alcock in 1949, demonstrated that, originally, it measured 5m to 6.5m wide and was between 1.2m and 2.1m deep. The surrounding bank is currently c.1m high and between 9m and 11m wide. It has spread since its construction, however, and was originally 2m high and 5.5m to 7m wide. It is broken by opposing entrances to north and south, each with a causeway across the ditch and each measuring c.9m wide. The northern example was damaged by quarrying in the nineteenth century, when a human skeleton was reputedly found. Between the bank and ditch is a berm or terrace which originally measured 5m wide and is clearly visible in the southern part of the site. Northwards, it becomes narrower and is finally obscured by the spread material of the bank. The interior of the henge contains the linear earthwork remains of eighteenth century ploughing which, to the west of the northern entrance, has partially levelled the inner edge of the ditch. Also during the eighteenth century, a drystone wall crossed the site and has since been removed though the line of it can still be seen as a gap in the plough ridges. Pilkington, writing in 1789, records that a single orthostat of a possible stone circle remained within the henge. This has gone and no investigation of the interior of the henge has been carried out to confirm whether or not a stone circle existed. In addition to Alcock's excavations of the ditch and bank, a minor excavation was carried out in the west ditch by Salt in 1902 and, in 1984, a larger excavation by Barnatt and others took place outside the south entrance. Material recovered by Salt has been lost but is reported to have included pottery sherds and flint flakes, while Alcock found further flint flakes and artefacts and a rim from a pottery food vessel. The 1984 excavation confirmed that the area south of the henge had been disturbed in the post-medieval period, but several pits and the stakeholes of a hurdle fence which followed the henge bank are undated and may be contemporary with the henge. In addition to post-medieval material and a sherd of Roman pottery, numerous flint flakes and implements were also found in this area. On the south-west side of the henge, c.20m distant, is a large mound interpreted as an oval barrow overlain on its western end by a later bowl barrow. It is sub-rectangular in shape and measures 27m by 21m by c.2.5m high. Originally it would have been somewhat higher but has been disturbed on the summit by a World War II slit trench. Its current plan is due to modern disturbance round its edges, caused by ploughing and the construction and later removal of drystone walls on its east and north sides. No recorded excavation of the barrow has been carried out so it cannot be precisely dated. However, it's position and form are analogous with those of Gib Hill: the superimposed oval barrow and bowl barrow at nearby Arbor Low henge. All modern walls and fences and the surfaces of the track and carpark round the outside of the monument are excluded from the scheduling although the ground beneath these features is included.

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Marden Henge, Vale of Pewsey, Prehistoric South-West England

2500BC. Marden Henge is the largest Neolithic Henge enclosure discovered to date in Great Britain; its greatest width is 530m and area is 142,000 sq metres. Within the henge was the Hatfield Barrow which collapsed under excavation by William Cunnington 1754-1810 around 1805. It isn't known whether the Henge contained standing stones. Excavation has discovered a timber

The River Avon West rises around All Cannings in the Vale of Pewsey being formed from many streams from where it flows past Patney, around Marden Henge and Wilsford Henge, Rushall where it joins the River Avon East to form the Wiltshire River Avon.

Wilsford Henge, Vale of Pewsey, Prehistoric South-West England

Wilsford Henge is a Neolithic Henge on a gently sloping spur of land about 500m south of the River Avon West around 43 metres internal diameter. Excavation in 2015 discovered early Bronze Age crouched burial of an adolescent child which included sherds of beaker pottery and a collection of necklace beads.

The River Avon West rises around All Cannings in the Vale of Pewsey being formed from many streams from where it flows past Patney, around Marden Henge and Wilsford Henge, Rushall where it joins the River Avon East to form the Wiltshire River Avon.