Biography of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685

1485 Battle of Bosworth

1600 Baptism of Prince Charles

1605 New Years Honours

1616 Investiture of Charles as Prince of Wales

1625 Death of James I

1630 Baptism of future Charles II

1641 Trial and Execution of the Earl of Strafford

1642 Battle of Edge Hill

1649 Execution of Charles I

1651 Charles II Crowned King Scotland

1651 Battle of Worcester

1644 Battle of Marston Moor

1656 Treaty of Brussels

1658 Royalist Conspiracy

1659 Booth's Uprising

1660 Charles X King Sweden Dies Charles XI Succeeds

1660 Declaration of Breda

1660 Charles II Proclaimed

1660 Knighting by Charles II

1660 Trial and Execution of the Regicides

1661 Execution of Deceased Regicides

1661 Coronation of Charles II

1661 Cavalier Parliament

1662 Trial and Execution of the Regicides

1662 Marriage of Charles II and Catherine of Braganza

1662 Trial and Execution of Henry Vane "The Younger"

1662 Catherine of Braganza's Arrival in London

1593 Great Plague

1663 Blood's Plot

1663 Battle of Ameixial

1665 Great Plague of London

1648 Treaty of Newport

1663 Storm Tide

1663 Farneley Wood Plot

1640 Long Parliament

1664 Comet

1665 Battle of Lowestoft

1672 Battle of Solebay

1666 Four Days' Battle

1666 St James' Day Battle

1666 Great Fire of London

1666 Battle of Rullion Green

1666 Poll Bill

1667 Raid on the Medway

1668 Buckingham Shrewsbury Duel

1668 Bawdy House Riots

1658 Lord Ross Divorce

1670 Secret Treaty of Dover

1670 Death of Henrietta Stewart

1671 Blood Steals the Crown Jewels

1671 Raid on Panama

1671 Woodcock and Flatfoot Race at Newmarket

1667 Treaty of Breda

1672 Attack on the Smyrna Fleet

1672 Declaration of Indulgence

1678 Treaty of Nimeguen

1677 Marriage of William of Orange and Princess Mary Stewart

1678 Popish Plot

1680 Siege of Tangier

1680 Trial and Execution of William Howard 1st Viscount Stafford

1683 Rye House Plot

1683 Marriage of Lady Anne and Prince George

1683 Frost Fair

1660 Indemnity and Oblivion Act

1685 Death and Burial of Charles II

1685 Coronation James II and Mary

1685 Battle of Sedgemoor

1685 Execution of the Duke of Monmouth

1688 Trial and Imprisonment of the Seven Bishops

1688 Glorious Revolution

1685-1699 Glorious Revolution

1689 Coronation William III and Mary II

1691 Destruction of Whitehall Palace by Fire

1696 Plot to Assassinate King William III

1704 Battle of Blenheim

1705 Death of Catherine of Braganza Dowager Queen Consort

Baptism of Prince Charles

On 23 Dec 1600 [his father] the future King Charles I was baptised at Holyrood Palace. [his father] He was created Duke Albany 4C 1600.

In 1611 Robert In 1633 Anthony Van Dyck Painter 1599-1641. Portrait of King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland 1600-1649 known as Charles I with M.De St Antoine. Around 1637 Anthony Van Dyck Painter 1599-1641. Portrait of King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland 1600-1649.

New Years Honours

On 05 Jan 1605 [his father] King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland 1600-1649 (4) was created 1st Duke York 4C 1605 and Knight of the Bath by his father King James I of England and Ireland and VI of Scotland 1566-1625 (38)

Francis Manners 6th Earl Rutland 1578-1632 (27) and Thomas Somerset 1st Viscount Somerset 1579-1651 (26) were appointed Knight of the Bath.

Around 1600 Nicholas Hilliard Painter 1547-1619 painted the portrait of King James I of England and Ireland and VI of Scotland 1566-1625. Around 1605 John Critz Painter 1551-1642. Portrait of King James I of England and Ireland and VI of Scotland 1566-1625 with Garter Collar and Leg Garter. In 1621 Daniel Mijtens Painter 1590-1648. Portrait of King James I of England and Ireland and VI of Scotland 1566-1625 wearing his Garter Collar and Leg Garter. Around 1632 Anthony Van Dyck Painter 1599-1641. Portrait of King James I of England and Ireland and VI of Scotland 1566-1625. In 1583 Pieter Bronckhorst Painter -1583. Portrait of King James I of England and Ireland and VI of Scotland 1566-1625. 1623. Adam de Colone 1572-1651. Portrait of King James I of England and Ireland and VI of Scotland 1566-1625. 1580. Adrian Vanson -1602. Portrait of King James I of England and Ireland and VI of Scotland 1566-1625.

Investiture of Charles as Prince of Wales

On 04 Nov 1616 [his father] King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland 1600-1649 (15) was created Prince of Wales. Robert Radclyffe 5th Earl of Sussex 1573-1629 (43) carried the Purple Ermined Robe.

James Wriothesley 1605-1624 (11), brothers Robert Howard 1584-1653 (32) and William Howard, George Berkeley 8th Baron Berkeley 1601-1658 (15), Henry Carey 1st Viscount Falkland 1575-1633 (41) and John Cavendish -1618 were appointed Knight of the Bath.

Around 1580 based on a work of 1565.Unknown Painter. Portrait of Robert Radclyffe 5th Earl of Sussex 1573-1629 wearing his Garter Collar and holding the Lord Treasurer Staff of Office. Around 1600. Unknown Painter. Portrait of Henry Carey 1st Viscount Falkland 1575-1633.

Death of James I

On 27 Mar 1625 [his grandfather] King James I of England and Ireland and VI of Scotland 1566-1625 (58) died at Theobalds House. King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland 1600-1649 (24) succeeded I King England Scotland and Ireland.

John Evelyn's Diary 1620 1636 Birth and Childhood. 1628 to 1630. It was not till the year 1628, that I was put to learn my Latin rudiments, and to write, of one Citolin, a Frenchman, in Lewes. I very well remember that general muster previous to the Isle of Rhè's expedition, and that I was one day awakened in the morning with the news of the Duke of Buckingham being slain by that wretch, Felton, after our disgrace before La Rochelle. And I now took so extraordinary a fancy to drawing and designing, that I could never after wean my inclinations from it, to the expense of much precious time, which might have been more advantageously employed. I was now put to school to one Mr. Potts, in the Cliff at Lewes, from whom, on the 7th of January 1630, being the day after Epiphany, I went to the free-school at Southover, near the town, of which one Agnes Morley had been the foundress, and now Edward Snatt was the master, under whom I remained till I was sent to the University. This year, my grandmother (with whom I sojourned) being married to one Mr. Newton, a learned and most religious gentleman, we went from the Cliff to dwell at his house in Southover. I do most perfectly remember the jubilee which was universally expressed for the happy birth of the Prince of Wales, 29th of May, now Charles II, our most gracious Sovereign.

On 29 May 1630 Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 was born to [his father] King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland 1600-1649 (29) and Henrietta Maria Bourbon Queen Consort England 1609-1669 (20) at St James's Palace. He was created as Duke Cornwall and Duke Rothesay the same day.

Around 1625 John Hoskins Painter 1590-1664. Portrait of Henrietta Maria Bourbon Queen Consort England 1609-1669. Before 09 Dec 1641 Anthony Van Dyck Painter 1599-1641. Portrait of Henrietta Maria Bourbon Queen Consort England 1609-1669 and the dwarf Jeffrey Hudson. Before 09 Dec 1641 Anthony Van Dyck Painter 1599-1641. Portrait of Henrietta Maria Bourbon Queen Consort England 1609-1669 and her son Charles James Stewart 1629-1629. Before 09 Dec 1641 Anthony Van Dyck Painter 1599-1641. Portrait of Henrietta Maria Bourbon Queen Consort England 1609-1669.

Baptism of future Charles II

On 27 Jun 1630 the future Charles II was baptised by William Laud Archbishop of Canterbury 1573-1645 (56) at Chapel Royal St James's Palace. [his uncle] Louis XIII King France 1601-1643 (28) and Marie de Medici Queen Consort France 1575-1642 (55) were godparents.

Robert Kerr 1st Earl Ancram 1578-1654 (52) was created 1st Earl Ancram.

In 1631 Daniel Mijtens Painter 1590-1648. Portrait of William Laud Archbishop of Canterbury 1573-1645. Around 1636 Anthony Van Dyck Painter 1599-1641. Portrait of William Laud Archbishop of Canterbury 1573-1645. Wearing a black Chimere over his white Rochet. Before 1622. Frans Pourbus the Younger Painter 1569-1622. Portrait of Louis XIII King France 1601-1643. Around 1590. Santi di Tito Painter 1536-1603. Portrait of Marie de Medici Queen Consort France 1575-1642. Around 1610. Frans Pourbus the Younger Painter 1569-1622. Portrait of Marie de Medici Queen Consort France 1575-1642. 1616. Frans Pourbus the Younger Painter 1569-1622. Portrait of Marie de Medici Queen Consort France 1575-1642.

On 14 Oct 1633 [his brother] King James II was born to King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland 1600-1649 (32) and Henrietta Maria Bourbon Queen Consort England 1609-1669 (23) at St James's Palace. [his brother] He was created 1st Duke York 5C 1633 at birth by his father.

Before 1694 John Michael Wright Painter 1617-1694. Portrait of King James II when Duke of York. Around 1666 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of King James II and Anne Hyde Queen Consort England 1637-1671. See Diary of Samuel Pepys 24 March 1666. Before 04 Jan 1674 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of King James II wearing his Garter Robes. Around 1672 Henri Gascar Painter 1635-1701. Portrait of King James II.

In 1638 Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (7) was appointed 437th Knight of the Garter by his father [his father] King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland 1600-1649 (37).

Trial and Execution of the Earl of Strafford

On 13 Apr 1641 Thomas Wentworth 1st Earl Strafford 1593-1641 (48) was attainted by 204 votes to 59 ostensibly for his authoritarian rule as Lord Deputy of Ireland. Despite his promise not to [his father] King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland 1600-1649 (40) signed the death warrant on the 10 May 1641 in the light of increasing pressure from Parliament and the commons.

Wenceslaus Hollar Engraver 1607-1677 (33). Engraving of the Trial of Thomas Wentworth 1st Earl Strafford 1593-1641 (48) with the following marked:

A. [his father] King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland 1600-1649 (40).

C. [his mother] Henrietta Maria Bourbon Queen Consort England 1609-1669 (31).

D. Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (10).

E. Thomas Howard 21st Earl Arundel 4th Earl Surrey 1st Earl Norfolk 1585-1646 (55), Lord High Steward.

F. Henry Montagu 1st Earl Manchester 1563-1642 (78), Lord Keeper of the Great Seal.

G. John Paulet 5th Marquess Winchester 1598-1675 (43).

H. Robert Bertie 1582 1642 (58), Lord Chamberlain.

I. Philip Herbert 4th Earl Pembroke 1st Earl Montgomery 1584-1650 (56), Lord Chamberlain of the Household.

V. Thomas Wentworth 1st Earl Strafford 1593-1641 (48).

PAINTINGS/HOLLAR/Trial_Strafford.jpgZ. Alethea Talbot Countess Arundel, Surrey and Norfolk 1585-1654 (56).

In 1633 Anthony Van Dyck Painter 1599-1641. Portrait of Thomas Wentworth 1st Earl Strafford 1593-1641. Around 1636 Anthony Van Dyck Painter 1599-1641. Portrait of Thomas Wentworth 1st Earl Strafford 1593-1641. Around 1712. Charles D'Agar Painter 1669-1723. Portrait of Thomas Wentworth 1st Earl Strafford 1593-1641. In 1618 Daniel Mijtens Painter 1590-1648. Portrait of Thomas Howard 21st Earl Arundel 4th Earl Surrey 1st Earl Norfolk 1585-1646. In 1630 Daniel Mijtens Painter 1590-1648. Portrait of Thomas Howard 21st Earl Arundel 4th Earl Surrey 1st Earl Norfolk 1585-1646 and wearing his Garter Collar. Around 1629 Peter Paul Rubens Painter 1577-1640. Portrait of Thomas Howard 21st Earl Arundel 4th Earl Surrey 1st Earl Norfolk 1585-1646. Before 27 Jun 1641 Unknown Painter. Portrait of Robert Bertie 1582 1642. Around 1615 William Larkin Painter 1582-1619. Portrait of Philip Herbert 4th Earl Pembroke 1st Earl Montgomery 1584-1650. In 1634 Daniel Mijtens Painter 1590-1648. Portrait of Philip Herbert 4th Earl Pembroke 1st Earl Montgomery 1584-1650 wearing his Leg Garter and Garter Collar. Around 1634 Anthony Van Dyck Painter 1599-1641. Portrait of Philip Herbert 4th Earl Pembroke 1st Earl Montgomery 1584-1650. Around 1615 Unknown Painter. Posthumous portrait of Philip Herbert 4th Earl Pembroke 1st Earl Montgomery 1584-1650 wearing his Garter Robes and Garter Collar.

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John Evelyn's Diary 15 April 1641. 15 Apr 1641 I repaired to London to hear and see the famous trial of the Earl of Strafford, Lord-Deputy of Ireland (48), who, on the 22nd of March, had been summoned before both Houses of Parliament, and now appeared in Westminster Hall, which was prepared with scaffolds for the Lords and Commons, who, together with the [his father] King (40), Queen (31), Prince (10), and flower of the noblesse, were spectators and auditors of the greatest malice and the greatest innocency that ever met before so illustrious an assembly. It was Thomas Earl of Arundel and Surrey (55), Earl Marshal of England, who was made High Steward upon this occasion; and the sequel is too well known to need any notice of the event.

On 02 May 1641 William Orange Nassau II Prince Orange 1626-1650 (14) and [his sister] Mary Stewart Princess Orange 1631-1660 (9) were married. She a daughter of King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland 1600-1649.

Before 1656 Gerrit van Honthorst Painter 1592-1656. Portrait of Mary Stewart Princess Orange 1631-1660. In 1656 Adriaen Hanneman Painter 1603-1671. Portrait of Mary Stewart Princess Orange 1631-1660. Around 1658 Adriaen Hanneman Painter 1603-1671. Portrait of Mary Stewart Princess Orange 1631-1660.

On 06 Sep 1641 William Fermor 1st Baronet 1621-1661 (20) was created 1st Baronet Fermor by [his father] King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland 1600-1649 (40) who also gave him the command of a troop of horse, and afterwards made him a Privy Councillor to Charles, Prince of Wales (11).

Around 1642. William Dobson Painter 1611-1646 (30). Portrait of the future Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (11).

In 1642 Thomas Aylesbury of Blatherwyke and Milton Keynes (66) and his family moved to Antwerp following the execution of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (11).

Around 1646. William Dobson Painter 1611-1646. Portrait of Thomas Aylesbury of Blatherwyke and Milton Keynes.

Battle of Edge Hill

On 23 Oct 1642 the Battle of Edge Hill was fought at Edge Hill. The Royal army was commanded by [his father] King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland 1600-1649 (41) (with his son Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (12) present), Prince Rupert (22) and Richard Spencer 1593-1661 (49) commanded the army that included Maurice Palatinate Simmern 1621-1652 (21), Richard Byron 2nd Baron Byron 1606-1679 (36), Lucius Carey 2nd Viscount Falkland 1610-1643 (32), Charles Cavendish 1620-1643 (22), Spencer Compton 2nd Earl of Northampton 1601-1643 (41), Thomas Salusbury 2nd Baronet Salusbury Lleweni 1612-1643 (30), John Byron 1st Baron Byron 1599-1652 (43) and William Feilding 1st Earl Denbigh 1587-1643 (55).

George Stewart 9th Seigneur D'Aubigny 1618-1642 (24) was killed.

Of the Parliamentary army Basil Feilding 2nd Earl Denbigh 1608-1675 (34) and Robert Devereux 3rd Earl Essex 1591-1646 (51). Oliver St John 5th Baron St John Bletso 1603-1642 (39) was wounded.

Samuel Sandys 1615-1685 (27) commanded a troop of horse.

Richard Sandys 1616-1642 (26) was killed.

Thomas Strickland 1621-1694 (20) was knighted on the field for his gallantry.

Henry Hunloke 1st Baronet 1618-1648 (24) was knighted by [his father] King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland 1600-1649 (41).

William Dugdale 1605-1686 (37) witnessed the battle and subsequently surveyed the battlefield.

John Hinton Physician 1604- (38) was present.

Edward Verney Standard Bearer 1590-1642 (52) was killed.

John Assheton 1613-1642 (29) was killed.

Robert Bertie 1582 1642 (59) was killed. Montagu Bertie 2nd Earl Lindsey 1608-1666 (34) succeeded 2nd Earl Lindsey, 15th Baron Willoughby de Eresby. Martha Cockayne Countess Lindsey Countess Holderness 1605-1641 (37) by marriage Countess Lindsey.

Around 1642. William Dobson Painter 1611-1646. Portrait of the Prince Rupert, Colonel John Russell 1620-1687 and Colonel William Murray. Before 1656 Gerrit van Honthorst Painter 1592-1656. Portrait of Prince Rupert. Around 1672 John Michael Wright Painter 1617-1694. Portrait of Prince Rupert. Around 1680 Simon Pietersz Verelst Painter 1644-1710. Portrait of Prince Rupert. Around 1630 John Hoskins Painter 1590-1664. Portrait of Lucius Carey 2nd Viscount Falkland 1610-1643. In 1633 Cornelius Johnson Painter 1593-1661. Portrait of Lucius Carey 2nd Viscount Falkland 1610-1643. In 1635 Cornelius Johnson Painter 1593-1661. Portrait of Lucius Carey 2nd Viscount Falkland 1610-1643. Before 1643 Cornelius Johnson Painter 1593-1661. Portrait of Lucius Carey 2nd Viscount Falkland 1610-1643. Montacute House. Around 1630 Cornelius Johnson Painter 1593-1661. Portrait of Spencer Compton 2nd Earl of Northampton 1601-1643. Before 1652. William Dobson Painter 1611-1646. Portrait of John Byron 1st Baron Byron 1599-1652. Around 1633 Anthony Van Dyck Painter 1599-1641. Portrait of William Feilding 1st Earl Denbigh 1587-1643. Before 08 Jan 1694 Jacob Huysmans Painter 1633-1696 (attributed). Described as a Portrait of Thomas Strickland 1621-1694.

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In 1643 Bulstrode Whitelocke 1605-1675 (37) sent to negotiate with Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (12).

In 1634. Unknown Painter. Portrait of Bulstrode Whitelocke 1605-1675. In 1650. Unknown Painter. Portrait of Bulstrode Whitelocke 1605-1675.

In 1644 Bulstrode Whitelocke 1605-1675 (38) sent to negotiate with Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (13).

In Nov 1644 George Goring 1st Earl Norwich 1585-1663 (59) was created 1st Earl Norwich 2C 1644 by Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (14) for his support during the Civil War. The last Earl Norwich of the previous creation was his uncle Edward Denny 1st Earl Norwich 1569-1637 (75) brother of his mother Anne Denny 1567- (77).

On 16 Jul 1645 William Morgan 1560-1655 (85) was visited by Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (15) who stayed ovenight.

In 1646 Elizabeth Capell 1591-1646 (54) died in the Channel Islands to where her husband had travelled with Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (15).

After 12 Mar 1646 Ralph Hopton 1st Baron Hopton 1596-1652 with Edward Hyde 1st Earl Clarendon 1609-1674 and Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 travelled to the Channel Islands.

Around 1643. William Dobson Painter 1611-1646. Portrait of Edward Hyde 1st Earl Clarendon 1609-1674. Before 04 Jan 1674 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Edward Hyde 1st Earl Clarendon 1609-1674.

Around Apr 1646 Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (15) travelled to Jersey.

Around Apr 1646 Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (15) stayed at Pendennis Castle.

Around Apr 1646 Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (15) travelled to Scilly Isles.

Around Apr 1646 Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (15) travelled to France.

John Evelyn's Diary 10 June 1647. 10 Jun 1647. We concluded about my marriage, in order to which I went to St. Germains, where his Majesty (17), then Prince of Wales, had his court, to desire of Dr. Earle (46), then one of his chaplains (since Dean Westminster Abbey, Clerk of the Closet, and Bishop of Salisbury), that he would accompany me to Paris, which he did; and, on Thursday, 27th of June 1647, he married us in Sir Richard Browne's (42) chapel, between the hours of eleven and twelve, some few select friends being present. And this being Corpus Christi feast, was solemnly observed in this country; the streets were sumptuously hung with tapestry, and strewed with flowers.

John Evelyn's Diary 10 September 1647. 10 Sep 1647. Being called into England, to settle my affairs after an absence of four years, I took leave of the Prince (17) and [his mother] Queen (37), leaving my wife (12), yet very young, under the care of an excellent lady and prudent mother (37).

In 1648 Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (17) travelled to where his sister [his sister] Mary Stewart Princess Orange 1631-1660 (16) and brother in law William Orange Nassau II Prince Orange 1626-1650 (21) were living at The Hague.

In 1649 Maurice Palatinate Simmern 1621-1652 (27) was appointed 443rd Knight of the Garter by his first cousin Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (18).

In 1649 Edward Palatinate Simmern 1625-1663 (23) was appointed 445th Knight of the Garter by his first cousin Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (18).

Before 1656 Gerrit van Honthorst Painter 1592-1656. Portrait of Edward Palatinate Simmern 1625-1663.

In 1649 James Butler 1st Duke Ormonde 1610-1688 (38) was appointed 444th Knight of the Garter by Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (18).

In 1715 Godfrey Kneller 1646-1723. Portrait of James Butler 1st Duke Ormonde 1610-1688. Around 1647 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of James Butler 1st Duke Ormonde 1610-1688. Around 1678 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of James Butler 1st Duke Ormonde 1610-1688 in his Garter Robes. Before 10 Sep 1687 Willem Wissing Painter 1656-1687. Portrait of James Butler 1st Duke Ormonde 1610-1688.

In 1649 George Villiers 2nd Duke of Buckingham 1628-1687 (20) was appointed 446th Knight of the Garter by Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (18).

Around 1675 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of George Villiers 2nd Duke of Buckingham 1628-1687 wearing his Garter Collar.

After Jan 1649 Henry Wilmot 1st Earl Rochester 1612-1658 was appointed Gentlemen of the Bedchamber to Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685.

Execution of Charles I

On 30 Jan 1649 [his father] Charles I (48) was beheaded with one clean stroke outside the Banqueting House. He put his head on the block and, after saying a prayer, he signalled the executioner when he was ready by stretching out his hands.

On 17 Feb 1649 George Carteret 1st Baronet Metesches 1610-1680 (39) at St Helier Jersey had Charles II (18) proclaimed King after his father Charles I was executed; an act that Charles II never forgot.

On 09 Apr 1649 [his illegitimate son] James Scott 1st Duke Monmouth 1st Duke Buccleuch 1649-1685 was born illegitimately to Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (18) and Lucy Walter Mistress 1630-1658 (19) at Rotterdam.

Around 1670. John Riley Painter 1646-1691. Portrait of James Scott 1st Duke Monmouth 1st Duke Buccleuch 1649-1685.

In Jul 1649 Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (19) stayed at Saint-Germain-en-Laye, Yvelines.

John Evelyn's Diary 18 August 1649. 18 Aug 1649. I went to St. Germains, to kiss his Majesty's (19) hand; in the coach, which was my Lord Wilmot's (36), went Mrs. Barlow (19), the King's mistress and mother to the [his illegitimate son] Duke of Monmouth, a brown, beautiful, bold, but insipid creature.

In Sep 1649 Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (19) travelled to Jersey.

John Evelyn's Diary 07 September 1649. 07 Sep 1649. Went with my wife (14) and dear Cousin to St. Germains, and kissed the [his mother] Queen-Mother's (39) hand; dined with my Lord Keeper and Lord Hatton (44). Divers of the great men of France came to see the King (19). The next day, came the Prince of Condé (27). Returning to Paris, we went to see the President Maison's palace, built castle-wise, of a milk-white fine freestone; the house not vast, but well contrived, especially the staircase, and the ornaments of Putti, about it. It is environed in a dry moat, the offices under ground, the gardens very excellent with extraordinary long walks, set with elms, and a noble prospect toward the forest, and on the Seine toward Paris. Take it altogether, the meadows, walks, river, forest, corn-ground, and vineyards, I hardly saw anything in Italy to exceed it. The iron gates are very magnificent. He has pulled down a whole village to make room for his pleasure about it.

John Evelyn's Diary 13 September 1649. 13 Sep 1649. The King (19) invited the Prince of Condé (28) to supper at St. Cloud; there I kissed the [his brother] Duke of York's (15) hand in the tennis court, where I saw a famous match between Monsieur Saumeurs and Colonel Cooke, and so returned to Paris. It was noised about that I was knighted, a dignity I often declined.

John Evelyn's Diary 18 November 1649. 18 Nov 1649. I went with my father-in-law (44) to see his audience at the French Court, where next the Pope's Nuncio, he was introduced by the master of ceremonies, and, after delivery of his credentials, as from our King, since his father's murder, he was most graciously received by the King of France and his mother, with whom he had a long audience. This was in the Palais Cardinal.

After this, being presented to his Majesty (19) and the Queen Regent I went to see the house built by the late great Cardinal de Richelieu. The most observable thing is the gallery, painted with the portraits of the most illustrious persons and single actions in France, with innumerable emblems between every table. In the middle of the gallery, is a neat chapel, rarely paved in work and devices of several sorts of marble, besides the altar-piece and two statues of white marble, one of St. John, the other of the Virgin Mary, by Bernini. The rest of the apartments are rarely gilded and carved, with some good modern paintings. In the presence hang three huge branches of crystal. In the French King's bedchamber, is an alcove like another chamber, set as it were in a chamber like a movable box, with a rich embroidered bed. The fabric of the palace is not magnificent, being but of two stories; but the garden is so spacious as to contain a noble basin and fountain continually playing, and there is a mall, with an elbow, or turning, to protract it. So I left his Majesty on the terrace, busy in seeing a bull-baiting, and returned home in Prince Edward's coach with Mr. Paul, the Prince Elector's agent.

In 1650 Charles Lyttelton 3rd Baronet 1628-1716 (22) was appointed Cupbearer to Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (19) while the King was in exile.

In 1650 Thomas Wriothesley 4th Earl of Southampton 1607-1667 (42) was appointed 448th Knight of the Garter by Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (19).

Around 1660 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Thomas Wriothesley 4th Earl of Southampton 1607-1667 holding his Lord Treasurer Staff of Office.

Around 1650 [his illegitimate daughter] Charlotte Jemima Henrietta Maria Fitzroy Countess Yarmouth 1650-1684 was born illegitimately to Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (19) and Elizabeth Killigrew Viscountess Shannon 1622-1680 (27).

In 1650 William Hamilton 2nd Duke Hamilton 1616-1651 (33) was appointed 449th Knight of the Garter by his half fourth cousin Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (19).

In 1650 James Stanley 7th Earl Derby 1607-1651 (42) was appointed 452nd Knight of the Garter by his fourth cousin once removed Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (19).

In 1626 Michiel Janszoon van Mierevelt Painter 1566-1641 (attributed). Portrait of James Stanley 7th Earl Derby 1607-1651. Around 1640 Cornelius Johnson Painter 1593-1661. Portrait of James Stanley 7th Earl Derby 1607-1651. Tabley House. Around 1635 Anthony Van Dyck Painter 1599-1641. Portrait of James Stanley 7th Earl Derby 1607-1651 and Charlotte Thouars Countess Derby 1599-1664 and their daughter.

In 1650 James Graham 1st Marquess Montrose 1612-1650 (37) was appointed 451st Knight of the Garter by his half fourth cousin Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (19).

In 1650 William Seymour 2nd Duke Somerset 1588-1660 (62) was appointed 447th Knight of the Garter by his fourth cousin once removed Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (19).

In 1650 William Cavendish 1st Duke Newcastle upon Tyne 1592-1676 (57) was appointed 450th Knight of the Garter by Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (19).

On 06 Nov 1650 William Orange Nassau II Prince Orange 1626-1650 (24) died. [his nephew] King William III of England, Scotland and Ireland 1650-1702 succeeded III Prince Orange.

Around 1680 Willem Wissing Painter 1656-1687. Portrait of King William III of England, Scotland and Ireland 1650-1702 wearing his Garter Collar.

Charles II Crowned King Scotland

On 01 Jan 1651 Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (20) was crowned II King Scotland: Stewart at Scone Abbey, Scone.

Battle of Worcester

On 03 Sep 1651 at the Battle of WorcesterCharles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (21)Oliver Cromwell Lord Protector 1599-1658 (52) commanded the Parliamentary army with Charles Howard 1st Earl Carlisle 1629-1685 (22). In the Royalist army Francis Talbot 11th Earl Shrewsbury 11th Earl Waterford 1623-1687 (28), Thomas Blagge 1613-1660 (38) and Archibald Campbell 9th Earl Argyll 1629-1685 (22) fought. Thomas Wentworth 1st Earl Cleveland 1591-1667 (60) was captured. Giles Strangeways 1615-1675 (36) provided 300 gold pieces to Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (21) following his defeat.

Henry Lyttelton 2nd Baronet 1624-1693 (27) fought for the Royalists, was captured and spent 17 months imprisoned in the Tower of London.

Philip Musgrave 2nd Baronet Musgrave of Eden Hall 1607-1678 (44) fought for th Royalists.

After 03 Sep 1651 Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 hid at Royal Oak Boscobel House.

John Evelyn's Diary 01 October 1651. 01 Oct 1651. The Dean of Peterborough (56) [Dr. Cosin] preached on Job xiii., verse 15, encouraging our trust in God on all events and extremities, and for establishing and comforting some ladies of great quality, who were then to be discharged from our Queen-Mother's (50) service unless they would go over to the Romish Mass.

The Dean (56), dining this day at our house, told me the occasion of publishing those Offices, which among the Puritans were wont to be called Cosin's cozening Devotions, by way of derision. At the first coming of the Queen into England, she and her French ladies were often upbraiding our religion, that had neither appointed nor set forth any hours of prayer, or breveries, by which ladies and courtiers, who have much spare time, might edify and be in devotion, as they had. Our Protestant ladies, scandalized it seems at this, moved the matter to the King; whereupon his Majesty presently called Bishop White to him and asked his thoughts of it, and whether there might not be found some forms of prayer proper on such occasions, collected out of some already approved forms, that so the court ladies and others (who spent much time in trifling) might at least appear as devout, and be so too, as the new-come-over French ladies, who took occasion to reproach our want of zeal and religion. On which, the Bishop told his Majesty that it might be done easily, and was very necessary; whereupon the King commanded him to employ some person of the clergy to compile such a Work, and presently the Bishop naming Dr. Cosin (56), the King (21) enjoined him to charge the Doctor in his name to set about it immediately. This the Dean told me he did; and three months after, bringing the book to the King, he commanded the Bishop of London to read it over, and make his report; this was so well liked, that (contrary to former custom of doing it by a chaplain) he would needs give it an imprimatur under his own hand. Upon this there were at first only 200 copies printed; nor, said he, was there anything in the whole book of my own composure, nor did I set any name as author to it, but those necessary prefaces, etc., out of the Fathers, touching the times and seasons of prayer; all the rest being entirely translated and collected out of an Office published by authority of Queen Elizabeth, anno 1560, and our own Liturgy. This I rather mention to justify that industrious and pious Dean, who had exceedingly suffered by it, as if he had done it of his own head to introduce Popery, from which no man was more averse, and one who in this time of temptation and apostacy held and confirmed many to our Church.

Around 1625. Peter Paul Rubens Painter 1577-1640. Portrait of Anne of Austria Spain Queen Consort France 1601-1666. Around 1625. Peter Paul Rubens Painter 1577-1640. Portrait of Anne of Austria Spain Queen Consort France 1601-1666 in her coronation robes. 1616. Frans Pourbus the Younger Painter 1569-1622. Portrait of Anne of Austria Spain Queen Consort France 1601-1666.

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On 16 Oct 1651 Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (21) landed at Normandy.

Battle of Worcester

John Evelyn's Diary 29 October 1651. 29 Oct 1651. Came news and letters to the Queen and Sir Richard Browne (46) (who was the first that had intelligence of it) of his Majesty's (21) miraculous escape after the fight at Worcester; which exceedingly rejoiced us.

John Evelyn's Diary 14 November 1651. 14 Nov 1651. Dr. Clare preached on Genesis xxviii., verses 20, 21, 22, upon Jacob's vow, which he appositely applied, it being the first Sunday his Majesty (21) came to chapel after his escape. I went, in the afternoon, to visit the Earl of Norwich (43); he lay at the Lord of Aubigny's (32).

John Evelyn's Diary 21 December 1651. 21 Dec 1651. Came to visit my wife (16), Mrs. Lane, the lady who conveyed the King (21) to the seaside at his escape from Worcester. Mr. John Cosin, son of the Dean (57), debauched by the priests, wrote a letter to me to mediate for him with his father. I prepared for my last journey, being now resolved to leave France altogether.

John Evelyn's Diary 25 December 1651. 25 Dec 1651. The King (21) and [his brother] Duke (18) received the Sacrament first by themselves, the Lords Byron (52) and Wilmot (39) holding the long towel all along the altar.

In 1652 William Crofts 1st Baron Crofts 1611-1677 (41) was appointed Gentlemen of the Bedchamber to the exiled Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (21).

In 1638 Anthony Van Dyck Painter 1599-1641. Portrait of Thomas Killigrew Playwright 1612-1683 and (probably) William Crofts 1st Baron Crofts 1611-1677.

John Evelyn's Diary 06 March 1652. 06 Mar 1652. Saw the magnificent funeral of that arch-rebel, Ireton (41), carried in pomp from Somerset House to Westminster, accompanied with divers regiments of soldiers, horse and foot; then marched the mourners, General Cromwell (52) (his father-in-law), his mock-parliament-men, officers, and forty poor men in gowns, three led horses in housings of black cloth, two led in black velvet, and his charging horse, all covered over with embroidery and gold, on crimson velvet; then the guidons, ensigns, four heralds, carrying the arms of the State (as they called it), namely, the red cross and Ireland, with the casque, wreath, sword, spurs, etc.; next, a chariot canopied of black velvet, and six horses, in which was the corpse; the pall held up by the mourners on foot; the mace and sword, with other marks of his charge in Ireland (where he died of the plague), carried before in black scarfs. Thus, in a grave pace, drums covered with cloth, soldiers reversing their arms, they proceeded through the streets in a very solemn manner. This Ireton was a stout rebel, and had been very bloody to the King's (21) party, witness his severity at Colchester, when in cold blood he put to death those gallant gentlemen, Sir Charles Lucas (39) and Sir George Lisle. My cousin, R. Fanshawe (43), came to visit me, and informed me of many considerable affairs. Sir Henry Herbert (57) presented me with his brother, my Lord Cherbury's book, "De Veritate"..

Around 1650. Robert Walker Painter 1599-1658. Portrait of Henry Ireton 1611-1651. Around 1644. William Dobson Painter 1611-1646. Portrait of Richard Fanshawe 1st Baronet Fanshawe 1608-1666.

John Evelyn's Diary 09 March 1652. 09 Mar 1652. I went to Deptford, where I made preparation for my settlement, no more intending to go out of England, but endeavor a settled life, either in this or some other place, there being now so little appearance of any change for the better, all being entirely in the rebels' hands; and this particular habitation and the estate contiguous to it (belonging to my father-in-law, actually in his Majesty's (21) service) very much suffering for want of some friend to rescue it out of the power of the usurpers, so as to preserve our interest, and take some care of my other concerns, by the advice and endeavor of my friends I was advised to reside in it, and compound with the soldiers. This I was besides authorized by his Majesty (21) to do, and encouraged with a promise that what was in lease from the Crown, if ever it pleased God to restore him, he would secure to us in fee farm. I had also addresses and cyphers, to correspond with his Majesty (21) and Ministers abroad: upon all which inducements, I was persuaded to settle henceforth in England, having now run about the world, most part out of my own country, near ten years. I therefore now likewise meditated sending over for my wife (17), whom as yet I had left at Paris.

John Evelyn's Diary 13 April 1652. 13 Apr 1652. News was brought me that Lady Cotton, my brother George's (34) wife was delivered of a son.

I was moved by a letter out of France to publish the letter which some time since I sent to Dean Cosin's (57) proselyted son; but I did not conceive it convenient, for fear of displeasing her Majesty (21), the Queen.

John Evelyn's Diary 29 June 1652. 29 Jun 1652. I returned to Tunbridge, and again drank the water, till 10th of July.

We went to see the house of my Lord Clanrickarde (48) at Summer hill, near Tunbridge (now given to that villain, Bradshawe (50), who condemned the King (22)). 'Tis situated on an eminent hill, with a park; but has nothing else extraordinary.

John Evelyn's Diary 01 August 1652. 01 Aug 1652. Came old Jerome Lennier, of Greenwich, a man skilled in painting and music, and another rare musician, called Mell. I went to see his collection of pictures, especially those of Julio Romano, which surely had been the King's (22), and an Egyptian figure, etc. There were also excellent things of Polydore, Guido, Raphael, and Tintoretto. Lennier had been a domestic of Queen Elizabeth, and showed me her head, an intaglio in a rare sardonyx, cut by a famous Italian, which he assured me was exceedingly like her.

Around 1546. William Scrots Painter 1517-1553. Portrait of Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland before her accession painted for her father. Around 1570 Hans Eworth Painter 1520-1574. Portrait of Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland. In 1579 George Gower Painter 1540-1596. The Plimton Sieve Portrait of Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland. Around 1585 William Segar Painter 1554-1663. Ermine Portrait of Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland. Around 1592 Marcus Gheeraerts Painter 1562-1636. The Ditchley Portrait of Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland. After 1585 Unknown Painter. Portrait of Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland. Around 1563 Steven van der Meulen Painter -1564. Portrait of Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland.

In 1653 Henri Tremoille 1598-1674 (54) was appointed 455th Knight of the Garter by Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (22).

In 1653 George Digby 2nd Earl Bristol 1612-1677 (40) was appointed 453rd Knight of the Garter by Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (22).

Around 1637 Anthony Van Dyck Painter 1599-1641. Portrait of George Digby 2nd Earl Bristol 1612-1677 and William Russell 1st Duke Bedford 1616-1700. Around 1638 Anthony Van Dyck Painter 1599-1641. Portrait of George Digby 2nd Earl Bristol 1612-1677.

In 1653 [his brother] Henry Stewart 1st Duke Gloucester 1640-1660 (12) was appointed 454th Knight of the Garter by his brother Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (22).

In 1656 Adriaen Hanneman Painter 1603-1671. Portrait of Henry Stewart 1st Duke Gloucester 1640-1660.

In 1653 [his nephew] King William III of England, Scotland and Ireland 1650-1702 (2) was appointed 456th Knight of the Garter by his uncle Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (22).

In 1654 Frederick William "Great Elector" Hohenzollern Elector Brandenburg 1620-1688 (33) was appointed 457th Knight of the Garter by his half fifth cousin Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (23)..

John Evelyn's Diary 13 July 1654. 13 Jul 1654. We all dined at that most obliging and universally-curious Dr. Wilkins's (40), at Wadham College. He was the first who showed me the transparent apiaries, which he had built like castles and palaces, and so ordered them one upon another, as to take the honey without destroying the bees. These were adorned with a variety of dials, little statues, vanes, etc.; and, he was so abundantly civil, finding me pleased with them, to present me with one of the hives which he had empty, and which I afterward had in my garden at Sayes Court, where it continued many years, and which his Majesty (24) came on purpose to see and contemplate with much satisfaction. He had also contrived a hollow statue, which gave a voice and uttered words by a long, concealed pipe that went to its mouth, while one speaks through it at a good distance. He had, above in his lodgings and gallery, variety of shadows, dials, perspectives, and many other artificial, mathematical, and magical curiosities, a waywiser, a thermometer, a monstrous magnet, conic, and other sections, a balance on a demi-circle; most of them of his own, and that prodigious young scholar Mr. Christopher Wren, who presented me with a piece of white marble, which he had stained with a lively red, very deep, as beautiful as if it had been natural.

Thus satisfied with the civilities of Oxford, we left it, dining at Farringdon, a town which had been newly fired during the wars; and, passing near the seat of Sir Walter Pye, we came to Cadenham.

Battle of Marston Moor

John Evelyn's Diary 17 August 1654. 17 Aug 1654. To York, the second city of England, fairly walled, of a circular form, watered by the brave River Ouse, bearing vessels of considerable burden on it; over it is a stone bridge emulating that of London, and built on; the middle arch is larger than any I have seen in England, with a wharf of hewn stone, which makes the river appear very neat. But most remarkable and worth seeing is St. Peter's Cathedral, which of all the great churches in England had been best preserved from the fury of the sacrilegious, by composition with the Rebels when they took the city, during the many incursions of Scotch and others. It is a most entire magnificent piece of Gothic architecture. The screen before the choir is of stone carved with flowers, running work and statues of the old kings. Many of the. Monuments are very ancient. Here, as a great rarity in these days and at this time, they showed me a Bible and Common Prayer Book covered with crimson velvet, and richly embossed with silver gilt; also a service for the altar of gilt wrought plate, flagons, basin, ewer, plates, chalices, patins, etc., with a gorgeous covering for the altar and pulpit, carefully preserved in the vestry, in the hollow wall whereof rises a plentiful spring of excellent water. I got up to the tower, whence we had a prospect toward Durham, and could see Ripon, part of Lancashire, the famous and fatal Marston Moor, the Spas of Knaresborough, and all the environs of that admirable country. Sir —— Ingoldsby has here a large house, gardens, and tennis court; also the King's (24) house and church near the castle, which was modernly fortified with a palisade and bastions. The streets are narrow and ill-paved, the shops like London.

Treaty of Brussels

On 02 Apr 1656 the Treaty of Brussels agreeing mutual support between England (Royal) and Spain was signed by Henry Wilmot 1st Earl Rochester 1612-1658 (43) and James Butler 1st Duke Ormonde 1610-1688 (45) on behalf of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (25), and Alonso Cárdenas on behalf of Philip IV King Spain 1605-1665 (50).

1623. Diego Velázquez Painter 1599-1660. Portrait of Philip IV King Spain 1605-1665. 1621 to 1623. Diego Velázquez Painter 1599-1660. Portrait of Philip IV King Spain 1605-1665 in Brown and Silver. 1644. Diego Velázquez Painter 1599-1660. Portrait of Philip IV King Spain 1605-1665. 1656. Diego Velázquez Painter 1599-1660. Portrait of Philip IV King Spain 1605-1665. Around 1628. Gaspar de Crayer Painter 1584-1669. Portrait of Philip IV King Spain 1605-1665 in armour. 1666. Juan Bautista Martínez del Mazo 1612-1667. Portrait of Margaret Theresa Habsburg Holy Roman Empress 1651-1673 in mourning for her father Philip IV King Spain 1605-1665.

John Evelyn's Diary 22 April 1656. 22 Apr 1656. Came to see Mr. Henshaw (38) and Sir William Paston's (46) son (24), since Earl of Yarmouth. Afterward, I went to see his Majesty's (25) house at Eltham, both palace and chapel in miserable ruins, the noble woods and park destroyed by Rich (68), the rebel.

In 1631 Daniel Mijtens Painter 1590-1648. Portrait of Robert Rich 2nd Earl Warwick 1587-1658. Around 1632 Daniel Mijtens Painter 1590-1648. Portrait of Robert Rich 2nd Earl Warwick 1587-1658. In 1633 Daniel Mijtens Painter 1590-1648. Portrait of Robert Rich 2nd Earl Warwick 1587-1658. Around 1633 Anthony Van Dyck Painter 1599-1641. Portrait of Robert Rich 2nd Earl Warwick 1587-1658.

After 1657 Colonel Silius Titus 1623-1704 was appointed Groom of the Bedchamber by Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 for having published a pamphlet "Killing No Muder" advocating the assassination of Oliver Cromwell Lord Protector 1599-1658.

Around 1657 [his illegitimate son] Charles "Don Carlo" Fitzcharles 1st Earl Plymouth 1657-1680 was born illegitimately to Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (26) and Catherine Pegge 1635- (22).

John Evelyn's Diary 22 October 1657. 22 Oct 1657. To town, to visit the Holland Ambassador, with whom I had now contracted much friendly correspondence, useful to the intelligence I constantly gave his Majesty (27) abroad.

John Evelyn's Diary 25 December 1657. 25 Dec 1657. I went to London with my wife (22), to celebrate Christmas-day, Mr. Gunning (43) preaching in Exeter chapel, on Micah vii. 2. Sermon ended, as he was giving us the Holy Sacrament, the chapel was surrounded with soldiers, and all the communicants and assembly surprised and kept prisoners by them, some in the house, others carried away. It fell to my share to be confined to a room in the house, where yet I was permitted to dine with the master of it, the Countess of Dorset (35), Baroness Hatton (45), and some others of quality who invited me. In the afternoon, came Colonel Whalley, Goffe, and others, from Whitehall, to examine us one by one; some they committed to the marshal, some to prison. When I came before them, they took my name and abode, examined me why, contrary to the ordinance made, that none should any longer observe the superstitious time of the nativity (so esteemed by them), I durst offend, and particularly be at common prayers, which they told me was but the mass in English, and particularly pray for Charles Stuart (27); for which we had no Scripture. I told them we did not pray for Charles Stuart (27), but for all Christian kings, princes, and governors. They replied, in so doing we prayed for the king of Spain, too, who was their enemy and a Papist, with other frivolous and ensnaring questions, and much threatening; and, finding no color to detain me, they dismissed me with much pity of my ignorance. These were men of high flight and above ordinances, and spoke spiteful things of our Lord's nativity. As we went up to receive the Sacrament, the miscreants held their muskets against us, as if they would have shot us at the altar; but yet suffering us to finish the office of Communion, as perhaps not having instructions what to do, in case they found us in that action. So I got home late the next day; blessed be God!

Before 1684. Circle of Anthony Van Dyck Painter 1599-1641. Portrait of Peter Gunning Bishop 1614-1684. Before 09 Dec 1641. After Anthony Van Dyck Painter 1599-1641. Portrait of Frances Cranfield Countess Dorset 1622-1687. Before 1652 John Weesop Painter -1652. Portrait of Frances Cranfield Countess Dorset 1622-1687.

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In 1658 John Marchin 1601-1673 (57) was appointed 458th Knight of the Garter by Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (27).

In 1658 [his daughter] Catherine Fitzcharles 1658-1759 was born to Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (27) and Catherine Pegge 1635- (23).

Royalist Conspiracy

John Evelyn's Diary 08 June 1658. 08 Jun 1658. That excellent preacher and holy man, Dr. Hewer, was martyred for having intelligence with his Majesty (28), through the Lord Marquis of Ormond (47).

In 1659 Thomas Allen 1st Baronet 1633-1690 (26) was appointed Lord Mayor of London in which role he welcomed Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (30) into the City of London on 29 May 1660; an important step to his Restoration.

On 13 May 1659 [his brother] Henry Stewart 1st Duke Gloucester 1640-1660 (18) was created 1st Duke Gloucester 4C 1659, 1st Earl Cambridge 5C 1659 by his father King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland 1600-1649 (58).

Booth's Uprising

In Aug 1659 Booth's Uprising was a unsuccessful Cheshire rebellion led by George Booth 1st Baron Delamer 1622-1684 (36) to restore Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (29) to throne as part of a national uprising led by John Mordaunt 1st Viscount Mordaunt 1626-1675 (33). Its supprters included John Owen 1600-1666 (59).

John Marlay 1590-1673 (69) was briefly imprisoned suspected of surporting the uprising.

Around 1660 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of George Booth 1st Baron Delamer 1622-1684.

John Evelyn's Diary 10 December 1659. 10 Dec 1659. I treated privately with Colonel Morley (43), then Lieutenant of the Tower, and in great trust and power, concerning delivering it to the King (29), and the bringing of him in, to the great hazard of my life, but the Colonel had been my schoolfellow, and I knew would not betray me.

John Evelyn's Diary 12 December 1659. 12 Dec 1659. I spent in public concerns for his Majesty (29), pursuing the point to bring over Colonel Morley (43), and his brother-in-law, Fay, Governor of Portsmouth.

In 1660 Aubrey Vere 20th Earl Oxford 1627-1703 (32) was appointed 461st Knight of the Garter by Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (29).

Around 1656 Gilbert Soest Painter 1605-1681. Portrait of Aubrey Vere 20th Earl Oxford 1627-1703.

After 1660 Robert Streater Painter 1621-1679 was appointed Serjeant Painter to Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685.

In 1660 Charles Scarburgh Physician 1615-1694 (44) was appointed physician to Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (29).

In 1660 Edward Montagu 1st Earl Sandwich 1625-1672 (34) was appointed 460th Knight of the Garter by Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (29).

Around 1650 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Edward Montagu 1st Earl Sandwich 1625-1672.

In 1660 George Monck 1st Duke Albemarle 1608-1670 (51) was appointed 459th Knight of the Garter by Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (29).

Before 03 Jan 1670  Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of George Monck 1st Duke Albemarle 1608-1670. Before 03 Jan 1670 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of George Monck 1st Duke Albemarle 1608-1670 in his Garter Robes.

In 1660 George Hamilton 1st Baronet Donalong 1607-1679 (53) was created 1st Baronet Donalong by his half fourth cousin Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (29) for his allegiance to the Crown.

John Evelyn's Diary 12 January 1660. 12 Jan 1660. Wrote to Colonel Morley (43) again to declare for his Majesty (29).

Diary of Samuel Pepys 17 January 1660. 17 Jan 1660. Tuesday. Early I went to Mr. Crew's (62), and having given Mr. Edward (12) money to give the servants, I took him into the coach that waited for us and carried him to my house, where the coach waited for me while I and the child went to Westminster Hall, and bought him some pictures. In the Hall I met Mr. Woodfine, and took him to Will's and drank with him. Thence the child and I to the coach, where my wife was ready, and so we went towards Twickenham. In our way, at Kensington we understood how that my Lord Chesterfield (26) had killed another gentleman about half an hour before, and was fled.

NOTE. Philip Stanhope, second Earl of Chesterfield (26), ob. 1713, act. suae 80. We learn, from the memoir prefixed to his "Printed Correspondence", that he fought three duels, disarming and wounding his first and second antagonists, and killing the third. The name of the unfortunate gentleman who fell on this occasion was Woolly. Lord Chesterfield (26), absconding, went to Breda, where he obtained the royal pardon from Charles II (29). He acted a busy part in the eventful times in which he lived, and was remarkable for his steady adherence to the Stuarts. Lord Chesterfield's letter to Charles II, and the King's (29) answer granting the royal pardon, occur in the Correspondence published by General Sir John Murray, in 1829: "Jan. 17th, 1659. The Earl of Chesterfield and Dr. Woolly's son of Hammersmith, had a quarrel about a mare of eighteen pounds price; the quarrel would not be reconciled, insomuch that a challenge passed between them. They fought a duel on the backside of Mr. Colby's house at Kensington, where the Earl and he had several passes. The Earl wounded him in two places, and would fain have then ended, but the stubbornness and pride of heart of Mr. Woolly would not give over, and the next pass [he] was killed on the spot. The Earl fled to Chelsea, and there took water and escaped. The jury found it chance-medley".—Rugge's "Diurnal", Addit MSS.,British Museum. B.].

We went forward and came about one of the clock to Mr. Fuller's (52), but he was out of town, so we had a dinner there, and I gave the child 40s. to give to the two ushers. After that we parted and went homewards, it being market day at Brainford. I set my wife down and went with the coach to Mr. Crew's (62), thinking to have spoke with Mr. Moore and Mrs. Jane, he having told me the reason of his melancholy was some unkindness from her after so great expressions of love, and how he had spoke to her friends and had their consent, and that he would desire me to take an occasion of speaking with her, but by no means not to heighten her discontent or distaste whatever it be, but to make it up if I can.

But he being out of doors, I went away and went to see Mrs Jane, who was now very well again, and after a game or two at cards, I left her. So I went to the Coffee Club, and heard very good discourse; it was in answer to Mr. Harrington's (49) answer, who said that the state of the Roman government was not a settled government, and so it was no wonder that the balance of propriety [i.e., property] was in one hand, and the command in another, it being therefore always in a posture of war; but it was carried by ballot, that it was a steady government, though it is true by the voices it had been carried before that it was an unsteady government; so to-morrow it is to be proved by the opponents that the balance lay in one hand, and the government in another.

Thence I went to Westminster, and met Shaw and Washington, who told me how this day Sydenham (44) was voted out of the House for sitting any more this Parliament, and that Salloway was voted out likewise and sent to the Tower, during the pleasure of the House. Home and wrote by the Post, and carried to Whitehall, and coming back turned in at Harper's, where Jack Price was, and I drank with him and he told me, among other, things, how much the Protector (33) is altered, though he would seem to bear out his trouble very well, yet he is scarce able to talk sense with a man; and how he will say that "Who should a man trust, if he may not trust to a brother and an uncle;" and "how much those men have to answer before God Almighty, for their playing the knave with him as they did". He told me also, that there was; £100,000 offered, and would have been taken for his restitution, had not the Parliament come in as they did again; and that he do believe that the Protector will live to give a testimony of his valour and revenge yet before he dies, and that the Protector will say so himself sometimes. Thence I went home, it being late and my wife in bed.

In or before 1679. John Hayls Painter 1600-1679. Portrait of Richard Cromwell Lord Protector 1626-1712.

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John Evelyn's Diary 22 January 1660. 22 Jan 1660. I went this afternoon to visit Colonel Morley (43). After dinner I discoursed with him; but he was very jealous, and would not believe that Monk (51) came in to do the King (29) any service; I told him that he might do it without him, and have all the honor. He was still doubtful, and would resolve on nothing yet, so I took leave.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 09 February 1660. 09 Feb 1660. Thursday. Soon as out of my bed I wrote letters into the country to go by carrier to-day. Before I was out of my bed, I heard the soldiers very busy in the morning, getting their horses ready where they lay at Hilton's, but I knew not then their meaning in so doing: After I had wrote my letters I went to Westminster up and down the Hall, and with Mr. Swan walked a good [deal] talking about Mr Downing's (35) business. I went with him to Mr. Phelps's house where he had some business to solicit, where we met Mr. Rogers my neighbour, who did solicit against him and talked very high, saying that he would not for a £1000 appear in a business that Swan did, at which Swan was very angry, but I believe he might be guilty enough. In the Hall I understand how Monk (51) is this morning gone into London with his army; and met with Mr. Fage, who told me that he do believe that Monk (51) is gone to secure some of the Common-council of the City, who were very high yesterday there, and did vote that they would not pay any taxes till the House was filled up. I went to my office, where I wrote to my Lord after I had been at the Upper Bench, where Sir Robert Pye (75)1 this morning came to desire his discharge from the Tower; but it could not be granted. After that I went to Mrs. Jem, who I had promised to go along with to her Aunt Wright's, but she was gone, so I went thither, and after drinking a glass of sack I went back to Westminster Hall, and meeting with Mr. Pierce the surgeon, who would needs take me home, where Mr. Lucy, Burrell, and others dined, and after dinner I went home and to Westminster Hall, where meeting Swan I went with him by water to the Temple to our Counsel, and did give him a fee to make a motion to-morrow in the Exchequer for Mr Downing (35). Thence to Westminster Hall, where I heard an action very finely pleaded between my Lord Dorset (37) and some other noble persons, his lady (38) and other ladies of quality being here, and it was about; £330 per annum, that was to be paid to a poor Spittal, which was given by some of his predecessors; and given on his side. Thence Swan and I to a drinking-house near Temple Bar, where while he wrote I played on my flageolet till a dish of poached eggs was got ready for us, which we eat, and so by coach home. I called at Mr. Harper's, who told me how Monk (51) had this day clapt up many of the Common-council, and that the Parliament had voted that he should pull down their gates and portcullisses, their posts and their chains, which he do intend to do, and do lie in the City all night. I went home and got some ahlum to my mouth, where I have the beginnings of a cancer, and had also a plaster to my boil underneath my chin.

Note 1. Sir Robert Pye (75), the elder, was auditor of the Exchequer, and a staunch Royalist. He garrisoned his house at Faringdon, which was besieged by his son (40), of the same names, a decided Republican, son-in-law to Hampden (64), and colonel of horse under Fairfax (48). The son, here spoken of, was subsequently committed to the Tower for presenting a petition to the House of Commons from the county of Berks, which he represented in Parliament, complaining of the want of a settled form of government. He had, however, the courage to move for an habeas corpus, but judge Newdigate decided that the courts of law had not the power to discharge him. Upon Monk's (51) coming to London, the secluded members passed a vote to liberate Pye, and at the Restoration he was appointed equerry to the King (29). He died in 1701. B.

Around 1650. Robert Walker Painter 1599-1658. Portrait of Richard Sackville 5th Earl Dorset 1622-1677.

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John Evelyn's Diary 17 February 1660. 17 Feb 1660 to 5th April 1660, I was detained in bed with a kind of double tertian, the cruel effects of the spleen and other distempers, in that extremity that my physicians, Drs. Wetherborn, Needham, and Claude, were in great doubt of my recovery; but it pleased God to deliver me out of this affliction, for which I render him hearty thanks: going to church the 8th, and receiving the blessed eucharist.

During this sickness came divers of my relations and friends to visit me, and it retarded my going into the country longer than I intended; however, I wrote and printed a letter in defense of his Majesty (29), against a wicked forged paper, pretended to be sent from Brussels to defame his Majesty's (29) person and virtues and render him odious, now when everybody was in hope and expectation of the General (51) and Parliament recalling him, and establishing the Government on its ancient and right basis. The doing this toward the decline of my sickness, and sitting up long in my bed, had caused a small relapse, out of which it yet pleased God also to free me, so as by the 14th I was able to go into the country, which I did to my sweet and native air at Wotton.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 17 February 1660. 17 Feb 1660. Friday. In the morning Tom that was my Lord's footboy came to see me and had 10s. of me of the money which I have to keep of his. So that now I have but 35s. more of his. Then came Mr. Hills the instrument maker, and I consulted with him about the altering my lute and my viall. After that I went into my study and did up my accounts, and found that I am about; £40 beforehand in the world, and that is all. So to my office and from thence brought Mr. Hawly home with me to dinner, and after dinner wrote a letter to Mr Downing (35) about his business and gave it Hawly, and so went to Mr. Gunning's (46) to his weekly fast, and after sermon, meeting there with Monsieur L'Impertinent, we went and walked in the park till it was dark. I played on my pipe at the Echo, and then drank a cup of ale at Jacob's. So to Westminster Hall, and he with me, where I heard that some of the members of the House were gone to meet with some of the secluded members and General Monk (51) in the City. Hence we went to White Hall, thinking to hear more news, where I met with Mr. Hunt, who told me how Monk (51) had sent for all his goods that he had here into the City; and yet again he told me, that some of the members of the House had this day laid in firing into their lodgings at White Hall for a good while, so that we are at a great stand to think what will become of things, whether Monk (51) will stand to the Parliament or no. Hence Mons L'Impertinent and I to Harper's, and there drank a cup or two to the King (29), and to his fair sister Frances good health, of whom we had much discourse of her not being much the worse for the smallpox, which she had this last summer.

So home and to bed. This day we are invited to my uncle Fenner's wedding feast, but went not, this being the 27th year.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 25 February 1660. 25 Feb 1660. Saturday. To the Falcon, in the Petty Cury1, where we found my father (59) and brother (19) very well. After dressing myself, about ten o'clock, my father, brother, and I to Mr. Widdririgton, at Christ's College, who received us very civilly, and caused my brother to be admitted, while my father, he, and I, sat talking. After that done, we take leave. My father and brother went to visit some friends, Pepys's, scholars in Cambridge, while I went to Magdalene College, to Mr. Hill, with whom I found Mr. Zanchy, Burton, and Hollins, and was exceeding civilly received by them. I took leave on promise to sup with them, and to my Inn again, where I dined with some others that were there at an ordinary. After dinner my brother to the College, and my father and I to my Cozen Angier's, to see them, where Mr. Fairbrother came to us. Here we sat a while talking. My father he went to look after his things at the carrier's, and my brother's chamber, while Mr. Fairbrother, my Cozen Angier, and Mr. Zanchy, whom I met at Mr. Merton's shop (where I bought 'Elenchus Motuum', having given my former to Mr Downing (35) when he was here), to the Three Tuns, where we drank pretty hard and many healths to the King (29), &c., till it began to be darkish: then we broke up and I and Mr. Zanchy went to Magdalene College, where a very handsome supper at Mr. Hill's chambers, I suppose upon a club among them, where in their discourse I could find that there was nothing at all left of the old preciseness in their discourse, specially on Saturday nights. And Mr. Zanchy told me that there was no such thing now-a-days among them at any time. After supper and some discourse then to my Inn, where I found my father in his chamber, and after some discourse, and he well satisfied with this day's work, we went to bed, my brother lying with me, his things not being come by the carrier that he could not lie in the College.

Note 1. The old Falcon Inn is on the south side of Petty Cury. It is now divided into three houses, one of which is the present Falcon Inn, the other two being houses with shops. The Falcon yard is but little changed. From the size of the whole building it must have been the principal inn of the town. The room said to have been used by Queen Elizabeth for receptions retains its original form.—M. B. The Petty Cury. The derivation of the name of his street, so well known to all Cambridge men, is a matter of much dispute among antiquaries. (See "Notes and Queries".) The most probable meaning of it is the Parva Cokeria, or little cury, where the cooks of the town lived, just as "The Poultry", where the Poulters (now Poulterers) had their shops. "The Forme of Cury", a Roll of Antient English Cookery, was compiled by the principal cooks of that "best and royalest viander of all Christian Kings", Richard the Second, and edited with a copious Index and Glossary by Dr. Samuel Pegge, 1780.—M. B.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 26 February 1660. 26 Feb 1660. Sunday. My brother (19) went to the College to Chapel. My father (59) and I went out in the morning, and walked out in the fields behind King's College, and in King's College Chapel Yard, where we met with Mr. Fairbrother, who took us to Botolph's Church, where we heard Mr. Nicholas, of Queen's College, who I knew in my time to be Tripos1, with great applause, upon this text, "For thy commandments are broad". Thence my father and I to Mr. Widdrington's chamber to dinner, where he used us very courteously again, and had two Fellow Commoners at table with him, and Mr. Pepper, a Fellow of the College. After dinner, while we sat talking by the fire, Mr. Pierces man came to tell me that his master was come to town, so my father and I took leave, and found Mr. Pierce at our Inn, who told us that he had lost his journey, for my Lord was gone from Hinchingbroke to London on Thursday last, at which I was a little put to a stand. So after a cup of drink I went to Magdalene College to get the certificate of the College for my brother's entrance there, that he might save his year. I met with Mr. Burton in the Court, who took me to Mr. Pechell's chamber, where he was and Mr. Zanchy. By and by, Mr. Pechell and Sanchy and I went out, Pechell to Church, Sanchy and I to the Rose Tavern, where we sat and drank till sermon done, and then Mr. Pechell came to us, and we three sat drinking the King's (29) and his whole family's health till it began to be dark. Then we parted; Sanchy and I went to my lodging, where we found my father and Mr. Pierce at the door, and I took them both and Mr. Blayton to the Rose Tavern, and there gave them a quart or two of wine, not telling them that we had been there before. After this we broke up, and my father, Mr. Zanchy, and I to my Cosen Angier to supper, where I caused two bottles of wine to be carried from the Rose Tavern; that was drunk up, and I had not the wit to let them know at table that it was I that paid for them, and so I lost my thanks for them. After supper Mr. Fairbrother, who supped there with us, took me into a room by himself, and shewed me a pitiful copy of verses upon Mr. Prin (60)n which he esteemed very good, and desired that I would get them given to Mr. Prin (60)n, in hopes that he would get him some place for it, which I said I would do, but did laugh in my sleeve to think of his folly, though indeed a man that has always expressed great civility to me. After that we sat down and talked; I took leave of all my friends, and so to my Inn, where after I had wrote a note and enclosed the certificate to Mr. Widdrington, I bade good night to my father, and John went to bed, but I staid up a little while, playing the fool with the lass of the house at the door of the chamber, and so to bed.

Note 1. The Tripos or Bachelor of the Stool, who made the speech on Ash Wednesday, when the senior Proctor called him up and exhorted him to be witty but modest withal. Their speeches, especially after the Restoration, tended to be boisterous, and even scurrilous. "26 Martii 1669. Da Hollis, fellow of Clare Hall is to make a publick Recantation in the Bac. Schools for his Tripos speeche". The Tripos verses still come out, and are circulated on Ash Wednesday. The list of successful candidates for honours is printed on the same paper, hence the term "Tripos" applied to it.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 27 February 1660. 27 Feb 1660. Monday. Up by four o'clock, and after I was ready, took my leave of my father (59), whom I left in bed, and the same of my brother John (19), to whom I gave 10s. Mr. Blayton and I took horse and straight to Saffron Walden, where at the White Hart, we set up our horses, and took the master of the house to shew us Audley End House, who took us on foot through the park, and so to the house, where the housekeeper shewed us all the house, in which the stateliness of the ceilings, chimney-pieces, and form of the whole was exceedingly worth seeing. He took us into the cellar, where we drank most admirable drink, a health to the King (29). Here I played on my flageolette, there being an excellent echo. He shewed us excellent pictures; two especially, those of the four Evangelists and Henry VIII. After that I gave the man 2s. for his trouble, and went back again. In our going, my landlord carried us through a very old hospital or almshouse, where forty poor people was maintained; a very old foundation; and over the chimney in the mantelpiece was an inscription in brass: "Orate pre anima Thomae Bird", &c.; and the poor box also was on the same chimney-piece, with an iron door and locks to it, into which I put 6d. They brought me a draft of their drink in a brown bowl, tipt with silver, which I drank off, and at the bottom was a picture of the Virgin and the child in her arms, done in silver. So we went to our Inn, and after eating of something, and kissed the daughter of the house, she being very pretty, we took leave, and so that night, the road pretty good, but the weather rainy to Eping, where we sat and played a game at cards, and after supper, and some merry talk with a plain bold maid of the house, we went to bed.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 02 March 1660. 02 Mar 1660. This morning I went early to my Lord at Mr. Crew's (62), where I spoke to him. Here were a great many come to see him, as Secretary Thurlow (43) who is now by this Parliament chosen again Secretary of State. There were also General Monk's (51) trumpeters to give my Lord a sound of their trumpets this morning. Thence I went to my office, and wrote a letter to Mr Downing (35) about the business of his house. Then going home, I met with Mr. Eglin, Chetwind, and Thomas, who took me to the Leg in King's street, where we had two brave dishes of meat, one of fish, a carp and some other fishes, as well done as ever I ate any. After that to the Swan tavern, where we drank a quart or two of wine, and so parted. So I to Mrs. Jem and took Mr. Moore with me (who I met in the street), and there I met W. Howe and Sheply. After that to Westminster Hall, where I saw Sir G. Booth (37) at liberty. This day I hear the City militia is put into good posture, and it is thought that Monk (51) will not be able to do any great matter against them now, if he have a mind. I understand that my Lord Lambert (40) did yesterday send a letter to the Council, and that to-night he is to come and appear to the Council in person. Sir Arthur Haselrigge (59) do not yet appear in the House. Great is the talk of a single person, and that it would now be Charles (29), George (51), or Richard (33)—For the last of which, my Lord St. John (61) is said to speak high. Great also is the dispute now in the House, in whose name the writs shall run for the next Parliament; and it is said that Mr. Prin (60), in open House, said, "In King Charles's". From Westminster Hall home. Spent the evening in my study, and so after some talk with my wife, then to bed.

Around 1652. Robert Walker Painter 1599-1658. Portrait of General John Lambert 1619-1684.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 05 March 1660. 05 Mar 1660. Early in the morning Mr. Hill comes to string my theorbo, which we were about till past ten o'clock, with a great deal of pleasure. Then to Westminster, where I met with Mr. Sheply and Mr. Pinkney's at Will's, who took me by water to Billingsgate, at the Salutation Tavern, whither by-and-by, Mr. Talbot and Adams came, and bring a great [deal of] good meat, a ham of bacon, &c. Here we staid and drank till Mr. Adams began to be overcome. Then we parted, and so to Westminster by water, only seeing Mr. Pinkney at his own house, where he shewed me how he had alway kept the Lion and Unicorn, in the back of his chimney, bright, in expectation of the King's (29) coming again. At home I found Mr. Hunt, who told me how the Parliament had voted that the Covenant be printed and hung in churches again. Great hopes of the King's (29) coming again. To bed.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 06 March 1660. 06 Mar 1660. Shrove Tuesday. I called Mr. Sheply and we both went up to my Lord's lodgings at Mr. Crew's (62), where he bade us to go home again, and get a fire against an hour after. Which we did at White Hall, whither he came, and after talking with him and me about his going to sea, he called me by myself to go along with him into the garden, where he asked me how things were with me, and what he had endeavoured to do with my uncle to get him to do something for me but he would say nothing too. He likewise bade me look out now at this turn some good place, and he would use all his own, and all the interest of his friends that he had in England, to do me good. And asked me whether I could, without too much inconvenience, go to sea as his secretary, and bid me think of it. He also began to talk of things of State, and told me that he should want one in that capacity at sea, that he might trust in, and therefore he would have me to go. He told me also, that he did believe the King (29) would come in, and did discourse with me about it, and about the affection of the people and City, at which I was full glad. After he was gone, I waiting upon him through the garden till he came to the Hall, where I left him and went up to my office, where Mr. Hawly brought one to me, a seaman, that had promised Rio to him if he get him a purser's place, which I think to endeavour to do. Here comes my uncle Tom, whom I took to Will's and drank with, poor man, he comes to inquire about the knights of Windsor, of which he desires to get to be one.

[Note. The body of Poor Knights of Windsor was founded by Edward III. The intention of the King (29) with regard to the poor knights was to provide relief and comfortable subsistence for such valiant soldiers as happened in their old age to fall into poverty and decay. On September 20th, 1659, a Report having been read respecting the Poor Knights of Windsor, the House "ordered that it be referred to a Committee, to look into the revenue for maintenance of the Poor Knights of Windsor", &c. (See Tighe and Davis's "Annals of Windsor".)]

While we were drinking, in comes Mr. Day, a carpenter in Westminster, to tell me that it was Shrove Tuesday, and that I must go with him to their yearly Club upon this day, which I confess I had quite forgot. So I went to the Bell, where were Mr. Eglin, Veezy, Vincent a butcher, one more, and Mr. Tanner, with whom I played upon a viall, and he a viallin, after dinner, and were very merry, with a special good dinner, a leg of veal and bacon, two capons and sausages and fritters, with abundance of wine. After that I went home, where I found Kate_Sterpin who hath not been here a great while before. She gone I went to see Mrs. Jem, at whose chamber door I found a couple of ladies, but she not being there, we hunted her out, and found that she and another had hid themselves behind a door. Well, they all went down into the dining-room, where it was full of tag, rag, and bobtail, dancing, singing, and drinking, of which I was ashamed, and after I had staid a dance or two I went away. Going home, called at my Lord's for Mr. Sheply, but found him at the Lion with a pewterer, that he had bought pewter to-day of. With them I drank, and so home and wrote by the post, by my Lord's command, for J. Goods to come up presently. For my Lord intends to go forthwith into the Swiftsure till the Nazeby be ready.

This day I hear that the Lords do intend to sit, and great store of them are now in town, and I see in the Hall to-day. Overton at Hull do stand out, but can, it is thought, do nothing; and Lawson (45), it is said, is gone with some ships thither, but all that is nothing. My Lord told me, that there was great endeavours to bring in the Protector again; but he told me, too, that he did believe it would not last long if he were brought in; no, nor the King (29) neither (though he seems to think that he will come in), unless he carry himself very soberly and well. Every body now drinks the King's (29) health without any fear, whereas before it was very private that a man dare do it. Monk (51) this day is feasted at Mercers' Hall, and is invited one after another to all the twelve Halls in London! Many think that he is honest yet, and some or more think him to be a fool that would raise himself, but think that he will undo himself by endeavouring it. My mind, I must needs remember, has been very much eased and joyed at my Lord's great expressions of kindness this day, and in discourse thereupon my wife and I lay awake an hour or two in our bed.

Around 1665 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Admiral John Lawson 1615-1665. One of the Flagmen of Lowestoft.

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Charles X King Sweden Dies Charles XI Succeeds

Diary of Samuel Pepys 08 March 1660. 08 Mar 1660. To Whitehall to bespeak some firing for my father at Short's, and likewise to speak to Mr. Blackburne about Batters being gunner in the "Wexford". Then to Westminster Hall, where there was a general damp over men's minds and faces upon some of the Officers of the Army being about making a remonstrance against Charles Stuart (29) or any single person; but at noon it was told, that the General (51) had put a stop to it, so all was well again. Here I met with Jasper, who was to look for me to bring me to my Lord at the lobby; whither sending a note to my Lord, he comes out to me and gives me direction to look after getting some money for him from the Admiralty, seeing that things are so unsafe, that he would not lay out a farthing for the State, till he had received some money of theirs. Home about two o'clock, and took my wife by land to Paternoster Row, to buy some Paragon for a petticoat and so home again. In my way meeting Mr. Moore, who went home with me while I ate a bit and so back to Whitehall again, both of us. He waited at the Council for Mr. Crew (62). I to the Admiralty, where I got the order for the money, and have taken care for the getting of it assigned upon Mr. Hutchinson, Treasurer for the Navy, against tomorrow. Hence going home I met with Mr. King that belonged to the Treasurers at War and took him to Harper's, who told me that he and the rest of his fellows are cast out of office by the new Treasurers. This afternoon, some of the Officers of the Army, and some of the Parliament, had a conference at White Hall to make all right again, but I know not what is done. This noon I met at the Dog tavern Captain Philip Holland, with whom I advised how to make some advantage of my Lord's going to sea, which he told me might be by having of five or six servants entered on board, and I to give them what wages I pleased, and so their pay to be mine; he was also very urgent to have me take the Secretary's place, that my Lord did proffer me.

At the same time in comes Mr. Wade and Mr. Sterry, secretary to the plenipotentiary in Denmark, who brought the news of the death of the King of Sweden (37) at Gottenburgh the 3rd of the last month, and he told me what a great change he found when he came here, the secluded members being restored. He also spoke very freely of Mr. Wades profit, which he made while he was in Zeeland, how he did believe that he cheated Mr. Powell, and that he made above £500 on the voyage, which Mr. Wade did very angrily deny, though I believe he was guilty enough.Charles X King Sweden Dies Charles XI Succeeds

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 09 March 1660. 09 Mar 1660. To my Lord at his lodging, and came to Westminster with him in the coach, with Mr. Dudley with him, and he in the Painted Chamber walked a good while; and I telling him that I was willing and ready to go with him to sea, he agreed that I should, and advised me what to write to Mr Downing (35) about it, which I did at my office, that by my Lord's desire I offered that my place might for a while be supplied by Mr. Moore, and that I and my security should be bound by the same bond for him. I went and dined at Mr. Crew's (62), where Mr. Hawly comes to me, and I told him the business and shewed him the letter promising him £20 a year, which he liked very well of. I did the same to Mr. Moore, which he also took for a courtesy. In the afternoon by coach, taking Mr. Butler with me to the Navy Office, about the £500 for my Lord, which I am promised to have to-morrow morning. Then by coach back again, and at White Hall at the Council Chamber spoke with my Lord and got him to sign the acquittance for the £500, and he also told me that he had spoke to Mr. Blackburne to put off Mr. Creed and that I should come to him for direction in the employment. After this Mr. Butler and I to Harper's, where we sat and drank for two hours till ten at night; the old woman she was drunk and began to talk foolishly in commendation of her son James. Home and to bed. All night troubled in my thoughts how to order my business upon this great change with me that I could not sleep, and being overheated with drink I made a promise the next morning to drink no strong drink this week, for I find that it makes me sweat and puts me quite out of order.

This day it was resolved that the writs do go out in the name of the Keepers of the Liberty, and I hear that it is resolved privately that a treaty be offered with the King (29). And that Monk (51) did check his soldiers highly for what they did yesterday.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 13 March 1660. 13 Mar 1660. It rained hard and I got up early, and got to London by 8 o'clock at my Lord's lodgings, who told me that I was to be secretary, and Creed to be deputy treasurer to the Fleet, at which I was troubled, but I could not help it. After that to my father's (59) to look after things, and so at my shoemaker's and others. At night to Whitehall, where I met with Simons and Luellin at drink with them at Roberts at Whitehall. Then to the Admiralty, where I talked with Mr. Creed till the Brothers, and they were very seemingly willing and glad that I have the place since my Lord would dispose of it otherwise than to them. Home and to bed. This day the Parliament voted all that had been done by the former Rump against the House of Lords be void, and to-night that the writs go out without any qualification. Things seem very doubtful what will be the end of all; for the Parliament seems to be strong for the King (29), while the soldiers do all talk against.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 16 March 1660. 16 Mar 1660. No sooner out of bed but troubled with abundance of clients, seamen. My landlord Vanly's man came to me by my direction yesterday, for I was there at his house as I was going to London by water, and I paid him rent for my house for this quarter ending at Lady day, and took an acquittance that he wrote me from his master. Then to Mr. Sheply, to the Rhenish Tavern House, where Mr. Pim, the tailor, was, and gave us a morning draft and a neat's tongue. Home and with my wife to London, we dined at my father's (59), where Joyce Norton and Mr. Armiger dined also. After dinner my wife took leave of them in order to her going to-morrow to Huntsmore. In my way home I went to the Chapel in Chancery Lane to bespeak papers of all sorts and other things belonging to writing against my voyage. So home, where I spent an hour or two about my business in my study. Thence to the Admiralty, and staid a while, so home again, where Will Bowyer came to tell us that he would bear my wife company in the coach to-morrow. Then to Westminster Hall, where I heard how the Parliament had this day dissolved themselves, and did pass very cheerfully through the Hall, and the Speaker without his mace. The whole Hall was joyful thereat, as well as themselves, and now they begin to talk loud of the King (29). To-night I am told, that yesterday, about five o'clock in the afternoon, one came with a ladder to the Great Exchange, and wiped with a brush the inscription that was upon King Charles, and that there was a great bonfire made in the Exchange, and people called out "God bless. King Charles the Second!"

Note. Then the writing in golden letters, that was engraven under the statue of Charles I, in the Royal Exchange ('Exit tyrannus, Regum ultimus, anno libertatis Angliae, anno Domini 1648, Januarie xxx.) was washed out by a painter, who in the day time raised a ladder, and with a pot and brush washed the writing quite out, threw down his pot and brush and said it should never do him any more service, in regard that it had the honour to put out rebels' hand-writing. He then came down, took away his ladder, not a misword said to him, and by whose order it was done was not then known. The merchants were glad and joyful, many people were gathered together, and against the Exchange made a bonfire. "Rugge's Diurnal". In the Thomason Collection of Civil War Tracts at the British Museum is a pamphlet which is dated in MS. March 21st, 1659-60, where this act is said to be by order of Monk (51): "The Loyal Subjects Teares for the Sufferings and Absence of their Sovereign Charles II, King of England, Scotland, and Ireland; with an Observation upon the expunging of 'Exit Tyrannus, Regum ultimus', by order of General Monk (51), and some Advice to the Independents, Anabaptists, Phanatiques, &c. London, 1660".

From the Hall I went home to bed, very sad in mind to part with my wife, but God's will be done.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 27 April 1660. 27 Apr 1660. This morning Burr was absent again from on board, which I was troubled at, and spoke to Mr. Pierce, Purser, to speak to him of it, and it is my mind. This morning Pim [the tailor] spent in my cabin, putting a great many ribbons to a suit. After dinner in the afternoon came on board Sir Thomas Hatton and Sir R. Maleverer going for Flushing; but all the world know that they go where the rest of the many gentlemen go that every day flock to the King (29) at Breda1.

They supped here, and my Lord treated them as he do the rest that go thither, with a great deal of civility. While we were at supper a packet came, wherein much news from several friends. The chief is that, that I had from Mr. Moore, viz. that he fears the Cavaliers in the House will be so high, that the others will be forced to leave the House and fall in with General Monk (51), and so offer things to the King so high on the Presbyterian account that he may refuse, and so they will endeavour some more mischief; but when I told my Lord it, he shook his head and told me, that the Presbyterians are deceived, for the General is certainly for the King's interest, and so they will not be able to prevail that way with him. After supper the two knights went on board the Grantham, that is to convey them to Flushing. I am informed that the Exchequer is now so low, that there is not £20 there, to give the messenger that brought the news of Lambert's (40) being taken; which story is very strange that he should lose his reputation of being a man of courage now at one blow, for that he was not able to fight one stroke, but desired of Colonel Ingoldsby several times for God's sake to let him escape. Late reading my letters, my mind being much troubled to think that, after all our hopes, we should have any cause to fear any more disappointments therein. To bed. This day I made even with Captain Sparling, by sending him my bill and he me my money by Burr whom I sent for it.

Note 1. The King (29) arrived at Breda on the 14th April. Sir W. Lower writes ("Voiage and Residence of Charles II in Holland", p. 5): "Many considerations obliged him to depart the territories under the obedience of the King of Spain in this conjuncture of affairs".

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Declaration of Breda

The Declaration of Breda, written on 04 Apr 1660, was a part of the process of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (29) being restored to the English throne written in response to a message sent by George Monck 1st Duke Albemarle 1608-1670 (51). Initially secret the Declaration was made public on 01 May 1660. The Declaration promised a general pardon, retention of property religious toleration, payment of arrears to the army and continued army service.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 01 May 1660. 01 May 1660. This morning I was told how the people of Deal have set up two or three Maypoles, and have hung up their flags upon the top of them, and do resolve to be very merry to-day. It being a very pleasant day, I wished myself in Hide Park. This day I do count myself to have had full two years of perfect cure for the stone, for which God of heaven be blessed. This day Captain Parker came on board, and without his expectation I had a commission for him for the Nonsuch frigate ["The Nonsuch" was a fourth-rate of thirty-two guns, built at Deptford in 1646 by Peter Pett, jun. The captain was John Parker.] (he being now in the Cheriton), for which he gave me a French pistole. Captain H. Cuttance has commission for the Cheriton. After dinner to nine-pins, and won something. The rest of the afternoon in my cabin writing and piping. While we were at supper we heard a great noise upon the Quarter Deck, so we all rose instantly, and found it was to save the coxon of the Cheriton, who, dropping overboard, could not be saved, but was drowned. To-day I put on my suit that was altered from the great skirts to little ones. To-day I hear they were very merry at Deal, setting up the King's (29) flag upon one of their maypoles, and drinking his health upon their knees in the streets, and firing the guns, which the soldiers of the Castle threatened; but durst not oppose.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 02 May 1660. 02 May 1660. In the morning at a breakfast of radishes at the Purser's cabin. After that to writing till dinner. At which time comes Dunne from London, with letters that tell us the welcome news of the Parliament's votes yesterday, which will be remembered for the happiest May-day that bath been many a year to England. The King's (29) letter was read in the House, wherein he submits himself and all things to them, as to an Act of Oblivion1 to all, unless they shall please to except any, as to the confirming of the sales of the King's (29) and Church lands, if they see good. The House upon reading the letter, ordered £50,000 to be forthwith provided to send to His Majesty for his present supply; and a committee chosen to return an answer of thanks to His Majesty for his gracious letter; and that the letter be kept among the records of the Parliament; and in all this not so much as one No. So that Luke Robinson himself stood up and made a recantation for what he had done, and promises to be a loyal subject to his Prince for the time to come. The City of London have put a Declaration, wherein they do disclaim their owing any other government but that of a King, Lords, and Commons. Thanks was given by the House to Sir John Greenville2, one of the bedchamber to the King, who brought the letter, and they continued bare all the time it was reading. Upon notice made from the Lords to the Commons, of their desire that the Commons would join with them in their vote for King, Lords, and Commons; the Commons did concur and voted that all books whatever that are out against the Government of King, Lords, and Commons, should be brought into the House and burned. Great joy all yesterday at London, and at night more bonfires than ever, and ringing of bells, and drinking of the King's (29) health upon their knees in the streets, which methinks is a little too much. But every body seems to be very joyfull in the business, insomuch that our sea-commanders now begin to say so too, which a week ago they would not do3. And our seamen, as many as had money or credit for drink, did do nothing else this evening. This day came Mr. North (Sir Dudley North's (77) son) on board, to spend a little time here, which my Lord was a little troubled at, but he seems to be a fine gentleman, and at night did play his part exceeding well at first sight. After musique I went up to the Captain's Cabin with him and Lieutenant Ferrers, who came hither to-day from London to bring this news to my Lord, and after a bottle of wine we all to bed.

Note 1. His Majesty added thereunto an excellent Declaration for the safety and repose of those, who tortured in their consciences, for having partaken in the rebellion, might fear the punishment of it, and in that fear might oppose the tranquillity of the Estate, and the calling in of their lawful Prince. It is printed and published as well as the letter, but that shall not hinder me to say, that there was never seen a more perfect assemblage of all the most excellent natural qualities, and of all the venues, as well Royal as Christian, wherewith a great Prince may be endowed, than was found in those two wonderful productions. Sir William Lowers 'Relation ... of the voiage and Residence Which... Charles the II Hath made in Holland,' Hague, 1660, folio, p. 3.

Note 2. Created Earl of Bath, 1661; son of Sir Bevil Grenville, killed at the battle of Lansdowne; he was, when a boy, left for dead on the field at the second battle of Newbury, and said to have been the only person entrusted by Charles II and Monk (51) in bringing about the Restoration.

Note 3. The picture of King Charles II (29). was often set up in houses, without the least molestation, whereas a while ago, it was almost a hanging matter so to do; but now the Rump Parliament was so hated and jeered at, that the butchers' boys would say, 'Will you buy any Parliament rumps and kidneys?' And it was a very ordinary thing to see little children make a fire in the streets, and burn rumps. Rugge's Diurnal. B.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 03 May 1660. 03 May 1660. This morning my Lord showed me the King's (29) declaration1 and his letter to the two Generals to be communicated to the fleet. The contents of the letter are his offer of grace to all that will come in within forty days, only excepting them that the Parliament shall hereafter except. That the sales of lands during these troubles, and all other things, shall be left to the Parliament, by which he will stand. The letter dated at Breda, April, 4 1660, in the 12th year of his reign. Upon the receipt of it this morning by an express, Mr. Phillips, one of the messengers of the Council from General Monk (51), my Lord summoned a council of war, and in the mean time did dictate to me how he would have the vote ordered which he would have pass this council. Which done, the Commanders all came on board, and the council sat in the coach (the first council of war that had been in my time), where I read the letter and declaration; and while they were discoursing upon it, I seemed to draw up a vote, which being offered, they passed. Not one man seemed to say no to it, though I am confident many in their hearts were against it. After this was done, I went up to the quarter-deck with my Lord and the Commanders, and there read both the papers and the vote; which done, and demanding their opinion, the seamen did all of them cry out, "God bless King Charles!" with the greatest joy imaginable. That being done, Sir R. Stayner (35), who had invited us yesterday, took all the Commanders and myself on board him to dinner, which not being ready, I went with Captain Hayward to the Plimouth and Essex, and did what I had to do there and returned, where very merry at dinner. After dinner, to the rest of the ships (staid at the Assistance to hear the harper a good while) quite through the fleet. Which was a very brave sight to visit all the ships, and to be received with the respect and honour that I was on board them all; and much more to see the great joy that I brought to all men; not one through the whole fleet showing the least dislike of the business. In the evening as I was going on board the Vice-Admiral, the General began to fire his guns, which he did all that he had in the ship, and so did all the rest of the Commanders, which was very gallant, and to hear the bullets go hissing over our heads as we were in the boat. This done and finished my Proclamation, I returned to the Nazeby, where my Lord was much pleased to hear how all the fleet took it in a transport of joy, showed me a private letter of the King's (29) to him, and another from the Duke of York in such familiar style as to their common friend, with all kindness imaginable. And I found by the letters, and so my Lord told me too, that there had been many letters passed between them for a great while, and I perceive unknown to Monk (51). And among the rest that had carried these letters Sir John Boys is one, and that Mr. Norwood, which had a ship to carry him over the other day, when my Lord would not have me put down his name in the book. The King (29) speaks of his being courted to come to the Hague, but do desire my Lord's advice whither to come to take ship. And the Duke offers to learn the seaman's trade of him, in such familiar words as if Jack Cole and I had writ them. This was very strange to me, that my Lord should carry all things so wisely and prudently as he do, and I was over joyful to see him in so good condition, and he did not a little please himself to tell me how he had provided for himself so great a hold on the King.

After this to supper, and then to writing of letters till twelve at night, and so up again at three in the morning. My Lord seemed to put great confidence in me, and would take my advice in many things. I perceive his being willing to do all the honour in the world to Monk (51), and to let him have all the honour of doing the business, though he will many times express his thoughts of him to be but a thick-sculled fool. So that I do believe there is some agreement more than ordinary between the King and my Lord to let Monk (51) carry on the business, for it is he that must do the business, or at least that can hinder it, if he be not flattered and observed. This, my Lord will hint himself sometimes. My Lord, I perceive by the King's (29) letter, had writ to him about his father, Crew,—[When only seventeen years old, Montagu had married Jemima, daughter of John Crew, created afterwards Baron Crew of Stene.]—and the King did speak well of him; but my Lord tells me, that he is afeard that he hath too much concerned himself with the Presbyterians against the House of Lords, which will do him a great discourtesy.

Note 1. King Charles II (29). His Declaration to all his loving Subjects of the Kingdome of England, dated from his Court at Breda in Holland 4/14 of April, 1660, and read in Parliament with his Majesties Letter of the same date to his Excellence the Ld. Gen. Monck (51) to be communicated to the Ld. President of the Council of State and to the Officers of the Army under his Command. London, Printed by W. Godbid for John Playford in the Temple, 1660. 40, pp. 8.

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John Evelyn's Diary 03 May 1660. 03 May 1660. Came the most happy tidings of his Majesty's (29) gracious declaration and applications to the Parliament, General (51), and people, and their dutiful acceptance and acknowledgment, after a most bloody and unreasonable rebellion of near twenty years. Praised be forever the Lord of Heaven, who only doeth wondrous things, because his mercy endureth forever.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 04 May 1660. 04 May 1660. I wrote this morning many letters, and to all the copies of the vote of the council of war I put my name, that if it should come in print my name maybe at it. I sent a copy of the vote to Doling, inclosed in this letter:

SIR,

He that can fancy a fleet (like ours) in her pride, with pendants loose, guns roaring, caps flying, and the loud 'Vive le Roys,' echoed from one ship's company to another, he, and he only, can apprehend the joy this inclosed vote was received with, or the blessing he thought himself possessed of that bore it, and is

"Your humble servant".

About nine o'clock I got all my letters done, and sent them by the messenger that came yesterday. This morning came Captain Isham (32) on board with a gentleman going to the King, by whom very cunningly, my Lord tells me, he intends to send an account of this day's and yesterday's actions here, notwithstanding he had writ to the Parliament to have leave of them to send the King the answer of the fleet. Since my writing of the last paragraph, my Lord called me to him to read his letter to the King, to see whether I could find any slips in it or no. And as much of the letter' as I can remember, is thus:

"May it please your Most Excellent Majesty", and so begins.

That he yesterday received from General Monk (51) his Majesty's letter and direction; and that General Monk (51) had desired him to write to the Parliament to have leave to send the vote of the seamen before he did send it to him, which he had done by writing to both Speakers; but for his private satisfaction he had sent it thus privately (and so the copy of the proceedings yesterday was sent him), and that this come by a gentleman that came this day on board, intending to wait upon his Majesty, that he is my Lord's countryman, and one whose friends have suffered much on his Majesty's behalf. That my Lords Pembroke and Salisbury are put out of the House of Lords. That my Lord is very joyful that other countries do pay him the civility and respect due to him; and that he do much rejoice to see that the King do resolve to receive none of their assistance (or some such words), from them, he having strength enough in the love and loyalty of his own subjects to support him. That his Majesty had chosen the best place, Scheveling,—[Schevingen, the port of the Hague]—for his embarking, and that there is nothing in the world of which he is more ambitious, than to have the honour of attending his Majesty, which he hoped would be speedy. That he had commanded the vessel to attend at Helversluce—[Hellevoetsluis, in South Holland] —till this gentleman returns, that so if his Majesty do not think it fit to command the fleet himself, yet that he may be there to receive his commands and bring them to his Lordship. He ends his letter, that he is confounded with the thoughts of the high expressions of love to him in the King's (29) letter, and concludes,

Your most loyall, dutifull, faithfull and obedient subject and servant, E. M.

The rest of the afternoon at ninepins. In the evening came a packet from London, among the rest a letter from my wife, which tells me that she has not been well, which did exceedingly trouble me, but my Lord sending Mr. Cook at night, I wrote to her and sent a piece of gold enclosed to her, and wrote also to Mrs. Bowyer, and enclosed a half piece to her for a token. After supper at the table in the coach, my Lord talking concerning the uncertainty of the places of the Exchequer to them that had them now; he did at last think of an office which do belong to him in case the King do restore every man to his places that ever had been patent, which is to be one of the clerks of the signet, which will be a fine employment for one of his sons. After all this discourse we broke up and to bed.

In the afternoon came a minister on board, one Mr. Sharpe, who is going to the King; who tells me that Commissioners are chosen both of Lords and Commons to go to the King; and that Dr. Clarges (42)1 is going to him from the Army, and that he will be here to-morrow. My letters at night tell me, that the House did deliver their letter to Sir John Greenville, in answer to the King's (29) sending, and that they give him £500 for his pains, to buy him a jewel, and that besides the £50,000 ordered to be borrowed of the City for the present use of the King, the twelve companies of the City do give every one of them to his Majesty, as a present, £1000.

Note 1. Thomas Clarges (42), physician to the army, created a baronet2, 1674, died 1695. He had been previously knighted; his sister Anne married General Monk (51). "The Parliament also permitted General Monk (51) to send Mr. Clarges (42), his brother-in-law, accompanied with some officers of the army, to assure his Majesty of the fidelity and obedience of the army, which had made publick and solemn protestations thereof, after the Letter and Declaration was communicated unto them by the General". Sir William Lowers Relation... of the Voiage and Residence which... Charles the II Hath made in Holland, Hague, 1660, folio.

Note 2. Twenty Trees. Appears to be a mistake. It was Thomas Clarge's son Walter Clarges 1st Baronet 1653-1706 (6) who was created a baronet in 1674.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 07 May 1660. 07 May 1660. This morning Captain Cuttance sent me 12 bottles of Margate ale. Three of them I drank presently with some friends in the Coach. My Lord went this morning about the flag-ships in a boat, to see what alterations there must be, as to the arms and flags. He did give me order also to write for silk flags and scarlett waistcloathes1. For a rich barge; for a noise of trumpets2, and a set of fidlers. Very great deal of company come today, among others Mr. Bellasses, Sir Thomas Lenthropp, Sir Henry Chichley, Colonel Philip Honiwood, and Captain Titus, the last of whom my Lord showed all our cabins, and I suppose he is to take notice what room there will be for the King's (29) entertainment. Here were also all the Jurates of the town of Dover come to give my Lord a visit, and after dinner all went away. I could not but observe that the Vice-Admiral (45) after dinner came into the great cabin below, where the Jurates and I and the commanders for want of room dined, and there told us we must drink a health to the King, and himself called for a bottle of wine, and begun his and the Duke of York's. In the afternoon I lost 5s. at ninepins. After supper musique, and to bed. Having also among us at the Coach table wrote a letter to the French ambassador, in French, about the release of a ship we had taken. After I was in bed Mr. Sheply and W. Howe came and sat in my cabin, where I gave them three bottles of Margate ale, and sat laughing and very merry, till almost one o'clock in the morning, and so good night.

Note 1. Waist-cloths are the painted canvas coverings of the hammocks which are stowed in the waist-nettings.

Note 2. A set or company of musicians, an expression constantly used by old writers without any disparaging meaning. It is sometimes applied to voices as well as to instruments.

Charles II Proclaimed

Diary of Samuel Pepys 08 May 1660. 08 May 1660. All the morning busy. After dinner come several persons of honour, as my Lord St. John (61) and others, for convoy to Flushing, and great giving of them salutes. My Lord and we at nine-pins: I lost 9s. While we were at play Mr. Cook brings me word of my wife. He went to Huntsmore to see her, and brought her and my father Bowyer to London, where he left her at my father's (59), very well, and speaks very well of her love to me. My letters to-day tell me how it was intended that the King should be proclaimed to-day in London, with a great deal of pomp. I had also news who they are that are chosen of the Lords and Commons to attend the King. And also the whole story of what we did the other day in the fleet, at reading of the King's (29) declaration, and my name at the bottom of it. After supper some musique and to bed. I resolving to rise betimes to-morrow to write letters to London.

John Evelyn's Diary 08 May 1660. 08 May 1660. This day was his Majesty (29) proclaimed in London, etc.

On 08 May 1660 Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (29) received a letter inviting him to return to England and become King at Breda.

John Evelyn's Diary 09 May 1660. 09 May 1660. I was desired and designed to accompany my Lord Berkeley (32) with the public address of the Parliament, General, etc., to the King (29), and invite him to come over and assume his Kingly Government, he being now at Breda; but I was yet so weak, I could not make that journey by sea, which was not a little to my detriment, so I went to London to excuse myself, returning the 10th, having yet received a gracious message from his Majesty (29) by Major Scot and Colonel Tuke (45).

Diary of Samuel Pepys 09 May 1660. 09 May 1660. Up very early, writing a letter to the King, as from the two Generals of the fleet, in answer to his letter to them, wherein my Lord do give most humble thanks for his gracious letter and declaration; and promises all duty and obedience to him. This letter was carried this morning to Sir Peter Killigrew (67)1, who came hither this morning early to bring an order from the Lords' House to my Lord, giving him power to write an answer to the King. This morning my Lord St. John (61) and other persons of honour were here to see my Lord, and so away to Flushing. After they were gone my Lord and I to write letters to London, which we sent by Mr. Cook, who was very desirous to go because of seeing my wife before she went out of town. As we were sitting down to dinner, in comes Noble with a letter from the House of Lords to my Lord, to desire him to provide ships to transport the Commissioners to the King, which are expected here this week. He brought us certain news that the King was proclaimed yesterday with great pomp, and brought down one of the Proclamations, with great joy to us all; for which God be praised. After dinner to ninepins and lost 5s. This morning came Mr. Saunderson (74)1, that writ the story of the King, hither, who is going over to the King. He calls me cozen and seems a very knowing man. After supper to bed betimes, leaving my Lord talking in the Coach with the Captain.

Note 1. Sir Peter Killigrew (67), Knight, of Arwenack, Cornwall, was known as "Peter the Post", from the alacrity with which he despatched "like wild fire" all the messages and other commissions entrusted to him in the King's (29) cause. His son Peter (26), who succeeded his uncle as second baronet in 1665, was M.P. for Camelford in 1660.

Note 2. Afterwards Sir William Sanderson, gentleman of the chamber, author of the "History of Mary Queen of Scots, James I., and Charles I". His wife, Dame Bridget (56), was mother of the maids.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 10 May 1660. 10 May 1660. This morning came on board Mr. Pinkney and his son, going to the King with a petition finely writ by Mr. Whore, for to be the King's (29) embroiderer; for whom and Mr. Saunderson (74) I got a ship. This morning come my Lord Winchelsea and a great deal of company, and dined here. In the afternoon, while my Lord and we were at musique in the great cabin below, comes in a messenger to tell us that Mr. Edward Montagu (12), [Sir Edward Montagu's eldest son, afterwards second Earl of Sandwich, called by Pepys "The child".] my Lord's son, was come to Deal, who afterwards came on board with Mr. Pickering (42) with him. The child was sick in the evening. At night, while my Lord was at supper, in comes my Lord Lauderdale and Sir John Greenville, who supped here, and so went away. After they were gone, my Lord called me into his cabin, and told me how he was commanded to set sail presently for the King1, and was very glad thereof, and so put me to writing of letters and other work that night till it was very late, he going to bed. I got him afterwards to sign things in bed. After I had done some more work I to bed also.

Note 1. Ordered that General Montagu (34) do observe the command of His Majesty for the disposing of the fleet, in order to His Majesty's returning home to England to his kingly government: and that all proceedings in law be in His Majesty's name. Rugge's Diurnal. B.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 11 May 1660. 11 May 1660. Up very early in the morning, and so about a great deal of business in order to our going hence to-day. Burr going on shore last night made me very angry. So that I sent for Mr. Pitts to come to me from the Vice-Admiral's (45), intending not to have employed Burr any more. But Burr by and by coming and desiring humbly that I would forgive him and Pitts not coming I did set him to work. This morning we began to pull down all the State's arms in the fleet, having first sent to Dover for painters and others to come to set up the King's (29). The rest of the morning writing of letters to London which I afterwards sent by Dunne. I had this morning my first opportunity of discoursing with Dr. Clarke1, whom I found to be a very pretty man and very knowing. He is now going in this ship to the King. There dined here my Lord Crafford (48) and my Lord Cavendish (20), and other Scotchmen whom I afterwards ordered to be received on board the Plymouth, and to go along with us. After dinner we set sail from the Downs, I leaving my boy to go to Deal for my linen. In the afternoon overtook us three or four gentlemen; two of the Berties, and one Mr. Dormerhoy, a Scotch gentleman, whom I afterwards found to be a very fine man, who, telling my Lord that they heard the Commissioners were come out of London to-day, my Lord dropt anchor over against Dover Castle (which give us about thirty guns in passing), and upon a high debate with the Vice and Rear Admiral whether it were safe to go and not stay for the Commissioners, he did resolve to send Sir R. Stayner (35) to Dover, to enquire of my Lord Winchelsea, whether or no they are come out of London, and then to resolve to-morrow morning of going or not; which was done. It blew very hard all this night that I was afeard of my boy. About 11 at night came the boats from Deal, with great store of provisions, by the same token John Goods told me that above 20 of the fowls are smothered, but my boy was put on board the Northwich. To bed.

Note 1. Timothy Clarke, M. D., one of the original Fellows of the Royal Society. He was appointed one of the physicians in ordinary to Charles II on the death of Dr. Quartermaine in 1667.

Before 1708 Godfrey Kneller 1646-1723. Portrait of William Cavendish 1st Duke Devonshire 1640-1707. In 1697 John Closterman Painter 1660-1711. Portrait of William Cavendish 1st Duke Devonshire 1640-1707. Around 1660 John Michael Wright Painter 1617-1694. Portrait of William Cavendish 1st Duke Devonshire 1640-1707. Around 1655. Unknown Painter. Portrait of William Cavendish 1st Duke Devonshire 1640-1707.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 13 May 1660. 13 May 1660. Lord's Day. Trimmed in the morning, after that to the cook's room with Mr. Sheply, the first time that I was there this voyage. Then to the quarter-deck, upon which the tailors and painters were at work, cutting out some pieces of yellow cloth into the fashion of a crown and C. R. and put it upon a fine sheet, and that into the flag instead of the State's arms, which after dinner was finished and set up after it had been shewn to my Lord, who took physic to-day and was in his chamber, and liked it so well as to bid me give the tailors 20s. among them for doing of it. This morn Sir J. Boys and Capt. Isham (32) met us in the Nonsuch, the first of whom, after a word or two with my Lord, went forward, the other staid. I heard by them how Mr Downing (35) had never made any address to the King, and for that was hated exceedingly by the Court, and that he was in a Dutch ship which sailed by us, then going to England with disgrace. Also how Mr. Morland was knighted by the King this week, and that the King did give the reason of it openly, that it was for his giving him intelligence all the time he was clerk to Secretary Thurloe. In the afternoon a council of war, only to acquaint them that the Harp must be taken out of all their flags1, it being very offensive to the King. Mr. Cook, who came after us in the Yarmouth, bringing me a letter from my wife and a Latin letter from my brother John (19), with both of which I was exceedingly pleased. No sermon all day, we being under sail, only at night prayers, wherein Mr. Ibbott prayed for all that were related to us in a spiritual and fleshly way. We came within sight of Middle's shore. Late at night we writ letters to the King of the news of our coming, and Mr. Edward Pickering (42) carried them. Capt. Isham (32) went on shore, nobody showing of him any respect; so the old man very fairly took leave of my Lord, and my Lord very coldly bid him "God be with you", which was very strange, but that I hear that he keeps a great deal of prating and talking on shore, on board, at the King's (29) Courts, what command he had with my Lord, &c. After letters were gone then to bed.

Note 1. In May, 1658, the old Union Jack (being the crosses of St. George and St. Andrew combined) was revived, with the Irish harp over the centre of the flag. This harp was taken off at the Restoration. (See "The National Flags of the Commonwealth", by H. W. Henfrey, Journ. Brit. Arch. Assoc"., vol. xxxi, p. 54.) The sign of the "Commonwealth Arms" was an uncommon one, but a token of one exists Francis Wood at ye Commonwealth arms in Mary Maudlens".

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 15 May 1660. 15 May 1660. We lay till past three o'clock, then up and down the town, to see it by daylight, where we saw the soldiers of the Prince's guard, all very fine, and the burghers of the town with their arms and muskets as bright as silver. And meeting this morning a schoolmaster that spoke good English and French, he went along with us and shewed us the whole town, and indeed I cannot speak enough of the gallantry of the town. Every body of fashion speaks French or Latin, or both. The women many of them very pretty and in good habits, fashionable and black spots. He went with me to buy a couple of baskets, one of them for Mrs. Pierce, the other for my wife. After he was gone, we having first drank with him at our lodging, the judge and I to the Grande Salle where we were shewed the place where the States General sit in council. The hall is a great place, where the flags that they take from their enemies are all hung up; and things to be sold, as in Westminster Hall, and not much unlike it, but that not so big, but much neater. After that to a bookseller's and bought for the love of the binding three books: the French Psalms in four parts, Bacon's Organon, and Farnab. Rhetor1.

After that the judge, I and my boy by coach to Scheveling again, where we went into a house of entertainment and drank there, the wind being very high, and we saw two boats overset and the gallants forced to be pulled on shore by the heels, while their trunks, portmanteaus, hats, and feathers, were swimming in the sea. Among others I saw the ministers that come along with the Commissioners (Mr. Case2 among the rest) sadly dipped.

So they came in where we were, and I being in haste left my Copenhagen knife, and so lost it. Having staid here a great while a gentleman that was going to kiss my Lord's hand, from the Queen of Bohemia, and I hired a Dutch boat for four rixdollars to carry us on board. We were fain to wait a great while before we could get off from the shore, the sea being very rough. The Dutchman would fain have made all pay that came into our boat besides us two and our company, there being many of our ship's company got in who were on shore, but some of them had no money, having spent all on shore. Coming on board we found all the Commissioners of the House of Lords at dinner with my Lord, who after dinner went away for shore. Mr. Morland, now Sir Samuel, was here on board, but I do not find that my Lord or any body did give him any respect, he being looked upon by him and all men as a knave. Among others he betrayed Sir Rich. Willis3 that married Dr. F. Jones's daughter, that he had paid him £1000 at one time by the Protector's and Secretary Thurloe's order, for intelligence that he sent concerning the King. In the afternoon my Lord called me on purpose to show me his fine cloathes which are now come hither, and indeed are very rich as gold and silver can make them, only his sword he and I do not like. In the afternoon my Lord and I walked together in the coach two hours, talking together upon all sorts of discourse: as religion, wherein he is, I perceive, wholly sceptical, as well as I, saying, that indeed the Protestants as to the Church of Rome are wholly fanatiques: he likes uniformity and form of prayer; about State-business, among other things he told me that his conversion to the King's (29) cause (for so I was saying that I wondered from what time the King could look upon him to become his friend), commenced from his being in the Sound, when he found what usage he was likely to have from a Commonwealth. My Lord, the Captain, and I supped in my Lord's chamber, where I did perceive that he did begin to show me much more respect than ever he did yet. After supper, my Lord sent for me, intending to have me play at cards with him, but I not knowing cribbage, we fell into discourse of many things, till it was so rough sea and the ship rolled so much that I was not able to stand, and so he bid me go to bed.

Note 1. "Index Rhetoricus" of Thomas Farnaby was a book which went through several editions. The first was published at London by R. Allot in 1633.

Note 2. Thomas Case, born 1598, was a famous preacher and a zealous advocate for the Solemn League and Covenant, a member of the assembly of divines, and rector of St. Giles's-in-the-Fields. He was one of the deputation to Charles II at Breda, and appointed a royal chaplain. He was ejected by the Act of Uniformity, but remained in London after his ejection. Died May 30th, 1682.

Note 3. This is somewhat different to the usual account of Morland's connection with Sir Richard Willis. In the beginning of 1659 Cromwell, Thurloe, and Willis formed a plot to inveigle Charles II into England and into the hands of his enemies. The plot was discussed in Thurloe's office, and Morland, who pretended to be asleep, heard it and discovered it. Willis sent for Morland, and received him in a cellar. He said that one of them must have discovered the plot. He laid his hand upon the Bible and swore that he had not been the discoverer, calling upon Morland to do the same. Morland, with presence of mind, said he was ready to do so if Willis would give him a reason why he should suspect him. By this ready answer he is said to have escaped the ordeal (see Birch's "Life of Thurloe").

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 17 May 1660. 17 May 1660. Up early to write down my last two days' observations. Dr. Clerke came to me to tell me that he heard this morning, by some Dutch that are come on board already to see the ship, that there was a Portuguese taken yesterday at the Hague, that had a design to kill the King. But this I heard afterwards was only the mistake upon one being observed to walk with his sword naked, he having lost his scabbard. Before dinner Mr. Edw. Pickering (42) and I, W. Howe, Pim, and my boy (12), to Scheveling, where we took coach, and so to the Hague, where walking, intending to find one that might show us the King incognito, I met with Captain Whittington (that had formerly brought a letter to my Lord from the Mayor of London) and he did promise me to do it, but first we went and dined at a French house, but paid 16s. for our part of the club. At dinner in came Dr. Cade, a merry mad parson of the King's (29). And they two after dinner got the child and me (the others not being able to crowd in) to see the King, who kissed the child very affectionately. Then we kissed his, and the Duke of York's, and the Princess Royal's hands. The King seems to be a very sober man; and a very splendid Court he hath in the number of persons of quality that are about him, English very rich in habit. From the King to the Lord Chancellor1, who did lie bed-rid of the gout: he spoke very merrily to the child and me. After that, going to see the Queen of Bohemia, I met with Dr. Fullers whom I sent to a tavern with Mr. Edw. Pickering (42), while I and the rest went to see the [his mother] Queen (50), who used us very respectfully; her hand we all kissed. She seems a very debonaire, but plain lady. After that to the Dr.'s, where we drank a while or so. In a coach of a friend's of Dr. Cade we went to see a house of the [his sister] Princess Dowager's (28)2 in a park about half-a-mile or a mile from the Hague, where there is one, the most beautiful room for pictures in the whole world. She had here one picture upon the top, with these words, dedicating it to the memory of her husband:—"Incomparabili marito, inconsolabilis vidua".

Here I met with Mr. Woodcock of Cambridge, Mr. Hardy and another, and Mr. Woodcock beginning we had two or three fine songs, he and I, and W. Howe to the Echo, which was very pleasant, and the more because in a heaven of pleasure and in a strange country, that I never was taken up more with a sense of pleasure in my life. After that we parted and back to the Hague and took a tour or two about the Forehault3, where the ladies in the evening do as our ladies do in Hide Park. But for my life I could not find one handsome, but their coaches very rich and themselves so too. From thence, taking leave of the Doctor, we took wagon to Scheveling, where we had a fray with the Boatswain of the Richmond, who would not freely carry us on board, but at last he was willing to it, but then it was so late we durst not go. So we returned between 10 and 11 at night in the dark with a wagon with one horse to the Hague, where being come we went to bed as well as we could be accommodated, and so to sleep.

Note 1. On January 29th, 1658, Charles II (29) entrusted the Great Seal to Sir Edward Hyde (51), with the title of Lord Chancellor, and in that character Sir Edward accompanied the King to England.

Note 2. [his sister] Mary, Princess Royal (28), eldest daughter of Charles I (59), and widow of William of Nassau, Prince of Orange (33). She was not supposed to be inconsolable, and scandal followed her at the court of Charles II, where she died of small-pox, December 24th, 1660.

Note 3. The Voorhout is the principal street of the Hague, and it is lined with handsome trees.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 21 May 1660. 21 May 1660. So into my naked bed1 and slept till 9 o'clock, and then John Goods waked me, [by] and by the captain's boy brought me four barrels of Mallows2 oysters, which Captain Tatnell had sent me from Murlace. The weather foul all this day also. After dinner, about writing one thing or other all day, and setting my papers in order, having been so long absent. At night Mr. Pierce, Purser (the other Pierce and I having not spoken to one another since we fell out about Mr. Edward), and Mr. Cook sat with me in my cabin and supped with me, and then I went to bed. By letters that came hither in my absence, I understand that the Parliament had ordered all persons to be secured, in order to a trial, that did sit as judges in the late King's (29) death, and all the officers too attending the Court. Sir John Lenthall moving in the House, that all that had borne arms against the King should be exempted from pardon, he was called to the bar of the House, and after a severe reproof he was degraded his knighthood. At Court I find that all things grow high. The old clergy talk as being sure of their lands again, and laugh at the Presbytery; and it is believed that the sales of the King's (29) and Bishops' lands will never be confirmed by Parliament, there being nothing now in any man's, power to hinder them and the King from doing what they have a mind, but every body willing to submit to any thing. We expect every day to have the King and Duke on board as soon as it is fair. My Lord do nothing now, but offers all things to the pleasure of the Duke as Lord High Admiral. So that I am at a loss what to do.

Note 1. This is a somewhat late use of an expression which was once universal. It was formerly the custom for both sexes to sleep in bed without any nightlinen. "Who sees his true love in her naked bed, Teaching the sheets a whiter hue than white". Shakespeare, Venus and Adonis. Nares ("Glossary") notes the expression so late as in the very odd novel by T. Amory, called "John Bunde", where a young lady declares, after an alarm, "that she would never go into naked bed on board ship again". Octavo edition, vol. i. p. 90.

Note 2. Apparently Mallows stands for St. Malo and Murlace for Morlaise.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 22 May 1660. 22 May 1660. Up very early, and now beginning to be settled in my wits again, I went about setting down my last four days' observations this morning. After that, was trimmed by a barber that has not trimmed me yet, my Spaniard being on shore. News brought that the two Dukes are coming on board, which, by and by, they did, in a Dutch boats the Duke of York in yellow trimmings, the [his brother] Duke of Gloucester (19)1 in grey and red. My Lord went in a boat to meet them, the Captain, myself, and others, standing at the entering port. So soon as they were entered we shot the guns off round the fleet. After that they went to view the ship all over, and were most exceedingly pleased with it. They seem to be both very fine gentlemen. After that done, upon the quarter-deck table, under the awning, the Duke of York and my Lord, Mr. Coventry2, and I, spent an hour at allotting to every ship their service, in their return to England; which having done, they went to dinner, where the table was very full: the two Dukes at the upper end, my Lord Opdam next on one side, and my Lord on the other. Two guns given to every man while he was drinking the King's (29) health, and so likewise to the Duke's health. I took down Monsieur d'Esquier to the great cabin below, and dined with him in state alone with only one or two friends of his. All dinner the harper belonging to Captain Sparling played to the Dukes. After dinner, the Dukes and my Lord to see the Vice and Rear-Admirals; and I in a boat after them. After that done, they made to the shore in the Dutch boat that brought them, and I got into the boat with them; but the shore was so full of people to expect their coming, as that it was as black (which otherwise is white sand), as every one could stand by another. When we came near the shore, my Lord left them and came into his own boat, and General Pen and I with him; my Lord being very well pleased with this day's work. By the time we came on board again, news is sent us that the King is on shore; so my Lord fired all his guns round twice, and all the fleet after him, which in the end fell into disorder, which seemed very handsome. The gun over against my cabin I fired myself to the King, which was the first time that he had been saluted by his own ships since this change; but holding my head too much over the gun, I had almost spoiled my right eye. Nothing in the world but going of guns almost all this day. In the evening we began to remove cabins; I to the carpenter's cabin, and Dr. Clerke with me, who came on board this afternoon, having been twice ducked in the sea to-day coming from shore, and Mr. North and John Pickering the like. Many of the King's (29) servants came on board to-night; and so many Dutch of all sorts came to see the ship till it was quite dark, that we could not pass by one another, which was a great trouble to us all. This afternoon Mr Downing (35) (who was knighted yesterday by the King') was here on board, and had a ship for his passage into England, with his lady and servants3. By the same token he called me to him when I was going to write the order, to tell me that I must write him Sir G. Downing (35). My Lord lay in the roundhouse to-night. This evening I was late writing a French letter myself by my Lord's order to Monsieur Kragh, Embassador de Denmarke a la Haye, which my Lord signed in bed. After that I to bed, and the Doctor, and sleep well.

Note 1. [his brother] Henry, Duke of Gloucester (19), the youngest child of Charles L, born July 6th, 16—, who, with his sister Elizabeth, was allowed a meeting with his father on the night before the King's (29) execution. Burnet says: "He was active, and loved business; was apt to have particular friendships, and had an insinuating temper which was generally very acceptable. The King loved him much better than the Duke of York". He died of smallpox at Whitehall, September 13th, 1660, and was buried in Henry VII's Chapel.

Note 2. William Coventry (32), to whom Pepys became so warmly attached afterwards, was the fourth son of Thomas, first Lord Coventry, the Lord Keeper. He was born in 1628, and entered at Queen's College, Oxford, in 1642; after the Restoration he became private secretary to the Duke of York, his commission as Secretary to the Lord High Admiral not being conferred until 1664; elected M.P. for Great Yarmouth in 1661. In 1662 he was appointed an extra Commissioner of the Navy, an office he held until 1667; in 1665, knighted and sworn a Privy Councillor, and, in 1667, constituted a Commissioner of the Treasury; but, having been forbid the court on account of his challenging the Duke of Buckingham, he retired into the country, nor could he subsequently be prevailed upon to accept of any official employment. Burnet calls Sir William Coventry the best speaker in the House of Commons, and "a man of the finest and best temper that belonged to the court", and Pepys never omits an opportunity of paying a tribute to his public and private worth. He died, 1686, of gout in the stomach.

Note 3. "About midnight arrived there Mr Downing (35), who did the affairs of England to the Lords the Estates, in quality of Resident under Oliver Cromwell, and afterward under the pretended Parliament, which having changed the form of the government, after having cast forth the last Protector, had continued him in his imploiment, under the quality of Extraordinary Envoy. He began to have respect for the King's (29) person, when he knew that all England declared for a free parliament, and departed from Holland without order, as soon as he understood that there was nothing that could longer oppose the re- establishment of monarchal government, with a design to crave letters of recommendation to General Monk (51). This lord considered him, as well because of the birth of his wife, which is illustrious, as because Downing had expressed some respect for him in a time when that eminent person could not yet discover his intentions. He had his letters when he arrived at midnight at the house of the Spanish Embassador, as we have said. He presented them forthwith to the King (29), who arose from table a while after, read the letters, receiv'd the submissions of Downing, and granted him the pardon and grace which he asked for him to whom he could deny nothing. Some daies after the King (29) knighted him, and would it should be believed, that the strong aversions which this minister of the Protector had made appear against him on all occasions, and with all sorts of persons indifferently, even a few daies before the publick and general declaration of all England, proceeded not from any evil intention, but only from a deep dissimulation, wherewith he was constrained to cover his true sentiments, for fear to prejudice the affairs of his Majesty".—Sir William Lowers Relation... of the Voiage and Residence which... Charles the II hath made in Holland, Hague, 1660, folio, pp. 72-73.

Before 23 Jun 1686 Mary Beale aka Cradock Painter 1633-1699. Portrait of William Coventry 1628-1686.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 23 May 1660. 23 May 1660. The Doctor and I waked very merry, only my eye was very red and ill in the morning from yesterday's hurt. In the morning came infinity of people on board from the King to go along with him. My Lord, Mr. Crew (62), and others, go on shore to meet the King as he comes off from shore, where Sir R. Stayner (35) bringing His Majesty into the boat, I hear that His Majesty did with a great deal of affection kiss my Lord upon his first meeting. The King, with the two Dukes and Queen of Bohemia, Princess Royal, and Prince of Orange, came on board, where I in their coming in kissed the King's (29), Queen's, and Princess's hands, having done the other before. Infinite shooting off of the guns, and that in a disorder on purpose, which was better than if it had been otherwise. All day nothing but Lords and persons of honour on board, that we were exceeding full. Dined in a great deal of state, the Royall company by themselves in the coach, which was a blessed sight to see. I dined with Dr. Clerke, Dr. Quarterman, and Mr. Darcy in my cabin. This morning Mr. Lucy came on board, to whom and his company of the King's (29) Guard in another ship my Lord did give three dozen of bottles of wine. He made friends between Mr. Pierce and me. After dinner the King and Duke altered the name of some of the ships, viz. the Nazeby into Charles; the Richard, James; the Speakers Mary; the Dunbar (which was not in company with us), the Henry; Winsly, Happy Return; Wakefield, Richmond; Lambert (40); the Henrietta; Cheriton, the Speedwell; Bradford, the Success. That done, the Queen, Princess Royal, and Prince of Orange, took leave of the King, and the Duke of York went on board the London, and the Duke of Gloucester, the Swiftsure. Which done, we weighed anchor, and with a fresh gale and most happy weather we set sail for England. All the afternoon the King walked here and there, up and down (quite contrary to what I thought him to have been), very active and stirring. Upon the quarterdeck he fell into discourse of his escape from Worcester1, where it made me ready to weep to hear the stories that he told of his difficulties that he had passed through, as his travelling four days and three nights on foot, every step up to his knees in dirt, with nothing but a green coat and a pair of country breeches on, and a pair of country shoes that made him so sore all over his feet, that he could scarce stir. Yet he was forced to run away from a miller and other company, that took them for rogues. His sitting at table at one place, where the master of the house, that had not seen him in eight years, did know him, but kept it private; when at the same table there was one that had been of his own regiment at Worcester, could not know him, but made him drink the King's (29) health, and said that the King was at least four fingers higher than he. At another place he was by some servants of the house made to drink, that they might know him not to be a Roundhead, which they swore he was. In another place at his inn, the master of the house2, as the King was standing with his hands upon the back of a chair by the fire-side, kneeled down and kissed his hand, privately, saying, that he would not ask him who he was, but bid God bless him whither he was going. Then the difficulty of getting a boat to get into France, where he was fain to plot with the master thereof to keep his design from the four men and a boy (which was all his ship's company), and so got to Fecamp in France3.

At Rouen he looked so poorly, that the people went into the rooms before he went away to see whether he had not stole something or other. In the evening I went up to my Lord to write letters for England, which we sent away with word of our coming, by Mr. Edw. Pickering (42). The King supped alone in the coach; after that I got a dish, and we four supped in my cabin, as at noon. About bed-time my Lord Bartlett4 (who I had offered my service to before) sent for me to get him a bed, who with much ado I did get to bed to my Lord Middlesex in the great cabin below, but I was cruelly troubled before I could dispose of him, and quit myself of him. So to my cabin again, where the company still was, and were talking more of the King's (29) difficulties; as how he was fain to eat a piece of bread and cheese out of a poor boy's pocket; how, at a Catholique house, he was fain to lie in the priest's hole a good while in the house for his privacy. After that our company broke up, and the Doctor and I to bed. We have all the Lords Commissioners on board us, and many others. Under sail all night, and most glorious weather.

Note 1. For the King's (29) own account of his escape dictated to Pepys, see "Boscobel" (Bohn's "Standard Library").

Note 2. This was at Brighton. The inn was the "George", and the innkeeper was named Smith. Charles related this circumstance again to Pepys in October, 1680. He then said, "And here also I ran into another very great danger, as being confident I was known by the master of the inn; for, as I was standing after supper by the fireside, leaning my hand upon a chair, and all the rest of the company being gone into another room, the master of the inn came in and fell a-talking with me, and just as he was looking about, and saw there was nobody in the room, he upon a sudden kissed my hand that was upon the back of the chair, and said to me, 'God bless you wheresoever you go! I do not doubt before I die, but to be a lord, and my wife a lady.' So I laughed, and went away into the next room".

Note 3. On Saturday, October 11th, 1651, Colonel Gunter made an agreement at Chichester with Nicholas Tettersell, through Francis Mansell (a French merchant), to have Tettersell's vessel ready at an hour's warning. Charles II, in his narrative dictated to Pepys in 1680, said, We went to a place, four miles off Shoreham, called Brighthelmstone, where we were to meet with the master of the ship, as thinking it more convenient to meet there than just at Shoreham, where the ship was. So when we came to the inn at Brighthelmstone we met with one, the merchant Francis Mansell who had hired the vessel, in company with her master [Tettersell], the merchant only knowing me, as having hired her only to carry over a person of quality that was escaped from the battle of Worcester without naming anybody. The boat was supposed to be bound for Poole, but Charles says in his narrative: "As we were sailing the master came to me, and desired me that I would persuade his men to use their best endeavours with him to get him to set us on shore in France, the better to cover him from any suspicion thereof, upon which I went to the men, which were four and a boy". After the Restoration Mansell was granted a pension of £200 a year, and Tettersell one of £100 a year. (See Captain Nicholas Tettersell and the Escape of Charles II, by F. E. Sawyer, F.S.A., Sussex Archaeological Collections, vol. xxxii. pp. 81-104).

Note 4. A mistake for Lord Berkeley of Berkeley, who had been deputed, with Lord Middlesex and four other Peers, by the House of Lords to present an address of congratulation to the King. B.

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John Evelyn's Diary 24 May 1660. 24 May 1660. Came to me Colonel Morley (44), about procuring his pardon, now too late, seeing his error and neglect of the counsel I gave him, by which, if he had taken it he had certainly done the great work with the same ease that Monk did it, who was then in Scotland, and Morley (44) in a post to have done what he pleased, but his jealousy and fear kept him from that blessing and honor. I addressed him to Lord Mordaunt (33), then in great favor, for his pardon, which he obtained at the cost of £1,000, as I heard. Oh, the sottish omission of this gentleman! what did I not undergo of danger in this negotiation, to have brought him over to his Majesty's (29) interest, when it was entirely in his hands!

Diary of Samuel Pepys 24 May 1660. 24 May 1660. Up, and made myself as fine as I could, with the Tinning stockings on and wide canons1 that I bought the other day at Hague. Extraordinary press of noble company, and great mirth all the day. There dined with me in my cabin (that is, the carpenter's) Dr. Earle (59)2 and Mr. Hollis (60)3, the King's (29) Chaplins, Dr. Scarborough4, Dr. Quarterman, and Dr. Clerke, Physicians, Mr. Darcy, and Mr. Fox (33)5 (both very fine gentlemen), the King's (29) servants, where we had brave discourse. Walking upon the decks, where persons of honour all the afternoon, among others, Thomas Killigrew (a merry droll, but a gentleman of great esteem with the King), who told us many merry stories: one, how he wrote a letter three or four days ago to the Princess Royal, about a Queen Dowager of Judaea and Palestine, that was at the Hague incognita, that made love to the King, &c., which was Mr. Cary (a courtier's) wife that had been a nun, who are all married to Jesus. At supper the three Drs. of Physic again at my cabin; where I put Dr. Scarborough in mind of what I heard him say about the use of the eyes, which he owned, that children do, in every day's experience, look several ways with both their eyes, till custom teaches them otherwise. And that we do now see but with one eye, our eyes looking in parallel lines. After this discourse I was called to write a pass for my Lord Mandeville (26) to take up horses to London, which I wrote in the King's (29) name,—[This right of purveyance was abolished in Charles's reign.]—and carried it to him to sign, which was the first and only one that ever he signed in the ship Charles. To bed, coming in sight of land a little before night.

Note 1. Cannions, boot hose tops; an old-fashioned ornament for the legs. That is to say, a particular addition to breeches.

Note 2. John Earle (59), born about 1601; appointed in 1643 one of the Westminster Assembly of Divines, but his principles did not allow him to act. He accompanied Charles II when he was obliged to fly from England. Dean of Westminster at the Restoration, Bishop of Worcester, November 30th, 1662, and translated to Salisbury, September 28th, 1663. He was tender to the Nonconformists, and Baxter wrote of him, "O that they were all such!" Author of "Microcosmography". Died November 17th, 1665, and was buried in the chapel of Merton College, of which he had been a Fellow. Charles II had the highest esteem for him.

Note 3. Denzil Holles (60), second son of John, first Earl of Clare, born at Houghton, Notts, in 1597. He was one of the five members charged with high treason by Charles I in 1641. He was a Presbyterian, and one of the Commissioners sent by Parliament to wait on Charles II at the Hague. Sir William Lower, in his "Relation", 1660, writes: "All agreed that never person spake with more affection nor expressed himself in better terms than Mr. Denzil Hollis, who was orator for the Deputies of the Lower House, to whom those of London were joined". He was created Baron Holles on April 20th, 1661, on the occasion of the coronation of Charles II

Note 4. Charles Scarburgh, M.D., an eminent physician who suffered for the royal cause during the Civil Wars. He was born in London, and educated at St. Paul's School and Caius College, Cambridge. He was ejected from his fellowship at Caius, and withdrew to Oxford. He entered himself at Merton College, then presided over by Harvey, with whom he formed a lifelong friendship. He was knighted by Charles II in 1669, and attended the King in his last illness. He was also physician to James II and to William III., and died February 26th, 1693-4.

Note 5. Stephen Fox (33), born 1627, and said to have been a choir-boy in Salisbury Cathedral. He was the first person to announce the death of Cromwell to Charles II, and at the Restoration he was made Clerk of the Green Cloth, and afterwards Paymaster of the Forces. He was knighted in 1665. He married Elizabeth, daughter of William Whittle of Lancashire. (See June 25th, 1660.) Fox died in 1716. His sons Stephen and Henry were created respectively Earl of Ilchester and Lord Holland.

Before 1725. John James Baker Painter -1725. Portrait of Stephen Fox Paymaster 1627-1716.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 25 May 1660. 25 May 1660. By the morning we were come close to the land, and every body made ready to get on shore. The King and the two Dukes did eat their breakfast before they went, and there being set some ship's diet before them, only to show them the manner of the ship's diet, they eat of nothing else but pease and pork, and boiled beef. I had Mr. Darcy in my cabin and Dr. Clerke, who eat with me, told me how the King had given £50 to Mr. Sheply for my Lord's servants, and £500 among the officers and common men of the ship. I spoke with the Duke of York about business, who called me Pepys by name, and upon my desire did promise me his future favour. Great expectation of the King's (29) making some Knights, but there was none. About noon (though the brigantine that Beale made was there ready to carry him) yet he would go in my Lord's barge with the two Dukes. Our Captain steered, and my Lord went along bare with him. I went, and Mr. Mansell, and one of the King's (29) footmen, with a dog that the King loved1, (which [dirted] the boat, which made us laugh, and me think that a King and all that belong to him are but just as others are), in a boat by ourselves, and so got on shore when the King did, who was received by General Monk (51) with all imaginable love and respect at his entrance upon the land of Dover. Infinite the crowd of people and the horsemen, citizens, and noblemen of all sorts. The Mayor of the town came and gave him his white staff, the badge of his place, which the King did give him again. The Mayor also presented him from the town a very rich Bible, which he took and said it was the thing that he loved above all things in the world. A canopy was provided for him to stand under, which he did, and talked awhile with General Monk (51) and others, and so into a stately coach there set for him, and so away through the town towards Canterbury, without making any stay at Dover. The shouting and joy expressed by all is past imagination. Seeing that my Lord did not stir out of his barge, I got into a boat, and so into his barge, whither Mr. John Crew stepped, and spoke a word or two to my Lord, and so returned, we back to the ship, and going did see a man almost drowned that fell out of his boat into the sea, but with much ado was got out. My Lord almost transported with joy that he had done all this without any the least blur or obstruction in the world, that could give an offence to any, and with the great honour he thought it would be to him. Being overtook by the brigantine, my Lord and we went out of our barge into it, and so went on board with Sir W. Batten (59)2, and the Vice and Rear-Admirals. At night my Lord supped and Mr. Thomas Crew with Captain Stoakes, I supped with the Captain, who told me what the King had given us. My Lord returned late, and at his coming did give me order to cause the marke to be gilded, and a Crown and C. R. to be made at the head of the coach table, where the King to-day with his own hand did mark his height, which accordingly I caused the painter to do, and is now done as is to be seen.

Note 1. Charles II's love of dogs is well known, but it is not so well known that his dogs were continually being stolen from him. In the "Mercurius Publicus", June 28-July 5, 1660, is the following advertisement, apparently drawn up by the King himself: "We must call upon you again for a Black Dog between a greyhound and a spaniel, no white about him, onely a streak on his brest, and his tayl a little bobbed. It is His Majesties own Dog, and doubtless was stoln, for the dog was not born nor bred in England, and would never forsake His master. Whoesoever findes him may acquaint any at Whitehal for the Dog was better known at Court, than those who stole him. Will they never leave robbing his Majesty! Must he not keep a Dog? This dog's place (though better than some imagine) is the only place which nobody offers to beg". (Quoted in "Notes and Queries", 7th S., vii. 26, where are printed two other advertisements of Charles's lost dogs.)

Note 2. Clarendon describes William Batten (59) as an obscure fellow, and, although unknown to the service, a good seaman, who was in 1642 made Surveyor to the Navy; in which employ he evinced great animosity against the King. The following year, while Vice-Admiral to the Earl of Warwick, he chased a Dutch man-of-war into Burlington Bay, knowing that Queen Henrietta Maria was on board; and then, learning that she had landed and was lodged on the quay, he fired above a hundred shot upon the house, some of which passing through her majesty's chamber, she was obliged, though indisposed, to retire for safety into the open fields. This act, brutal as it was, found favour with the Parliament. But Batten (59) became afterwards discontented; and, when a portion of the fleet revolted, he carried the "Constant Warwick", one of the best ships in the Parliament navy, over into Holland, with several seamen of note. For this act of treachery he was knighted and made a Rear-Admiral by Prince Charles. We hear no more of Batten (59) till the Restoration, when he became a Commissioner of the Navy, and was soon after M.P. for Rochester. See an account of his second wife, in note to November 24th, 1660, and of his illness and death, October 5th, 1667. He had a son, Benjamin, and a daughter, Martha, by his first wife. B.

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On 25 May 1660 Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (29) arrived at Dover.

Before 25 May 1660 Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 left at Scheveningen.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 27 May 1660. 27 May 1660 Lord's Day. Called up by John Goods to see the Garter and Heralds coat, which lay in the coach, brought by Sir Edward Walker1, King at Arms, this morning, for my Lord. My Lord hath summoned all the Commanders on board him, to see the ceremony, which was thus: Sir Edward putting on his coat, and having laid the George and Garter, and the King's (29) letter to my Lord, upon a crimson cushion (in the coach, all the Commanders standing by), makes three congees to him, holding the cushion in his arms. Then laying it down with the things upon it upon a chair, he takes the letter, and delivers it to my Lord, which my Lord breaks open and gives him to read. It was directed to our trusty and well beloved Sir Edward Montagu, Knight, one of our Generals at sea, and our Companion elect of our Noble Order of the Garter. The contents of the letter is to show that the Kings of England have for many years made use of this honour, as a special mark of favour, to persons of good extraction and virtue (and that many Emperors, Kings and Princes of other countries have borne this honour), and that whereas my Lord is of a noble family, and hath now done the King such service by sea, at this time, as he hath done; he do send him this George and Garter to wear as Knight of the Order, with a dispensation for the other ceremonies of the habit of the Order, and other things, till hereafter, when it can be done. So the herald putting the ribbon about his neck, and the Garter about his left leg, he salutes him with joy as Knight of the Garter, and that was all. After that was done, and the Captain and I had breakfasted with Sir Edward while my Lord was writing of a letter, he took his leave of my Lord, and so to shore again to the King at Canterbury, where he yesterday gave the like honour to General Monk (51)2, who are the only two for many years that have had the Garter given them, before they had other honours of Earldom, or the like, excepting only the Duke of Buckingham, who was only Sir George Villiers when he was made Knight of the Garter. A while after Mr. Thos. Crew and Mr. J. Pickering (who had staid long enough to make all the world see him to be a fool), took ship for London. So there now remain no strangers with my Lord but Mr. Hetley, who had been with us a day before the King went from us. My Lord and the ship's company down to sermon. I staid above to write and look over my new song book, which came last night to me from London in lieu of that that my Lord had of me. The officers being all on board, there was not room for me at table, so I dined in my cabin, where, among other things, Mr. Drum brought me a lobster and a bottle of oil, instead of a bottle of vinegar, whereby I spoiled my dinner. Many orders in the ordering of ships this afternoon. Late to a sermon. After that up to the Lieutenant's cabin, where Mr. Sheply, I, and the Minister supped, and after that I went down to W. Howe's cabin, and there, with a great deal of pleasure, singing till it was late. After that to bed.

Note 1. Edward Walker was knighted February 2nd, 1644-5, and on the 24th of the same month was sworn in as Garter King at Arms. He adhered to the cause of the king, and published "Iter Carolinum", being a succinct account of the necessitated marches, retreats, and sufferings of his Majesty King Charles I., from Jan. 10, 1641, to the time of his death in 1648, collected by a daily attendant upon his sacred Majesty during all that time: He joined Charles II in exile, and received the reward of his loyalty at the Restoration. He died at Whitehall, February 19th, 1676-7, and was buried at Stratford-on-Avon, his daughter having married Sir John Clepton of that place.

Note 2. "His Majesty put the George on his Excellency, and the two Dukes put on the Garter. The Princes thus honoured the Lord-General for the restoration of that lawful family".—Rugge's Diurnal.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 28 May 1660. 28 May 1660. Called up at two in the morning for letters for my Lord from the Duke of York, but I went to bed again till 5. Trimmed early this morning. This morning the Captain did call over all the men in the ship (not the boys), and give every one of them a ducat of the King's (29) money that he gave the ship, and the officers according to their quality. I received in the Captain's cabin, for my share, sixty ducats. The rest of the morning busy writing letters. So was my Lord that he would not come to dinner. After dinner to write again in order to sending to London, but my Lord did not finish his, so we did not send to London to-day. A great part of the afternoon at nine-pins with my Lord and Mr. Hetley. I lost about 4s. Supped with my Lord, and after that to bed. At night I had a strange dream of—myself, which I really did, and having kicked my clothes off, I got cold; and found myself all much wet in the morning, and had a great deal of pain... which made me very melancholy.

Charles II Proclaimed

On 29 May 1660, his thirtieth birthday, Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (30) was restored II King England Scotland and Ireland.

John Evelyn's Diary 29 May 1660. 29 May 1660. This day, his Majesty (30), Charles II came to London, after a sad and long exile and calamitous suffering both of the King (30) and Church, being seventeen years. This was also his birthday, and with a triumph of above 20,000 horse and foot, brandishing their swords, and shouting with inexpressible joy; the ways strewn with flowers, the bells ringing, the streets hung with tapestry, fountains running with wine; the Mayor, Aldermen, and all the companies, in their liveries, chains of gold, and banners; Lords and Nobles, clad in cloth of silver, gold, and velvet; the windows and balconies, all set with ladies; trumpets, music, and myriads of people flocking, even so far as from Rochester, so as they were seven hours in passing the city, even from two in the afternoon till nine at night.

I stood in the Strand and beheld it, and blessed God. And all this was done without one drop of blood shed, and by that very army which rebelled against him: but it was the Lord's doing, for such a restoration was never mentioned in any history, ancient or modern, since the return of the Jews from their Babylonish captivity; nor so joyful a day and so bright ever seen in this nation, this happening when to expect or effect it was past all human policy.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 29 May 1660. 29 May 1660. The King's (30) birthday. Busy all the morning writing letters to London, among the rest one to Mr. Chetwind to give me an account of the fees due to the Herald for the Order of the Garter, which my Lord desires to know. After dinner got all ready and sent away Mr. Cook to London with a letter and token to my wife. After that abroad to shore with my Lord (which he offered me of himself, saying that I had a great deal of work to do this month, which was very true). On shore we took horses, my Lord and Mr. Edward, Mr. Hetly and I, and three or four servants, and had a great deal of pleasure in riding. Among other things my Lord showed me a house that cost a great deal of money, and is built in so barren and inconvenient a place that my Lord calls it the fool's house. At last we came upon a very high cliff by the sea-side, and rode under it, we having laid great wagers, I and Dr. Mathews, that it was not so high as Paul's; my Lord and Mr. Hetly, that it was. But we riding under it, my Lord made a pretty good measure of it with two sticks, and found it to be not above thirty-five yards high, and Paul's is reckoned to be about ninety. From thence toward the barge again, and in our way found the people at Deal going to make a bonfire for joy of the day, it being the King's (30) birthday, and had some guns which they did fire at my Lord's coming by. For which I did give twenty shillings among them to drink. While we were on the top of the cliffe, we saw and heard our guns in the fleet go off for the same joy. And it being a pretty fair day we could see above twenty miles into France. Being returned on board, my Lord called for Mr. Sheply's book of Paul's, by which we were confirmed in our wager. After that to supper and then to musique, and so to bed. The pain that I have got last night by cold is not yet gone, but troubles me at the time of.... This day, it is thought, the King do enter the city of London1.

Note 1. Divers maidens, in behalf of themselves and others, presented a petition to the Lord Mayor of London, wherein they pray his Lordship to grant them leave and liberty to meet His Majesty on the day of his passing through the city; and if their petition be granted, that they will all be clad in white waistcoats and crimson petticoats, and other ornaments of triumph and rejoicing. Rugge's Diurnal, May, 1660. B.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 31 May 1660. 31 May 1660. This day my Lord took physic, and came not out of his chamber.

All the morning making orders. After dinner a great while below in the great cabin trying with W. Howe some of Mr. Laws' songs,' particularly that of "What is a kiss", with which we had a great deal of pleasure. After that to making of orders again. Captain Sparling of the Assistance brought me a pair of silk stockings of a light blue, which I was much pleased with. The Captain and I to supper, and after that a most pleasant walk till to at night with him upon the deck, it being a fine evening. My pain was gone again that I had yesterday, blessed be God. This day the month ends, I in very good health, and all the world in a merry mood because of the King's (30) coming. This day I began to teach Mr. Edward; who I find to have a very good foundation laid for his Latin by Mr. Fuller (52). I expect every minute to hear how my poor wife do. I find myself in all things well as to body and mind, but troubled for the absence of my wife.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 01 June 1660. 01 Jun 1660. This morning Mr. Sheply disposed of the money that the Duke of York did give my Lord's servants, 22 ducatoons 3 came to my share, whereof he told me to give Jaspar something because my Lord left him out1.

I did give Mr. Sheply the fine pair of buckskin gloves that I bought myself about five years ago. My Lord took physic to-day, and so come not out all day. The Captain on shore all day. After dinner Captain Jefferys and W. Howe, and the Lieutenant and I to ninepins, where I lost about two shillings and so fooled away all the afternoon. At night Mr. Cooke comes from London with letters, leaving all things there very gallant and joyful. And brought us word that the Parliament had ordered the 29th of May, the King's (30) birthday, to be for ever kept as a day of thanksgiving for our redemption from tyranny, and the King's (30) return to his Government, he entering London that day. my wife was in London when he came thither, and had been there a week with Mr. Bowyer and his wife. My poor wife has not been well a week before, but thanks be to God is well again. She would fain see me and be at her house again, but we must be content. She writes word how the Joyces grow very rich and very proud, but it is no matter, and that there was a talk that I should be knighted by the King, which they (the Joyces) laugh at; but I think myself happier in my wife and estate than they are in theirs. To bed. The Captain come on board, when I was going to bed, quite fuddled; and himself the next morning told me so too, that the Vice-Admiral, Rear-Admiral, and he had been drinking all day.

Note 1. Foreign coins were in frequent use at this time. A Proclamation, January 29th, 1660-61, declared certain foreign gold and silver coins to be current at certain rates. The rate of the ducatoon was at 5s. 9d.

John Evelyn's Diary 04 June 1660. 04 Jun 1660. I received letters of Sir Richard Browne's (55) landing at Dover, and also letters from the [his mother] Queen (50), which I was to deliver at Whitehall, not as yet presenting myself to his Majesty (30), by reason of the infinite concourse of people. The eagerness of men, women, and children, to see his Majesty (30), and kiss his hands, was so great, that he had scarce leisure to eat for some days, coming as they did from all parts of the nation; and the King (30) being as willing to give them that satisfaction, would have none kept out, but gave free access to all sorts of people.

Addressing myself to the [his brother] Duke (26), I was carried to his Majesty (30), when very few noblemen were with him, and kissed his hands, being very graciously received. I then returned home, to meet Sir Richard Browne (55), who came not till the 8th, after nineteen years exile, during all which time he kept up in his chapel the Liturgy and Offices of the Church of England, to his no small honor, and in a time when it was so low, and as many thought utterly lost, that in various controversies both with Papists and Sectaries, our divines used to argue for the visibility of the Church, from his chapel and congregation.

I was all this week to and fro at court about business.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 04 June 1660. 04 Jun 1660. Waked in the morning at four o'clock to give some money to Mr. Hetly, who was to go to London with the letters that I wrote yesterday night. After he was gone I went and lay down in my gown upon my bed again an hour or two. At last waked by a messenger come for a Post Warrant for Mr. Hetly and Mr. Creed, who stood to give so little for their horses that the men would not let them have any without a warrant, which I sent them. All the morning getting Captain Holland's commission done, which I did, and he at noon went away. I took my leave of him upon the quarter-deck with a bottle of sack, my Lord being just set down to dinner. Then he being gone I went to dinner and after dinner to my cabin to write. This afternoon I showed my Lord my accounts, which he passed, and so I think myself to be worth near £100 now. In the evening I made an order for Captain Sparling of the Assistance to go to Middleburgh, to fetch over some of the King's (30) goods. I took the opportunity to send all my Dutch money, 70 ducatoons and 29 gold ducats to be changed, if he can, for English money, which is the first venture that ever I made, and so I have been since a little afeard of it. After supper some music and so to bed. This morning the King's (30) Proclamation against drinking, swearing, and debauchery, was read to our ships' companies in the fleet, and indeed it gives great satisfaction to all.

Note. The King's (30) "Proclamation against vicious, debauched, and prophane Persons" is dated 30 May 1660. It is printed in "Somers's Tracts", ed. 1812, vol. vii. p. 423.

1660 Knighting by Charles II

On 06 Jun 1660 Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (30) created new knights at Whitehall Palace including William Wray 1st Baronet Ashby 1625-1669 (35) and John Talbot 1630-1714 (29).

Diary of Samuel Pepys 08 June 1660. 08 Jun 1660. Out early, took horses at Deale. I troubled much with the King's (30) gittar, and Fairbrother, the rogue that I intrusted with the carrying of it on foot, whom I thought I had lost. Col. Dixwell's horse taken by a soldier and delivered to my Lord, and by him to me to carry to London. Came to Canterbury, dined there. I saw the minster and the remains of Becket's tomb. To Sittiligborne and Rochester. At Chatham and Rochester the ships and bridge. Mr. Hetly's mistake about dinner. Come to Gravesend. A good handsome wench I kissed, the first that I have seen a great while. Supped with my Lord, drank late below with Penrose, the Captain. To bed late, having first laid out all my things against to-morrow to put myself in a walking garb. Weary and hot to bed to Mr. Moore.

On 11 Jun 1660 Henry Wright 1st Baronet 1637-1664 (23) was created 1st Baronet Wright of Dagenham by Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (30). Ann Crew Lady Wright -1708 by marriage Lady Wright of Dagenham.

On 14 Jun 1660 Thomas Allen 1st Baronet 1633-1690 (27) was created 1st Baronet Allen of Totteridge in Middlesex probably in reward for having supported King Charles's (30) Restoration.

On 15 Jun 1660 Thomas Tipping 1615-1693 (44) was knighted by Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (30) at Whitehall Palace.

Around 1660 Gilbert Soest Painter 1605-1681. Portrait of a Gentleman with a Dog, probably Thomas Tipping 1615-1693.

John Evelyn's Diary 16 June 1660. 16 Jun 1660. The French, Italian, and Dutch Ministers came to make their address to his Majesty (30), one Monsieur Stoope pronouncing the harangue with great eloquence.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 20 June 1660. 20 Jun 1660. Up by 4 in the morning to write letters to sea and a commission for him that Murford solicited for. Called on by Captain Sparling, who did give me my Dutch money again, and so much as he had changed into English money, by which my mind was eased of a great deal of trouble. Some other sea captains. I did give them a good morning draught, and so to my Lord (who lay long in bed this day, because he came home late from supper with the King). With my Lord to the Parliament House, and, after that, with him to General Monk's (51), where he dined at the Cock-pit. I home and dined with my wife, now making all things ready there again. Thence to my Lady Pickering (34), who did give me the best intelligence about the Wardrobe. Afterwards to the Cockpit to my Lord with Mr. Townsend, one formerly and now again to be employed as Deputy of the Wardrobe. Thence to the Admiralty, and despatched away Mr. Cooke to sea; whose business was a letter from my Lord about Mr. G. Montagu (37) to be chosen as a Parliament-man in my Lord's room at Dover;' and another to the Vice-Admiral to give my Lord a constant account of all things in the fleet, merely that he may thereby keep up his power there; another letter to Captn. Cuttance to send the barge that brought the King on shore, to Hinchingbroke by Lynne. To my own house, meeting G. Vines, and drank with him at Charing Cross, now the King's (30) Head Tavern. With my wife to my father's (59), where met with Swan,—[William Swan is called a fanatic and a very rogue in other parts of the Diary.]—an old hypocrite, and with him, his friend and my father, and my cozen Scott to the Bear Tavern. To my father's (59) and to bed.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 22 June 1660. 22 Jun 1660. To my Lord, where much business. With him to White Hall, where the Duke of York not being up, we walked a good while in the Shield Gallery. Mr. Hill (who for these two or three days hath constantly attended my Lord) told me of an offer of £500 for a Baronet's dignity, which I told my Lord of in the balcone in this gallery, and he said he would think of it. I to my Lord's and gave order for horses to be got to draw my Lord's great coach to Mr. Crew's (62). Mr. Morrice the upholsterer came himself to-day to take notice what furniture we lack for our lodgings at Whitehall. My dear friend Mr. Fuller (52) of Twickenham and I dined alone at the Sun Tavern, where he told me how he had the grant of being Dean of St. Patrick's, in Ireland; and I told him my condition, and both rejoiced one for another. Thence to my Lord's, and had the great coach to Brigham's, who went with me to the Half Moon, and gave me a can of good julep, and told me how my Lady Monk (51) deals with him and others for their places, asking him £500, though he was formerly the King's (30) coach-maker, and sworn to it. My Lord abroad, and I to my house and set things in a little order there. So with Mr. Moore to my father's (59), I staying with Mrs. Turner (37) who stood at her door as I passed. Among other things she told me for certain how my old Lady Middlesex——herself the other day in the presence of the King, and people took notice of it. Thence called at my father's (59), and so to Mr. Crew's (62), where Mr. Hetley had sent a letter for me, and two pair of silk stockings, one for W. Howe, and the other for me. To Sir H. Wright's (23) to my Lord, where he, was, and took direction about business, and so by link home about 11 o'clock. To bed, the first time since my coming from sea, in my own house, for which God be praised.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 23 June 1660. 23 Jun 1660. By water with Mr. Hill towards my Lord's lodging and so to my Lord. With him to Whitehall, where I left him and went to Mr. Holmes to deliver him the horse of Dixwell's that had staid there fourteen days at the Bell. So to my Lord's lodgings, where Tom Guy came to me, and there staid to see the King touch people for the King's (30) evil. But he did not come at all, it rayned so; and the poor people were forced to stand all the morning in the rain in the garden. Afterward he touched them in the Banquetting-house1.

With my Lord, to my Lord Frezendorfe's, where he dined to-day. Where he told me that he had obtained a promise of the Clerk of the Acts place for me, at which I was glad. Met with Mr. Chetwind, and dined with him at Hargrave's, the Cornchandler, in St. Martin's Lane, where a good dinner, where he showed me some good pictures, and an instrument he called an Angelique2.

With him to London, changing all my Dutch money at Backwell's3 for English, and then to Cardinal's Cap, where he and the City Remembrancer who paid for all. Back to Westminster, where my Lord was, and discoursed with him awhile about his family affairs. So he went away, I home and wrote letters into the country, and to bed.

Note 1. This ceremony is usually traced to Edward the Confessor, but there is no direct evidence of the early Norman kings having touched for the evil. Sir John Fortescue, in his defence of the House of Lancaster against that of York, argued that the crown could not descend to a female, because the Queen is not qualified by the form of anointing her, used at the coronation, to cure the disease called the King's (30) evil. Burn asserts, "History of Parish Registers", 1862, p. 179, that "between 1660 and 1682, 92,107 persons were touched for the evil". Everyone coming to the court for that purpose, brought a certificate signed by the minister and churchwardens, that he had not at any time been touched by His Majesty. The practice was supposed to have expired with the Stuarts, but the point being disputed, reference was made to the library of the Duke of Sussex, and four several Oxford editions of the Book of Common Prayer were found, all printed after the accession of the house of Hanover, and all containing, as an integral part of the service, "The Office for the Healing". The stamp of gold with which the King crossed the sore of the sick person was called an angel, and of the value of ten shillings. It had a hole bored through it, through which a ribbon was drawn, and the angel was hanged about the patient's neck till the cure was perfected. The stamp has the impression of St. Michael the Archangel on one side, and a ship in full sail on the other. "My Lord Anglesey had a daughter cured of the King's (30) evil with three others on Tuesday".—MS. Letter of William Greenhill to Lady Bacon, dated December 31st, 1629, preserved at Audley End. Charles II. "touched" before he came to the throne. "It is certain that the King hath very often touched the sick, as well at Breda, where he touched 260 from Saturday the 17 of April to Sunday the 23 of May, as at Bruges and Bruxels, during the residence he made there; and the English assure... it was not without success, since it was the experience that drew thither every day, a great number of those diseased even from the most remote provinces of Germany".—Sir William Lower's Relation of the Voiage and Residence which Charles the II hath made in Holland, Hague, 1660, p. 78. Sir William Lower gives a long account of the touching for the evil by Charles before the Restoration.

Note 2. An angelique is described as a species of guitar in Murray's "New English Dictionary", and this passage from the Diary is given as a quotation. The word appears as angelot in Phillips's "English Dictionary" (1678), and is used in Browning's "Sordello", as a "plaything of page or girl".

Note 3. Alderman Edward Backwell, an eminent banker and goldsmith, who is frequently mentioned in the Diary. His shop was in Lombard Street. He was ruined by the closing of the Exchequer by Charles II in 1672. The crown then owed him £295,994 16s. 6d., in lieu of which the King gave him an annuity of £17,759 13s. 8d. Backwell retired into Holland after the closing of the Exchequer, and died there in 1679. See Hilton Price's "Handbook of London Bankers", 1876.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 26 June 1660. 26 Jun 1660. My Lord dined at his lodgings all alone to-day. I went to Secretary Nicholas (67)1 to carry him my Lord's resolutions about his title, which he had chosen, and that is Portsmouth2. I met with Mr. Throgmorton, a merchant, who went with me to the old Three Tuns, at Charing Cross, who did give me five pieces of gold for to do him a small piece of service about a convoy to Bilbo, which I did. In the afternoon, one Mr. Watts came to me, a merchant, to offer me £500 if I would desist from the Clerk of the Acts place. I pray God direct me in what I do herein. Went to my house, where I found my father, and carried him and my wife to Whitefriars, and myself to Puddlewharf, to the Wardrobe, to Mr. Townsend, who went with me to Backwell, the goldsmith's, and there we chose £100 worth of plate for my Lord to give Secretary Nicholas. Back and staid at my father's (59), and so home to bed.

Note 1. Sir Edward Nicholas (67), Secretary of State to Charles I and II. He was dismissed from his office through the intrigues of Lady Castlemaine (19) in 1663. He died 1669, aged seventy-seven.

Note 2. Montagu changed his mind, and ultimately took his title from the town of Sandwich, leaving that of Portsmouth for the use of a King's (30) mistress (10).

Before 07 Nov 1666. William Faithorne Before 1694 John Michael Wright Painter 1617-1694. Portrait of Barbara Villiers 1st Duchess of Cleveland 1640-1709. Around 1664 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Barbara Villiers 1st Duchess of Cleveland 1640-1709 and her son Charles Fitzroy 1st Duke Southampton as Madonna and Child. Around 1666 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Barbara Villiers 1st Duchess of Cleveland 1640-1709. One of the Windsor Beauties. Before 07 Dec 1680 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Barbara Villiers 1st Duchess of Cleveland 1640-1709. Before 07 Dec 1680 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Barbara Villiers 1st Duchess of Cleveland 1640-1709. Around 1690 Jacob Huysmans Painter 1633-1696. Portrait of Barbara Villiers 1st Duchess of Cleveland 1640-1709. Before 01 Jan 1701 Henri Gascar Painter 1635-1701. Portrait of Barbara Villiers 1st Duchess of Cleveland 1640-1709. Before 1723 Godfrey Kneller 1646-1723. Portrait of Louise Kéroualle 1st Duchess Portsmouth 1649-1734. Before 07 Dec 1680 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Louise Kéroualle 1st Duchess Portsmouth 1649-1734. In 1670 Henri Gascar Painter 1635-1701. Portrait of Louise Kéroualle 1st Duchess Portsmouth 1649-1734. In 1673 Henri Gascar Painter 1635-1701. Portrait of Louise Kéroualle 1st Duchess Portsmouth 1649-1734. Before 01 Jan 1701 Henri Gascar Painter 1635-1701. Portrait of Louise Kéroualle 1st Duchess Portsmouth 1649-1734. Before 01 Jan 1701 Henri Gascar Painter 1635-1701. Portrait of Louise Kéroualle 1st Duchess Portsmouth 1649-1734.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 28 June 1660. 28 Jun 1660. My brother Tom (26) came to me with patterns to choose for a suit. I paid him all to this day, and did give him £10 upon account. To Mr. Coventry (32), who told me that he would do me all right in my business. To Sir G. Downing (35), the first visit I have made him since he came. He is so stingy a fellow I care not to see him; I quite cleared myself of his office, and did give him liberty to take any body in. Hawly and he are parted too, he is going to serve Sir Thos. Ingram (46). I went also this morning to see Mrs. Pierce, the chirurgeon's wife. I found her in bed in her house in Margaret churchyard. Her husband returned to sea. I did invite her to go to dinner with me and my wife to-day. After all this to my Lord, who lay a-bed till eleven o'clock, it being almost five before he went to bed, they supped so late last night with the King. This morning I saw poor Bishop Wren (74)1 going to Chappel, it being a thanksgiving-day for the King's (30) return. After my Lord was awake, I went up to him to the Nursery, where he do lie, and, having talked with him a little, I took leave and carried my wife and Mrs. Pierce to Clothworkers'-Hall, to dinner, where Mr. Pierce, the Purser, met us. We were invited by Mr. Chaplin (33), the Victualler, where Nich. Osborne was. Our entertainment very good, a brave hall, good company, and very good music. Where among other things I was pleased that I could find out a man by his voice, whom I had never seen before, to be one that sang behind the curtaine formerly at Sir W. Davenant's (54) opera. Here Dr. Gauden and Mr. Gauden the victualler dined with us. After dinner to Mr. Rawlinson's3, to see him and his wife, and would have gone to my Aunt Wight, but that her only child, a daughter, died last night. Home and to my Lord, who supped within, and Mr. E. Montagu, Mr. Thos. Crew, and others with him sat up late. I home and to bed.

Note 1. Matthew Wren (74), born 1585, successively Bishop of Hereford, Norwich, and Ely. At the commencement of the Rebellion he was sent to the Tower, and remained a prisoner there eighteen years. Died April 24th, 1667.

Note 2. "A Proclamation for setting apart a day of Solemn and Publick Thanksgiving throughout the whole Kingdom", dated June 5th, 1660.

Note 3. Daniel Rawlinson kept the Mitre in Fenchurch Street, and there is a farthing token of his extant, "At the Mitetr in Fenchurch Streete, D. M. R". The initials stand for Daniel and Margaret Rawlinson (see "Boyne's Trade Tokens", ed. Williamson, vol. i., 1889, p. 595) In "Reliquiae Hearnianae" (ed. Bliss, 1869, vol. ii. p. 39) is the following extract from Thomas Rawlinson's Note Book R.: "Of Daniel Rawlinson, my grandfather, who kept the Mitre tavern in Fenchurch Street, and of whose being sequestred in the Rump time I have heard much, the Whiggs tell this, that upon the King's (30) murder he hung his signe in mourning. He certainly judged right. The honour of the Mitre was much eclipsed through the loss of so good a parent of the church of England. These rogues say, this endeared him so much to the churchmen that he soon throve amain and got a good estate". Mrs. Rawlinson died of the plague (see August 9th, 1666), and the house was burnt in the Great Fire. Mr. Rawlinson rebuilt the Mitre, and he had the panels of the great room painted with allegorical figures by Isaac Fuller. Daniel was father of Sir Thomas Rawlinson, of whom Thomas Hearne writes (October 1st, 1705): "Sir Thomas Rawlinson is chosen Lord Mayor of London for ye ensueing notwithstanding the great opposition of ye Whigg party" (Hearne's "Collections", ed. Doble, 1885, vol. i. p. 51). The well-known antiquaries, Thomas and Richard Rawlinson, sons of Sir Thomas, were therefore grandsons of Daniel.

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John Evelyn's Diary 30 June 1660. 30 Jun 1660. The Sussex gentlemen presented their address, to which was my hand. I went with it, and kissed his Majesty's (30) hand, who was pleased to own me more particularly by calling me his old acquaintance, and speaking very graciously to me.

John Evelyn's Diary 03 July 1660. 03 Jul 1660. I went to Hyde Park, where was his Majesty (30), and abundance of gallantry.

John Evelyn's Diary 05 July 1660. 05 Jul 1660. I saw his Majesty (30) go with as much pomp and splendor as any earthly prince could do to the great city feast, the first they had invited him to since his return; but the exceeding rain which fell all that day much eclipsed its lustres. This was at Guildhall, and there was also all the Parliament men, both Lords and Commons. The streets were adorned with pageants, at immense cost.

John Evelyn's Diary 06 July 1660. 06 Jul 1660. His Majesty (30) began first to TOUCH FOR THE EVIL! according to custom, thus: his Majesty (30) sitting under his state in the Banqueting House, the chirurgeons cause the sick to be brought, or led, up to the throne, where they kneeling, the King (30) strokes their faces, or cheeks with both his hands at once, at which instant a chaplain in his formalities says, "He put his hands upon them, and he healed them". This is said to every one in particular. When they have all been touched, they come up again in the same order, and the other chaplain kneeling, and having angel gold strung on white ribbon on his arm, delivers them one by one to his Majesty (30), who puts them about the necks of the touched as they pass, while the first chaplain repeats, "That is the true light who came into the world". Then follows, an Epistle (as at first a Gospel) with the Liturgy, prayers for the sick, with some alteration; lastly the blessing; and then the Lord Chamberlain and the Comptroller of the Household bring a basin, ewer, and towel, for his Majesty (30) to wash.

The King received a congratulatory address from the city of Cologne, in Germany, where he had been some time in his exile; his Majesty (30) saying they were the best people in the world, the most kind and worthy to him that he ever met with. I recommended Monsieur Messary to be Judge Advocate in Jersey, by the Vice-Chamberlain's mediation with the Earl of St. Albans; and saluted my excellent and worthy noble friend, my Lord Ossory (25), son to the Marquis of Ormond (49), after many years' absence returned home.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 13 July 1660. 13 Jul 1660. Up early, the first day that I put on my black camlett coat with silver buttons. To Mr. Spong, whom I found in his night-down writing of my patent, and he had done as far as he could "for that &c". by 8 o'clock. It being done, we carried it to Worcester House to the Chancellor, where Mr. Kipps (a strange providence that he should now be in a condition to do me a kindness, which I never thought him capable of doing for me), got me the Chancellor's receipt to my bill; and so carried it to Mr. Beale (28) for a dockett; but he was very angry, and unwilling to do it, because he said it was ill writ (because I had got it writ by another hand, and not by him); but by much importunity I got Mr. Spong to go to his office and make an end of my patent; and in the mean time Mr. Beale (28) to be preparing my dockett, which being done, I did give him two pieces, after which it was strange how civil and tractable he was to me. From thence I went to the Navy office, where we despatched much business, and resolved of the houses for the Officers and Commissioners, which I was glad of, and I got leave to have a door made me into the leads. From thence, much troubled in mind about my patent, I went to Mr. Beale (28) again, who had now finished my patent and made it ready for the Seal, about an hour after I went to meet him at the Chancellor's. So I went away towards Westminster, and in my way met with Mr. Spong, and went with him to Mr. Lilly (41) and ate some bread and cheese, and drank with him, who still would be giving me council of getting my patent out, for fear of another change, and my Lord Montagu's fall. After that to Worcester House, where by Mr. Kipps's means, and my pressing in General Montagu's name to the Chancellor, I did, beyond all expectation, get my seal passed; and while it was doing in one room, I was forced to keep Sir G. Carteret (50) (who by chance met me there, ignorant of my business) in talk, while it was a doing. Went home and brought my wife with me into London, and some money, with which I paid Mr. Beale (28) £9 in all, and took my patent of him and went to my wife again, whom I had left in a coach at the door of Hinde Court, and presented her with my patent at which she was overjoyed; so to the Navy office, and showed her my house, and were both mightily pleased at all things there, and so to my business. So home with her, leaving her at her mother's door. I to my Lord's, where I dispatched an order for a ship to fetch Sir R. Honywood home, for which I got two pieces of my Lady Honywood by young Mr. Powell. Late writing letters; and great doings of music at the next house, which was Whally's; the King and Dukes there with Madame Palmer (19)1, a pretty woman that they have a fancy to, to make her husband a cuckold. Here at the old door that did go into his lodgings, my Lord, I, and W. Howe, did stand listening a great while to the music. After that home to bed. This day I should have been at Guildhall to have borne witness for my brother Hawly against Black Collar, but I could not, at which I was troubled. To bed with the greatest quiet of mind that I have had a great while, having ate nothing but a bit of bread and cheese at Lilly's (41) to-day, and a bit of bread and butter after I was a-bed.

Note 1. Barbara Villiers (19), only child of William (46), second Viscount Grandison, born November, 1640, married April 14th, 1659, to Roger Palmer (26), created Earl of Castlemaine, 1661. She became the King's (30) mistress soon after the Restoration, and was in 1670 made Lady Nonsuch, Countess of Southampton, and Duchess of Cleveland. She had six children by the King, one of them being created [his illegitimate son] Duke of Grafton, and the eldest son succeeding her as Duke of Cleveland. She subsequently married Beau Fielding (10), whom she prosecuted for bigamy. She died October 9th, 1709, aged sixty-nine. Her life was written by G. Steinman Steinman, and privately printed 1871, with addenda 1874, and second addenda 1878.

Around 1666 Mary Beale aka Cradock Painter 1633-1699. Portrait of her husband Charles Beale 1632-1705. Around 1680 Mary Beale aka Cradock Painter 1633-1699. Portrait of her husband Charles Beale 1632-1705. Before 1661. Remigius van Leemput Painter 1607-1675. Copy of Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680 portrait of Henry Hyde, Viscount Cornbury and his first wife Theodosia Capell. In 1756 Joshua Reynolds Painter 1723-1788. Portrait of Henry Fitzroy 1st Duke Grafton 1663-1690 in his Garter Robes.

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On 14 Jul 1660 Elizabeth Feilding Countess Guildford -1667 was created 1st Earl Guildford 1C 1660 by Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (30). The peerage for life.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 28 July 1660. 28 Jul 1660. Early in the morning rose, and a boy brought me a letter from Poet Fisher, who tells me that he is upon a panegyrique of the King, and desired to borrow a piece of me; and I sent him half a piece. To Westminster, and there dined with Mr. Sheply and W. Howe, afterwards meeting with Mr. Henson, who had formerly had the brave clock that went with bullets (which is now taken away from him by the King, it being his goods)1. I went with him to the Swan Tavern and sent for Mr. Butler, who was now all full of his high discourse in praise of Ireland, whither he and his whole family are going by Coll. Dillon's (33) persuasion, but so many lies I never heard in praise of anything as he told of Ireland. So home late at night and to bed.

Note 1. Some clocks are still made with a small ball, or bullet, on an inclined plane, which turns every minute. The King's (30) clocks probably dropped bullets. Gainsborough the painter had a brother who was a dissenting minister at Henley-on-Thames, and possessed a strong genius for mechanics. He invented a clock of a very peculiar construction, which, after his death, was deposited in the British Museum. It told the hour by a little bell, and was kept in motion by a leaden bullet, which dropped from a spiral reservoir at the top of the clock, into a little ivory bucket. This was so contrived as to discharge it at the bottom, and by means of a counter-weight was carried up to the top of the clock, where it received another bullet, which was discharged as the former. This seems to have been an attempt at the perpetual motion.—Gentleman's Magazine, 1785, p. 931. B.

John Evelyn's Diary 28 July 1660. 28 Jul 1660. I heard his Majesty's (30) speech in the Lords' House, on passing the Bills of Tonnage and Poundage; restoration of my Lord Ormond (49) to his estate in Ireland; concerning the commission of sewers, and continuance of the excise. In the afternoon I saluted my old friend, the Archbishop of Armagh, formerly of Londonderry (Dr. Bramhall (66)). He presented several Irish divines to be promoted as Bishops in that kingdom, most of the Bishops in the three kingdoms being now almost worn out, and the Sees vacant.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 02 August 1660. 02 Aug 1660. To Westminster by water with Sir W. Batten (59) and Sir W. Pen (39) (our servants in another boat) to the Admiralty; and from thence I went to my Lord's to fetch him thither, where we stayed in the morning about ordering of money for the victuailers, and advising how to get a sum of money to carry on the business of the Navy. From thence dined with Mr. Blackburne at his house with his friends (his wife being in the country and just upon her return to London), where we were very well treated and merry. From thence W. Hewer (18) and I to the office of Privy Seal, where I stayed all the afternoon, and received about £40 for yesterday and to-day, at which my heart rejoiced for God's blessing to me, to give me this advantage by chance, there being of this £40 about £10 due to me for this day's work. So great is the present profit of this office, above what it was in the King's (30) time; there being the last month about 300 bills; whereas in the late King's (30) time it was much to have 40. With my money home by coach, it, being the first time that I could get home before our gates were shut since I came to the Navy office. When I came home I found my wife not very well of her old pain.... which she had when we were married first. I went and cast up the expense that I laid out upon my former house (because there are so many that are desirous of it, and I am, in my mind, loth to let it go out of my hands, for fear of a turn). I find my layings-out to come to about £20, which with my fine will come to about £22 to him that shall hire my house of me. [Pepys wished to let his house in Axe Yard now that he had apartments at the Navy Office.] To bed.

In 1689 Godfrey Kneller 1646-1723. Portrait of William Hewer 1642-1715.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 12 August 1660. 12 Aug 1660.Lord's Day. To my Lord, and with him to White Hall Chappell, where Mr. Calamy preached, and made a good sermon upon these words "To whom much is given, of him much is required". He was very officious with his three reverences to the King, as others do. After sermon a brave anthem of Captain Cooke's (44)1, which he himself sung, and the King (30) was well pleased with it. My Lord dined at my Lord Chamberlain's (58), and I at his house with Mr. Sheply. After dinner I did give Mr. Donne; who is going to sea, the key of my cabin and direction for the putting up of my things.

After, that I went to walk, and meeting Mrs. Lane of Westminster Hall, I took her to my Lord's, and did give her a bottle of wine in the garden, where Mr. Fairbrother, of Cambridge, did come and found us, and drank with us. After that I took her to my house, where I was exceeding free in dallying with her, and she not unfree to take it.

At night home and called at my father's (59), where I found Mr. Fairbrother, but I did not stay but went homewards and called in at Mr. Rawlinson's, whither my uncle Wight was coming and did come, but was exceeding angry (he being a little fuddled, and I think it was that I should see him in that case) as I never saw him in my life, which I was somewhat troubled at. Home and to bed.

Note 1. Henry Cooke (44), chorister of the Chapel Royal, adhered to the royal cause at the breaking out of the Civil Wars, and for his bravery obtained a captain's commission. At the Restoration he received the appointment of Master of the Children of the Chapel Royal; he was an excellent musician, and three of his pupils turned out very distinguished musicians, viz, Pelham Humphrey, John Blow, and Michael Wise. He was one of the original performers in the "Siege, of Rhodes". He died July 13th, 1672,: and was buried in the cloisters of Westminster Abbey. In another place, Pepys says, "a vain coxcomb he is, though he sings so well".

Around 1664 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Edward Montagu 2nd Earl Manchester 1602-1671.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 03 September 1660. 03 Sep 1660. Up and to Mr.——-, the goldsmith near the new Exchange, where I bought my wedding ring, and there, with much ado, got him to put a gold ring to the jewell, which the King of Sweden (37) did give my Lord: out of which my Lord had now taken the King's (30) picture, and intends to make a George of it. This morning at my Lord's I had an opportunity to speak with Sir George Downing (35), who has promised me to give me up my bond, and to pay me for my last quarter while I was at sea, that so I may pay Mr. Moore and Hawly. About noon my Lord, having taken leave of the King in the Shield Gallery (where I saw with what kindness the King did hug my Lord at his parting), I went over with him and saw him in his coach at Lambeth, and there took leave of him, he going to the Downs, which put me in mind of his first voyage that ever he made, which he did begin like this from Lambeth. In the afternoon with Mr. Moore to my house to cast up our Privy Seal accounts, where I found that my Lord's comes to 400 and odd pounds, and mine to £132, out of which I do give him as good as £25 for his pains, with which I doubt he is not satisfied, but my heart is full glad. Thence with him to Mr. Crew's (62), and did fetch as much money as did make even our accounts between him and me. Home, and there found Mr. Cooke come back from my Lord for me to get him some things bought for him to be brought after them, a toilet cap and comb case of silk, to make use of in Holland, for he goes to the Hague, which I can do to-morrow morning. This day my father and my uncle Fenner, and both his sons, have been at my house to see it, and my wife did treat them nobly with wine and anchovies. By reason of my Lord's going to-day I could not get the office to meet to-day.

On 03 Sep 1660 [his brother] King James II (26) and Anne Hyde Queen Consort England 1637-1671 (23) were married in secret He a son of King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland 1600-1649. She by marriage Duchess York.

Around 1661 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Anne Hyde Queen Consort England 1637-1671. Around 1662 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Anne Hyde Queen Consort England 1637-1671. One of the Windsor Beauties. Around 1665 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Anne Hyde Queen Consort England 1637-1671. Around 1666 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of King James II and Anne Hyde Queen Consort England 1637-1671. See Diary of Samuel Pepys 24 March 1666.

John Evelyn's Diary 04 September 1660. 04 Sep 1660. I was invited to an ordination by the Bishop of Bangor (75), in Henry VII.'s chapel, Westminster, and afterward saw the audience of an Envoyée from the Duke of Anjou, sent to compliment his Majesty's (30) return.

John Evelyn's Diary 05 September 1660. 05 Sep 1660. Came to visit and dine with me the Envoyée of the King (30) of Poland, and Resident of the King (30) of Denmark, etc.

On 13 Sep 1660 [his brother] Henry Stewart 1st Duke Gloucester 1640-1660 (20) died of smallpox. On 21 Sep 1660 [his brother] he was buried at south side of the Henry VII Chapel Westminster Abbey.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 24 September 1660. 24 Sep 1660. Office Day. From thence to dinner by coach with my wife to my Cozen Scott's, and the company not being come, I went over the way to the Barber's. So thither again to dinner, where was my uncle Fenner and my aunt, my father and mother, and others. Among the rest my Cozen Rich. Pepys1, their elder brother, whom I had not seen these fourteen years, ever since he came from New England. It was strange for us to go a gossiping to her, she having newly buried her child that she was brought to bed of. I rose from table and went to the Temple church, where I had appointed Sir W. Batten (59) to meet him; and there at Sir Heneage Finch Sollicitor General's chambers, before him and Sir W. Wilde2, Recorder of London (whom we sent for from his chamber) we were sworn justices of peace for Middlesex, Essex, Kent, and Southampton; with which honour I did find myself mightily pleased, though I am wholly ignorant in the duty of a justice of peace. From thence with Sir William to Whitehall by water (old Mr. Smith with us) intending to speak with Secretary Nicholas about the augmentation of our salaries, but being forth we went to the Three Tuns tavern, where we drank awhile, and then came in Col. Slingsby (49) and another gentleman and sat with us. From thence to my Lord's to enquire whether they have had any thing from my Lord or no.

Knocking at the door, there passed me Mons. L'Impertinent [Mr. Butler] for whom I took a coach and went with him to a dancing meeting in Broad Street, at the house that was formerly the glass-house, Luke Channel, Master of the School, where I saw good dancing, but it growing late, and the room very full of people and so very hot, I went home.

Note 1. Richard Pepys, eldest son of Richard Pepys, Lord Chief Justice of Ireland (71). He went to Boston, Mass., in 1634, and returned to England about 1646.

Note 2. William Wilde, elected Recorder on November 3rd, 1659, and appointed one of the commissioners sent to Breda to desire Charles II to return to England immediately. He was knighted after the King's (30) return, called to the degree of Serjeant, and created a baronet, all in the same year. In 1668 he ceased to be Recorder, and was appointed judge of the Court of Common Pleas. In 1673 he was removed to the King's (30) Bench. He was turned out of his office in 1679 on account of his action in connection with the Popish Plot, and died November 23rd of the same year.

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John Evelyn's Diary 27 September 1660. 27 Sep 1660. The King (30) received the merchant's addresses in his closet, giving them assurances of his persisting to keep Jamaica, choosing Sir Edward Massey Governor (41). In the afternoon, the Danish Ambassador's condolences were presented, on the death of the [his brother] Duke of Gloucester (20). This evening, I saw the Princess Royal (28), mother to the Prince of Orange (28), now come out of Holland in a fatal period.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 03 October 1660. 03 Oct 1660. With Sir W. Batten (59) and Pen (39) by water to White Hall, where a meeting of the Dukes of York and Albemarle, my Lord Sandwich (35) and all the principal officers, about the Winter Guard, but we determined of nothing. To my Lord's, who sent a great iron chest to White Hall; and I saw it carried, into the King's (30) closet, where I saw most incomparable pictures. Among the rest a book open upon a desk, which I durst have sworn was a reall book, and back again to my Lord, and dined all alone with him, who do treat me with a great deal of respect; and after dinner did discourse an hour with me, and advise about some way to get himself some money to make up for all his great expenses, saying that he believed that he might have any thing that he would ask of the King. This day Mr. Sheply and all my Lord's goods came from sea, some of them laid of the Wardrobe and some brought to my Lord's house. From thence to our office, where we met and did business, and so home and spent the evening looking upon the painters that are at work in my house. This day I heard the Duke speak of a great design that he and my Lord of Pembroke have, and a great many others, of sending a venture to some parts of Africa to dig for gold ore there. They intend to admit as many as will venture their money, and so make themselves a company. £250 is the lowest share for every man. But I do not find that my Lord do much like it. At night Dr. Fairbrother (for so he is lately made of the Civil Law) brought home my wife by coach, it being rainy weather, she having been abroad today to buy more furniture for her house.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 14 October 1660. 14 Oct 1660. Lord's Day. Early to my Lord's, in my way meeting with Dr. Fairbrother, who walked with me to my father's (59) back again, and there we drank my morning draft, my father having gone to church and my mother asleep in bed. Here he caused me to put my hand among a great many honorable hands to a paper or certificate in his behalf.

To White Hall chappell, where one Dr. Crofts (57) made an indifferent sermon, and after it an anthem, ill sung, which made the King laugh. Here I first did see the Princess Royal since she came into England. Here I also observed, how the Duke of York and Mrs. Palmer (19) did talk to one another very wantonly through the hangings that parts the King's (30) closet and the closet where the ladies sit. To my Lord's, where I found my wife, and she and I did dine with my Lady (my Lord dining with my Lord Chamberlain (58)), who did treat my wife with a good deal of respect. In the evening we went home through the rain by water in a sculler, having borrowed some coats of Mr. Sheply. So home, wet and dirty, and to bed.

1660 Trial and Execution of the Regicides

John Evelyn's Diary 17 October 1660. 17 Oct 1660. Scot, Scroop (59), Cook (52), and Jones (63), suffered for reward of their iniquities at Charing Cross, in sight of the place where they put to death their natural prince, and in the presence of the King (30) his son, whom they also sought to kill. I saw not their execution, but met their quarters, mangled, and cut, and reeking, as they were brought from the gallows in baskets on the hurdle. Oh, the miraculous providence of God!

John Evelyn's Diary 20 October 1660. 20 Oct 1660. I dined at the Clerk Comptroller's of the Green Cloth (33), being the first day of the re-establishment of the Court diet, and settling of his Majesty's (30) household.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 23 October 1660. 23 Oct 1660. We rose early in the morning to get things ready for My Lord, and Mr. Sheply going to put up his pistols (which were charged with bullets) into the holsters, one of them flew off, and it pleased God that, the mouth of the gun being downwards, it did us no hurt, but I think I never was in more danger in my life, which put me into a great fright. About eight o'clock my Lord went; and going through the garden my Lord met with Mr. William Montagu (42), who told him of an estate of land lately come into the King's (30) hands, that he had a mind my Lord should beg. To which end my Lord writ a letter presently to my Lord Chancellor (51) to do it for him, which (after leave taken of my Lord at White Hall bridge) I did carry to Warwick House to him; and had a fair promise of him, that he would do it this day for my Lord. In my way thither I met the Lord Chancellor (51) and all the judges riding on horseback and going to Westminster Hall, it being the first day of the term, which was the first time I ever saw any such solemnity. Having done there I returned to Whitehall, where meeting with my brother Ashwell and his cozen Sam. Ashwell and Mr. Mallard, I took them to the Leg in King Street and gave them a dish of meat for dinner and paid for it. From thence going to Whitehall I met with Catan Stirpin in mourning, who told me that her mistress was lately dead of the small pox, and that herself was now married to Monsieur Petit, as also what her mistress had left her, which was very well. She also took me to her lodging at an Ironmonger's in King Street, which was but very poor, and I found by a letter that she shewed me of her husband's to the King, that he is a right Frenchman, and full of their own projects, he having a design to reform the universities, and to institute schools for the learning of all languages, to speak them naturally and not by rule, which I know will come to nothing. From thence to my Lord's, where I went forth by coach to Mrs. Parker's with my Lady, and so to her house again. From thence I took my Lord's picture, and carried it to Mr. de Cretz to be copied. So to White Hall, where I met Mr. Spong, and went home with him and played, and sang, and eat with him and his mother. After supper we looked over many books, and instruments of his, especially his wooden jack in his chimney, which goes with the smoke, which indeed is very pretty. I found him to be as ingenious and good-natured a man as ever I met with in my life, and cannot admire him enough, he being so plain and illiterate a man as he is. From thence by coach home and to bed, which was welcome to me after a night's absence.

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John Evelyn's Diary 23 October 1660. 23 Oct 1660. Being this day in the bedchamber of the [his sister] Princess Henrietta (16), where were many great beauties and noblemen, I saluted divers of my old friends and acquaintances abroad; his Majesty (30) carrying my wife (25) to salute the Queen (50) and [his sister] Princess (16), and then led her into his closet, and with his own hands showed her divers curiosities.

Around 1662 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Princess Henrietta Stewart Duchess Orléans 1644-1670. One of the Windsor Beauties. Around 1672 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Postumous portrait of Princess Henrietta Stewart Duchess Orléans 1644-1670Commissioned by her brother Charles II King Scotland and presented by him in the Council ChamberWhere it still hangs today, in recognition of her birth in Bedford House, Exeter, the town house of the William Russell 1st Duke Bedford 1616-1700Who had given her mother refuge during the dangerous years before her father's execution in 1649.

John Evelyn's Diary 25 October 1660. 25 Oct 1660. Dr. Rainbow (52) preached before the King (30), on Luke II 14, of the glory to be given God for all his mercies, especially for restoring the Church and government; now the service was performed with music, voices, etc., as formerly.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 28 October 1660. 28 Oct 1660 Lord's Day. There came some pills and plaister this morning from Dr. Williams for my wife. I to Westminster Abbey, where with much difficulty, going round by the cloysters, I got in; this day being a great day for the consecrating of five Bishopps, which was done after sermon; but I could not get into Henry the Seventh's chappell. So I went to my Lord's, where I dined with my Lady, and my young Lord, and Mr. Sidney, who was sent for from Twickenham to see my Lord Mayor's show to-morrow. Mr. Child did also dine with us. After dinner to White Hall chappell; my Lady and my Lady Jemimah and I up to the King's (30) closet (who is now gone to meet the [his mother] Queen (50)). So meeting with one Mr. Hill, that did know my Lady, he did take us into the King's (30) closet, and there we did stay all service-time, which I did think a great honour. We went home to my Lord's lodgings afterwards, and there I parted with my Lady and went home, where I did find my wife pretty well after her physic. So to bed.

John Evelyn's Diary 28 October 1660. 28 Oct 1660. His Majesty (30) went to meet the [his mother] Queen-Mother (50).

John Evelyn's Diary 29 October 1660. 29 Oct 1660. Going to London, my Lord Mayor's show stopped me in Cheapside; one of the pageants represented a great wood, with the royal oak, and history of his Majesty's (30) miraculous escape at Boscobel.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 30 October 1660. 30 Oct 1660. Within all the morning and dined at home, my mind being so troubled that I could not mind nor do anything till I spoke with the Comptroller to whom the lodgings belong. In the afternoon, to ease my mind, I went to the Cockpit all alone, and there saw a very fine play called "The Tamer Tamed;" very well acted. That being done, I went to Mr. Crew's (62), where I had left my boy, and so with him and Mr. Moore (who would go a little way with me home, as he will always do) to the Hercules Pillars to drink, where we did read over the King's (30) declaration in matters of religion, which is come out to-day, which is very well penned, I think to the satisfaction of most people. So home, where I am told Mr. Davis's people have broken open the bolt of my chamber door that goes upon the leads, which I went up to see and did find it so, which did still trouble me more and more. And so I sent for Griffith, and got him to search their house to see what the meaning of it might be, but can learn nothing to-night. But I am a little pleased that I have found this out. I hear nothing yet of my Lord, whether he be gone for the [his mother] Queen (50) from the Downs or no; but I believe he is, and that he is now upon coming back again.

John Evelyn's Diary 01 November 1660. 01 Nov 1660. I went with some of my relations to Court, to show them his Majesty's (30) cabinet and closet of rarities; the rare miniatures of Peter Oliver, after Raphael, Titian, and other masters, which I infinitely esteem; also, that large piece of the Duchess of Lennox (13), done in enamel, by Petitot, and a vast number of agates, onyxes, and intaglios, especially a medallion of Cæsar, as broad as my hand; likewise, rare cabinets of pietra-commessa, a landscape of needlework, formerly presented by the Dutch to King Charles I. Here I saw a vast book of maps, in a volume near four yards large; a curious ship model; and, among the clocks, one that showed the rising and setting of the sun in the zodiac; the sun represented by a face and rays of gold, upon an azure sky, observing the diurnal and annual motion, rising and setting behind a landscape of hills,—the work of our famous Fromantil,—and several other rarities.

Around 1662 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Frances Teresa Stewart Duchess Lennox and Richmond 1647-1702. One of the Windsor Beauties.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 02 November 1660. 02 Nov 1660. Office. Then dined at home, and by chance Mr. Holliard (51)1 called at dinner time and dined with me, with whom I had great discourse concerning the cure of the King's (30) evil, which he do deny altogether any effect at all. In the afternoon I went forth and saw some silver bosses put upon my new Bible, which cost me 6s. 6d. The making, and 7s. 6d. The silver, which, with 9s. 6d. The book, comes in all to £1 3s. 6d. From thence with Mr. Cooke that made them, and Mr. Stephens the silversmith to the tavern, and did give them a pint of wine. So to White Hall, where when I came I saw the boats going very thick to Lambeth, and all the stairs to be full of people. I was told the [his mother] Queen (50) was a-coming2; so I got a sculler for sixpence to carry me thither and back again, but I could not get to see Paternoster Row; so come back, and to my Lord's, where he was come; and I supt with him, he being very merry, telling merry stories of the country mayors, how they entertained the King all the way as he come along; and how the country gentlewomen did hold up their heads to be kissed by the King, not taking his hand to kiss as they should do. I took leave of my Lord and Lady, and so took coach at White Hall and carried Mr. Childe as far as the Strand, and myself got as far as Ludgate by all the bonfires, but with a great deal of trouble; and there the coachman desired that I would release him, for he durst not go further for the fires. So he would have had a shilling or 6d. for bringing of me so far; but I had but 3d. about me and did give him it. In Paul's church-yard I called at Kirton's, and there they had got a mass book for me, which I bought and cost me twelve shillings; and, when I came home, sat up late and read in it with great pleasure to my wife, to hear that she was long ago so well acquainted with. So to bed. I observed this night very few bonfires in the City, not above three in all London, for [his mother] the Queen's (50) coming; whereby I guess that (as I believed before) her coming do please but very few.

Note 1. Thomas Holliard (51) or Hollier was appointed in 1638 surgeon for scald heads at St. Thomas's Hospital, and on January 25th, 1643-4, he was chosen surgeon in place of Edward Molins. In 1670 his son of the same names was allowed to take his place during his illness. Ward, in his Diary, p. 235, mentions that the porter at St. Thomas's Hospital told him, in 1661, of Mr. Holyard's having cut thirty for the stone in one year, who all lived.

Note 2. "Nov. 2. The Queen-mother and the Princess Henrietta came into London, the [his mother] Queen (50) having left this land nineteen years ago. Her coming was very private, Lambeth-way, where the King, Queen, and the [his brother] Duke of York (27), and the rest, took water, crossed the Thames, and all safely arrived at Whitehall.—"Rugge's Diurnal.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 04 November 1660. 04 Nov 1660. Lord's Day. In the morn to our own church, where Mr. Mills did begin to nibble at the Common Prayer, by saying "Glory be to the Father, &c". after he had read the two psalms; but the people had been so little used to it, that they could not tell what to answer. This declaration of the King's (30) do give the Presbyterians some satisfaction, and a pretence to read the Common Prayer, which they would not do before because of their former preaching against it. After dinner to Westminster, where I went to my Lord's, and having spoke with him, I went to the Abbey, where the first time that ever I heard the organs in a cathedral! Thence to my Lord's, where I found Mr. Pierce, the surgeon, and with him and Mr. Sheply, in our way calling at the Bell to see the seven Flanders mares that my Lord has bought lately, where we drank several bottles of Hull ale. Much company I found to come to her, and cannot wonder at it, for she is very pretty and wanton. Hence to my father's (59), where I found my mother in greater and greater pain of the stone. I staid long and drank with them, and so home and to bed. My wife seemed very pretty to-day, it being the first time I had given her leave to wear a black patch.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 07 November 1660. 07 Nov 1660. Office Day. This day my father came to dine at my house, but being sent for in the morning I could not stay, but went by water to my Lord, where I dined with him, and he in a very merry humour (present Mr. Borfett and Childe) at dinner: he, in discourse of the great opinion of the virtue—gratitude (which he did account the greatest thing in the world to him, and had, therefore, in his mind been often troubled in the late times how to answer his gratitude to the King, who raised his father), did say it was that did bring him to his obedience to the King; and did also bless himself with his good fortune, in comparison to what it was when I was with him in the Sound, when he durst not own his correspondence with the King; which is a thing that I never did hear of to this day before; and I do from this raise an opinion of him, to be one of the most secret men in the world, which I was not so convinced of before. After dinner he bid all go out of the room, and did tell me how the King had promised him £4000 per annum for ever, and had already given him a bill under his hand (which he showed me) for £4000 that Mr. Fox (33) is to pay him. My Lord did advise with me how to get this received, and to put out £3000 into safe hands at use, and the other he will make use of for his present occasion. This he did advise with me about with much secresy. After all this he called for the fiddles and books, and we two and W. Howe, and Mr. Childe, did sing and play some psalmes of Will. Lawes's, and some songs; and so I went away. So I went to see my Lord's picture, which is almost done, and do please me very well. Hence to Whitehall to find out Mr. Fox (33), which I did, and did use me very civilly, but I did not see his lady, whom I had so long known when she was a maid, Mrs. Whittle.

From thence meeting my father Bowyer, I took him to Mr. Harper's, and there drank with him. Among other things in discourse he told me how my wife's brother had a horse at grass with him, which I was troubled to hear, it being his boldness upon my score. Home by coach, and read late in the last night's book of Trials, and told my wife about her brother's horse at Mr. Bowyer's, who is also much troubled for it, and do intend to go to-morrow to inquire the truth.

Notwithstanding this was the first day of the King's (30) proclamation against hackney coaches coming into the streets to stand to be hired, yet I got one to carry me home1.

Note 1. "A Proclamation to restrain the abuses of Hackney Coaches in the Cities of London and Westminster and the Suburbs thereof". This is printed in "Notes and Queries", First Series, vol. viii. p. 122. "In April, 1663, the poor widows of hackney-coachmen petitioned for some relief, as the parliament had reduced the number of coaches to 400; there were before, in and about London, more than 2,000". —Rugge's Diurnal.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 09 November 1660. 09 Nov 1660. Lay long in bed this morning though an office day, because of our going to bed late last night. Before I went to my office Mr. Creed came to me about business, and also Mr. Carter, my old Cambridge friend, came to give me a visit, and I did give them a morning draught in my study. So to the office, and from thence to dinner with Mr. Wivell at the Hoop Tavern, where we had Mr. Shepley, Talbot, Adams, Mr. Chaplin (33) and Osborne, and our dinner given us by Mr. Ady and another, Mr. Wine, the King's (30) fishmonger. Good sport with Mr. Talbot, who eats no sort of fish, and there was nothing else till we sent for a neat's tongue. From thence to Whitehall where I found my Lord, who had an organ set up to-day in his dining-room, but it seems an ugly one in the form of Bridewell. Thence I went to Sir Harry Wright's (23), where my Lord was busy at cards, and so I staid below with Mrs. Carter and Evans (who did give me a lesson upon the lute), till he came down, and having talked with him at the door about his late business of money, I went to my father's (59) and staid late talking with my father about my sister Pall's coming to live with me if she would come and be as a servant (which my wife did seem to be pretty willing to do to-day), and he seems to take it very well, and intends to consider of it. Home and to bed.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 15 November 1660. 15 Nov 1660. To Westminster, and it being very cold upon the water I went all alone to the Sun and drank a draft of mulled white wine, and so to Mr. De Cretz, whither I sent for J. Spicer (to appoint him to expect me this afternoon at the office, with the other £1000 from Whitehall), and here we staid and did see him give some finishing touches to my Lord's picture, so at last it is complete to my mind, and I leave mine with him to copy out another for himself, and took the original by a porter with me to my Lord's, where I found my Lord within, and staid hearing him and Mr. Child playing upon my Lord's new organ, the first time I ever heard it. My Lord did this day show me the King's (30) picture, which was done in Flanders, that the King did promise my Lord before he ever saw him, and that we did expect to have had at sea before the King came to us; but it came but to-day, and indeed it is the most pleasant and the most like him that ever I saw picture in my life. As dinner was coming on table, my wife came to my Lord's, and I got her carried in to my Lady, who took physic to-day, and was just now hiring of a French maid that was with her, and they could not understand one another till my wife came to interpret. Here I did leave my wife to dine with my Lord, the first time he ever did take notice of her as my wife, and did seem to have a just esteem for her. And did myself walk homewards (hearing that Sir W. Pen (39) was gone before in a coach) to overtake him and with much ado at last did in Fleet Street, and there I went in to him, and there was Sir Arnold Brames, and we all three to Sir W. Batten's (59) to dinner, he having a couple of Servants married to-day; and so there was a great number of merchants, and others of good quality on purpose after dinner to make an offering, which, when dinner was done, we did, and I did give ten shillings and no more, though I believe most of the rest did give more, and did believe that I did so too. From thence to Whitehall again by water to Mr. Fox (33) and by two porters carried away the other £1000. He was not within himself, but I had it of his kinsman, and did give him £4. and other servants something; but whereas I did intend to have given Mr. Fox (33) himself a piece of plate of £50 I was demanded £100, for the fee of the office at 6d. a pound, at which I was surprised, but, however, I did leave it there till I speak with my Lord. So I carried it to the Exchequer, where at Will's I found Mr. Spicer, and so lodged it at his office with the rest. From thence after a pot of ale at Will's I took boat in the dark and went for all that to the old Swan, and so to Sir Wm. Batten's, and leaving some of the gallants at cards I went home, where I found my wife much satisfied with my Lord's discourse and respect to her, and so after prayers to bed.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 20 November 1660. 20 Nov 1660. About two o'clock my wife wakes me, and comes to bed, and so both to sleep and the wench to wash. I rose and with Will to my Lord's by land, it being a very hard frost, the first we have had this year. There I staid with my Lord and Mr. Shepley, looking over my Lord's accounts and to set matters straight between him and Shepley, and he did commit the viewing of these accounts to me, which was a great joy to me to see that my Lord do look upon me as one to put trust in. Hence to the organ, where Mr. Child and one Mr Mackworth (who plays finely upon the violin) were playing, and so we played till dinner and then dined, where my Lord in a very good humour and kind to me. After dinner to the Temple, where I met Mr. Moore and discoursed with him about the business of putting out my Lord's £3000, and that done, Mr. Shepley and I to the new Play-house near Lincoln's-Inn-Fields (which was formerly Gibbon's tennis-court), where the play of "Beggar's Bush" was newly begun; and so we went in and saw it, it was well acted: and here I saw the first time one Moone1, who is said to be the best actor in the world, lately come over with the King, and indeed it is the finest play-house, I believe, that ever was in England.

From thence, after a pot of ale with Mr. Shepley at a house hard by, I went by link home, calling a little by the way at my father's (59) and my uncle Fenner's, where all pretty well, and so home, where I found the house in a washing pickle, and my wife in a very joyful condition when I told her that she is to see the [his mother] Queen (50) next Thursday, which puts me in mind to say that this morning I found my Lord in bed late, he having been with the King, Queen, and Princess, at the Cockpit2 all night, where. General Monk (51) treated them; and after supper a play, where the King did put a great affront upon Singleton's' musique, he bidding them stop and bade the French musique play, which, my Lord says, do much outdo all ours. But while my Lord was rising, I went to Mr. Fox's (33), and there did leave the gilt tankard for Mrs. Fox, and then to the counting-house to him, who hath invited me and my wife to dine with him on Thursday next, and so to see the [his mother] Queen (50) and Princesses.

Note 1. Michael Mohun, or Moone, the celebrated actor, who had borne a major's commission in the King's (30) army. The period of his death is uncertain, but he is known to have been dead in 1691. Downes relates that an eminent poet [Lee] seeing him act Mithridates "vented suddenly this saying: 'Oh, Mohun, Mohun, thou little man of mettle, if I should write a 100, I'd write a part for thy mouth.'" —Roscius Anglicanus, p. 17.

Note 2. The Cockpit at Whitehall. The plays at the Cockpit in Drury Lane were acted in the afternoon.

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On 04 Dec 1660 Judge Wadham Wyndham 1609-1668 (51) was knighted by Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (30).

John Evelyn's Diary 06 December 1660. 06 Dec 1660. I waited on my brother (43) and sister Evelyn to Court. Now were presented to his Majesty (30) those two rare pieces of drollery, or rather a Dutch Kitchen, painted by Dowe, so finely as hardly to be distinguished from enamel. I was also shown divers rich jewels and crystal vases; the rare head of Jo. Bellino, Titian's master; Christ in the Garden, by Hannibal Caracci; two incomparable heads, by Holbein; the [his mother] Queen-Mother (51) in a miniature, almost as big as the life; an exquisite piece of carving; two unicorn's horns, etc. This in the closet.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 09 December 1660. 09 Dec 1660. Lord's Day. Being called up early by Sir W. Batten (59) I rose and went to his house and he told me the ill news that he had this morning from Woolwich, that the Assurance (formerly Captain Holland's ship, and now Captain Stoakes's, designed for Guiny and manned and victualled), was by a gust of wind sunk down to the bottom. Twenty men drowned. Sir Williams both went by barge thither to see how things are, and I am sent to the [his brother] Duke of York (27) to tell him, and by boat with some other company going to Whitehall from the Old Swan. I went to the Duke. And first calling upon Mr. Coventry (32) at his chamber, I went to the Duke's bed-side, who had sat up late last night, and lay long this morning, who was much surprised, therewith. This being done I went to chappell, and sat in Mr. Blagrave's pew, and there did sing my part along with another before the King, and with much ease. From thence going to my Lady I met with a letter from my Lord (which Andrew had been at my house to bring me and missed me), commanding me to go to Mr. Denham, to get a man to go to him to-morrow to Hinchinbroke, to contrive with him about some alterations in his house, which I did and got Mr. Kennard. Dined with my Lady and staid all the afternoon with her, and had infinite of talk of all kind of things, especially of beauty of men and women, with which she seems to be much pleased to talk of. From thence at night to Mr. Kennard and took him to Mr. Denham, the Surveyor's. Where, while we could not speak with him, his chief man (Mr. Cooper) did give us a cup of good sack. From thence with Mr. Kennard to my Lady who is much pleased with him, and after a glass of sack there; we parted, having taken order for a horse or two for him and his servant to be gone to-morrow.

So to my father's (59), where I sat while they were at supper, and I found my mother below, stairs and pretty well. Thence home, where I hear that the Comptroller had some business with me, and (with Giffin's lanthorn) I went to him and there staid in discourse an hour 'till late, and among other things he showed me a design of his, by the King's (30) making an Order of Knights of the Seal to give an encouragement for persons of honour to undertake the service of the sea, and he had done it with great pains and very ingeniously. So home and to prayers and to bed.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 16 December 1660. 16 Dec 1660. In the morning to church, and then dined at home. In the afternoon I to White Hall, where I was surprised with the news of a plot against the King's (30) person and my Lord Monk's (52); and that since last night there are about forty taken up on suspicion; and, amongst others, it was my lot to meet with Simon Beale, the Trumpeter, who took me and Tom Doling into the Guard in Scotland Yard, and showed us Major-General Overton, where I heard him deny that he is guilty of any such things; but that whereas it is said that he is found to have brought many arms to town, he says it is only to sell them, as he will prove by oath. From thence with Tom Doling and Boston and D. Vines (whom we met by the way) to Price's, and there we drank, and in discourse I learnt a pretty trick to try whether a woman be a maid or no, by a string going round her head to meet at the end of her nose, which if she be not will come a great way beyond. Thence to my Lady's and staid with her an hour or two talking of the [his brother] Duke of York (27) and his lady, the Chancellor's daughter, between whom, she tells me, that all is agreed and he will marry her. But I know not how true yet. It rained hard, and my Lady would have had me have the coach, but I would not, but to my father's (59), where I met my wife, and there supped, and after supper by link home and to bed.

John Evelyn's Diary 22 December 1660. 22 Dec 1660. The marriage of the Chancellor's (51) daughter (23) being now newly owned, I went to see her, she being Sir Richard Browne's (55) intimate acquaintance when she waited on the [his sister] Princess of Orange (29); she was now at her father's, at Worcester House, in the Strand. We all kissed her hand, as did also my Lord Chamberlain (58) (Manchester) and Countess of Northumberland (37). This was a strange change—can it succeed well?—I spent the evening at St. James's, whither the Princess Henrietta (16) was retired during the fatal sickness of her [his sister] sister, the Princess of Orange (29), now come over to salute the King (30) her brother. The Princess (16) gave my wife (25) an extraordinary compliment and gracious acceptance, for the "Character" she had presented her the day before, and which was afterward printed.

On 24 Dec 1660 [his sister] Mary Stewart Princess Orange 1631-1660 (29) died of smallpox.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 31 December 1660. 31 Dec 1660. At the office all the morning and after that home, and not staying to dine I went out, and in Paul's Churchyard I bought the play of "Henry the Fourth", and so went to the new Theatre (only calling at Mr. Crew's (62) and eat a bit with the people there at dinner) and saw it acted; but my expectation being too great, it did not please me, as otherwise I believe it would; and my having a book, I believe did spoil it a little.

That being done I went to my Lord's (35), where I found him private at cards with my Lord Lauderdale (44) and some persons of honour. So Mr. Shepley and I over to Harper's, and there drank a pot or two, and so parted. My boy taking a cat home with him from my Lord's, which Sarah had given him for my wife (20) we being much troubled with mice.

At Whitehall inquiring for a coach, there was a Frenchman with one eye that was going my way, so he and I hired the coach between us and he set me down in Fenchurch Street. Strange how the fellow, without asking, did tell me all what he was, and how he had ran away from his father and come into England to serve the King (30), and now going back again.

Home and to bed.

Before 05 Aug 1661 Cornelius Johnson Painter 1593-1661. Portrait of Thomas Hales 3rd Baronet Hales 1695-1762 and John Maitland 1st Duke Lauderdale 1616-1682. Ham House Ham Richmond. Around 1665 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of John Maitland 1st Duke Lauderdale 1616-1682. Around 1675 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of John Maitland 1st Duke Lauderdale 1616-1682 and Elizabeth Murray Duchess Lauderdale 1626-1698. Before 07 Dec 1680 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of John Maitland 1st Duke Lauderdale 1616-1682 wearing his Garter Robes. Around 1670 Jacob Huysmans Painter 1633-1696. Portrait of John Maitland 1st Duke Lauderdale 1616-1682.

In 1661 William Wentworth 2nd Earl Strafford 1626-1695 (34) was appointed 465th Knight of the Garter by Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (30).

In 1654. Robert Walker Painter 1599-1658. Portrait of William Wentworth 2nd Earl Strafford 1626-1695. Around 1740 George Knapton Painter 1698-1778. Portrait of William Wentworth 2nd Earl Strafford 1626-1695.

In 1661 Montagu Bertie 2nd Earl Lindsey 1608-1666 (53) was appointed 463rd Knight of the Garter by Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (30).

Around 1661 John Michael Wright Painter 1617-1694 (43). Portrait of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (30) in his coronation robes.

In 1661 Charles II of England (30) invited John Roettiers (29) and his brother Joseph (and subsequently a third brother Philip) to join the British Royal Mint.

In 1661 Edward Montagu 2nd Earl Manchester 1602-1671 (59) was appointed 464th Knight of the Garter by Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (30).

In 1661 Seth Ward Bishop 1617-1689 (44) was appointed to the living of St Lawrence Jewry by Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (30).

Around 1675 John Greenhill Painter 1644-1676. Portrait of Seth Ward Bishop 1617-1689 wearing the robes of the Chancellor of the Order of the Garter.

John Evelyn's Diary 06 January 1661. 06 Jan 1661. Dr. Allestree (39) preached at the Abbey, after which four Bishops were consecrated, Hereford (51), Norwich (61), ...

This night was suppressed a bloody insurrection of some Fifth-Monarchy enthusiasts. Some of them were examined at the Council the next day; but could say nothing to extenuate their madness and unwarrantable zeal.

I was now chosen (and nominated by his Majesty (30) for one of the Council), by suffrage of the rest of the members, a Fellow of the Philosophic Society now meeting at Gresham College, where was an assembly of divers learned gentlemen. This being the first meeting since the King's (30) return; but it had been begun some years before at Oxford, and was continued with interruption here in London during the Rebellion.

There was another rising of the fanatics, in which some were slain.

Execution of Deceased Regicides

John Evelyn's Diary 30 January 1661. 30 Jan 1661. Was the first solemn fast and day of humiliation to deplore the sins which had so long provoked God against this afflicted church and people, ordered by Parliament to be annually celebrated to expiate the guilt of the execrable murder of the late King.

This day (Oh, the stupendous and inscrutable judgments of God!) were the carcasses of those arch-rebels, Cromwell (61), Bradshawe (59) (the judge who condemned his Majesty (30)), and Ireton (50) (son-in-law to the Usurper), dragged out of their superb tombs in Westminster among the Kings, to Tyburn, and hanged on the gallows there from nine in the morning till six at night, and then buried under that fatal and ignominious. Monument in a deep pit; thousands of people who had seen them in all their pride being spectators. Look back at October 22 1658, and be astonished! and fear God and honor the King (30); but meddle not with them who are given to change!

On 25 Feb 1661 [his illegitimate daughter] Anne Fitzroy Countess Sussex 1661-1722 was born illegitimately to Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (30) and Barbara Villiers 1st Duchess of Cleveland 1640-1709 (20) at Westminster.

John Evelyn's Diary 27 February 1661. 27 Feb 1661. Ash Wednesday. Preached before the King (30) the Bishop of London (Dr. Sheldon (62)) on Matthew xviii. 25, concerning charity and forgiveness.

John Evelyn's Diary 13 March 1661. 13 Mar 1661. I went to Lambeth, with Sir R. Browne's (56) pretense to the Wardenship of Merton College, Oxford, to which, as having been about forty years before a student of that house, he was elected by the votes of every Fellow except one; but the statutes of the house being so that, unless every Fellow agree, the election devolves to the Visitor, who is the Archbishop of Canterbury (Dr. Juxon (79)), his Grace gave his nomination to Sir T. Clayton, resident there, and the Physic Professor: for which I was not at all displeased, because, though Sir Richard (56) missed it by much ingratitude and wrong of the Archbishop (Clayton being no Fellow), yet it would have hindered Sir Richard from attending at Court to settle his greater concerns, and so have prejudiced me, though he was much inclined to have passed his time in a collegiate life, very unfit for him at that time, for many reasons. So I took leave of his Grace, who was formerly Lord Treasurer in the reign of Charles I.

This afternoon, Prince Rupert (41) showed me, with his own hands, the new way of graving, called mezzo tinto, which afterward, by his permission, I published in my "History of Chalcography"; this set so many artists on work, that they soon arrived to the perfection it is since come to, emulating the tenderest miniatures.

Our Society now gave in my relation of the Peak of Teneriffe, in the Great Canaries, to be added to more queries concerning divers natural things reported of that island.

I returned home with my Cousin, Tuke, now going for France, as sent by his Majesty (30) to condole the death of that great Minister and politician, Count Mazarine (58).

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On 30 Mar 1661 James Butler 1st Duke Ormonde 1610-1688 (50) was created 1st Duke Ormonde by Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (30). Elizabeth Preston Duchess Ormonde 1615-1684 (45) by marriage Duchess Ormonde.

John Evelyn's Diary 31 March 1661. 31 Mar 1661. This night, his Majesty (30) promised to make my wife (26) Lady of the Jewels (a very honorable charge) to the future Queen (but which he never performed).

On 01 Apr 1661 Francis Prujean Physician 1593-1666 (68) was knighted by Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (30).

On 15 Apr 1661 Charles Stewart 6th Duke Lennox 3rd Duke Richmond 1639-1672 (22) was appointed 462nd Knight of the Garter by his fourth cousin Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (30).

Around 1668 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Charles Stewart 6th Duke Lennox 3rd Duke Richmond 1639-1672.

Coronation of Charles II

On 22 Apr 1661 Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (30) rode from the Tower of London to Whitehall Palace. At the Lime Street end of Leadenhall he passed under a triumphal arch built after the Doric order, with Rebellion, her crimson robe alive with snakes, being crushed by Monarchy Restored, and a fine painting of his Majesty's landing at Dover, "with ships at sea, great guns going off, one kneeling and kissing the King's hand, soldiers, horse and foot and many people gazing".

Outside the East India House in Leadenhall Street, that loyal and honourable trading company expressed their dutiful affections to his Majesty by two Indian youths, one attended by two blackamoors and the other mounted upon a camel, which bore on its back two panniers filled with jewels, spices, and silks to be scattered among the spectators.

At the Conduit in Cornhill a special treat was prepared for the bachelor king in the shape of eight nymphs clad in white. A little further down the street, just opposite the Royal Exchange, was another arch, with stages against it depicting the River Thames and the upper deck of one of his Majesty's ships.

The procession included the [his brother] Duke of York (27), the Lord High Constable (58) and the Lord Great Chamberlain (53).

The Sword of State was carried by Esmé Stewart 2nd Duke Richmond 5th Duke Lennox 1649-1660 (12).

Around 1634 Anthony Van Dyck Painter 1599-1641. Portrait of Algernon Percy 10th Earl of Northumberland 1602-1668 and Anne Cecil -1637. Before 09 Dec 1641 Anthony Van Dyck Painter 1599-1641. Portrait of Algernon Percy 10th Earl of Northumberland 1602-1668.

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John Evelyn's Diary 22 April 1661. 22 Apr 1661. Was the splendid cavalcade of his Majesty (30) from the Tower of London to Whitehall, when I saw him in the Banqueting House create six Earls, and as many Barons, viz:

Edward Lord Hyde, Lord Chancellor (52), Earl of Clarendon; supported by the Earls of Northumberland (58) and Sussex (14); the Earl of Bedford (44) carried the cap and coronet, the Earl of Warwick (46), the sword, the Earl of Newport (64), the mantle.

Next, was Capel, created Earl of Essex.

Brudenell, Cardigan;.

Valentia, Anglesea;.

Greenvill, Bath;.

Howard, Earl of Carlisle.

The Barons were: Denzille Holles; Cornwallis; Booth; Townsend; Cooper; Crew; who were led up by several Peers, with Garter and officers of arms before them; when, after obedience on their several approaches to the throne, their patents were presented by Garter King-at-Arms, which being received by the Lord Chamberlain (59), and delivered to his Majesty (30), and by him to the Secretary of State, were read, and then again delivered to his Majesty (30), and by him to the several Lords created; they were then robed, their coronets and collars put on by his Majesty (30), and they were placed in rank on both sides of the state and throne; but the Barons put off their caps and circles, and held them in their hands, the Earls keeping on their coronets, as cousins to the King (30).

I spent the rest of the evening in seeing the several archtriumphals built in the streets at several eminent places through which his Majesty (30) was next day to pass, some of which, though temporary, and to stand but one year, were of good invention and architecture, with inscriptions.

Notes:

Arthur Capell 1st Earl Essex 1632-1683 (29) was created 1st Earl Essex 9C 1641. Elizabeth Percy Countess Essex 1636-1718 (25) by marriage Countess Essex.

Thomas Brudenell 1st Earl Cardigan 1583-1663 (78) was created 1st Earl Cardigan. Mary Tresham Countess Cardigan -1664 by marriage Countess Cardigan.

Arthur Annesley 1st Earl Anglesey 1614-1686 (46) was created 1st Earl Anglesey 2C 1661, 1st Baron Annesley Newport Pagnell Buckinghamshire. Elizabeth Altham Countess Anglesey 1620-1698 (41) by marriage Countess Anglesey.

John Granville 1st Earl Bath 1628-1701 (32) was created 1st Earl Bath 3C 1661.

Charles Howard 1st Earl Carlisle 1629-1685 (32) was created 1st Earl Carlisle 3C 1661.

Denzil Holles 1st Baron Holles 1599-1680 (61) was created 1st Baron Holles. Jane Shirley Baroness Holles -1666 by marriage Baroness Holles.

Frederick Cornwallis 1st Baron Cornwallis 1611-1662 (50) was created 1st Baron Cornwallis.

George Booth 1st Baron Delamer 1622-1684 (38) was created 1st Baron Delamer 1C 1661. Elizabeth Grey Baroness Delamer 1622-1691 (39) by marriage Baroness Delamer.

Horatio Townshend 1st Viscount Townsend 1630-1687 (30) was created 1st Baron Townshend of Lynn Regis in Norfolk.

Anthony Ashley-Cooper 1st Earl Shaftesbury 1621-1683 (39) was created 1st Baron Ashley of Wimborne St Giles.

1661 John Crew 1st Baron Crew 1598-1679 (63) was created 1st Baron Crew of Stene in Northamptonshire. Jemima Waldegrave Baroness Crew 1602-1675 (59) by marriage Baroness Crew of Stene in Northamptonshire.

Around 1637 Anthony Van Dyck Painter 1599-1641. Portrait of George Digby 2nd Earl Bristol 1612-1677 and William Russell 1st Duke Bedford 1616-1700. Around 1638 Anthony Van Dyck Painter 1599-1641. Portrait of William Russell 1st Duke Bedford 1616-1700. Around 1672 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Postumous portrait of Princess Henrietta Stewart Duchess Orléans 1644-1670Commissioned by her brother Charles II King Scotland and presented by him in the Council ChamberWhere it still hangs today, in recognition of her birth in Bedford House, Exeter, the town house of the William Russell 1st Duke Bedford 1616-1700Who had given her mother refuge during the dangerous years before her father's execution in 1649. Around 1637 Anthony Van Dyck Painter 1599-1641. Portrait of Mountjoy Blount 1st Earl Newport 1597-1666. Around 1640 Anthony Van Dyck Painter 1599-1641. Portrait of Mountjoy Blount 1st Earl Newport 1597-1666. In 1676 John Michael Wright Painter 1617-1694. Portrait of Arthur Annesley 1st Earl Anglesey 1614-1686. 1661 John Michael Wright Painter 1617-1694. Portrait of Frederick Cornwallis 1st Baron Cornwallis 1611-1662. After 22 Apr 1661. Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Elizabeth Grey Baroness Delamer 1622-1691. Around 1670 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Horatio Townshend 1st Viscount Townsend 1630-1687. Around 1672 John Greenhill Painter 1644-1676. Portrait of Anthony Ashley-Cooper 1st Earl Shaftesbury 1621-1683. Before 11 Jul 1671 Adriaen Hanneman Painter 1603-1671. Portrait of Anthony Ashley-Cooper 1st Earl Shaftesbury 1621-1683. In 1620 Cornelius Johnson Painter 1593-1661. Portrait of Jemima Waldegrave Baroness Crew 1602-1675.

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On 23 Apr 1661 Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (30) was crowned II King England Scotland and Ireland at Westminster Abbey.

John Bennet 1st Baron Ossulston 1616-1695 (44),Francis Fane -1691 and Edward Hungerford 1632-1711 (28) were appointed Knight of the Bath.

Francis Godolphin 1605-1667 (55) was knighted.

Josceline Percy 11th Earl of Northumberland 1644-1670 (16) attended.

James Howard 3rd Earl Suffolk 1619-1689 (42) was appointed Earl Marshal.

In 1633 Cornelius Johnson Painter 1593-1661. Portrait of Francis Godolphin 1605-1667. Around 1658 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Josceline Percy 11th Earl of Northumberland 1644-1670. Around 1672 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Josceline Percy 11th Earl of Northumberland 1644-1670. Before 1744 Enoch

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John Evelyn's Diary 23 April 1661. 23 Apr 1661. Was the coronation of his Majesty (30) Charles II in the Abbey-Church of Westminster; at all which ceremony I was present. the King (30) and his Nobility went to the Tower, I accompanying my Lord Viscount Mordaunt (34) part of the way; this was on Sunday, the 22d; but indeed his Majesty (30) went not till early this morning, and proceeded from thence to Westminster in this order:

First went the Duke of York's Horse Guards. Messengers of the Chamber. 136 Esquires to the Knights of the Bath, each of whom had two, most richly habited. The Knight Harbinger. Sergeant Porter. Sewers of the Chamber. Quarter Waiters. Six Clerks of Chancery. Clerk of the Signet. Clerk of the Privy Seal. Clerks of the Council, of the Parliament, and of the Crown. Chaplains in ordinary having dignities, 10. King's Advocates and Remembrancer. Council at Law. Masters of the Chancery. Puisne Sergeants. King's Attorney and Solicitor. King's eldest Sergeant. Secretaries of the French and Latin tongue. Gentlemen Ushers. Daily Waiters, Sewers, Carvers, and Cupbearers in ordinary. Esquires of the body, 4. Masters of standing offices, being no Counsellors, viz, of the Tents, Revels, Ceremonies, Armory, Wardrobe, Ordnance, Requests. Chamberlain of the Exchequer. Barons of the Exchequer. Judges. Lord Chief-Baron. Lord Chief-Justice of the Common Pleas. Master of the Rolls. Lord Chief-Justice of England. Trumpets. Gentlemen of the Privy Chamber. Knights of the Bath, 68, in crimson robes, exceeding rich, and the noblest show of the whole cavalcade, his Majesty (30) excepted. Knight Marshal. Treasurer of the Chamber. Master of the Jewels. Lords of the Privy Council. Comptroller of the Household. Treasurer of the Household. Trumpets. Sergeant Trumpet. Two Pursuivants at Arms. Barons. Two Pursuivants at Arms. Viscounts. Two Heralds. Earls. Lord Chamberlain of the Household (59). Two Heralds. Marquises. Dukes. Heralds Clarencieux and Norroy. Lord Chancellor (52). Lord High Steward of England. Two persons representing the Dukes of Normandy and Acquitaine, viz, Sir Richard Fanshawe and Sir Herbert Price, in fantastic habits of the time. Gentlemen Ushers. Garter. Lord Mayor of London. The Duke of York alone (the rest by twos). Lord High Constable of England. Lord Great Chamberlain of England. The sword borne by the Earl Marshal of England. the King (30), in royal robes and equipage. Afterward, followed equerries, footmen, gentlemen pensioners. Master of the Horse, leading a horse richly caparisoned. Vice-Chamberlain. Captain of the Pensioners. Captain of the Guard. The Guard. The Horse Guard. The troop of Volunteers, with many other officers and gentlemen.

This magnificent train on horseback, as rich as embroidery, velvet, cloth of gold and silver, and jewels, could make them and their prancing horses, proceeded through the streets strewed with flowers, houses hung with rich tapestry, windows and balconies full of ladies; the London militia lining the ways, and the several companies, with their banners and loud music, ranked in their orders; the fountains running wine, bells ringing, with speeches made at the several triumphal arches; at that of the Temple Bar (near which I stood) the Lord Mayor was received by the Bailiff of Westminster, who, in a scarlet robe, made a speech. Thence, with joyful acclamations, his Majesty (30) passed to Whitehall. Bonfires at night.

The next day, being St. George's, he went by water to Westminster Abbey. When his Majesty (30) was entered, the Dean and Prebendaries brought all the regalia, and delivered them to several noblemen to bear before the King (30), who met them at the west door of the church, singing an anthem, to the choir. Then, came the Peers, in their robes, and coronets in their hands, till his Majesty (30) was placed on a throne elevated before the altar. Afterward, the Bishop of London (the Archbishop of Canterbury (79) being sick) went to every side of the throne to present the King (30) to the people, asking if they would have him for their King, and do him homage; at this, they shouted four times "God save King Charles II!" Then, an anthem was sung. His Majesty (30), attended by three Bishops, went up to the altar, and he offered a pall and a pound of gold. Afterward, he sat down in another chair during the sermon, which was preached by Dr. Morley (63), Bishop of Worcester.

After sermon, the King (30) took his oath before the altar to maintain the religion, Magna Charta, and laws of the land. The hymn Véni S. Sp. followed, and then the Litany by two Bishops. Then the Archbishop of Canterbury (79), present, but much indisposed and weak, said "Lift up your hearts"; at which, the King (30) rose up, and put off his robes and upper garments, and was in a waistcoat so opened in divers places, that the Archbishop (79) might commodiously anoint him, first in the palms of his hands, when an anthem was sung, and a prayer read; then, his breast and between the shoulders, bending of both arms; and, lastly, on the crown of the head, with apposite hymns and prayers at each anointing; this done, the Dean closed and buttoned up the waistcoat. After which, was a coif put on, and the cobbium, sindon or dalmatic, and over this a super-tunic of cloth of gold, with buskins and sandals of the same, spurs, and the sword; a prayer being first said over it by the Archbishop (79) on the altar, before it was girt on by the Lord Chamberlain (59). Then, the armill, mantle, etc. Then, the Archbishop placed the crown imperial on the altar, prayed over it, and set it on his Majesty's (30) head, at which all the Peers put on their coronets. Anthems, and rare music, with lutes, viols, trumpets, organs, and voices, were then heard, and the Archbishop put a ring on his Majesty's (30) finger. the King (30) next offered his sword on the altar, which being redeemed, was drawn, and borne before him. Then, the Archbishop delivered him the sceptre, with the dove in one hand, and, in the other, the sceptre with the globe. the King (30) kneeling, the Archbishop (79) pronounced the blessing. His Majesty (30) then ascending again his royal throne, while Te Deum was singing, all the Peers did their homage, by every one touching his crown. The Archbishop (79), and the rest of the Bishops, first kissing the King (30); who received the Holy Sacrament, and so disrobed, yet with the crown imperial on his head, and accompanied with all the nobility in the former order, he went on foot upon blue cloth, which was spread and reached from the west door of the Abbey to Westminster stairs, when he took water in a triumphal barge to Whitehall where was extraordinary feasting.

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John Evelyn's Diary 24 April 1661. 24 Apr 1661. I presented his Majesty (30) with his "Panegyric" in the Privy Chamber, which he was pleased to accept most graciously; I gave copies to the Lord Chancellor (52), and most of the noblemen who came to me for it. I dined at the Marquis of Ormond's (50) where was a magnificent feast, and many great persons.

John Evelyn's Diary 01 May 1661. 01 May 1661. I went to Hyde Park to take the air, where was his Majesty (30) and an innumerable appearance of gallants and rich coaches, being now a time of universal festivity and joy.

John Evelyn's Diary 03 May 1661. 03 May 1661. I went to see the wonderful engine for weaving silk stockings, said to have been the invention of an Oxford scholar forty years since; and I returned by Fromantil's, the famous clockmaker, to see some pendules, Monsieur Zulichem being with us.

This evening, I was with my Lord Brouncker (50), Sir Robert Murray (53), Sir Patrick Neill, Monsieur Zulichem, and Bull (all of them of our Society, and excellent mathematicians), to show his Majesty (30), who was present, Saturn's annulus, as some thought, but as Zulichem affirmed with his balteus (as that learned gentleman had published), very near eclipsed by the moon, near the Mons Porphyritis; also, Jupiter and satellites, through his Majesty's (30) great telescope, drawing thirty-five feet; on which were divers discourses.

Cavalier Parliament

On 08 May 1661 Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (30) summoned his second Parliament.

John Bennet 1st Baron Ossulston 1616-1695 (44) was elected MP Wallingford.

James Thynne 1605-1670 (56) was elected MP Wiltshire.

Adam Browne 2nd Baronet Browne 1626-1690 (35) was elected MP Surrey.

Henry Cavendish 2nd Duke Newcastle upon Tyne 1630-1691 (30) was elected MP Northumberland.

William Compton Master of the Ordnance 1625-1663 (36) was elected MP Cambridge.

Thomas Coventry 1st Earl Coventry 1629-1699 (32) was elected MP Camelford.

Charles Berkeley 2nd Viscount Fitzhardinge 1599-1668 (61) was elected MP Bath and Heytesbury.

Edward Hungerford 1632-1711 (28) was elected MP Chippenham.

Robert Pierrepoint 1636-1681 (24) was elected MP Nottingham.

John Melbury Sampford Strangeways 1585-1666 (75) was elected MP Weymouth.

Giles Strangeways 1615-1675 (45) was elected MP Dorset.

John Strangeways 1636-1676 (24) was elected MP Bridport.

William Wyndham 1st Baronet Wyndham 1632-1683 (29) was elected MP Taunton.

James Herbert 1623-1667 (38) was elected MP Queenborough.

William Alington 3rd Baron Alington 1640-1685 (21) was elected MP Cambridge.

William Bowes 1657-1707 (4) was elected MP Durham.

Robert Brooke 1637-1669 (24) was elected MP Aldeburgh.

Josiah Child Merchant 1631-1699 (30) was elected MP Dartmouth.

Gervase Clifton 1st Baronet Clifton 1587-1666 (73) was elected MP Nottinghamshire.

Thomas Crew 2nd Baron Crew 1624-1697 (37) was elected MP Brackley.

Richard Jennings 1619-1668 (42) was elected MP St Albans.

Robert Kemp 2nd Baronet Kemp 1628-1710 (33) was elected MP Norfolk.

Edward Phelips 1613-1680 (48) was elected MP Somerset.

Robert Robartes 1634-1682 (27) was elected MP Bossiney.

Hender Robartes 1635-1688 (25) was elected MP Bodmin.

Clement Fisher 2nd Baronet 1613-1683 (48) was elected MP Coventry.

William Portman 6th Baronet 1643-1690 (17) was elected MP Taunton.

John Robinson Lord Mayor of London 1st Baronet 1615-1680 (46) was elected MP Rye.

In 1676 Mary Beale aka Cradock Painter 1633-1699 (attributed). Portrait of Henry Cavendish 2nd Duke Newcastle upon Tyne 1630-1691 wearing the his Garter Collar. Around 1675 Mary Beale aka Cradock Painter 1633-1699. Portrait of Thomas Coventry 1st Earl Coventry 1629-1699. Before 1691. John Riley Painter 1646-1691. Portrait of Josiah Child Merchant 1631-1699. Around 1707. Charles D'Agar Painter 1669-1723. Portrait of Thomas Crew 2nd Baron Crew 1624-1697. Before 06 Aug 1658 Jacob Huysmans Painter 1633-1696. Portrait of Edward Phelips 1613-1680. Around 1662 John Michael Wright Painter 1617-1694. Portrait of John Robinson Lord Mayor of London 1st Baronet 1615-1680.

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John Evelyn's Diary 08 May 1661. 08 May 1661. His Majesty (30) rode in state, with his imperial crown on, and all the peers in their robes, in great pomp to the Parliament now newly chosen (the old one being dissolved); and, that evening, declared in council his intention to marry the [his future wife] Infanta of Portugal (22).

Before 1687 Pieter Borsseler Painter 1634-1687. Portrait of Catherine of Braganza Queen Consort England 1638-1705. Around 1663 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Eleanor Needham Baroness Byron 1627-1664 depicted as Saint Catherine of Alexandria in a guise probably intended to flatter Charles II's Queen, Catherine of Braganza. Accordingly she carries the martyr's palm branch and leans upon a wheel. The sitter looks to two putti in the upper left, one of whom holds a wreath of bay leaves above her head. She is wearing a copper-red dress with a richly decorated blue mantle about her arms. Around 1665 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Catherine of Braganza Queen Consort England 1638-1705. Around 1670 Jacob Huysmans Painter 1633-1696. Portrait of Catherine of Braganza Queen Consort England 1638-1705. Before 1696 Jacob Huysmans Painter 1633-1696. Portrait of Catherine of Braganza Queen Consort England 1638-1705. Before 1696 Jacob Huysmans Painter 1633-1696. Portrait of Catherine of Braganza Queen Consort England 1638-1705.

John Evelyn's Diary 11 May 1661. 11 May 1661. my wife (26) presented to his Majesty (30) the Madonna she had copied in miniature from P. Oliver's painting, after Raphael, which she wrought with extraordinary pains and judgment. the King (30) was infinitely pleased with it, and caused it to be placed in his cabinet among his best paintings.

John Evelyn's Diary 14 May 1661. 14 May 1661. His Majesty (30) was pleased to discourse with me concerning several particulars relating to our Society, and the planet Saturn, etc., as he sat at supper in the withdrawing-room to his bedchamber.

John Evelyn's Diary 29 May 1661. 29 May 1661. This was the first anniversary appointed by act of Parliament to be observed as a day of general thanksgiving for the miraculous restoration of his Majesty (31): our vicar preaching on Psalm cxviii. 24, requiring us to be thankful and rejoice, as indeed we had cause.

John Evelyn's Diary 04 June 1661. 04 Jun 1661. Came Sir Charles Harbord (21), his Majesty's (31) surveyor, to take an account of what grounds I challenged at Sayes Court.

John Evelyn's Diary 27 June 1661. 27 Jun 1661. I saw the Portugal ambassador at dinner with his Majesty (31) in state, where was excellent music.

John Evelyn's Diary 09 August 1661. 09 Aug 1661. I tried several experiments on the sensitive plant and humilis, which contracted with the least touch of the sun through a burning glass, though it rises and opens only when it shines on it.

I first saw the famous Queen Pine brought from Barbadoes, and presented to his Majesty (31); but the first that were ever seen in England were those sent to Cromwell (62) four years since.

I dined at Mr. Palmer's in Gray's Inn, whose curiosity excelled in clocks and pendules, especially one that had innumerable motions, and played nine or ten tunes on the bells very finely, some of them set in parts: which was very harmonious. It was wound up but once in a quarter. He had also good telescopes and mathematical instruments, choice pictures, and other curiosities. Thence, we went to that famous mountebank, Jo. Punteus.

Sir Kenelm Digby (58) presented every one of us his "Discourse of the Vegetation of Plants"; and Mr. Henshaw (43), his "History of Saltpeter and Gunpowder". I assisted him to procure his place of French Secretary to the King (31), which he purchased of Sir Henry De Vic (62).

I went to that famous physician, Sir Fr. Prujean (68), who showed me his laboratory, his workhouse for turning, and other mechanics; also many excellent pictures, especially the Magdalen of Caracci; and some incomparable paysages done in distemper; he played to me likewise on the polythore, an instrument having something of the harp, lute, and theorbo; by none known in England, nor described by any author, nor used, but by this skillful and learned Doctor.

Around 1640 Anthony Van Dyck Painter 1599-1641. Portrait of Kenelm Digby 1603-1665.

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John Evelyn's Diary 13 September 1661. 13 Sep 1661. I presented my "Fumifugium"67 dedicated to his Majesty (31), who was pleased that I should publish it by his special commands, being much gratified with it.

John Evelyn's Diary 18 September 1661. 18 Sep 1661. This day was read our petition to his Majesty (31) for his royal grant, authorizing our Society to meet as a corporation, with several privileges.

An exceedingly sickly, wet autumn.

John Evelyn's Diary 01 October 1661. 01 Oct 1661. I sailed this morning with his Majesty (31) in one of his yachts (or pleasure boats), vessels not known among us till the Dutch East India Company presented that curious piece to the King (31); being very excellent sailing vessels. It was on a wager between his other new pleasure boat, built frigate-like, and one of the [his brother] Duke of York's (27); the wager £100; the race from Greenwich to Gravesend and back. The King (31) lost it going, the wind being contrary, but saved stakes in returning. There were divers noble persons and lords on board, his Majesty (31) sometimes steering himself. His barge and kitchen boat attended. I brake fast this morning with the King (31) at return in his smaller vessel, he being pleased to take me and only four more, who were noblemen, with him; but dined in his yacht, where we all ate together with his Majesty (31). In this passage he was pleased to discourse to me about my book inveighing against the nuisance of the smoke of London, and proposing expedients how, by removing those particulars I mentioned, it might be reformed; commanding me to prepare a Bill against the next session of Parliament, being, as he said, resolved to have something done in it. Then he discoursed to me of the improvement of gardens and buildings, now very rare in England comparatively to other countries. He then commanded me to draw up the matter of fact happening at the bloody encounter which then had newly happened between the French and Spanish Ambassadors near the Tower, contending for precedency, at the reception of the Swedish Ambassador; giving me orders to consult Sir William Compton (36), Master of the Ordnance, to inform me of what he knew of it, and with his favorite, Sir Charles Berkeley (31), captain of the Duke's life guard, then present with his troop and three foot companies; with some other reflections and instructions, to be prepared with a declaration to take off the reports which went about of his Majesty's (31) partiality in the affairs, and of his officers' and spectators' rudeness while the conflict lasted. So I came home that night, and went next morning to London, where from the officers of the Tower, Sir William Compton (36), Sir Charles Berkeley (31), and others who were attending at this meeting of the Ambassadors three days before, having collected what I could, I drew up a Narrative in vindication of his Majesty (31), and the carriage of his officers and standers-by.

On Thursday his Majesty (31) sent one of the pages of the back stairs for me to wait on him with my papers, in his cabinet where was present only Sir Henry Bennett (43) (Privy-Purse), when beginning to read to his Majesty (31) what I had drawn up, by the time I had read half a page, came in Mr. Secretary Morice (58) with a large paper, desiring to speak with his Majesty (31), who told him he was now very busy, and therefore ordered him to come again some other time; the Secretary replied that what he had in his hand was of extraordinary importance. So the King (31) rose up, and, commanding me to stay, went aside to a corner of the room with the Secretary; after a while, the Secretary being dispatched, his Majesty (31) returning to me at the table, a letter was brought him from Madame out of France;68 this he read and then bid me proceed from where I left off. This I did till I had ended all the narrative, to his Majesty's (31) great satisfaction; and, after I had inserted one or two more clauses, in which his Majesty (31) instructed me, commanded that it should that night be sent to the posthouse, directed to the Lord Ambassador at Paris (the Earl of St. Alban's), and then at leisure to prepare him a copy, which he would publish. This I did, and immediately sent my papers to the Secretary of State, with his Majesty's (31) express command of dispatching them that night for France. Before I went out of the King's (31) closet, he called me back to show me some ivory statues, and other curiosities that I had not seen before.

Around 1676 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Henry Bennet 1st Earl Arlington 1618-1685 wearing his Garter Robes. Before 07 Dec 1680 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Henry Bennet 1st Earl Arlington 1618-1685. Before 12 Dec 1676 Jacob Huysmans Painter 1633-1696. Portrait of William Morice 1602-1676.

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John Evelyn's Diary 03 October 1661. 03 Oct 1661. Next evening, being in the withdrawing-room adjoining the bedchamber, his Majesty (31) espying me came to me from a great crowd of noblemen standing near the fire, and asked me if I had done; and told me he feared it might be a little too sharp, on second thoughts, for he had that morning spoken with the French Ambassador, who it seems had palliated the matter, and was very tame; and therefore directed me where I should soften a period or two, before it was published (as afterward it was). This night also he spoke to me to give him a sight of what was sent, and to bring it to him in his bedchamber; which I did, and received it again from him at dinner, next day. By Saturday, having finished it with all his Majesty's (31) notes, the King (31) being gone abroad, I sent the papers to Sir Henry Bennett (43) (Privy-Purse and a great favorite), and slipped home, being myself much indisposed and harassed with going about, and sitting up to write.

John Evelyn's Diary 19 October 1661. 19 Oct 1661. I went to London to visit my Lord of Bristol (48), having been with Sir John Denham (46) his Majesty's (31) surveyor) to consult with him about the placing of his palace at Greenwich, which I would have had built between the river and the Queen's House, so as a large square cut should have let in the Thames like a bay; but Sir John (46) was for setting it on piles at the very brink of the water, which I did not assent to; and so came away, knowing Sir John (46) to be a better poet than architect, though he had Mr. Webb (Inigo Jones's man) to assist him.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 21 October 1661. 21 Oct 1661. Early with Mr. Moore by coach to Chelsy, to my Lord Privy Seal's (55), but have missed of coming time enough; and having taken up Mr. Pargiter, the goldsmith (who is the man of the world that I do most know and believe to be a cheating rogue), we drank our morning draft there together of cake and ale, and did make good sport of his losing so much by the King's (31) coming in, he having bought much of Crown lands, of which, God forgive me! I am very glad.

At Whitehall, at the Privy Seal, did with Sir W. Pen (40) take advice about passing of things of his there that concern his matters of Ireland. Thence to the Wardrobe and dined, and so against my judgment and conscience (which God forgive, for my very heart knows that I offend God in breaking my vows herein) to the Opera, which is now newly begun to act again, after some alteracion of their scene, which do make it very much worse; but the play, "Love and Honour", being the first time of their acting it, is a very good plot, and well done.

So on foot home, and after a little business done in my study and supper, to bed.

John Evelyn's Diary 02 November 1661. 02 Nov 1661. Came Sir Henry Bennett (43), since Lord Arlington, to visit me, and to acquaint me that his Majesty (31) would do me the honor to come and see my garden; but, it being then late, it was deferred.

John Evelyn's Diary 11 November 1661. 11 Nov 1661. I was so idle as to go to see a play called "Love and Honor". Dined at Arundel House; and that evening discoursed with his Majesty (31) about shipping, in which he was exceedingly skillful.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 12 November 1661. 12 Nov 1661. At the office all the morning. Dined at home alone. So abroad with Sir W. Pen (40). My wife and I to "Bartholomew Fayre", with puppets which I had seen once before, and at play without puppets often, but though I love the play as much as ever I did, yet I do not like the puppets at all, but think it to be a lessening to it.

Thence to the Greyhound in Fleet Street, and there drank some raspberry sack and eat some sasages, and so home very merry. This day Holmes come to town; and we do expect hourly to hear what usage he hath from the Duke and the King (31) about this late business of letting the Swedish Embassador go by him without striking his flag1.

Note 1. And that, too, in the river Thames itself. The right of obliging ships of all nations to lower topsails, and strike their flag to the English, whilst in the British seas, and even on the French coasts, had, up to this time, been rigidly enforced. When Sully was sent by Henry IV., in 1603, to congratulate James I on his accession, and in a ship commanded by a vice-admiral of France, he was fired upon by the English Admiral Mansel, for daring to hoist the flag of France in the presence of that of England, although within sight of Calais. The French flag was lowered, and all Sully's remonstrances could obtain no redress for the alleged injury. According to Rugge, Holmes had insisted upon the Swede's lowering his flag, and had even fired a shot to enforce the observance of the usual tribute of respect, but the ambassador sent his secretary and another gentleman on board the English frigate, to assure the captain, upon the word and honour of an ambassador, that the King (31), by a verbal order, had given him leave and a dispensation in that particular, and upon this false representation he was allowed to proceed on his voyage without further question. This want of caution, and disobedience of orders, fell heavily on Holmes, who was imprisoned for two months, and not re-appointed to the same ship. Brahe afterwards made a proper submission for the fault he had committed, at his own court. His conduct reminds us of Sir Henry Wotton's definition of an ambassador—that he is an honest man sent to lie abroad for the good of his country. A pun upon the term lieger—ambassador. B.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 20 November 1661. 20 Nov 1661. To Westminster Hall by water in the morning, where I saw the King (31) going in his barge to the Parliament House; this being the first day of their meeting again. And the Bishops, I hear, do take their places in the Lords House this day. I walked long in the Hall, but hear nothing of news, but what Ned Pickering (43) tells me, which I am troubled at, that Sir J. Minnes (62) should send word to the King (31), that if he did not remove all my Lord Sandwich's (36) captains out of this fleet, he believed the King (31) would not be master of the fleet at its coming again: and so do endeavour to bring disgrace upon my Lord. But I hope all that will not do, for the King (31) loves him.

Hence by water to the Wardrobe, and dined with my Lady, my Lady Wright being there too, whom I find to be a witty but very conceited woman and proud.

And after dinner Mr. Moore and I to the Temple, and there he read my bill and likes it well enough, and so we came back again, he with me as far as the lower end of Cheapside, and there I gave him a pint of sack and parted, and I home, and went seriously to look over my papers touching T. Trice, and I think I have found some that will go near to do me more good in this difference of ours than all I have before.

So to bed with my mind cheery upon it, and lay long reading "Hobbs his Liberty and Necessity", and a little but very shrewd piece, and so to sleep.

Before 09 Dec 1641 Anthony Van Dyck Painter 1599-1641. Portrait of John Mennes Comptroller 1599-1671.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 21 November 1661. 21 Nov 1661. In the morning again at looking over my last night's papers, and by and by comes Mr. Moore, who finds that my papers may do me much good. He staid and dined with me, and we had a good surloyne of rost beefe, the first that ever I had of my own buying since I kept house; and after dinner he and I to the Temple, and there showed Mr. Smallwood my papers, who likes them well, and so I left them with him, and went with Mr. Moore to Gray's Inn to his chamber, and there he shewed me his old Camden's "Britannica", which I intend to buy of him, and so took it away with me, and left it at St. Paul's Churchyard to be bound, and so home and to the office all the afternoon; it being the first afternoon that we have sat, which we are now to do always, so long as the Parliament sits, who this day have voted the King (31) L120,0001 to be raised to pay his debts. And after the office with Sir W. Batten (60) to the Dolphin, and drank and left him there, and I again to the Temple about my business, and so on foot home again and to bed.

Note 1. A mistake. According to the journals, £1,200,000. And see Diary, February 29th, 1663-64.—M. B.

John Evelyn's Diary 24 November 1661. 24 Nov 1661. This night his Majesty (31) fell into discourse with me concerning bees, etc.

John Evelyn's Diary 26 November 1661. 26 Nov 1661. I saw "Hamlet, Prince of Denmark" played; but now the old plays began to disgust this refined age, since his Majesty's (31) being so long abroad.

John Evelyn's Diary 28 November 1661. 28 Nov 1661. I dined at Chiffinch's house-warming, in St James' Park; he was his Majesty's (31) closet-keeper, and had his new house full of good pictures, etc. There dined with us Russell, Popish Bishop of Cape Verd, who was sent out to negotiate his Majesty's (31) match with the [his future wife] Infanta of Portugal (23), after the Ambassador was returned.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 30 November 1661. 30 Nov 1661. In the morning to the Temple, Mr. Philips and Dr. Williams about my several law matters, and so to the Wardrobe to dinner, and after dinner stole away, my Lady not dining out of her chamber, and so home and then to the office all the afternoon, and that being done Sir W. Batten (60) and I and Captain Cock got a bottle of sack into the office, and there we sat late and drank and talked, and so home and to bed.

I am this day in very good health, only got a little cold. The Parliament has sat a pretty while. The old condemned judges of the late King have been brought before the Parliament, and like to be hanged. I am deep in Chancery against Tom Trice, God give a good issue; and myself under great trouble for my late great expending of money vainly, which God stop for the future. This is the last day for the old State's coyne1 to pass in common payments, but they say it is to pass in publique payments to the King (31) three months still.

Note 1. In a speech of Lord Lucas in the House of Lords, the 22nd February, 1670-1 (which speech was burnt by the common hangman), he thus adverted to that coin: "It is evident that there is scarcity of money; for all the parliament's money called breeches (a fit stamp for the coin of the Rump) is wholly vanished—the King's (31) proclamation and the Dutch have swept it all away, and of his now majesty's coin there appears but very little; so that in effect we have none left for common use, but a little old lean coined money of the late three former princes. And what supply is preparing for it, my lords? I hear of none, unless it be of copper farthings, and this is the metal that is to vindicate, according to the inscription on it, the dominion of the four seas".—Quoted in Penn's "Memorials of Sir Wm. Pen (40)n", ii. 264.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 06 December 1661. 06 Dec 1661. Lay long in bed, and then to Westminster Hall and there walked, and then with Mr. Spicer, Hawly, Washington, and little Mr. Ashwell (my old friends at the Exchequer) to the Dog, and gave them two or three quarts of wine, and so away to White Hall, where, at Sir G. Carteret's (51), Sir Williams both and I dined very pleasantly; and after dinner, by appointment, came the Governors of the East India Company, to sign and seal the contract between us1 (in the King's (31) name) and them.

And that done, we all went to the King's (31) closet, and there spoke with the King (31) and the [his brother] Duke of York (28), who promise to be very careful of the India trade to the utmost.

So back to Sir G. Carteret's (51) and ended our business, and so away homewards, but Sir W. Batten (60) offering to go to the 3 Tuns at Charing Cross, where the pretty maid the daughter of the house is; I was saying that, that tickled Sir W. Pen (40), he seemed to take these words very captiously and angrily, which I saw, and seemed indifferent to go home in his coach with them, and so took leave to go to the Council Chamber to speak with my Lord Privy Seal, which I did, but they did stay for me, which I was pleased at, but no words passed between him and me in all our way home. So home and to bed.

Note 1. Charles II's charter to the Company, confirming and extending the former charter, is dated April 3rd, 1661. Bombay, just acquired as part of Queen Katherine's dowry, was made over to the Company by Letters Patent dated March 27th, 1669.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 07 December 1661. 07 Dec 1661. This morning comes Captain Ferrers and the German, Emanuel Luffe, who goes as one of my Lord's footmen, though he deserves a much better preferment, to take their leave of me, and here I got the German to play upon my Theorbo, which he did both below and in my wife's chamber, who was in bed. He plays bravely. I find by him that my lute is a most excellent lute. I did give them a mince pie and a collar of brawn and some wine for their breakfast, and were very merry, and sent for Mr. Adamson's neighbour to drink Mr. Shepley's health.

At last we all parted, but within a quarter of an hour after they were gone, and my wife and I were talking about buying of a fine scallop which is brought her this morning by a woman to be sold, which is to cost her 45s., in comes the German back again, all in a goare of blood, which I wondered at, and tells me that he is afeard that the Captain is killed by the watermen at Towre Stayres; so I presently went thither, and found that upon some rude pressing of the watermen to ply the Captain, he struck one of them with his cane, which they would not take, but struck him again, and then the German drew his sword and ran at one of them, but they were both soundly beaten1. The Captain is, however, got to the boy that carries him and the pages to the Downs, and I went into the alehouse at the Stayres and got them to deliver the Captain's feathers, which one from the Captain was come to demand, and went home again, and there found my wife dressing of the German's head, and so did [give] him a cravett for his neck, and a crown in his purse, and sent him away again.

Then came Mr. Moore, and he and I to Westminster and to Worcester House to see Mr. Montagu before he goes away (this night), but could not see him, nor do I think he has a mind to see us for fear of our demanding of money of him for anything. So back to Whitehall, and eat a bit of meat at Wilkinson's, and then to the Privy Seal, and sealed there the first time this month; and, among other things that passed, there was a patent for Roger Palmer (Madam Palmer's husband) to be Earl of Castlemaine and Baron of Limbricke in Ireland; but the honour is tied up to the males got of the body of this wife, the Lady Barbary: the reason whereof every body knows. That done, by water to the office, when I found Sir W. Pen (40) had been alone all the night and was just rose, and so I to him, and with him I found Captain Holmes, who had wrote his case, and gives me a copy, as he hath many among his friends, and presented the same to the King (31) and Council. Which I shall make use of in my attempt of writing something concerning the business of striking sail, which I am now about. But he do cry out against Sir John Minnes (62), as the veriest knave and rogue and coward in the world, which I was glad to hear, because he has given out bad words concerning my Lord, though I am sorry it is so. Here Captain Cox then came in, and he and I staid a good while and so good night. Home and wrote by the post to my father, and so to bed.

Note 1. See a similar outrage, committed by Captain Ferrers, September 12th, 1662. Swords were usually worn by footmen. See May 4th, 1662, host. B.

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On 11 Dec 1661 Roger Palmer 1st Earl Castlemaine 1634-1705 (27) was created 1st Earl Castlemaine, 1st Baron Limerick by Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (31) to Roger Palmer 1st Earl Castlemaine 1634-1705 (27) in gratitude for allowing his wife Barbara Villiers 1st Duchess of Cleveland 1640-1709 (21) to become the King's mistress. Barbara Villiers 1st Duchess of Cleveland 1640-1709 (21) by marriage Countess Castlemaine.

John Evelyn's Diary 14 December 1661. 14 Dec 1661. I saw otter hunting with the King (31), and killed one.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 21 December 1661. 21 Dec 1661. To White Hall to the Privy Seal, where my Lord Privy Seal (55) did tell us he could seal no more this month, for that he goes thirty miles out of town to keep his Christmas. At which I was glad, but only afeard lest any thing of the King's (31) should force us to go after him to get a seal in the country.

Thence to Westminster Hall (having by the way drank with Mrs. Sarah and Mrs. Betty at my Lord's lodgings), and thence taken by some Exchequer men to the Dogg, where, being St. Thomas's day, by custom they have a general meeting at dinner. There I was and all very merry, and there I spoke to Mr. Falconberge to look whether he could out of Domesday Book, give me any thing concerning the sea, and the dominion thereof; which he says he will look after. !Thence taking leave to my brother's, and there by appointment met with Prior of Brampton who had money to pay me, but desiring some advice he stays till Monday.

So by coach home to the office, where I was vexed to see Sir Williams both seem to think so much that I should be a little out of the way, saying that without their Register they were not a Committee, which I took in some dudgeon, and see clearly that I must keep myself at a little distance with them and not crouch, or else I shall never keep myself up even with them. So home and wrote letters by the post. This evening my wife come home from christening Mrs. Hunt's son, his name John, and a merchant in Mark Lane came along with her, that was her partner. So after my business was done, and read something in Mr. Selden, I went to bed.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 25 December 1661. 25 Dec 1661. In the morning to church, where at the door of our pew I was fain to stay, because that the sexton had not opened the door. A good sermon of Mr. Mills. Dined at home all alone, and taking occasion from some fault in the meat to complain of my maid's sluttery, my wife and I fell out, and I up to my chamber in a discontent.

After dinner my wife comes up to me and all friends again, and she and I to walk upon the leads, and there Sir W. Pen (40) called us, and we went to his house and supped with him, but before supper Captain Cock came to us half drunk, and began to talk, but Sir W. Pen (40) knowing his humour and that there was no end of his talking, drinks four great glasses of wine to him, one after another, healths to the King (31), and by that means made him drunk, and so he went away, and so we sat down to supper, and were merry, and so after supper home and to bed.

In 1662 Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (31) sold Dunkirk to his cousin Louis "Sun King" XIV King France 1638-1715 (23) for around £375,000.

In 1662 Christian V King Denmark and Norway 1646-1699 (15) was appointed 466th Knight of the Garter by his second cousin Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (31).

Around 1662 Winifred Wells Maid of Honour 1642- (20) became a mistress of Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (31).

John Evelyn's Diary 01 January 1662. 01 Jan 1662. I went to London, invited to the solemn foolery of the Prince de la Grange, at Lincoln's Inn, where came the King (31), Duke, etc. It began with a grand masque, and a formal pleading before the mock Princes, Grandees, Nobles, and Knights of the Sun. He had his Lord Chancellor (52), Chamberlain, Treasurer, and other Royal Officers, gloriously clad and attended. It ended in a magnificent banquet. One Mr. Lort was the young spark who maintained the pageantry.

John Evelyn's Diary 06 January 1662. 06 Jan 1662. This evening, according to custom, his Majesty (31) opened the revels of that night by throwing the dice himself in the privy chamber, where was a table set on purpose, and lost his £100. (The year before he won £1,500.) The ladies also played very deep. I came away when the Duke of Ormond (51) had won about £1,000, and left them still at passage, cards, etc. At other tables, both there and at the groom-porter's, observing the wicked folly and monstrous excess of passion among some losers; sorry am I that such a wretched custom as play to that excess should be countenanced in a Court, which ought to be an example of virtue to the rest of the Kingdom.

John Evelyn's Diary 10 January 1662. 10 Jan 1662. Being called into his Majesty's (31) closet when Mr. Cooper (53), the rare limner, was crayoning of the King's (31) face and head, to make the stamps for the new milled money now contriving, I had the honor to hold the candle while it was doing, he choosing the night and candlelight for the better finding out the shadows. During this, his Majesty (31) discoursed with me on several things relating to painting and graving.

John Evelyn's Diary 11 January 1662. 11 Jan 1662. I dined at Arundel House, where I heard excellent music performed by the ablest masters, both French and English, on theorbos, viols, organs, and voices, as an exercise against the coming of the [his future wife] Queen (23), purposely composed for her chapel. Afterward, my Lord Aubigny (42) her [his future wife] Majesty's (23) Almoner to be) showed us his elegant lodging, and his wheel-chair for ease and motion, with divers other curiosities; especially a kind of artificial glass, or porcelain, adorned with relievos of paste, hard and beautiful. Lord Aubigny (brother to the Duke of Lennox (49)) was a person of good sense, but wholly abandoned to ease and effeminacy.

I received of Sir Peter Ball, the [his mother] Queen's (52) attorney, a draft of an Act against the nuisance of the smoke of London, to be reformed by removing several trades which are the cause of it, and endanger the health of the King (31) and his people. It was to have been offered to the Parliament, as his Majesty (31) commanded.

John Evelyn's Diary 12 January 1662. 12 Jan 1662. At St. James's chapel preached, or rather harangued, the famous orator, Monsieur Morus, in French. There were present the King (31), [his brother] Duke (28), French Ambassador, Lord Aubigny (42), Earl of Bristol (49), and a world of Roman Catholics, drawn thither to hear this eloquent Protestant.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 16 January 1662. 16 Jan 1662. Towards Cheapside; and in Paul's Churchyard saw the funeral of my Lord Cornwallis (50), late Steward of the King's House, a bold profane talking man, go by, and thence I to the Paynter's (53), and there paid him £6 for the two pictures, and 36s. for the two frames. From thence home, and Mr. Holliard (53) and my brother Tom (28) dined with me, and he did give me good advice about my health.

In the afternoon at the office, and at night to Sir W. Batten (61), and there saw him and Captain Cock and Stokes play at cards, and afterwards supped with them. Stokes told us, that notwithstanding the country of Gambo is so unhealthy, yet the people of the place live very long, so as the present king there is 150 years old, which they count by rains: because every year it rains continually four months together. He also told us, that the Kings (31) there have above 100 wives a-piece, and offered him the choice of any of his wives to lie with, and so he did Captain Holmes.

So home and to bed.

John Evelyn's Diary 16 January 1662. 16 Jan 1662. Having notice of the [his brother] Duke of York's (28) intention to visit my poor habitation and garden this day, I returned, when he was pleased to do me that honor of his own accord, and to stay some time viewing such things as I had to entertain his curiosity. Afterward he caused me to dine with him at the Treasurer of the Navy's house, and to sit with him covered at the same table. There were his [his brother] Highness (28), the Duke of Ormond (51), and several Lords. Then they viewed some of my grounds about a project for a receptacle for ships to be moored in, which was laid aside as a fancy of Sir Nicholas Crisp (63). After this, I accompanied the [his brother] Duke (28) to an East India vessel that lay at Blackwall, where we had entertainment of several curiosities. Among other spirituous drinks, as punch, etc., they gave us Canary that had been carried to and brought from the Indies, which was indeed incomparably good. I returned to London with his [his brother] Highness (28). This night was acted before his Majesty (31) "The Widow", a lewd play.

1662 Trial and Execution of the Regicides

Diary of Samuel Pepys 22 January 1662. 22 Jan 1662. After musique-practice, to White Hall, and thence to Westminster, in my way calling at Mr. George Montagu's (39), to condole him the loss of his son, who was a fine gentleman, and it is no doubt a great discomfort to our two young gentlemen, his companions in France. After this discourse he told me, among other news, the great jealousys that are now in the Parliament House. The Lord Chancellor (52), it seems, taking occasion from this late plot to raise fears in the people, did project the raising of an army forthwith, besides the constant militia, thinking to make the [his brother] Duke of York (28) General thereof. But the House did, in very open terms, say, they were grown too wise to be fooled again into another army; and said they had found how that man that hath the command of an army is not beholden to any body to make him King.

There are factions (private ones at Court) about Madam Palmer; but what it is about I know not. But it is something about the King's favour to her now that the [his future wife] Queen (23) is coming. He told me, too, what sport the King (31) and Court do make at Mr. Edward Montagu's (27) leaving his things behind him.

But the Chancellor (taking it a little more seriously) did openly say to my Lord Chamberlain (60), that had it been such a gallant as my Lord Mandeville (27) his son, it might have; been taken as a frolique; but for him that would be thought a grave coxcomb, it was very strange..

Thence to the Hall, where I heard the House had ordered all the [his father] King's (61) murderers, that remain, to be executed, but Fleetwood (44) and Downes (53).

So to the Wardrobe and there dined, meeting my wife there, who went after dinner with my Lady to see Mr. George Montagu's (39) lady, and I to have a meeting by appointment with Tho. Trice and Dr. Williams in order to a treating about the difference between us, but I find there is no hopes of ending it but by law, and so after a pint or two of wine we parted.

So to the Wardrobe for my wife again, and so home, and after writing and doing some things to bed.

Around 1654. Robert Walker Painter 1599-1658. Portrait of Major General Charles Fleetwood 1618-1692.

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John Evelyn's Diary 24 January 1662. 24 Jan 1662. His Majesty (31) entertained me with his intentions of building his Palace of Greenwich, and quite demolishing the old one; on which I declared my thoughts.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 25 January 1662. 25 Jan 1662. At home and the office all the morning. Walking in the garden to give the gardener directions what to do this year (for I intend to have the garden handsome), Sir W. Pen (40) came to me, and did break a business to me about removing his son from Oxford to Cambridge to some private college. I proposed Magdalene, but cannot name a tutor at present; but I shall think and write about it..

Thence with him to the Trinity-house to dinner; where Sir Richard Brown (one of the clerks of the Council, and who is much concerned against Sir N. Crisp's (63) project of making a great sasse1 in the King's lands about Deptford, to be a wett-dock to hold 200 sail of ships. But the ground, it seems, was long since given by the King (31) to Sir Richard) was, and after the Trinity-house men had done their business, the master, Sir William Rider, came to bid us welcome; and so to dinner, where good cheer and discourse, but I eat a little too much beef, which made me sick, and so after dinner we went to the office, and there in a garden I went in the dark and vomited, whereby I did much ease my stomach..

Thence to supper with my wife to Sir W. Pen's (40), his daughter being come home to-day, not being very well, and so while we were at supper comes Mr. Moore with letters from my Lord Sandwich (36), speaking of his lying still at Tangier, looking for the fleet; which, we hope, is now in a good way thither.

So home to write letters by the post to-night, and then again to Sir W. Pen's (40) to cards, where very merry, and so home and to bed.

Note 1. A kind of weir with flood-gate, or a navigable sluice. This project is mentioned by Evelyn, January 16th, 1661-62, and Lysons' "Environs" vol. iv., p. 392. B.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 27 January 1662. 27 Jan 1662. This morning, both Sir Williams and I by barge to Deptford-yard to give orders in businesses there; and called on several ships, also to give orders, and so to Woolwich, and there dined at Mr. Falconer's of victuals we carried ourselves, and one Mr. Dekins, the father of my Morena, of whom we have lately bought some hemp.

That being done we went home again. This morning, going to take water upon Tower-hill, we met with three sleddes standing there to carry my Lord Monson (63) and Sir H. Mildmay (69) and another, to the gallows and back again, with ropes about their necks; which is to be repeated every year, this being the day of their sentencing the King (31).

John Evelyn's Diary 11 February 1662. 11 Feb 1662. I saw a comedy acted before the Duchess of York (24) at the Cockpit. the King (31) was not at it.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 17 February 1662. 17 Feb 1662. This morning, both Sir Williams, myself, and Captain Cocke (45) and Captain Tinker of the Convertine, which we are going to look upon (being intended to go with these ships fitting for the East Indys), down to Deptford; and thence, after being on shipboard, to Woolwich, and there eat something.

The Sir Williams being unwilling to eat flesh1, Captain Cocke (45) and I had a breast of veal roasted. And here I drank wine upon necessity, being ill for want of it, and I find reason to fear that by my too sudden leaving off wine, I do contract many evils upon myself.

Going and coming we played at gleeke, and I won 9s. 6d. clear, the most that ever I won in my life. I pray God it may not tempt me to play again. Being come home again we went to the Dolphin, where Mr. Alcock and my Lady and Mrs. Martha Batten came to us, and after them many others (as it always is where Sir W. Batten (61) goes), and there we had some pullets to supper. I eat though I was not very well, and after that left them, and so home and to bed.

Note 1. In Lent, of which the observance, intermitted for nineteen years, was now reviving. We have seen that Pepys, as yet, had not cast off all show of Puritanism. "In this month the Fishmongers' Company petitioned the King (31) that Lent might be kept, because they had provided abundance of fish for this season, and their prayer was granted".—Rugge. B.

John Evelyn's Diary 17 February 1662. 17 Feb 1662. I went with my Lord of Bristol (49) to see his house at Wimbledon, newly bought of the [his mother] Queen-Mother (52), to help contrive the garden after the modern. It is a delicious place for prospect and the thickets, but the soil cold and weeping clay. Returned that evening with Sir Henry Bennett (44).

This night was buried in Westminster Abbey the [his aunt] Queen of Bohemia (65), after all her sorrows and afflictions being come to die in the arms of her nephew, the King (31); also this night and the next day fell such a storm of hail, thunder, and lightning, as never was seen the like in any man's memory, especially the tempest of wind, being southwest, which subverted, besides huge trees, many houses, innumerable chimneys (among others that of my parlor at Sayes Court), and made such havoc at land and sea, that several perished on both. Divers lamentable fires were also kindled at this time; so exceedingly was God's hand against this ungrateful and vicious nation and Court.

In 1610 Robert In 1642 Gerrit van Honthorst Painter 1592-1656. Portrait of Princess Elizabeth Stewart Queen Bohemia 1596-1662. After 07 Feb 1612 Unknown Painter. Portrait of Princess Elizabeth Stewart Queen Bohemia 1596-1662. Elizabeth's standing collar of reticella is worked with the Royal coat of arms with its lion and unicorn supporters. She wears a gown of Italian silk brocade. The black armband is thought to be a sign of mourning for her brother Henry Frederick, Prince of Wales who died on 07 Feb 1612.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 03 March 1662. 04 Mar 1662. At the office all the morning, dined at home at noon, and then to the office again in the afternoon to put things in order there, my mind being very busy in settling the office to ourselves, I having now got distinct offices for the other two.

By and by Sir W. Pen (40) and I and my wife in his coach to Moore Fields, where we walked a great while, though it was no fair weather and cold; and after our walk we went to the Pope's Head, and eat cakes and other fine things, and so home, and I up to my chamber to read and write, and so to bed.

Note 1. Although fumage or smoke money was as old as the Conquest, the first parliamentary levy of hearth or chimney money was by statute 13 and 14 Car. II, c. 10, which gave the King (31) an hereditary revenue of two shillings annually upon every hearth in all houses paying church or poor rate. This act was repealed by statute I William and Mary, c. 10, it being declared in the preamble as "not only a great oppression to the poorer sort, but a badge of slavery upon the whole people, exposing every man's house to be entered into and searched at pleasure by persons unknown to him"..

Diary of Samuel Pepys 05 March 1662. 05 Mar 1662. In the morning to the Painter's (53) about my little picture. Thence to Tom's about business, and so to the pewterer's, to buy a poore's-box to put my forfeits in, upon breach of my late vows.

So to the Wardrobe and dined, and thence home and to my office, and there sat looking over my papers of my voyage, when we fetched over the King (31), and tore so many of these that were worth nothing, as filled my closet as high as my knees. I staid doing this till 10 at night, and so home and to bed.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 07 March 1662. 07 Mar 1662. Early to White Hall to the chappell, where by Mr. Blagrave's means I got into his pew, and heard Dr. Creeton, the great Scotchman, preach before the King (31), and [his brother] Duke (28) and Duchess (24), upon the words of Micah:—"Roule yourselves in dust". He made a most learned sermon upon the words; but, in his application, the most comical man that ever I heard in my life. Just such a man as Hugh Peters; saying that it had been better for the poor Cavalier never to have come with the King (31) into England again; for he that hath the impudence to deny obedience to the lawful magistrate, and to swear to the oath of allegiance, &c., was better treated now-a-days in Newgate, than a poor Royalist, that hath suffered all his life for the King (31), is at White Hall among his friends. He discoursed much against a man's lying with his wife in Lent, saying that he might be as incontinent during that time with his own wife as at another time in another man's bed.

Thence with Mr. Moore to Whitehall and walked a little, and so to the Wardrobe to dinner, and so home to the office about business till late at night by myself, and so home and to bed.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 12 March 1662. 12 Mar 1662. At the office from morning till night putting of papers in order, that so I may have my office in an orderly condition. I took much pains in sorting and folding of papers.

Dined at home, and there came Mrs. Goldsborough about her old business, but I did give her a short answer and sent away. This morning we had news from Mr. Coventry (34), that Sir G. Downing (37) (like a perfidious rogue, though the action is good and of service to the King (31)1, yet he cannot with any good conscience do it) hath taken Okey, Corbet, and Barkestead at Delfe, in Holland, and sent them home in the Blackmore. Sir W. Pen (40), talking to me this afternoon of what a strange thing it is for Downing to do this, he told me of a speech he made to the Lords States of Holland, telling them to their faces that he observed that he was not received with the respect and observance now, that he was when he came from the traitor and rebell Cromwell: by whom, I am sure, he hath got all he hath in the world,—and they know it too2.

Note 1. "And hail the treason though we hate the traitor". On the 21st Charles returned his formal thanks to the States for their assistance in the matter. B.

Note 2. Charles, when residing at Brussels, went to the Hague at night to pay a secret visit to his sister, the Princess of Orange. After his arrival, "an old reverend-like man, with a long grey beard and ordinary grey clothes", entered the inn and begged for a private interview. He then fell on his knees, and pulling off his disguise, discovered himself to be Mr Downing (37), then ambassador from Cromwell to the States-General. He informed Charles that the Dutch had guaranteed to the English Commonwealth to deliver him into their hands should he ever set foot in their territory. This warning probably saved Charles's liberty.—M. B.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 14 March 1662. 14 Mar 1662. At the office all the morning.

At noon Sir W. Pen (40) and I making a bargain with the workmen about his house, at which I did see things not so well contracted for as I would have, and I was vexed and made him so too to see me so critical in the agreement.

Home to dinner. In the afternoon came the German Dr. Kuffler1, to discourse with us about his engine to blow up ships. We doubted not the matter of fact, it being tried in Cromwell's time, but the safety of carrying them in ships; but he do tell us, that when he comes to tell the King (31) his secret (for none but the Kings (31), successively, and their heirs must know it), it will appear to be of no danger at all. We concluded nothing; but shall discourse with the [his brother] Duke of York (28) to-morrow about it.

In the afternoon, after we had done with him, I went to speak with my uncle Wight and found my aunt to have been ill a good while of a miscarriage, I staid and talked with her a good while.

Thence home, where I found that Sarah the maid had been very ill all day, and my wife fears that she will have an ague, which I am much troubled for.

Thence to my lute, upon which I have not played a week or two, and trying over the two songs of "Nulla, nulla", &c., and "Gaze not on Swans", which Mr. Berkenshaw set for me a little while ago, I find them most incomparable songs as he has set them, of which I am not a little proud, because I am sure none in the world has them but myself, not so much as he himself that set them.

So to bed.

Note 1. This is the secret of Cornelius van Drebbel (1572-1634), which is referred to again by Pepys on November 11th, 1663. Johannes Siberius Kuffler was originally a dyer at Leyden, who married Drebbel's daughter. In the "Calendar of State Papers, Domestic", 1661-62 (p. 327), is the following entry: "Request of Johannes Siberius Kuffler and Jacob Drebble for a trial of their father Cornelius Drebble's secret of sinking or destroying ships in a moment; and if it succeed, for a reward of £10,000. The secret was left them by will, to preserve for the English crown before any other state". Cornelius van Drebbel settled in London, where he died. James I took some interest in him, and is said to have interfered when he was in prison in Austria and in danger of execution.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 16 March 1662. 16 Mar 1662. Lord's Day. This morning, till churches were done, I spent going from one church to another and hearing a bit here and a bit there.

So to the Wardrobe to dinner with the young Ladies, and then into my Lady's chamber and talked with her a good while, and so walked to White Hall, an hour or two in the Park, which is now very pleasant. Here the King (31) and [his brother] Duke (28) came to see their fowl play. The Duke took very civil notice of me.

So walked home, calling at Tom's, giving him my resolution about my boy's livery. Here I spent an hour walking in the garden with Sir W. Pen (40), and then my wife and I thither to supper, where his son William is at home not well. But all things, I fear, do not go well with them; they look discontentedly, but I know not what ails them. Drinking of cold small beer here I fell ill, and was forced to go out and vomit, and so was well again and went home by and by to bed. Fearing that Sarah would continue ill, wife and I removed this night to our matted chamber and lay there.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 21 March 1662. 21 Mar 1662. With Sir W. Batten (61) by water to Whitehall, and he to Westminster. I went to see Sarah and my Lord's lodgings, which are now all in dirt, to be repaired against my Lord's coming from sea with the [his future wife] Queen (23).

Thence to Westminster Hall; and there walked up and down and heard the great difference that hath been between my Lord Chancellor (53) and my Lord of Bristol (49), about a proviso that my Lord Chancellor (53) would have brought into the Bill for Conformity, that it shall be in the power of the King (31), when he sees fit, to dispense with the Act of Conformity; and though it be carried in the House of Lords, yet it is believed it will hardly pass in the Commons.

Here I met with Chetwind, Parry, and several others, and went to a little house behind the Lords' house to drink some wormwood ale, which doubtless was a bawdy house, the mistress of the house having the look and dress: Here we staid till noon and then parted, I by water to the Wardrobe to meet my wife, but my Lady and they had dined, and so I dined with the servants, and then up to my Lady, and there staid and talked a good while, and then parted and walked into Cheapside, and there saw my little picture, for which I am to sit again the next week.

So home, and staid late writing at my office, and so home and to bed, troubled that now my boy is also fallen sick of an ague we fear.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 23 March 1662. 23 Mar 1662. Lord's Day. This morning was brought me my boy's fine livery, which is very handsome, and I do think to keep to black and gold lace upon gray, being the colour of my arms, for ever.

To church in the morning, and so home with Sir W. Batten (61), and there eat some boiled great oysters, and so home, and while I was at dinner with my wife I was sick, and was forced to vomit up my oysters again, and then I was well..

By and by a coach came to call me by my appointment, and so my wife and I carried to Westminster to Mrs. Hunt's, and I to Whitehall, Worcester House, and to my Lord Treasurer's to have found Sir G. Carteret (52), but missed in all these places.

So back to White Hall, and there met with Captn. Isham, this day come from Lisbon, with letters from the [his future wife] Queen (23) to the King (31). And he did give me letters which speak that our fleet is all at Lisbon1 and that the [his future wife] Queen (23) do not intend to embarque sooner than tomorrow come fortnight.

So having sent for my wife, she and I to my Lady Sandwich (37), and after a short visit away home. She home, and I to Sir G. Carteret's (52) about business, and so home too, and Sarah having her fit we went to bed.

Note 1. One of these letters was probably from John Creed. Mr. S. J. Davey, of 47, Great Russell Street, Bloomsbury, in 1889 had in his possession nine long letters from Creed to Pepys. In the first of these, dated from Lisbon, March, 1662, Creed wrote: "My Lord Embassador doth all he can to hasten the [his future wife] Queen's (23) Majestie's embarquement, there being reasons enough against suffering any unnecessary delay". There appear to have been considerable delays in the arrangements for the following declaration of Charles II was dated June 22nd, 1661: "Charles R. Whereas his Maj. is resolved to declare, under his Royall hand and seale, the most illustrious Lady Infanta of Portugall to be his lawfull wife, before the Treaty shall be signed by the King (31) of Portugall; which is to be done only for the better expediting the marriage, without sending to Rome for a dispensation, which the laws of Portugall would require if the said most Illustrious Infanta were to be betrothed in that Kingdome", &c.

In or before 1674. John Hayls Painter 1600-1679. Portrait of Jemima Crew Countess Sandwich 1625-1674.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 27 March 1662. 27 Mar 1662. Early Sir G. Carteret (52), both Sir Williams and I by coach to Deptford, it being very windy and rainy weather, taking a codd and some prawnes in Fish Street with us. We settled to pay the Guernsey, a small ship, but come to a great deal of money, it having been unpaid ever since before the King (31) came in, by which means not only the King (31) pays wages while the ship has lain still, but the poor men have most of them been forced to borrow all the money due for their wages before they receive it, and that at a dear rate, God knows, so that many of them had very little to receive at the table, which grieved me to see it.

To dinner, very merry. Then Sir George to London, and we again to the pay, and that done by coach home again and to the office, doing some business, and so home and to bed.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 31 March 1662. 31 Mar 1662. This morning Mr. Coventry (34) and all our company met at the office about some business of the victualling, which being dispatched we parted. I to my Lord Crew's to dinner (in my way calling upon my brother Tom (28), with whom I staid a good while and talked, and find him a man like to do well, which contents me much), where used with much respect, and talking with him about my Lord's debts, and whether we should make use of an offer of Sir G. Carteret's (52) to lend my Lady 4 or £500, he told me by no means, we must not oblige my Lord to him, and by the by he made a question whether it was not my Lord's interest a little to appear to the King (31) in debt, and for people to clamor against him as well as others for their money, that by that means the King (31) and the world may see that he do lay out for the King's honour upon his own main stock, which many he tells me do, that in fine if there be occasion he and I will be bound for it.

Thence to Sir Thomas Crew's (38) lodgings. He hath been ill, and continues so, under fits of apoplexy. Among other things, he and I did discourse much of Mr. Montagu's base doings, and the dishonour that he will do my Lord, as well as cheating him of 2 or £3,000, which is too true.

Thence to the play, where coming late, and meeting with Sir W. Pen (40), who had got room for my wife and his daughter in the pit, he and I into one of the boxes, and there we sat and heard "The Little Thiefe", a pretty play and well done.

Thence home, and walked in the garden with them, and then to the house to supper and sat late talking, and so to bed.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 01 April 1662. 01 Apr 1662. Within all the morning and at the office.

At noon my wife and I (having paid our maid Nell her whole wages, who has been with me half a year, and now goes away for altogether) to the Wardrobe, where my Lady and company had almost dined. We sat down and dined. Here was Mr. Herbert (22), son to Sir Charles Herbert, that lately came with letters from my Lord Sandwich (36) to the King (31). After some discourse we remembered one another to have been together at the tavern when Mr. Fanshaw took his leave of me at his going to Portugall with Sir Richard.

After dinner he and I and the two young ladies and my wife to the playhouse, the Opera, and saw "The Mayd in ye Mill", a pretty good play. In the middle of the play my Lady Paulina (13), who had taken physique this morning, had need to go forth, and so I took the poor lady out and carried her to the Grange, and there sent the maid of the house into a room to her, and she did what she had a mind to, and so back again to the play; and that being done, in their coach I took them to Islington, and then, after a walk in the fields, I took them to the great cheese-cake house and entertained them, and so home, and after an hour's stay with my Lady, their coach carried us home, and so weary to bed.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 06 April 1662. 06 Apr 1662. Lord's Day. By water to White Hall, to Sir G. Carteret (52), to give him an account of the backwardness of the ships we have hired to Portugall: at which he is much troubled.

Thence to the Chappell, and there, though crowded, heard a very honest sermon before the King (31) by a Canon of Christ Church, upon these words, "Having a form of godliness, but denying", &c. Among other things, did much insist upon the sin of adultery: which methought might touch the King (31), and the more because he forced it into his sermon, methinks, besides his text.

So up and saw the King (31) at dinner; and thence with Sir G. Carteret (52) to his lodgings to dinner, with him and his lady (60), where I saluted her, and was well received as a stranger by her; she seems a good lady, and all their discourse, which was very much, was upon their sufferings and services for the King (31). Yet not without some trouble, to see that some that had been much bound to them, do now neglect them; and others again most civil that have received least from them: and I do believe that he hath been a good servant to the King (31).

Thence to walk in the Park, where the King (31) and [his brother] Duke (28) did walk round the Park.

After I was tired I went and took boat to Milford stairs, and so to Graye's Inn walks, the first time I have been there this year, and it is very pleasant and full of good company. When tired I walked to the Wardrobe, and there staid a little with my Lady, and so by water from Paul's Wharf (where my boat staid for me), home and supped with my wife with Sir W. Pen (40), and so home and to bed.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 11 April 1662. 11 Apr 1662. Up early to my lute and a song, then about six o'clock with Sir W. Pen (40) by water to Deptford; and among the ships now going to Portugall with men and horse, to see them dispatched.

So to Greenwich; and had a fine pleasant walk to Woolwich, having in our company Captn. Minnes, with whom I was much pleased to hear him talk in fine language, but pretty well for all that. Among other things, he and the other Captains that were with us tell me that negros drowned look white and lose their blackness, which I never heard before. At Woolwich, up and down to do the same business; and so back to Greenwich by water, and there while something is dressing for our dinner, Sir William and I walked into the Park, where the King (31) hath planted trees and made steps in the hill up to the Castle, which is very magnificent. So up and down the house, which is now repayring in the [his future wife] Queen's (23) lodgings.

So to dinner at the Globe, and Captain Lambert of the Duke's pleasure boat came to us and dined with us, and were merry, and so home, and I in the evening to the Exchange, and spoke with uncle Wight, and so home and walked with my wife on the leads late, and so the barber came to me, and so to bed very weary, which I seldom am.

On 12 Apr 1662 William Warren Timber Merchant was knighted by Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (31).

Diary of Samuel Pepys 13 April 1662. 13 Apr 1662. Lord's Day. In the morning to Paul's, where I heard a pretty good sermon, and thence to dinner with my Lady at the Wardrobe; and after much talk with her after dinner, I went to the Temple to Church, and there heard another: by the same token a boy, being asleep, fell down a high seat to the ground, ready to break his neck, but got no hurt.

Thence to Graye's Inn walkes; and there met Mr. Pickering and walked with him two hours till 8 o'clock till I was quite weary. His discourse most about the pride of the Duchess of York (25); and how all the ladies envy my Baroness Castlemaine's (21). He intends to go to Portsmouth to meet the [his future wife] Queen (23) this week; which is now the discourse and expectation of the town.

So home, and no sooner come but Sir W. Warren comes to me to bring me a paper of Field's (with whom we have lately had a great deal of trouble at the office), being a bitter petition to the King (31) against our office for not doing justice upon his complaint to us of embezzlement of the King's stores by one Turpin. I took Sir William to Sir W. Pen's (40) (who was newly come from Walthamstow), and there we read it and discoursed, but we do not much fear it, the King (31) referring it to the [his brother] Duke of York (28).

So we drank a glass or two of wine, and so home and I to bed, my wife being in bed already.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 19 April 1662. 19 Apr 1662. This morning, before we sat, I went to Aldgate; and at the corner shop, a draper's, I stood, and did see Barkestead, Okey, and Corbet, drawn towards the gallows at Tiburne; and there they were hanged and quartered. They all looked very cheerful; but I hear they all die defending what they did to the King (31) to be just; which is very strange.

So to the office and then home to dinner, and Captain David Lambert came to take his leave of me, he being to go back to Tangier there to lie. Then abroad about business, and in the evening did get a bever, an old one, but a very good one, of Sir W. Batten (61), for which I must give him something; but I am very well pleased with it. So after writing by the post to bed.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 20 April 1662. 20 Apr 1662. Lord's Day. My intention being to go this morning to White Hall to hear South (27), my Lord Chancellor's (53) chaplain, the famous preacher and oratour of Oxford, (who the last Lord's day did sink down in the pulpit before the King (31), and could not proceed,) it did rain, and the wind against me, that I could by no means get a boat or coach to carry me; and so I staid at Paul's, where the judges did all meet, and heard a sermon, it being the first Sunday of the term; but they had a very poor sermon.

So to my Lady's and dined, and so to White Hall to Sir G. Carteret (52), and so to the Chappell, where I challenged my pew as Clerk of the Privy Seal and had it, and then walked home with Mr. Blagrave to his old house in the Fishyard, and there he had a pretty kinswoman that sings, and we did sing some holy things, and afterwards others came in and so I left them, and by water through the bridge (which did trouble me) home, and so to bed.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 21 April 1662. 21 Apr 1662. This morning I attempted to persuade my wife in bed to go to Brampton this week, but she would not, which troubles me, and seeing that I could keep it no longer from her, I told her that I was resolved to go to Portsmouth to-morrow. Sir W. Batten (61) goes to Chatham to-day, and will be back again to come for Portsmouth after us on Thursday next. I went to Westminster and several places about business. Then at noon dined with my Lord Crew; and after dinner went up to Sir Thos. Crew's chamber, who is still ill. He tells me how my Lady Duchess of Richmond and Castlemaine had a falling out the other day; and she calls the latter Jane Shore, and did hope to see her come to the same end that she did. Coming down again to my Lord, he told me that news was come that the [his future wife] Queen (23) is landed; at which I took leave, and by coach hurried to White Hall, the bells ringing in several places; but I found there no such matter, nor anything like it. So I went by appointment to Anthony Joyce's, where I sat with his wife and Matt. Joyce an hour or two, and so her husband not being at home, away I went and in Cheapside spied him and took him into the coach.

Home, and there I found my Lady Jemimah, and Anne, and Madamoiselle come to see my wife, whom I left, and to talk with Joyce about a project I have of his and my joyning, to get some money for my brother Tom (28) and his kinswoman to help forward with her portion if they should marry. I mean in buying of tallow of him at a low rate for the King (31), and Tom should have the profit; but he tells me the profit will be considerable, at which I was troubled, but I have agreed with him to serve some in my absence. He went away, and then came Mr. Moore and sat late with me talking about business, and so went away and I to bed.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 07 May 1662. 07 May 1662. Walked to Westminster; where I understand the news that Mr. Montagu (27) is this last night come to the King (31) with news, that he left the [his future wife] Queen (23) and fleet in the Bay of Biscay, coming this wayward; and that he believes she is now at the Isle of Scilly.

So at noon to my Lord Crew's and there dined, and after dinner Sir Thos. Crew and I talked together, and among other instances of the simple light discourse that sometimes is in the Parliament House, he told me how in the late business of Chymny money, when all occupiers were to pay, it was questioned whether women were under that name to pay, and somebody rose and said that they were not occupiers, but occupied.

Thence to Paul's Church Yard; where seeing my Lady's Sandwich and Carteret, and my wife (who this day made a visit the first time to my Baroness Carteret (60)), come by coach, and going to Hide Park, I was resolved to follow them; and so went to Mrs. Turner's (39): and thence found her out at the Theatre, where I saw the last act of the "Knight of the Burning Pestle", which pleased me not at all.

And so after the play done, she and The. Turner (10) and Mrs. Lucin and I, in her coach to the Park; and there found them out, and spoke to them; and observed many fine ladies, and staid till all were gone almost. And so to Mrs. Turner's (39), and there supped, and so walked home, and by and by comes my wife home, brought by my Baroness Carteret (60) to the gate, and so to bed.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 11 May 1662. 11 May 1662. Lord's Day. To our church in the morning, where, our Minister being out of town, a dull, flat Presbiter preached.

Dined at home, and my wife's brother with us, we having a good dish of stewed beef of Jane's own dressing, which was well done, and a piece of sturgeon of a barrel sent me by Captain Cocke (45). In the afternoon to White Hall; and there walked an hour or two in the Park, where I saw the King (31) now out of mourning, in a suit laced with gold and silver, which it was said was out of fashion.

Thence to the Wardrobe; and there consulted with the ladies about our going to Hampton Court to-morrow, and thence home, and after settled business there my wife and I to the Wardrobe, and there we lay all night in Captain Ferrers' chambers, but the bed so soft that I could not sleep that hot night.

John Evelyn's Diary 14 May 1662. 14 May 1662. To London, being chosen one of the Commissioners for reforming the buildings, ways, streets, and incumbrances, and regulating the hackney coaches in the city of London, taking my oath before my Lord Chancellor (53), and then went to his Majesty's (31) Surveyor's office, in Scotland Yard, about naming and establishing officers, adjourning till the 16th, when I went to view how St Martin's Lane might be made more passable into the Strand. There were divers gentlemen of quality in this commission.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 14 May 1662. 14 May 1662. All the morning at Westminster and elsewhere about business, and dined at the Wardrobe; and after dinner, sat talking an hour or two alone with my Lady. She is afeard that my Baroness Castlemaine's (21) will keep still with the King (31), and I am afeard she will not, for I love her well.

Thence to my brother's, and finding him in a lie about the lining of my new morning gown, saying that it was the same with the outside, I was very angry with him and parted so.

So home after an hour stay at Paul's Churchyard, and there came Mr. Morelock of Chatham, and brought me a stately cake, and I perceive he has done the same to the rest, of which I was glad; so to bed.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 18 May 1662. 18 May 1662. Whitsunday. By water to White Hall, and thereto chappell in my pew belonging to me as Clerk of the Privy Seal; and there I heard a most excellent sermon of Dr. Hacket, Bishop of Lichfield and Coventry, upon these words: "He that drinketh this water shall never thirst". We had an excellent anthem, sung by Captain Cooke (46) and another, and brave musique. And then the King (31) came down and offered, and took the sacrament upon his knees; a sight very well worth seeing.

Hence with Sir G. Carteret (52) to his lodging to dinner with his Lady and one Mr. Brevin, a French Divine, we were very merry, and good discourse, and I had much talk with my Lady.

After dinner, and so to chappell again; and there had another good anthem of Captain Cooke's (46).

Thence to the Councell-chamber; where the King (31) and Councell sat till almost eleven o'clock at night, and I forced to walk up and down the gallerys till that time of night. They were reading all the bills over that are to pass to-morrow at the House, before the King's going out of town and proroguing the House. At last the Councell risen, and Sir G. Carteret (52) telling me what the Councell hath ordered about the ships designed to carry horse from Ireland to Portugall, which is now altered.

I got a coach and so home, sending the boat away without me. At home I found my wife discontented at my being abroad, but I pleased her. She was in her new suit of black sarcenet and yellow petticoat very pretty.

So to bed.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 19 May 1662. 19 May 1662. Long in bed, sometimes scolding with my wife, and then pleased again, and at last up, and put on my riding cloth suit, and a camelott coat new, which pleases me well enough. To the Temple about my replication, and so to my brother Tom's (28), and there hear that my father will be in town this week.

So home, the shops being but some shut and some open. I hear that the House of Commons do think much that they should be forced to huddle over business this morning against the afternoon, for the King (31) to pass their Acts, that he may go out of town1. But he, I hear since, was forced to stay till almost nine o'clock at night before he could have done, and then he prorogued them; and so to Gilford, and lay there.

Home, and Mr. Hunt dined with me, and were merry.

After dinner Sir W. Pen (41) and his daughter, and I and my wife by coach to the Theatre, and there in a box saw "The Little Thiefe" well done.

Thence to Moorefields, and walked and eat some cheesecake and gammon of bacon, but when I was come home I was sick, forced to vomit it up again. So my wife walking and singing upon the leads till very late, it being pleasant and moonshine, and so to bed.

Note 1. To ears accustomed to the official words of speeches from the throne at the present day, the familiar tone of the following extracts from Charles's speech to the Commons, on the 1st of March; will be amusing: "I will conclude with putting you in mind of the season of the year, and the convenience of your being in the country, in many respects, for the good and welfare of it; for you will find much tares have been sowed there in your absence. The arrival of my wife, who I expect some time this month, and the necessity of my own being out of town to meet her, and to stay some time before she comes hither, makes it very necessary that the Parliament be adjourned before Easter, to meet again in the winter.... The mention of my wife's arrival puts me in mind to desire you to put that compliment upon her, that her entrance into the town may be with more decency than the ways will now suffer it to be; and, to that purpose, I pray you would quickly pass such laws as are before you, in order to the amending those ways, and that she may not find Whitehall surrounded with water". Such a bill passed the Commons on the 24th June. From Charles's Speech, March 1st, 1662. B.

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Marriage of Charles II and Catherine of Braganza

On 21 May 1662 Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (31) and [his wife] Catherine of Braganza Queen Consort England 1638-1705 (23) were married at Portsmouth. He a son of King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland 1600-1649. [his wife] She by marriage Queen Consort England.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 21 May 1662. 21 May 1662. My wife and I by water to Westminster, and after she had seen her father (of whom lately I have heard nothing at all what he does or her mother), she comes to me to my Lord's lodgings, where she and I staid walking in White Hall garden. And in the Privy-garden saw the finest smocks and linnen petticoats of my Baroness Castlemaine's (21), laced with rich lace at the bottom, that ever I saw; and did me good to look upon them.

So to Wilkinson's, she and I and Sarah to dinner, where I had a good quarter of lamb and a salat. Here Sarah told me how the King (31) dined at my Baroness Castlemaine's (21), and supped, every day and night the last week; and that the night that the bonfires were made for joy of the [his wife] Queen's (23) arrivall, the King (31) was there; but there was no fire at her door, though at all the rest of the doors almost in the street; which was much observed: and that the King (31) and she did send for a pair of scales and weighed one another; and she, being with child, was said to be heaviest. But she is now a most disconsolate creature, and comes not out of doors, since the King's going.

But we went to the Theatre to "French Dancing Master", and there with much pleasure gazed upon her (Baroness Castlemaine (21)); but it troubles us to see her look dejectedly and slighted by people already. The play pleased us very well; but Lacy's part, the Dancing Master, the best in the world.

Thence to my brother Tom's (28), in expectation to have met my father to-night come out of the country, but he is not yet come, but here we found my uncle Fenner and his old wife, whom I had not seen since the wedding dinner, nor care to see her. They being gone, my wife and I went and saw Mrs. Turner (39), whom we found not well, and her two boys Charles and Will come out of the country, grown very plain boys after three years being under their father's care in Yorkshire.

Thence to Tom's again, and there supped well, my she cozen Scott being there and my father being not come, we walked home and to bed.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 23 May 1662. 23 May 1662. At the office good part of the morning, and then about noon with my wife on foot to the Wardrobe. My wife went up to the dining room to my Lady Paulina (13), and I staid below talking with Mr. Moore in the parley, reading of the King's and Chancellor's late speeches at the proroguing of the Houses of Parliament. And while I was reading, news was brought me that my Lord Sandwich (36) is come and gone up to my Lady, which put me into great suspense of joy, so I went up waiting my Lord's coming out of my Lady's chamber, which by and by he did, and looks very well, and my soul is glad to see him. He very merry, and hath left the King (31) and [his wife] Queen (23) at Portsmouth, and is come up to stay here till next Wednesday, and then to meet the King (31) and [his wife] Queen (23) at Hampton Court.

So to dinner, Mr. Browne, Clerk of the House of Lords, and his wife and brother there also; and my Lord mighty merry; among other things, saying that the [his wife] Queen (23) is a very agreeable lady, and paints still.

After dinner I showed him my letter from Teddiman about the news from Argier, which pleases him exceedingly; and he writ one to the [his brother] Duke of York (28) about it, and sent it express. There coming much company after dinner to my Lord, my wife and I slunk away to the Opera, where we saw "Witt in a Constable", the first time that it is acted; but so silly a play I never saw I think in my life.

After it was done, my wife and I to the puppet play in Covent Garden, which I saw the other day, and indeed it is very pleasant. Here among the fidlers I first saw a dulcimere1 played on with sticks knocking of the strings, and is very pretty.

So by water home, and supped with Sir William Pen (41) very merry, and so to bed.

Note 1. The dulcimer (or psaltery) consisted of a flat box, acting as a resonating chamber, over which strings of wire were stretched: These were struck by little hammers.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 24 May 1662. 24 May 1662. To the Wardrobe, and there again spoke with my Lord, and saw W. Howe, who is grown a very pretty and is a sober fellow.

Thence abroad with Mr. Creed, of whom I informed myself of all I had a mind to know. Among other things, the great difficulty my Lord hath been in all this summer for lack of good and full orders from the King (31); and I doubt our Lords of the Councell do not mind things as the late powers did, but their pleasures or profit more.

That the Juego de Toros is a simple sport, yet the greatest in Spain. That the [his wife] Queen (23) hath given no rewards to any of the captains or officers, but only to my Lord Sandwich (36); and that was a bag of gold, which was no honourable present, of about £1400 sterling. How recluse the [his wife] Queen (23) hath ever been, and all the voyage never come upon the deck, nor put her head out of her cabin; but did love my Lord's musique, and would send for it down to the state-room, and she sit in her cabin within hearing of it. That my Lord was forced to have some clashing with the Council of Portugall about payment of the portion, before he could get it; which was, besides Tangier and a free trade in the Indys, two millions of crowns, half now, and the other half in twelve months.

But they have brought but little money; but the rest in sugars and other commoditys, and bills of exchange.

That the [his brother-in-law] King of Portugall (18) is a very fool almost, and his mother (48) do all, and he is a very poor Prince.

After a morning draft at the Star in Cheapside, I took him to the Exchange, thence home, but my wife having dined, I took him to Fish Street, and there we had a couple of lobsters, and dined upon them, and much discourse.

And so I to the office, and that being done, Sir W. Pen (41) and I to Deptford by water to Captain Rooth's to see him, he being very sick, and by land home, calling at Halfway house, where we eat and drank.

So home and to bed.

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John Evelyn's Diary 25 May 1662. 25 May 1662. I went this evening to London, in order to our journey to Hampton Court, to see the [his wife] Queen (23); who, having landed at Portsmouth, had been married to the King (31) a week before by the Bishop of London (63).

John Evelyn's Diary 30 May 1662. 30 May 1662. The [his wife] Queen (23) arrived with a train of Portuguese ladies in their monstrous fardingales, or guard-infantes, their complexions olivader and sufficiently unagreeable. Her Majesty (32) in the same habit, her foretop long and turned aside very strangely. She was yet of the handsomest countenance of all the rest, and, though low of stature, prettily shaped, languishing and excellent eyes, her teeth wronging her mouth by sticking a little too far out; for the rest, lovely enough.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 31 May 1662. 31 May 1662. Lay long in bed, and so up to make up my Journall for these two or three days past. Then came Anthony Joyce, who duns me for money for the tallow which he served in lately by my desire, which vexes me, but I must get it him the next by my promise.

By and by to White Hall, hearing that Sir G. Carteret (52) was come to town, but I could not find him, and so back to Tom's, and thence I took my father to my house, and there he dined with me, discoursing of our businesses with uncle Thomas and T. Trice.

After dinner he departed and I to the office where we met, and that being done I walked to my Brother's and the Wardrobe and other places about business, and so home, and had Sarah to comb my head clean, which I found so foul with powdering and other troubles, that I am resolved to try how I can keep my head dry without powder; and I did also in a suddaine fit cut off all my beard, which I had been a great while bringing up, only that I may with my pumice-stone do my whole face, as I now do my chin, and to save time, which I find a very easy way and gentile. So she also washed my feet in a bath of herbs, and so to bed.

This month ends with very fair weather for a great while together. My health pretty well, but only wind do now and then torment me... extremely.

The [his wife] Queen (23) is brought a few days since to Hampton Court; and all people say of her to be a very fine and handsome lady, and very discreet; and that the King (32) is pleased enough with her which, I fear, will put Madam Castlemaine's (21) nose out of joynt. The Court is wholly now at Hampton.

A peace with Argier is lately made; which is also good news. My father is lately come to town to see us, and though it has cost and will cost more money, yet I am pleased with the alteraeons on my house at Brampton.

My Lord Sandwich (36) is lately come with the [his wife] Queen (23) from sea, very well and in good repute.

Upon an audit of my estate I find myself worth about £530 'de claro'. The Act for Uniformity is lately printed1, which, it is thought, will make mad work among the Presbyterian ministers. People of all sides are very much discontented; some thinking themselves used, contrary to promise, too hardly; and the other, that they are not rewarded so much as they expected by the King (32). God keep us all. I have by a late oath obliged myself from wine and plays, of which I find good effect.

Note 1. "An Act for the Uniformity of public prayers and administration of sacraments and other rites and ceremonies, and for establishing the form of making, ordaining, and consecrating bishops, priests, and deacons in the Church of England"..

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John Evelyn's Diary 02 June 1662. 02 Jun 1662. The Lord Mayor and Aldermen made their addresses to the [his wife] Queen (23), presenting her £1,000 in gold. Now saw I her Portuguese ladies, and the Guardadamas, or mother of her maids, and the old knight, a lock of whose hair quite covered the rest of his bald pate, bound on by a thread, very oddly. I saw the rich gondola sent to his Majesty (32) from the State of Venice; but it was not comparable for swiftness to our common wherries, though managed by Venetians.

John Evelyn's Diary 09 June 1662. 09 Jun 1662. I heard the [his wife] Queen's (23) Portugal music, consisting of pipes, harps, and very ill voices.

Hampton Court is as noble and uniform a pile, and as capacious as any Gothic architecture can have made it. There is an incomparable furniture in it, especially hangings designed by Raphael, very rich with gold; also many rare pictures, especially the Cæsarean Triumphs of Andrea Mantegna, formerly the Duke of Mantua's; of the tapestries, I believe the world can show nothing nobler of the kind than the stories of Abraham and Tobit. The gallery of horns is very particular for the vast beams of stags, elks, antelopes, etc. The Queen's bed was an embroidery of silver on crimson velvet, and cost £8,000, being a present made by the States of Holland when his Majesty (32) returned, and had formerly been given by them to our King's sister, the Princess of Orange, and, being bought of her again, was now presented to the King (32). The great looking-glass and toilet, of beaten and massive gold, was given by the [his mother] Queen-Mother (52). The [his wife] Queen (23) brought over with her from Portugal such Indian cabinets as had never before been seen here. The great hall is a most magnificent room. The chapel roof excellently fretted and gilt. I was also curious to visit the wardrobe and tents, and other furniture of state. The park, formerly a flat and naked piece of ground, now planted with sweet rows of lime trees; and the canal for water now near perfected; also the air-park. In the garden is a rich and noble fountain, with Sirens, statues, etc., cast in copper, by Fanelli; but no plenty of water. The cradle-work of horn beam in the garden is, for the perplexed twining of the trees, very observable. There is a parterre which they call Paradise, in which is a pretty banqueting-house set over a cave, or cellar. All these gardens might be exceedingly improved, as being too narrow for such a palace.

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11 Jun 1662 Royal Society Meeting Minutes. 11 Jun 1662. 82. Royal Society Meeting Minutes.

Sir Robert Moray (54) President.

Dr Petty's (51) brother (42) showed the Society a draft of the pleasure boat he is to make for the King (32).

Lord Berkeley of Berkely (13) presented the Society with a Bird of Paradise having two feet.

Dr Goddard brought in a moth with feathered wings.

Mr Evelyn (41) presentd the Society with a book called 'The History of Chalcogrphij'.

Mr Ball to be asked to produce his 'Magnetick Instruments',

Mr Boyle presented the Society with a book of the 'Weight and Spring of Air'; and also with a glass tube filled with Minium, wherewith the experiment of filtering was made.

Note. TT. Not clear which Mr Boyle this is since Richard Boyle -1665 was elected 20 May 1663 and Robert Boyle Scientist 1627-1691 (36) on 22 Apr 1663.

The Amanuensis to enquire about the depth of the water under the arches of London Bridge.

Mr Croone (28) to write to Dr Power about the trial of heat and cold in deep caves.

The Amanuensis to bespeak the long glass tube for the Torricellian Experiment.

Around 1644. Robert Walker Painter 1599-1658. Portrait of John Evelyn 1620-1706. In 1689 Godfrey Kneller 1646-1723. Portrait of John Evelyn 1620-1706. Around 1650 Adriaen Hanneman Painter 1603-1671. Portrait of John Evelyn 1620-1706. In 1689. John Riley Painter 1646-1691. Portrait of Robert Boyle Scientist 1627-1691.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 12 June 1662. 12 Jun 1662. This morning I tried on my riding cloth suit with close knees, the first that ever I had; and I think they will be very convenient, if not too hot to wear any other open knees after them.

At the office all the morning, where we had a full Board, viz., Sir G. Carteret (52), Sir John Mennes, Sir W. Batten (61), Mr. Coventry (34), Sir W. Pen (41), Mr. Pett (51), and myself. Among many other businesses, I did get a vote signed by all, concerning my issuing of warrants, which they did not smell the use I intend to make of it; but it is to plead for my clerks to have their right of giving out all warrants, at which I am not a little pleased. But a great difference happened between Sir G. Carteret (52) and Mr. Coventry (34), about passing the Victualler's account, and whether Sir George (52) is to pay the Victualler his money, or the Exchequer; Sir George (52) claiming it to be his place to save his threepences. It ended in anger, and I believe will come to be a question before the King (32) and Council. I did what I could to keep myself unconcerned in it, having some things of my own to do before I would appear high in anything.

Thence to dinner, by Mr. Gauden's invitation, to the Dolphin, where a good dinner; but what is to myself a great wonder; that with ease I past the whole dinner without drinking a drop of wine.

After dinner to the office, my head full of business, and so home, and it being the longest day in the year1, I made all my people go to bed by daylight. But after I was a-bed and asleep, a note came from my brother Tom (28) to tell me that my cozen Anne Pepys, of Worcestershire, her husband is dead, and she married again, and her second husband in town, and intends to come and see me to-morrow.

Note 1. That is, by the old style. The new style was not introduced until 1752.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 13 June 1662. 13 Jun 1662. Up by 4 o'clock in the morning, and read Cicero's Second Oration against Catiline, which pleased me exceedingly; and more I discern therein than ever I thought was to be found in him; but I perceive it was my ignorance, and that he is as good a writer as ever I read in my life.

By and by to Sir G. Carteret's (52), to talk with him about yesterday's difference at the office; and offered my service to look into any old books or papers that I have, that may make for him. He was well pleased therewith, and did much inveigh against Mr. Coventry (34); telling me how he had done him service in the Parliament, when Prin had drawn up things against him for taking of money for places; that he did at his desire, and upon his, letters, keep him off from doing it. And many other things he told me, as how the King (32) was beholden to him, and in what a miserable condition his family would be, if he should die before he hath cleared his accounts. Upon the whole, I do find that he do much esteem of me, and is my friend, and I may make good use of him.

Thence to several places about business, among others to my brother's, and there Tom Beneere the barber trimmed me.

Thence to my Lady's, and there dined with her, Mr. Laxton, Gibbons (46), and Goldgroove with us, and after dinner some musique, and so home to my business, and in the evening my wife and I, and Sarah and the boy, a most pleasant walk to Halfway house, and so home and to bed.

Trial and Execution of Henry Vane "The Younger"

Diary of Samuel Pepys 14 June 1662. 14 Jun 1662. Up by four o'clock in the morning and upon business at my office. Then we sat down to business, and about 11 o'clock, having a room got ready for us, we all went out to the Tower-hill; and there, over against the scaffold, made on purpose this day, saw Sir Henry Vane (49) brought1. A very great press of people. He made a long speech, many times interrupted by the Sheriff and others there; and they would have taken his paper out of his hand, but he would not let it go. But they caused all the books of those that writ after him to be given the Sheriff; and the trumpets were brought under the scaffold that he might not be heard. Then he prayed, and so fitted himself, and received the blow; but the scaffold was so crowded that we could not see it done. But Boreman, who had been upon the scaffold, came to us and told us, that first he began to speak of the irregular proceeding against him; that he was, against Magna Charta, denied to have his exceptions against the indictment allowed; and that there he was stopped by the Sheriff. Then he drew out his, paper of notes, and begun to tell them first his life; that he was born a gentleman, that he was bred up and had the quality of a gentleman, and to make him in the opinion of the world more a gentleman, he had been, till he was seventeen years old, a good fellow, but then it pleased God to lay a foundation of grace in his heart, by which he was persuaded, against his worldly interest, to leave all preferment and go abroad, where he might serve God with more freedom. Then he was called home, and made a member of the Long Parliament; where he never did, to this day, any thing against his conscience, but all for the glory of God. Here he would have given them an account of the proceedings of the Long Parliament, but they so often interrupted him, that at last he was forced to give over: and so fell into prayer for England in generall, then for the churches in England, and then for the City of London: and so fitted himself for the block, and received the blow. He had a blister, or issue, upon his neck, which he desired them not hurt: he changed not his colour or speech to the last, but died justifying himself and the cause he had stood for; and spoke very confidently of his being presently at the right hand of Christ; and in all, things appeared the most resolved man that ever died in that manner, and showed more of heat than cowardize, but yet with all humility and gravity. One asked him why he did not pray for the King (32). He answered, "Nay", says he, "you shall see I can pray for the King (32): I pray God bless him!" the King (32) had given his body to his friends; and, therefore, he told them that he hoped they would be civil to his body when dead; and desired they would let him die like a gentleman and a Christian, and not crowded and pressed as he was.

So to the office a little, and so to the Trinity-house all of us to dinner; and then to the office again all the afternoon till night.

So home and to bed. This day, I hear, my Lord Peterborough (40) is come unexpected from Tangier, to give the King (32) an account of the place, which, we fear, is in none of the best condition. We had also certain news to-day that the Spaniard is before Lisbon with thirteen sail; six Dutch, and the rest his own ships; which will, I fear, be ill for Portugall. I writ a letter of all this day's proceedings to my Lord, at Hinchingbroke, who, I hear, is very well pleased with the work there.

Note 1. Sir Harry Vane (49) the younger was born 1612. Charles (32) signed on June 12th a warrant for the execution of Vane by hanging at Tyburn on the 14th, which sentence on the following day "upon humble suit made" to him, Charles was "graciously pleased to mitigate", as the warrant terms it, for the less ignominious punishment of beheading on Tower Hill, and with permission that the head and body should be given to the relations to be by them decently and privately interred.— Lister's Life of Clarendon, ii, 123.

Around 1658 Gilbert Soest Painter 1605-1681. Portrait of Henry Vane

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On 14 Jun 1662 Henry Vane "The Younger" 1613-1662 (49) was beheaded at Tower Hill for treason against King Charles II (32). He had been sentenced to be hanged, drawn and quartered, however, King Charles II (32) commuted the sentence to beheading.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 18 June 1662. 18 Jun 1662. Up early; and after reading a little in Cicero, I made me ready and to my office, where all the morning very busy.

At noon Mr. Creed came to me about business, and he and I walked as far as Lincoln's Inn Fields together. After a turn or two in the walks we parted, and I to my Lord Crew's and dined with him; where I hear the courage of Sir H. Vane (49) at his death is talked on every where as a miracle.

Thence to Somerset House to Sir J. Winter's chamber by appointment, and met Mr. Pett (51), where he and I read over his last contract with the King (32) for the Forest of Dean, whereof I took notes because of this new one that he is now in making.

That done he and I walked to Lilly's (43), the painter's, where we saw among other rare things, the Duchess of York (25), her whole body, sitting instate in a chair, in white sattin, and another of the King (32), that is not finished; most rare things. I did give the fellow something that showed them us, and promised to come some other time, and he would show me Baroness Castlemaine's (21), which I could not then see, it being locked up!

Thence to Wright's (45), the painter's: but, Lord! the difference that is between their two works.

Thence to the Temple, and there spoke with my cozen Roger (45), who gives me little hopes in the business between my Uncle Tom and us. So Mr. Pett (51) (who staid at his son's chamber) and I by coach to the old Exchange, and there parted, and I home and at the office till night. My windows at my office are made clean to-day and a casement in my closet.

So home, and after some merry discourse in the kitchen with my wife and maids as I now-a-days often do, I being well pleased with both my maids, to bed.

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On 18 Jun 1662 [his illegitimate son] Charles Fitzroy 1st Duke Southampton 2nd Duke Cleveland 1662-1730 was born illegitimately to Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (32) and Barbara Villiers 1st Duchess of Cleveland 1640-1709 (21).

Diary of Samuel Pepys 20 June 1662. 20 Jun 1662. Up by four or five o'clock, and to the office, and there drew up the agreement between the King (32) and Sir John Winter about the Forrest of Deane; and having done it, he came himself (I did not know him to be the [his wife] Queen's (23) Secretary before, but observed him to be a man of fine parts); and we read it, and both liked it well. That done, I turned to the Forrest of Deane, in Speede's Mapps, and there he showed me how it lies; and the Lea-bayly, with the great charge of carrying it to Lydny, and many other things worth my knowing; and I do perceive that I am very short in my business by not knowing many times the geographical part of my business.

At my office till Mr. Moore took me out and at my house looked over our papers again, and upon our evening accounts did give full discharges one to the other, and in his and many other accounts I perceive I shall be better able to give a true balance of my estate to myself within a day or two than I have been this twelve months.

Then he and I to Alderman Backwell's (44) and did the like there, and I gave one receipt for all the money I have received thence upon the receipt of my Lord's crusados. Then I went to the Exchange, and hear that the merchants have a great fear of a breach with the Spaniard; for they think he will not brook our having Tangier, Dunkirk, and Jamaica; and our merchants begin to draw home their estates as fast as they can.

Then to Pope's Head Ally, and there bought me a pair of tweezers, cost me 14s., the first thing like a bawble I have bought a good while, but I do it with some trouble of mind, though my conscience tells me that I do it with an apprehension of service in my office to have a book to write memorandums in, and a pair of compasses in it; but I confess myself the willinger to do it because I perceive by my accounts that I shall be better by £30 than I expected to be. But by tomorrow night I intend to see to the bottom of all my accounts.

Then home to dinner, where Mr. Moore met me. Then he went away, and I to the office and dispatch much business. So in the evening, my wife and I and Jane over the water to the Halfway-house, a pretty, pleasant walk, but the wind high.

So home again and to bed.

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Trial and Execution of Henry Vane "The Younger"

Diary of Samuel Pepys 22 June 1662. 22 Jun 1662. Lord's Day. This day I first put on my slasht doublet, which I like very well. Mr. Shepley came to me in the morning, telling me that he and my Lord came to town from Hinchinbroke last night. He and I spend an hour in looking over his account, and then walked to the Wardrobe, all the way discoursing of my Lord's business. He tells me to my great wonder that Mr. Barnwell is dead £500 in debt to my Lord.

By and by my Lord came from church, and I dined, with some others, with him, he very merry, and after dinner took me aside and talked of state and other matters.

By and by to my brother Tom's (28) and took him out with me homewards (calling at the Wardrobe to talk a little with Mr. Moore), and so to my house, where I paid him all I owed him, and did make the £20 I lately lent him up to £40, for which he shall give bond to Mr. Shepley, for it is his money.

So my wife and I to walk in the garden, where all our talk was against Sir W. Pen (41), against whom I have lately had cause to be much prejudiced.

By and by he and his daughter came out to walk, so we took no notice of them a great while, at last in going home spoke a word or two, and so good night, and to bed.

This day I am told of a Portugall lady, at Hampton Court, that hath dropped a child already since the [his wife] Queen's (23) coming, but the King (32) would not have them searched whose it is; and so it is not commonly known yet.

Coming home to-night, I met with Will. Swan, who do talk as high for the Fanatiques as ever he did in his life; and do pity my Lord Sandwich (36) and me that we should be given up to the wickedness of the world; and that a fall is coming upon us all; for he finds that he and his company are the true spirit of the nation, and the greater part of the nation too, who will have liberty of conscience in spite of this "Act of Uniformity", or they will die; and if they may not preach abroad, they will preach in their own houses. He told me that certainly Sir H. Vane (49) must be gone to Heaven, for he died as much a martyr and saint as ever man did; and that the King (32) hath lost more by that man's death, than he will get again a good while. At all which I know not what to think; but, I confess, I do think that the Bishops will never be able to carry it so high as they do.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 25 June 1662. 25 Jun 1662. Up by four o'clock, and put my accounts with my Lord into a very good order, and so to my office, where having put many things in order I went to the Wardrobe, but found my Lord gone to Hampton Court. After discourse with Mr. Shepley we parted, and I into Thames Street, beyond the Bridge, and there enquired among the shops the price of tarre and oyle, and do find great content in it, and hope to save the King (32) money by this practice.

So home to dinner, and then to the Change, and so home again, and at the office preparing business against to-morrow all the afternoon. At night walked with my wife upon the leads, and so to supper and to bed. My wife having lately a great pain in her ear, for which this night she begins to take physique, and I have got cold and so have a great deal of my old pain.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 27 June 1662. 27 Jun 1662. Up early, not quite rid of my pain. I took more physique, and so made myself ready to go forth.

So to my Lord, who rose as soon as he heard I was there; and in his nightgown and shirt stood talking with me alone two hours, I believe, concerning his greatest matters of state and interest. Among other things, that his greatest design is, first, to get clear of all debts to the King (32) for the Embassy money, and then a pardon. Then, to get his land settled; and then to, discourse and advise what is best for him, whether to keep his sea employment longer or no. For he do discern that the Duke would be willing to have him out, and that by Coventry's means. And here he told me, how the terms at Argier were wholly his; and that he did plainly tell Lawson (47) and agree with him, that he would have the honour of them, if they should ever be agreed to; and that accordingly they did come over hither entitled, "Articles concluded on by Sir J. Lawson (47), according to instructions received from His Royal Highness [his brother] James Duke of York (28), &c., and from His Excellency the Earle of Sandwich". (Which however was more than needed; but Lawson tells my Lord in his letter, that it was not he, but the Council of Warr that would have "His Royal Highness" put into the title, though he did not contribute one word to it.) But the [his brother] Duke of York (28) did yesterday propose them to the Council, to be printed with this title: "Concluded on, by Sir J. Lawson (47), Knt". and my Lord quite left out. Here I find my Lord very politique; for he tells me, that he discerns they design to set up Lawson as much as they can and that he do counterplot them by setting him up higher still; by which they will find themselves spoiled of their design, and at last grow jealous of Lawson. This he told me with much pleasure; and that several of the Duke's servants, by name my Lord Barkeley (60), Mr. Talbot (32), and others, had complained to my Lord, of Coventry, and would have him out. My Lord do acknowledge that his greatest obstacle is Coventry. He did seem to hint such a question as this: "Hitherto I have been supported by the King (32) and Chancellor against the Duke; but what if it should come about, that it should be the Duke and Chancellor against the King (32)?" which, though he said it in these plain words, yet I could not fully understand it; but may more here after. My Lord did also tell me, that the Duke himself at Portsmouth did thank my Lord for all his pains and care; and that he perceived it must be the old Captains that must do the business; and that the new ones would spoil all. And that my Lord did very discreetly tell the Duke (though quite against his judgement and inclination), that, however, the King's new captains ought to be borne with a little and encouraged. By which he will oblige that party, and prevent, as much as may be, their envy; but he says that certainly things will go to rack if ever the old captains should be wholly out, and the new ones only command.

Then we fell to talk of Sir J. Minnes (63), of whom my Lord hath a very slight opinion, and that at first he did come to my Lord very displeased and sullen, and had studied and turned over all his books to see whether it had ever been that two flags should ride together in the main-top, but could not find it, nay, he did call his captains on board to consult them. So when he came by my Lord's side, he took down his flag, and all the day did not hoist it again, but next day my Lord did tell him that it was not so fit to ride without a flag, and therefore told him that he should wear it in the fore-top, for it seems my Lord saw his instructions, which were that he should not wear his flag in the maintop in the presence of the Duke or my Lord. But that after that my Lord did caress him, and he do believe him as much his friend as his interest will let him. I told my Lord of the late passage between Swan and me, and he told me another lately between Dr. Dell and himself when he was in the country.

At last we concluded upon dispatching all his accounts as soon as possible, and so I parted, and to my office, where I met Sir W. Pen (41), and he desired a turn with me in the garden, where he told me the day now was fixed for his going into Ireland; [Penn was Governor of Kinsale.-B.] and that whereas I had mentioned some service he could do a friend of mine there, Saml. Pepys1, he told me he would most readily do what I would command him, and then told me we must needs eat a dish of meat together before he went, and so invited me and my wife on Sunday next. To all which I did give a cold consent, for my heart cannot love or have a good opinion of him since his last playing the knave with me, but he took no notice of our difference at all, nor I to him, and so parted, and I by water to Deptford, where I found Sir W. Batten (61) alone paying off the yard three quarters pay.

Thence to dinner, where too great a one was prepared, at which I was very much troubled, and wished I had not been there.

After dinner comes Sir J. Minnes (63) and some captains with him, who had been at a Councill of Warr to-day, who tell us they have acquitted Captain Hall, who was accused of cowardice in letting of old Winter, the Argier pyrate, go away from him with a prize or two; and also Captain Diamond of the murder laid to him of a man that he had struck, but he lived many months after, till being drunk, he fell into the hold, and there broke his jaw and died, but they say there are such bawdy articles against him as never were heard of .... To the pay again, where I left them, and walked to Redriffe, and so home, and there came Mr. Creed and Shepley to me, and staid till night about my Lord's accounts, our proceeding to set them in order, and so parted and I to bed. Mr. Holliard (53) had been with my wife to-day, and cured her of her pain in her ear by taking out a most prodigious quantity of hard wax that had hardened itself in the bottom of the ear, of which I am very glad.

Note 1. Mentioned elsewhere as "My cousin in Ireland". He was son of Lord Chief Justice Richard Pepys.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 28 June 1662. 28 Jun 1662. Up to my Lord's and my own accounts, and so to the office, where all the forenoon sitting, and at noon by appointment to the Mitre, where Mr. Shepley gave me and Mr. Creed, and I had my uncle Wight with us, a dish of fish.

Thence to the office again, and there all the afternoon till night, and so home, and after talking with my wife to bed. This day a genteel woman came to me, claiming kindred of me, as she had once done before, and borrowed 10s. of me, promising to repay it at night, but I hear nothing of her. I shall trust her no more. Great talk there is of a fear of a war with the Dutch; and we have order to pitch upon twenty ships to be forthwith set out; but I hope it is but a scarecrow to the world, to let them see that we can be ready for them; though, God knows! the King (32) is not able to set out five ships at this present without great difficulty, we neither having money, credit, nor stores.

My mind is now in a wonderful condition of quiet and content, more than ever in all my life, since my minding the business of my office, which I have done most constantly; and I find it to be the very effect of my late oaths against wine and plays, which, if God please, I will keep constant in, for now my business is a delight to me, and brings me great credit, and my purse encreases too.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 30 June 1662. 30 Jun 1662. Up betimes, and to my office, where I found Griffen's girl making it clean, but, God forgive me! what a mind I had to her, but did not meddle with her. She being gone, I fell upon boring holes for me to see from my closet into the great office, without going forth, wherein I please myself much.

So settled to business, and at noon with my wife to the Wardrobe, and there dined, and staid talking all the afternoon with my Lord, and about four o'clock took coach with my wife and Lady, and went toward my house, calling at my Baroness Carteret's (60), who was within by chance (she keeping altogether at Deptford for a month or two), and so we sat with her a little. Among other things told my Lady how my Lady Fanshaw (37) is fallen out with her only for speaking in behalf of the French, which my Lady wonders at, they having been formerly like sisters, but we see there is no true lasting friendship in the world.

Thence to my house, where I took great pride to lead her through the Court by the hand, she being very fine, and her page carrying up her train. She staid a little at my house, and then walked through the garden, and took water, and went first on board the King's pleasure boat, which pleased her much.

Then to Greenwich Park; and with much ado she was able to walk up to the top of the hill, and so down again, and took boat, and so through bridge to Blackfryers, and home, she being much pleased with the ramble in every particular of it. So we supped with her, and then walked home, and to bed.

OBSERVATIONS.

This I take to be as bad a juncture as ever I observed. The King (32) and his new [his wife] Queen (23) minding their pleasures at Hampton Court. All people discontented; some that the King (32) do not gratify them enough; and the others, Fanatiques of all sorts, that the King (32) do take away their liberty of conscience; and the height of the Bishops, who I fear will ruin all again. They do much cry up the manner of Sir H. Vane's (49) death, and he deserves it. They clamour against the chimney-money, and say they will not pay it without force. And in the mean time, like to have war abroad; and Portugall to assist, when we have not money to pay for any ordinary layings-out at home. Myself all in dirt about building of my house and Sir W. Batten's (61) a story higher. Into a good way, fallen on minding my business and saving money, which God encrease; and I do take great delight in it, and see the benefit of it. In a longing mind of going to see Brampton, but cannot get three days time, do what I can. In very good health, my wife and myself.

Before 05 Aug 1661 Cornelius Johnson Painter 1593-1661. Portrait of Anne Harrison Lady Fanshawe 1625-1680. Valence House Museum.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 06 July 1662. 06 Jul 1662. Lord's Day. Lay long in bed to-day with my wife merry and pleasant, and then rose and settled my accounts with my wife for housekeeping, and do see that my kitchen, besides wine, fire, candle, sope, and many other things, comes to about 30s. a week, or a little over.

To church, where Mr. Mills made a lazy sermon.

So home to dinner, where my brother Tom (28) dined with me, and so my wife and I to church again in the afternoon, and that done I walked to the Wardrobe and spent my time with Mr. Creed and Mr. Moore talking about business; so up to supper with my Lady [Sandwich], who tells me, with much trouble, that my Baroness Castlemaine's (21) is still as great with the King (32), and that the King (32) comes as often to her as ever he did, at which, God forgive me, I am well pleased.

It began to rain, and so I borrowed a hat and cloak of Mr. Moore and walked home, where I found Captain Ferrer with my wife, and after speaking a matter of an hour with him he went home and we all to bed. Jack Cole, my old friend, found me out at the Wardrobe; and, among other things, he told me that certainly most of the chief ministers of London would fling up their livings; and that, soon or late, the issue thereof would be sad to the King (32) and Court.

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On 10 Jul 1662 Andrew Riccard Merchant 1604-1672 (58) was knighted by Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (32).

Diary of Samuel Pepys 16 July 1662. 16 Jul 1662. In the morning I found all my ceilings, spoiled with rain last night, so that I fear they must be all new whited when the work is done.

Made me ready and to my office, and by and by came Mr. Moore to me, and so I went home and consulted about drawing up a fair state of all my Lord's accounts, which being settled, he went away, and I fell to writing of it very neatly, and it was very handsome and concisely done.

At noon to my Lord's with it, but found him at dinner, and some great company with him, Mr. Edward Montagu (27) and his brother, and Mr. Coventry (34), and after dinner he went out with them, and so I lost my labour; but dined with Mr. Moore and the people below, who after dinner fell to talk of Portugall rings, and Captain Ferrers offered five or six to sell, and I seeming to like a ring made of a coco-nutt with a stone done in it, he did offer and would give it me.

By and by we went to Mr. Creed's lodging, and there got a dish or two of sweetmeats, and I seeing a very neat leaden standish to carry papers, pen, and ink in when one travels I also got that of him, and that done I went home by water and to finish some of my Lord's business, and so early to bed.

This day I was told that my Baroness Castlemaine's (21) (being quite fallen out with her husband (28)) did yesterday go away from him, with all her plate, jewels, and other best things; and is gone to Richmond to a brother (42) of her's1; which, I am apt to think, was a design to get out of town, that the King (32) might come at her the better. But strange it is how for her beauty I am willing to construe all this to the best and to pity her wherein it is to her hurt, though I know well enough she is a whore.

Note 1. Note this is a mistake for her uncle Edward Villiers 1620-1689 (42).

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 19 July 1662. 19 Jul 1662. Up early and to some business, and my wife coming to me I staid long with her discoursing about her going into the country, and as she is not very forward so am I at a great loss whether to have her go or no because of the charge, and yet in some considerations I would be glad she was there, because of the dirtiness of my house and the trouble of having of a family there.

So to my office, and there all the morning, and then to dinner and my brother Tom (28) dined with me only to see me.

In the afternoon I went upon the river to look after some tarr I am sending down and some coles, and so home again; it raining hard upon the water, I put ashore and sheltered myself, while the King (32) came by in his barge, going down towards the Downs to meet the [his wife] Queen (23): the Duke being gone yesterday. But methought it lessened my esteem of a king, that he should not be able to command the rain.

Home, and Cooper coming (after I had dispatched several letters) to my mathematiques, and so at night to bed to a chamber at Sir W. Pen's (41), my own house being so foul that I cannot lie there any longer, and there the chamber lies so as that I come into it over my leads without going about, but yet I am not fully content with it, for there will be much trouble to have servants running over the leads to and fro.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 21 July 1662. 21 Jul 1662. Up early, and though I found myself out of order and cold, and the weather cold and likely to rain, yet upon my promise and desire to do what I intended, I did take boat and down to Greenwich, to Captain Cocke's (45), who hath a most pleasant seat, and neat. Here I drank wine, and eat some fruit off the trees; and he showed a great rarity, which was two or three of a great number of silver dishes and plates, which he bought of an embassador that did lack money, in the edge or rim of which was placed silver and gold medalls, very ancient, and I believe wrought, by which, if they be, they are the greatest rarity that ever I saw in my life, and I will show Mr. Crumlum them.

Thence to Woolwich to the Rope-yard; and there looked over several sorts of hemp, and did fall upon my great survey of seeing the working and experiments of the strength and the charge in the dressing of every sort; and I do think have brought it to so great a certainty, as I have done the King (32) great service in it: and do purpose to get it ready against the Duke's coming to town to present to him. I breakfasted at Mr. Falconer's well, and much pleased with my inquiries.

Thence to the dock, where we walked in Mr. Shelden's garden, eating more fruit, and drinking, and eating figs, which were very good, and talking while The Royal James was bringing towards the dock, and then we went out and saw the manner and trouble of docking such a ship, which yet they could not do, but only brought her head into the Dock, and so shored her up till next tide. But, good God! what a deal of company was there from both yards to help to do it, when half the company would have done it as well. But I see it is impossible for the King (32) to have things done as cheap as other men.

Thence by water, and by and by landing at the riverside somewhere among the reeds, we walked to Greenwich, where to Cocke's house again and walked in the garden, and then in to his lady, who I find is still pretty, but was now vexed and did speak very discontented and angry to the Captain for disappointing a gentleman that he had invited to dinner, which he took like a wise man and said little, but she was very angry, which put me clear out of countenance that I was sorry I went in. So after I had eat still some more fruit I took leave of her in the garden plucking apricots for preserving, and went away and so by water home, and there Mr. Moore coming and telling me that my Lady goes into the country to-morrow, I carried my wife by coach to take her leave of her father, I staying in Westminster Hall, she going away also this week, and thence to my Lady's, where we staid and supped with her, but found that my Lady was truly angry and discontented with us for our neglecting to see her as we used to do, but after a little she was pleased as she was used to be, at which we were glad. So after supper home to bed.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 25 July 1662. 25 Jul 1662. At the office all the morning, reading Mr. Holland's' discourse of the Navy, lent me by Mr. Turner, and am much pleased with them, they hitting the very diseases of the Navy, which we are troubled with now-a-days. I shall bestow writing of them over and much reading thereof.

This morning Sir W. Batten (61) came in to the office and desired to speak with me; he began by telling me that he observed a strangeness between him and me of late, and would know the reason of it, telling me he heard that I was offended with merchants coming to his house and making contracts there. I did tell him that as a friend I had spoke of it to Sir W. Pen (41) and desired him to take a time to tell him of it, and not as a backbiter, with which he was satisfied, but I find that Sir W. Pen (41) has played the knave with me, and not told it from me as a friend, but in a bad sense.

He also told me that he heard that exceptions were taken at his carrying his wife down to Portsmouth, saying that the King (32) should not pay for it, but I denied that I had spoke of it, nor did I

At last he desired the difference between our wives might not make a difference between us, which I was exceedingly glad to hear, and do see every day the fruit of looking after my business, which I pray God continue me in, for I do begin to be very happy.

Dined at home, and so to the office all the afternoon again, and at night home and to bed.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 26 July 1662. 26 Jul 1662. Sir W. Batten (61), Mr. Pett (51), and I at the office sitting all the morning.

So dined at home, and then to my office again, causing the model hanging in my chamber to be taken down and hung up in my office, for fear of being spoilt by the workmen, and for my own convenience of studying it.

This afternoon I had a letter from Mr. Creed, who hath escaped narrowly in the King's yacht, and got safe to the Downs after the late storm; and that there the King (32) do tell him, that he is sure that my Lord is landed at Callis safe, of which being glad, I sent news thereof to my Lord Crew, and by the post to my Lady into the country.

This afternoon I went to Westminster; and there hear that the King (32) and [his wife] Queen (23) intend to come to White Hall from Hampton Court next week, for all winter.

Thence to Mrs. Sarah, and there looked over my Lord's lodgings, which are very pretty; and White Hall garden and the Bowling-ally (where lords and ladies are now at bowles), in brave condition. Mrs. Sarah told me how the falling out between my Baroness Castlemaine's (21) and her Lord was about christening of the child lately1, which he would have, and had done by a priest: and, some days after, she had it again christened by a minister; the King (32), and Lord of Oxford, and Duchesse of Suffolk, being witnesses: and christened with a proviso, that it had not already been christened. Since that she left her Lord, carrying away every thing in the house; so much as every dish, and cloth, and servant but the porter. He is gone discontented into France, they say, to enter a monastery; and now she is coming back again to her house in Kingstreet. But I hear that the [his wife] Queen (23) did prick her out of the list presented her by the King (32);2 desiring that she might have that favour done her, or that he would send her from whence she come: and that the King (32) was angry and the [his wife] Queen (23) discontented a whole day and night upon it; but that the King (32) hath promised to have nothing to do with her hereafter. But I cannot believe that the King (32) can fling her off so, he loving her too well: and so I writ this night to my Lady to be my opinion; she calling her my lady, and the lady I admire. Here I find that my Lord hath lost the garden to his lodgings, and that it is turning into a tennis-court. Hence by water to the Wardrobe to see how all do there, and so home to supper and to bed.

Note 1. The [his illegitimate son] boy was born in June at Baroness Castlemaine's (21) house in King Street. By the direction of Lord Castlemaine, who had become a Roman Catholic, the child was baptized by a priest, and this led to a final separation between husband and wife. Some days afterwards the child was again baptized by the rector of St. Margaret's, Westminster, in presence of the godparents, the King (32), Aubrey De Vere (35), Earl of Oxford, and Barbara, Countess of Suffolk (40), first Lady of the Bedchamber to the [his wife] Queen (23) and Baroness Castlemaine's (21) aunt. The entry in the register of St. Margaret's is as follows: "1662 June 18 Charles Palmer Ld Limbricke, s. to ye right honorble Roger Earl of Castlemaine by Barbara" (Steinman's "Memoir of Barbara, Duchess of Cleveland", 1871, p. 33). The child was afterwards called [his illegitimate son] Charles Fitzroy, and was created Duke of Southampton in 1674. He succeeded his mother in the dukedom of Cleveland in 1709, and died 1730.

Note 2. By the King's command Lord Clarendon (53), much against his inclination, had twice visited his royal mistress with a view of inducing her, by persuasions which he could not justify, to give way to the King's determination to have Baroness Castlemaine's (21) of her household.... Lord Clarendon (53) has given a full account of all that transpired between himself, the King (32) and the [his wife] Queen (23), on this very unpleasant business ('Continuation of Life of Clarendon,' 1759, ff. 168-178). Steinman's Memoir of Duchess of Cleveland, p. 35. The day at length arrived when Baroness Castlemaine's (21) was to be formally admitted a Lady of the Bedchamber. The royal warrant, addressed to the Lord Chamberlain (60), bears date June 1, 1663, and includes with that of her ladyship, the names of the Duchess of Buckingham (23), the Countesses of Chesterfield and Bath (22), and the Countess Mareshall. A separate warrant of the same day directs his lordship to admit the Countess of Suffolk as Groom of the Stole and first Lady of the Bedchamber, to which undividable offices she had, with the additional ones of Mistress of the Robes and Keeper of the Privy Purse, been nominated by a warrant dated April 2, 1662, wherein the reception of her oath is expressly deferred until the [his wife] Queen's (23) household shall be established. We here are furnished with the evidence that Charles would not sign the warrants for the five until Catherine had withdrawn her objection to his favourite one. Addenda to Steinman's Memoir of Duchess of Cleveland (privately printed), 1874, p. i.

Before 1675. Remigius van Leemput Painter 1607-1675. Portrait of Barbara Villiers Countess Suffolk 1622-1680. After 1659. After John Michael Wright Painter 1617-1694. Portrait of Mary Fairfax Duchess Buckingham 1638-1720. Around 1665 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Elizabeth Butler Countess Chesterfield 1640-1665.

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John Evelyn's Diary 28 July 1662. 28 Jul 1662. His Majesty (32) going to sea to meet the [his mother] Queen-Mother (52), now coming again for England, met with such ill weather as greatly endangered him. I went to Greenwich, to wait on the Queen (23), now landed.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 30 July 1662. 30 Jul 1662. Up early, and to my office, where Cooper came to me and begun his lecture upon the body of a ship, which my having of a modell in the office is of great use to me, and very pleasant and useful it is. Then by water to White Hall, and there waited upon my Lord Sandwich (37); and joyed him, at his lodgings, of his safe coming home after all his danger, which he confesses to be very great. And his people do tell me how bravely my Lord did carry himself, while my Lord Crofts (51) did cry; and I perceive it is all the town talk how poorly he carried himself. But the best was of one Mr. Rawlins, a courtier, that was with my Lord; and in the greatest danger cried, "God damn me, my Lord, I won't give you three-pence for your place now". But all ends in the honour of the pleasure-boats; which, had they not been very good boats, they could never have endured the sea as they did.

Thence with Captain Fletcher, of the Gage, in his ship's boat with 8 oars (but every ordinary oars outrowed us) to Woolwich, expecting to find Sir W. Batten (61) there upon his survey, but he is not come, and so we got a dish of steaks at the White Hart, while his clarkes and others were feasting of it in the best room of the house, and after dinner playing at shuffleboard1, and when at last they heard I was there, they went about their survey. But God help the King (32)! what surveys, shall be taken after this manner! I after dinner about my business to the Rope-yard, and there staid till night, repeating several trialls of the strength, wayte, waste, and other things of hemp, by which I have furnished myself enough to finish my intended business of stating the goodness of all sorts of hemp.

At night home by boat with Sir W. Warren, who I landed by the way, and so being come home to bed.

Note 1. The game of shovelboard was played by two players (each provided with five coins) on a smooth heavy table. On the table were marked with chalk a series of lines, and the play was to strike the coin on the edge of the table with the hand so that it rested between these lines. Shakespeare uses the expression "shove-groat shilling", as does Ben Jonson. These shillings were usually smooth and worn for the convenience of playing. Strutt says ("Sports and Pastimes"), "I have seen a shovel-board table at a low public house in Benjamin Street, near Clerkenwell Green, which is about three feet in breadth and thirty-nine feet two inches in length, and said to be the longest at this time in London"..

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 06 August 1662. 06 Aug 1662. Up early, and, going to my office, met Sir G. Carteret (52) in coming through the yard, and so walked a good while talking with him about Sir W. Batten (61), and find that he is going down the wind in every body's esteem, and in that of his honesty by this letter that he wrote to Captn. Allen concerning Alderman Barker's hemp.

Thence by water to White Hall; and so to St. James's; but there found Mr. Coventry (34) gone to Hampton Court.

So to my Lord's; and he is also gone: this being a great day at the Council about some business at the Council before the King (32). Here I met with Mr. Pierce, the chyrurgeon, who told me how Mr. Edward Montagu (27) hath lately had a duell with Mr. Cholmely (30), that is first gentleman-usher to the [his wife] Queen (23), and was a messenger from the King (32) to her in Portugall, and is a fine gentleman; but had received many affronts from Mr. Montagu (27), and some unkindness from my Lord, upon his score (for which I am sorry). He proved too hard for Montagu, and drove him so far backward that he fell into a ditch, and dropt his sword, but with honour would take no advantage over him; but did give him his life: and the world says Mr. Montagu (27) did carry himself very poorly in the business, and hath lost his honour for ever with all people in it, of which I am very glad, in hopes that it will humble him. I hear also that he hath sent to my Lord to borrow £400, giving his brother Harvey's' security for it, and that my Lord will lend it him, for which I am sorry.

Thence home, and at my office all the morning, and dined at home, and can hardly keep myself from having a mind to my wench, but I hope I shall not fall to such a shame to myself.

All the afternoon also at my office, and did business.

In the evening came Mr. Bland the merchant to me, who has lived long in Spain, and is concerned in the business of Tangier, who did discourse with me largely of it, and after he was gone did send me three or four printed things that he hath wrote of trade in general and of Tangier particularly, but I do not find much in them.

This afternoon Mr. Waith was with me, and did tell me much concerning the Chest, which I am resolved to look into; and I perceive he is sensible of Sir W. Batten's (61) carriage; and is pleased to see any thing work against him. Who, poor man, is, I perceive, much troubled, and did yesterday morning walk in the garden with me, did tell me he did see there was a design of bringing another man in his room, and took notice of my sorting myself with others, and that we did business by ourselves without him. Part of which is true, but I denied, and truly, any design of doing him any such wrong as that. He told me he did not say it particularly of me, but he was confident there was somebody intended to be brought in, nay, that the trayne was laid before Sir W. Pen (41) went, which I was glad to hear him say. Upon the whole I see he perceives himself tottering, and that he is suspected, and would be kind to me, but I do my business in the office and neglect him. At night writing in my study a mouse ran over my table, which I shut up fast under my shelf's upon my table till to-morrow, and so home and to bed.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 10 August 1662. 10 Aug 1662. Lord's Day. Being to dine at my brother's, I walked to St. Dunstan's, the church being now finished; and here I heard Dr. Bates,' who made a most eloquent sermon; and I am sorry I have hitherto had so low an opinion of the man, for I have not heard a neater sermon a great while, and more to my content.

So to Tom's, where Dr. Fairebrother, newly come from Cambridge, met me, and Dr. Thomas Pepys (41). I framed myself as pleasant as I could, but my mind was another way. Hither came my uncle Fenner, hearing that I was here, and spoke to me about Pegg Kite's business of her portion, which her husband demands, but I will have nothing to do with it. I believe he has no mind to part with the money out of his hands, but let him do what he will with it. He told me the new service-book1 (which is now lately come forth) was laid upon their deske at St. Sepulchre's for Mr. Gouge to read; but he laid it aside, and would not meddle with it: and I perceive the Presbyters do all prepare to give over all against Bartholomew-tide2. Mr. Herring, being lately turned out at St. Bride's, did read the psalm to the people while they sung at Dr. Bates's, which methought is a strange turn.

After dinner to St. Bride's, and there heard one Carpenter, an old man, who, they say, hath been a Jesuit priest, and is come over to us; but he preaches very well.

So home with Mrs. Turner (39), and there hear that Mr. Calamy hath taken his farewell this day of his people, and that others will do so the next. Sunday. Mr. Turner, the draper, I hear, is knighted, made Alderman, and pricked for Sheriffe, with Sir Thomas Bluddel, for the next year, by the King (32), and so are called with great honour the King's Sheriffes.

Thence walked home, meeting Mr. Moore by the way, and he home with me and walked till it was dark in the garden, and so good night, and I to my closet in my office to perfect my Journall and to read my solemn vows, and so to bed.

Note 1. The Common Prayer Book of 1662, now in use.

Note 2. Thomas Gouge (1609-1681), an eminent Presbyterian minister, son of William Gouge, D.D. (lecturer at and afterwards Rector of St. Anne's, Blackfriars). He was vicar of the parish of St. Sepulchre from 1638 until the Act of Uniformity, in 1662, forced him to resign his living.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 13 August 1662. 13 Aug 1662. Up early, and to my office, where people come to me about business, and by and by we met on purpose to enquire into the business of the flag-makers, where I am the person that do chiefly manage the business against them on the King's part; and I do find it the greatest cheat that I have yet found; they having eightpence per yard allowed them by pretence of a contract, where no such thing appears; and it is threepence more than was formerly paid, and than I now offer the Board to have them done. We did not fully end it, but refer it to another time.

At noon Com Mr. Pett (52) and I by water to Greenwich, and on board the pleasure-boats to see what they wanted, they being ordered to sea, and very pretty things I still find them, and so on shore and at the Shipp had a bit of meat and dined, there waiting upon us a barber of Mr. Pett's (52) acquaintance that plays very well upon the viollin.

Thence to Lambeth; and there saw the little pleasure-boat in building by the King (32), my Lord Brunkard (42), and the virtuosoes of the town, according to new lines, which Mr. Pett (52) cries up mightily, but how it will prove we shall soon see.

So by water home, and busy at my study late, drawing a letter to the yards of reprehension and direction for the board to sign, in which I took great pains.

So home and to bed.

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John Evelyn's Diary 21 August 1662. 21 Aug 1662. I was admitted and then sworn one of the Council of the Royal Society, being nominated in his Majesty's (32) original grant to be of this Council for the regulation of the Society, and making laws and statutes conducible to its establishment and progress, for which we now set apart every Wednesday morning till they were all finished. Lord Viscount Brouncker (51) (that excellent mathematician) was also by his Majesty (32), our founder, nominated our first President. The King (32) gave us the arms of England to be borne in a canton in our arms, and sent us a mace of silver gilt, of the same fashion and size as those carried before his Majesty (32), to be borne before our president on meeting days. It was brought by Sir Gilbert Talbot (56), master of his Majesty's jewel house.

In or before 1679. John Hayls Painter 1600-1679. Portrait of Gilbert Talbot Master of the Jewel House 1606-1695.

Catherine of Braganza's Arrival in London

Diary of Samuel Pepys 23 August 1662. 23 Aug 1662. Up early, and about my works in my house, to see what is done and design more.

Then to my office, and by and by we sat till noon at the office. After sitting, Mr. Coventry (34) and I did walk together a great while in the Garden, where he did tell me his mind about Sir G. Carteret's (52) having so much the command of the money, which must be removed. And indeed it is the bane of all our business. He observed to me also how Sir W. Batten (61) begins to struggle and to look after his business, which he do indeed a little, but it will come to nothing. I also put him upon getting an order from the Duke for our inquiries into the Chest, which he will see done.

So we parted, and Mr. Creed by appointment being come, he and I went out together, and at an ordinary in Lombard Street dined together, and so walked down to the Styllyard, and so all along Thames-street, but could not get a boat: I offered eight shillings for a boat to attend me this afternoon, and they would not, it being the day of the [his wife] Queen's (23) coming to town from Hampton Court.

So we fairly walked it to White Hall, and through my Lord's lodgings we got into White Hall garden, and so to the Bowling-green, and up to the top of the new Banqueting House there, over the Thames, which was a most pleasant place as any I could have got; and all the show consisted chiefly in the number of boats and barges; and two pageants, one of a King, and another of a Queen, with her Maydes of Honour sitting at her feet very prettily; and they tell me the Queen is Sir. Richard Ford's daughter.

Anon come the King (32) and [his wife] Queen (23) in a barge under a canopy with 10,000 barges and boats, I think, for we could see no water for them, nor discern the King (32) nor [his wife] Queen (23). And so they landed at White Hall Bridge, and the great guns on the other side went off: But that which pleased me best was, that my Baroness Castlemaine's (21) stood over against us upon a piece of White Hall, where I glutted myself with looking on her. But methought it was strange to see her Lord (28) and her upon the same place walking up and down without taking notice one of another, only at first entry he put off his hat, and she made him a very civil salute, but afterwards took no notice one of another; but both of them now and then would take their child, which the nurse held in her armes, and dandle it.

One thing more; there happened a scaffold below to fall, and we feared some hurt, but there was none, but she of all the great ladies only run down among the common rabble to see what hurt was done, and did take care of a child that received some little hurt, which methought was so noble.

Anon there came one there booted and spurred that she talked long with.

And by and by, she being in her hair, she put on his hat, which was but an ordinary one, to keep the wind off. But methinks it became her mightily, as every thing else do. The show being over, I went away, not weary with looking on her, and to my Lord's lodgings, where my brother Tom (28) and Dr. Thomas Pepys (41) were to speak with me. So I walked with them in the garden, and was very angry with them both for their going out of town without my knowledge; but they told me the business, which was to see a gentlewoman for a wife for Tom, of Mr. Cooke's providing, worth £500, of good education, her name Hobell, and lives near Banbury, demands £40 per annum joynter. Tom likes her, and, they say, had a very good reception, and that Cooke hath been very serviceable therein, and that she is committed to old Mr. Young, of the Wardrobe's, tuition. After I had told them my mind about their folly in going so unadvisedly, I then begun to inquire after the business, and so did give no answer as to my opinion till I have looked farther into it by Mr. Young.

By and by, as we were walking in my Lord's walk, comes my Lord, and so we broke our discourse and went in with him, and after I had put them away I went in to my Lord, and he and I had half an hour's private discourse about the discontents of the times, which we concluded would not come to anything of difference, though the Presbyters would be glad enough of it; but we do not think religion will so soon cause another war. Then to his own business. He asked my advice there, whether he should go on to purchase more land and to borrow money to pay for it, which he is willing to do, because such a bargain as that of Mr. Buggins's, of Stukely, will not be every day to be had, and Brampton is now perfectly granted him by the King (32) — I mean the reversion of it — after the Queen's death; and, in the meantime, he buys it of Sir Peter Ball his present right.

Then we fell to talk of Navy business, and he concludes, as I do, that he needs not put himself upon any more voyages abroad to spend money, unless a war comes; and that by keeping his family awhile in the country, he shall be able to gather money. He is glad of a friendship with Mr. Coventry (34), and I put him upon increasing it, which he will do, but he (as Mr. Coventry (34) do) do much cry against the course of our payments and the Treasurer to have the whole power in his own hands of doing what he will, but I think will not meddle in himself. He told me also that in the Commission for Tangier Mr. Coventry (34) had advised him that Mr. Povy (48), who intended to be Treasurer1, and it is intended him, may not be of the Commission itself, and my Lord I think will endeavour to get him to be contented to be left out of the Commission, and it is a very good rule indeed that the Treasurer in no office ought to be of the Commission. Here we broke off, and I bid him good night, and so with much ado, the streets being at nine o'clock at night crammed with people going home to the city, for all the borders of the river had been full of people, as the King (32) had come, to a miracle got to the Palace Yard, and there took boat, and so to the Old Swan, and so walked home, and to bed very weary.

Note 1. Thomas Povy (48), who had held, under Cromwell, a high situation in the Office of Plantations, was appointed in July, 1660, Treasurer and Receiver-General of the Rents and Revenues of James, [his brother] Duke of York (34); but his royal master's affairs falling into confusion, he surrendered his patent on the 27th July, 1668, for a consideration of £2,000. He was also First Treasurer for Tangier, which office he resigned to Pepys. Povy, had apartments at Whitehall, besides his lodgings in Lincoln's Inn, and a villa near Hounslow, called the Priory, which he had inherited from Justinian Povy, who purchased it in 1625. He was one of the sons of Justinian Povy, Auditor-General to [his wife] Queen (23) Anne of Denmark in 1614, whose father was John Povy, citizen and embroiderer of London.

Around 1657 John Michael Wright Painter 1617-1694. Portrait of Thomas Povey Master of Requests 1614-1705.

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John Evelyn's Diary 23 August 1662. 23 Aug 1662. I was spectator of the most magnificent triumph that ever floated on the Thames, considering the innumerable boats and vessels, dressed and adorned with all imaginable pomp, but, above all, the thrones, arches, pageants, and other representations, stately barges of the Lord Mayor and companies, with various inventions, music, and peals of ordnance both from the vessels and the shore, going to meet and conduct the new [his wife] Queen (23) from Hampton Court to Whitehall, at the first time of her coming to town. In my opinion, it far exceeded all the Venetian Bucentoras, etc., on the Ascension, when they go to espouse the Adriatic. His Majesty (32) and the [his wife] Queen (23) came in an antique-shaped open vessel, covered with a state, or canopy, of cloth of gold, made in form of a cupola, supported with high Corinthian pillars, wreathed with flowers, festoons and garlands. I was in our newly built vessel, sailing among them.

John Evelyn's Diary 29 August 1662. 29 Aug 1662. The Council and Fellows of the Royal Society went in a body to Whitehall, to acknowledge his Majesty's (32) royal grace in granting our Charter, and vouchsafing to be himself our founder; when the President made an eloquent speech, to which his Majesty (32) gave a gracious reply and we all kissed his hand. Next day we went in like manner with our address to my Lord Chancellor (53), who had much promoted our patent: he received us with extraordinary favor. In the evening I went to the [his mother] Queen-Mother's (52) Court, and had much discourse with her.

John Evelyn's Diary 01 September 1662. 01 Sep 1662. Being invited by Lord Berkeley (34), I went to Durdans, where dined his Majesty (32), the [his wife] Queen (23), Duke, Duchess (25), Prince Rupert (42), Prince Edward, and abundance of noblemen. I went, after dinner, to visit my brother (45) of Woodcot, my sister having been delivered of a son a little before, but who had now been two days dead.

Around 1676 Peter Lely Painter 1618-1680. Portrait of Mary Stewart II Queen England Scotland and Ireland 1662-1694. Around 1686 Willem Wissing Painter 1656-1687. Portrait of Mary Stewart II Queen England Scotland and Ireland 1662-1694.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 01 September 1662. 01 Sep 1662. Up betimes at my lodging and to my office and among my workmen, and then with Sir W. Batten (61) and Sir W. Pen (41) by coach to St. James's, this being the first day of our meeting there by the [his brother] Duke's (28) order; but when we come, we found him going out by coach with his Duchess (25), and he told us he was to go abroad with the Queen (23) to-day (to Durdans, it seems, to dine with my Lord Barkeley (34), where I have been very merry when I was a little boy); so we went and staid a little at Mr. Coventry's (34) chamber, and I to my Lord Sandwich's (37), who is gone to wait upon the King (32) and Queen (23) today.

And so Mr. Paget being there, Will Howe and I and he played over some things of Locke's that we used to play at sea, that pleased us three well, it being the first music I have heard a great while, so much has my business of late taken me off from all my former delights.

By and by by water home, and there dined alone, and after dinner with my brother Tom's (28) two men I removed all my goods out of Sir W. Pen's (41) house into one room that I have with much ado got ready at my house, and so I am to be quit of any further obligation to him.

So to my office, but missing my key, which I had in my hand just now, makes me very angry and out of order, it being a thing that I hate in others, and more in myself, to be careless of keys, I thinking another not fit to be trusted that leaves a key behind their hole. One thing more vexes me: my wife writes me from the country that her boy plays the rogue there, and she is weary of him, and complains also of her maid Sarah, of which I am also very sorry. Being thus out of temper, I could do little at my office, but went home and eat a bit, and so to my lodging to bed.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 03 September 1662. 03 Sep 1662. Up betimes, but now the days begin to shorten, and so whereas I used to rise by four o'clock, it is not broad daylight now till after five o'clock, so that it is after five before I do rise.

To my office, and about 8 o'clock I went over to Redriffe, and walked to Deptford, where I found Mr. Coventry (34) and Sir W. Pen (41) beginning the pay, it being my desire to be there to-day because it is the first pay that Mr. Coventry (34) has been at, and I would be thought to be as much with Mr. Coventry (34) as I can. Here we staid till noon, and by that time paid off the Breda, and then to dinner at the tavern, where I have obtained that our commons is not so large as they used to be, which I am glad to see.

After dinner by water to the office, and there we met and sold the Weymouth, Successe, and Fellowship hulkes, where pleasant to see how backward men are at first to bid; and yet when the candle is going out, how they bawl and dispute afterwards who bid the most first. And here I observed one man cunninger than the rest that was sure to bid the last man, and to carry it; and inquiring the reason, he told me that just as the flame goes out the smoke descends, which is a thing I never observed before, and by that he do know the instant when to bid last, which is very pretty.

In our discourse in the boat Mr. Coventry (34) told us how the Fanatiques and the Presbyters, that did intend to rise about this time, did choose this day as the most auspicious to them in their endeavours against monarchy: it being fatal twice to the King (32), and the day of Oliver's (63) death1. But, blessed be God! all is likely to be quiet, I hope.

After the sale I walked to my brother's, in my way meeting with Dr. Fairbrother, of whom I enquired what news in Church matters. He tells me, what I heard confirmed since, that it was fully resolved by the King's new Council that an indulgence should be granted the Presbyters; but upon the Bishop of London's (64) speech2 (who is now one of the most powerful men in England with the King (32)), their minds were wholly turned. And it is said that my Lord Albemarle (53) did oppose him most; but that I do believe is only in appearance. He told me also that most of the Presbyters now begin to wish they had complied, now they see that no Indulgence will be granted them, which they hoped for; and that the Bishop of London hath taken good care that places are supplied with very good and able men, which is the only thing that will keep all quiet.

I took him in the tavern at Puddle dock, but neither he nor I drank any of the wine we called for, but left it, and so after discourse parted, and Mr. Townsend not being at home I went to my brother's, and there heard how his love matter proceeded, which do not displease me, and so by water to White Hall to my Lord's lodgings, where he being to go to Hinchingbroke to-morrow morning, I staid and fiddled with Will Howe some new tunes very pleasant, and then my Lord came in and had much kind talk with him, and then to bed with Mr. Moore there alone. So having taken my leave of my Lord before I went to bed, I resolved to rise early and be gone without more speaking to him [Continued tomorow]

Note 1. Cromwell (63) had considered the 3rd of September as the most fortunate day of his life, on account of his victories at Dunbar and Worcester. It was also remarkable for the great storm that occurred at the time of his death; and as being the day on which the Fire of London, in 1666, burnt with the greatest fury. B.

Note 2. Gilbert Sheldon (64), born July 19th, 1598; Fellow of All Souls, Oxford, 1622; Warden, 1635; Bishop of London, 1660-63; Archbishop of Canterbury, 1663. Died November 9th, 1677.

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John Evelyn's Diary 04 September 1662. 04 Sep 1662. Commission for Charitable Uses, my Lord Mayor and Aldermen being again summoned, and the improvements of Sir Thomas Gresham's estate examined. There were present the Bishop of London (64), the Lord Chief Justice, and the King's (32) attorney.

Around 1560 Antonis Mor Painter 1517-1577. Portrait of Thomas Gresham 1519-1579.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 05 September 1662. 05 Sep 1662. Up by break of day at 5 o'clock, and down by water to Woolwich: in my way saw the yacht lately built by our virtuosoes (my Lord Brunkard (42) and others, with the help of Commissioner Pett (52) also) set out from Greenwich with the little Dutch bezan, to try for mastery; and before they got to Woolwich the Dutch beat them half-a-mile (and I hear this afternoon, that, in coming home, it got above three miles); which all our people are glad of.

Here I staid and mustered the yard and looked into the storehouses; and so walked all alone to Greenwich, and thence by water to Deptford, and there examined some stores, and did some of my own business in hastening my work there, and so walked to Redriffe, being by this time pretty weary and all in a sweat; took boat there for the Tower, which made me a little fearful, it being a cold, windy morning.

So to my lodgings and there rubbed myself clean, and so to Mr. Bland's, the merchant, by invitation, I alone of all our company of this office; where I found all the officers of the Customs, very grave fine gentlemen, and I am very glad to know them; viz.—Sir Job Harvy, Sir John Wolstenholme, Sir John Jacob, Sir Nicholas Crisp (63), Sir John Harrison, and Sir John Shaw: very good company. And among other pretty discourse, some was of Sir Jerom Bowes, Embassador from Queene Elizabeth to the Emperor of Russia;1 who, because some of the noblemen there would go up the stairs to the Emperor before him, he would not go up till the Emperor had ordered those two men to be dragged down stairs, with their heads knocking upon every stair till they were killed. And when he was come up, they demanded his sword of him before he entered the room. He told them, if they would have his sword, they should have his boots too. And so caused his boots to be pulled off, and his night-gown and night-cap and slippers to be sent for; and made the Emperor stay till he could go in his night-dress, since he might not go as a soldier. And lastly, when the Emperor in contempt, to show his command of his subjects, did command one to leap from the window down and broke his neck in the sight of our Embassador, he replied that his mistress did set more by, and did make better use of the necks of her subjects but said that, to show what her subjects would do for her, he would, and did, fling down his gantlett before the Emperor; and challenged all the nobility there to take it up, in defence of the Emperor against his Queen for which, at this very day, the name of Sir Jerom Bowes is famous and honoured there.

After dinner I came home and found Sir John Minnes (63) come this day, and I went to him to Sir W. Batten's (61), where it pleased me to see how jealous Sir Williams both are of my going down to Woolwich, &c., and doing my duty as I nowadays do, and of my dining with the Commission of the Customs.

So to my office, and there till 9 at night, and so to my lodgings to bed. I this day heard that Mr. Martin Noell (62) is knighted by the King (32), which I much wonder at; but yet he is certainly a very useful man.

Note 1. In 1583; the object of his mission being to persuade the Muscovite (Ivan IV. The Terrible) to a peace with John, King of Sweden. He was also employed to confirm the trade of the English with Russia, and having incurred some personal danger, was received with favour on his return by the [his wife] Queen (23). He died in 1616.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 07 September 1662. 07 Sep 1662. Lord's Day. Up betimes and round about by the streets to my office, and walked in the garden and in my office till my man Will rose, and then sent to tell Sir J. Minnes (63) that I would go with him to Whitehall, which anon we did, in his coach, and to the Chapell, where I heard a good sermon of the Dean of Ely's, upon returning to the old ways, and a most excellent anthem, with symphonys between, sung by Captain Cooke (46). Then home with Mr. Fox (35) and his lady; and there dined with them, where much company come to them. Most of our discourse was what ministers are flung out that will not conform: and the care of the Bishop of London (64) that we are here supplied with very good men.

Thence to my Lord's, where nobody at home but a woman that let me in, and Sarah above, whither I went up to her and played and talked with her...

After I had talked an hour or two with her I went and gave Mr. Hunt a short visit, he being at home alone, and thence walked homewards, and meeting Mr. Pierce, the chyrurgeon, he took me into Somersett House; and there carried me into the [his mother] Queen-Mother's (52) presence-chamber, where she was with our own [his wife] Queen (23) sitting on her left hand (whom I did never see before); and though she be not very charming, yet she hath a good, modest, and innocent look, which is pleasing. Here I also saw Madam Castlemaine (21), and, which pleased me most, [his illegitimate son] Mr. Crofts (13), the King's (32) bastard, a most pretty spark of about 15 years old, who, I perceive, do hang much upon my Baroness Castlemaine's (21), and is always with her; and, I hear, the [his wife] Queens (23) both of them are mighty kind to him1.

By and by in comes the King (32), and anon the Duke and his Duchess; so that, they being all together, was such a sight as I never could almost have happened to see with so much ease and leisure. They staid till it was dark, and then went away; the King (32) and his [his wife] Queen (23), and my Baroness Castlemaine's (21) and young Crofts, in one coach and the rest in other, coaches. Here were great store of great ladies, but very few handsome. The King (32) and [his wife] Queen (23) were very merry; and he would have made the [his mother] Queen-Mother (52) believe that his [his wife] Queen (23) was with child, and said that she said so. And the young [his wife] Queen (23) answered, "You lye;" which was the first English word that I ever heard her say which made the King (32) good sport; and he would have taught her to say in English, "Confess and be hanged".

The company being gone I walked home with great content as I can be in for seeing the greatest rarity, and yet a little troubled that I should see them before my wife's coming home, I having made a promise that I would not, nor did I do it industriously and by design, but by chance only.

To my office, to fit myself for waiting on the Duke to-morrow morning with the rest of our company, and so to my lodgings and to bed.

Note 1. [his illegitimate son] James (13), the son of Charles II (32) by Lucy Walter (32), daughter of William Walter, of Roch Castle, co. Pembroke. He was born April 9th, 1649, and landed in England with the [his mother] Queen-Mother (52), July 28th, 1662, when he bore the name of Crofts, after Lord Crofts (51), his governor. He was created Duke of Monmouth, February 14th, 1663, and married Lady Anne Scott (11), daughter and heiress of Francis, second Earl of Buccleuch (35), on April 20th following. In 1673 he took the name of Scott, and was created Duke of Buccleuch.

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John Evelyn's Diary 17 September 1662. 17 Sep 1662. We now resolved that the Arms of the Society should be a field argent, with a canton of the arms of England; the supporters two talbots argent; crest, an eagle Or holding a shield with the like arms of England, viz, three lions. The words "Nullius in verbâ". It was presented to his Majesty (32) for his approbation, and orders given to Garter King-at-Arms (51) to pass the diploma of their office for it.

John Evelyn's Diary 20 September 1662. 20 Sep 1662. I presented a petition to his Majesty (32) about my own concerns, and afterward accompanied him to Monsieur Febure his chemist (and who had formerly been my master in Paris), to see his accurate preparation for the composing Sir Walter Raleigh's rare cordial: he made a learned discourse before his Majesty (32) in French on each ingredient.

In 1591 Nicholas Hilliard Painter 1547-1619 painted a portrait of Walter Raleigh 1554-1618. In 1598 William Segar Painter 1554-1663. Portrait of Walter Raleigh 1554-1618. In 1585 Unknown Painter. Portrait of Walter Raleigh 1554-1618. In 1588 Unknown Painter. Portrait of Walter Raleigh 1554-1618.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 21 September 1662. 21 Sep 1662. Lord's Day. Got up betimes and walked to St. James's, and there to Mr. Coventry (34), and sat an hour with him, talking of business of the office with great pleasure, and I do perceive he do speak his whole mind to me.

Thence to the Park, where by appointment I met my brother Tom (28) and Mr. Cooke, and there spoke about Tom's business, and to good satisfaction. The [his wife] Queen (23) coming by in her coach, going to her chappell at St. James's' (the first time it hath been ready for her), I crowded after her, and I got up to the room where her closet is; and there stood and saw the fine altar, ornaments, and the fryers in their habits, and the priests come in with their fine copes and many other very fine things. I heard their musique too; which may be good, but it did not appear so to me, neither as to their manner of singing, nor was it good concord to my ears, whatever the matter was. The Queene (52) very devout: but what pleased me best was to see my dear Baroness Castlemaine's (21), who, tho' a Protestant, did wait upon the [his wife] Queen (23) to chappell.

By and by, after mass was done, a fryer with his cowl did rise up and preach a sermon in Portuguese; which I not understanding, did go away, and to the King's chappell, but that was done; and so up to the Queen's presence-chamber, where [his wife] she and the King (32) was expected to dine: but she staying at St. James's, they were forced to remove the things to the King's presence [chamber]; and there he dined alone, and I with Mr. Fox (35) very finely; but I see I must not make too much of that liberty for my honour sake only, not but that I am very well received.

After dinner to Tom's, and so home, and after walking a good while in the garden I went to my uncle Wight's, where I found my aunt in mourning and making sad stories for the loss of her dear sister Nicholls, of which I should have been very weary but that pretty Mrs. Margaret Wight came in and I was much pleased with her company, and so all supper did vex my aunt talking in commendation of the mass which I had been at to-day, but excused it afterwards that it was only to make mirth.

And so after supper broke up and home, and after putting my notes in order against to-morrow I went to bed.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 24 September 1662. 24 Sep 1662. Up betimes and among my workmen, and among them all the morning till noon, and then to my Lord Crew's, and there dined alone with him, and among other things he do advise me by all means to keep my Lord Sandwich (37) from proceeding too far in the business of Tangier. First, for that he is confident the King (32) will not be able to find money for the building the Mole; and next, for that it is to be done as we propose it by the reducing of the garrison; and then either my Lord must oppose the [his brother] Duke of York (28), who will have the Irish regiment under the command of Fitzgerald continued, or else my Lord Peterborough (40), who is concerned to have the English continued, and he, it seems, is gone back again merely upon my Lord Sandwich's (37) encouragement.

Thence to Mr. Wotton, the shoemaker's, and there bought a pair of boots, cost me 30s., and he told me how Bird hath lately broke his leg, while he was fencing in "Aglaura", upon the stage, and that the new theatre of all will be ready against term.

So to my brother's, and there discoursed with him and Mr. Cooke about their journey to Tom's mistress again, and I did speak with Mr. Croxton about measuring of silk flags.

So by water home and to my workmen, and so at night till late at my office, inditing a letter from Tom to his mistress upon his sending her a watch for a token, and so home and to supper, and to my lodgings and to bed. It is my content that by several hands to-day I hear that I have the name of good-natured man among the poor people that come to the office.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 29 September 1662. 29 Sep 1662. Twelfth Day. This day my oaths for drinking of wine and going to plays are out, and so I do resolve to take a liberty to-day, and then to fall to them again.

Up and by coach to White Hall, in my way taking up Mr. Moore, and walked with him, talking a good while about business, in St. James's Park, and there left him, and to Mr. Coventry's (34), and so with him and Sir W. Pen (41) up to the Duke, where the King (32) came also and staid till the Duke was ready. It being Collarday, we had no time to talk with him about any business. They went out together.

So we parted, and in the park Mr. Cooke by appointment met me, to whom I did give my thoughts concerning Tom's match and their journey tomorrow, and did carry him by water to Tom's, and there taking up my wife, maid, dog, and him, did carry them home, where my wife is much pleased with my house, and so am I fully. I sent for some dinner and there dined, Mrs. Margaret Pen being by, to whom I had spoke to go along with us to a play this afternoon, and then to the King's Theatre, where we saw "Midsummer's Night's Dream", which I had never seen before, nor shall ever again, for it is the most insipid ridiculous play that ever I saw in my life. I saw, I confess, some good dancing and some handsome women, which was all my pleasure.

Thence set my wife down at Madam Turner's, and so by coach home, and having delivered Pegg Pen to her father safe, went home, where I find Mr. Deane, of Woolwich, hath sent me the modell he had promised me; but it so far exceeds my expectations, that I am sorry almost he should make such a present to no greater a person; but I am exceeding glad of it, and shall study to do him a courtesy for it.

So to my office and wrote a letter to Tom's mistress's mother to send by Cooke to-morrow. Then came Mr. Moore thinking to have looked over the business of my Brampton papers against the Court, but my mind was so full of other matters (as it is my nature when I have been a good while from a business, that I have almost forgot it, I am loth to come to it again) that I could not set upon it, and so he and I past the evening away in discourse, and to my lodgings and to bed.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 02 October 1662. 02 Oct 1662. Up and to the office, where we sat till noon, and then to dinner, and Mr. Moore came and dined with me, and after dinner to look over my Brampton papers, which was a most necessary work, though it is not so much to my content as I could wish. I fear that it must be as it can, and not as I would. He being gone I to my workmen again, and at night by coach towards Whitehall took up Mr. Moore and set him at my Lord's, and myself, hearing that there was a play at the Cockpit (and my Lord Sandwich (37), who came to town last night, at it), I do go thither, and by very great fortune did follow four or five gentlemen who were carried to a little private door in a wall, and so crept through a narrow place and come into one of the boxes next the King's, but so as I could not see the King (32) or [his mother] Queene (52), but many of the fine ladies, who yet are really not so handsome generally as I used to take them to be, but that they are finely dressed. Here we saw "The Cardinall", a tragedy I had never seen before, nor is there any great matter in it. The company that came in with me into the box, were all Frenchmen that could speak no English, but Lord! what sport they made to ask a pretty lady that they got among them that understood both French and English to make her tell them what the actors said.

Thence to my Lord's, and saw him, and staid with him half an hour in his chamber talking about some of mine and his own business, and so up to bed with Mr. Moore in the chamber over my Lord's.

John Evelyn's Diary 03 October 1662. 03 Oct 1662. I was invited to the Royal College of Physicians, where Dr. Meret, a learned man and library-keeper, showed me the library, theater for anatomy, and divers natural curiosities; the statue and epigram under it of that renowned physician, Dr. Harvey (84), discoverer of the circulation of the blood. There I saw Dr. Gilbert, Sir William Paddy's and other pictures of men famous in their faculty.

Visited Mr. Wright (45), a Scotchman, who had lived long at Rome, and was esteemed a good painter. The pictures of the Judges at Guildhall are of his hand, and so are some pieces in Whitehall, as the roof in his Majesty's (32) old bedchamber, being Astræa, the St. Catherine, and a chimney-piece in the [his wife] Queen's (23) privy chamber; but his best, in my opinion, is Lacy, the famous Roscius or comedian, whom he has painted in three dresses, as a gallant, a Presbyterian minister, and a Scotch highlander in his plaid. It is in his Majesty's (32) dining room at Windsor Castle. He had at his house an excellent collection, especially that small piece of Correggio, Scotus of de la Marca, a design of Paulo; and, above all, those ruins of Polydore, with some good agates and medals, especially a Scipio, and a Cæsar's head of gold.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 06 October 1662. 06 Oct 1662. Sir W. Pen (41) and I early to St. James's by water, where Mr. Coventry (34), finding the Duke in bed, and not very well, we did not stay to speak with him, but to White Hall, and there took boat and down to Woolwich we went. In our way Mr. Coventry (34) telling us how of late upon enquiry into the miscarriages of the Duke's family, Mr. Biggs, his steward, is found very faulty, and is turned out of his employment.

Then we fell to reading of a book which I saw the other day at my Lord Sandwich's (37), intended for the late King, finely bound up, a treatise concerning the benefit the Hollanders make of our fishing, but whereas I expected great matters from it, I find it a very impertinent [book], and though some things good, yet so full of tautologies, that we were weary of it.

At Woolwich we mustered the yard, and then to the Hart to dinner, and then to the Rope-yard, where I did vex Sir W. Pen (41) I know to appear so well acquainted, I thought better than he, in the business of hemp; thence to Deptford, and there looked over several businesses, and wakened the officers there; so walked to Redriffe, and thence, landing Sir W. Pen (41) at the Tower, I to White Hall with Mr. Coventry (34), and so to my Lord Sandwich's (37) lodgings, but my Lord was not within, being at a ball this night with the King (32) at my Baroness Castlemaine's (21) at next door.

But here to my trouble I hear that Mr. Moore is gone very sick to the Wardrobe this afternoon, which troubles me much both for his own sake and for mine, because of my law business that he does for me and also for my Lord's matters.

So hence by water, late as it was, to the Wardrobe, and there found him in a high fever, in bed, and much cast down by his being ill. So thought it not convenient to stay, but left him and walked home, and there weary went to supper, and then the barber came to me, and after he had done, to my office to set down my journall of this day, and so home and to bed.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 08 October 1662. 08 Oct 1662. Up and by water to my Lord Sandwich's (37), and was with him a good while in his chamber, and among other things to my extraordinary joy, he did tell me how much I was beholding to the [his brother] Duke of York (28), who did yesterday of his own accord tell him that he did thank him for one person brought into the Navy, naming myself, and much more to my commendation, which is the greatest comfort and encouragement that ever I had in my life, and do owe it all to Mr. Coventry's (34) goodness and ingenuity. I was glad above measure of this.

Thence to Mr. Moore, who, I hope, is better than he was, and so home and dined at home, and all the afternoon busy at my office, and at night by coach to my Lord's again, thinking to speak with him, but he is at White Hall with the King (32), before whom the puppet plays I saw this summer in Covent-garden are acted this night.

Hither this night my scallop1, bought and got made by Captain Ferrers' lady, is sent, and I brought it home, a very neat one. It cost me about £3, and £3 more I have given him to buy me another. I do find myself much bound to go handsome, which I shall do in linen, and so the other things may be all the plainer. Here I staid playing some new tunes to parts with Wm. Howe, and, my Lord not coming home, I came home late on foot, my boy carrying a link, and so eat a bit and to bed, my head full of ordering of businesses against my journey to-morrow, that there may be nothing done to my wrong in my absence.

This day Sir W. Pen (41) did speak to me from Sir J. Minnes (63) to desire my best chamber of me, and my great joy is that I perceive he do not stand upon his right, which I was much afraid of, and so I hope I shall do well enough with him for it, for I will not part with it by fair means, though I contrive to let him have another room for it.

Note 1. A lace band, the edges of which were indented with segments of circles, so as to resemble a scallop shell. The word "scallop" was used till recently for a part of a lady's dress embroidered and cut to resemble a scallop shell.

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John Evelyn's Diary 16 October 1662. 16 Oct 1662. I saw "Volpone" acted at Court before their Majesties [Note. Charles II King England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 (32) and [his wife] Catherine of Braganza Queen Consort England 1638-1705 (23)].

Diary of Samuel Pepys 16 October 1662. 16 Oct 1662. And so I rose in good temper, finding a good chimneypiece made in my upper dining-room chamber, and the diningroom wainscoat in a good forwardness, at which I am glad, and then to the office, where by T. Hater I found all things to my mind, and so we sat at the office till noon, and then at home to dinner with my wife. !Then coming Mr. Creede in order to some business with Sir J. Minnes (63) about his accounts, this afternoon I took him to the Treasury office, where Sir John and I did stay late paying some money to the men that are saved out of the Satisfaction that was lost the other day. The King (32) gives them half-pay, which is more than is used in such cases, for they never used to have any thing, and yet the men were most outrageously discontented, and did rail and curse us till I was troubled to hear it, and wished myself unconcerned therein. Mr. Creede seeing us engaged took leave of us.

Here late, and so home, and at the office set down my journey-journall to this hour, and so shut up my book, giving God thanks for my good success therein, and so home, and to supper, and to bed.

I hear Mr. Moore is in a way of recovery. Sir H. Bennet (44) made Secretary of State in Sir Edward Nicholas's stead; not known whether by consent or not.

My brother Tom (28) and Cooke are come to town I hear this morning, and he sends me word that his mistress's mother is also come to treat with us about her daughter's portion and her jointure, which I am willing should be out of Sturtlow lands.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 17 October 1662. 17 Oct 1662. This morning Tom comes to me, and I advise him how to deal with his mistress's mother about his giving her a joynture, but I intend to speak with her shortly, and tell her my mind.

Then to my Lord Sandwich (37) by water, and told him how well things do go in the country with me, of which he was very glad, and seems to concern himself much for me.

Thence with Mr. Creed to Westminster Hall, and by and by thither comes Captn. Ferrers, upon my sending for him, and we three to Creed's chamber, and there sat a good while and drank chocolate. Here I am told how things go at Court; that the young men get uppermost, and the old serious lords are out of favour; that Sir H. Bennet (44), being brought into Sir Edward Nicholas's place, Sir Charles Barkeley (32) is made Privy Purse; a most vicious person, and one whom Mr. Pierce, the surgeon, to-day (at which I laugh to myself), did tell me that he offered his wife £300 per annum to be his mistress. He also told me that none in Court hath more the King's ear now than Sir Charles Barkeley (32), and Sir H. Bennet (44), and my Baroness Castlemaine's (21), whose interest is now as great as ever and that Mrs. Haslerigge1, the great beauty, is got with child, and now brought to bed, and lays it to the King (32) or the [his brother] Duke of York (29)2. He tells me too that my Lord St. Albans' is like to be Lord Treasurer: all which things do trouble me much. Here I staid talking a good while, and so by water to see Mr. Moore, who is out of bed and in a way to be well, and thence home, and with ComMr. Pett (52) by water to view Wood's masts that he proffers to sell, which we found bad, and so to Deptford to look over some businesses, and so home and I to my office, all our talk being upon Sir J. M. and Sir W. B.'s base carriage against him at their late being at Chatham, which I am sorry to hear, but I doubt not but we shall fling Sir W. B. upon his back ere long.

At my office, I hearing Sir W. Pen (41) was not well, I went to him to see, and sat with him, and so home and to bed.

Note 1. TT. Not clear which Mrs Haselbrigge this refers to. There are two possible Mrs Haselrigge's but neither appear to have married their resppective Haselrigge husbands before 1664: Elizabeth Fenwick 1625-1673 (37) and Bridget Rolle -1697.

Note 2. The child was owned by neither of the royal brothers. B.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 19 October 1662. 19 Oct 1662. Lord's Day. Got me ready in the morning and put on my first new laceband; and so neat it is, that I am resolved my great expense shall be lacebands, and it will set off any thing else the more.

So walked to my brother's, where I met Mr. Cooke, and discoursing with him do find that he and Tom have promised a joynture of £50 to his mistress, and say that I did give my consent that she should be joyntured in £30 per ann. for Sturtlow, and the rest to be made up out of her portion.

At which I was stark mad, and very angry the business should be carried with so much folly and against my mind and all reason. But I was willing to forbear discovering of it, and did receive Mrs. Butler, her mother, Mr. Lull and his wife, very civil people, very kindly, and without the least discontent, and Tom had a good and neat dinner for us. We had little discourse of any business, but leave it to one Mr. Smith on her part and myself on ours.

So we staid till sermon was done, and I took leave, and to see Mr. Moore, who recovers well; and his doctor coming to him, one Dr. Merrit, we had some of his very good discourse of anatomy, and other things, very pleasant.

By and by, I with Mr. Townsend walked in the garden, talking and advising with him about Tom's business, and he tells me he will speak with Smith, and says I offer fair to give her £30 joynture and no more.

Thence Tom waiting for me homewards towards my house, talking and scolding him for his folly, and telling him my mind plainly what he has to trust to if he goes this way to work, for he shall never have her upon the terms they demand of £50. He left me, and I to my uncle Wight, and there supped, and there was pretty Mistress Margt. Wight, whom I esteem very pretty, and love dearly to look upon her. We were very pleasant, I droning with my aunt and them, but I am sorry to hear that the news of the selling of Dunkirk1 is taken so generally ill, as I find it is among the merchants; and other things, as removal of officers at Court, good for worse; and all things else made much worse in their report among people than they are. And this night, I know not upon what ground, the gates of the City ordered to be kept shut, and double guards every where.

So home, and after preparing things against to-morrow for the Duke, to bed. Indeed I do find every body's spirit very full of trouble; and the things of the Court and Council very ill taken; so as to be apt to appear in bad colours, if there should ever be a beginning of trouble, which God forbid!

Note 1. A treaty was signed on the 27th October by which Dunkirk was sold to France for five million livres, two of which were to be paid immediately, and the remaining three by eight bills at dates varying from three months to two years; during which time the King (32) of England was to contribute the aid of a naval force, if necessary, for defence against Spain. Subsequently the remaining three millions were reduced to 2,500,000 to be paid at Paris, and 254,000 in London. It is not known that Clarendon (53) suggested the sale of Dunkirk, but it is certain that he adopted the measure with zeal. There is also no doubt that he got as much as France could be induced to give.—Lister's Life of Clarendon, ii. 173-4.

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John Evelyn's Diary 21 October 1662. 21 Oct 1662. To the [his mother] Queen-Mother's (52) Court, where her Majesty (32) related to us divers passages of her escapes during the Rebellion and wars in England.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 21 October 1662. 21 Oct 1662. Up, and while I was dressing myself, my brother Tom (28) being there I did chide him for his folly in abusing himself about the match, for I perceive he do endeavour all he can to get her, and she and her friends to have more than her portion deserves, which now from 6 or £700 is come to £450. I did by several steps shew Tom how he would not be £100 the better for her according to the ways he took to joynture her.

After having done with him to the office, and there all the morning, and in the middle of our sitting my workmen setting about the putting up of my rails upon my leads, Sir J. Minnes (63) did spy them and fell a-swearing, which I took no notice of, but was vexed, and am still to the very heart for it, for fear it should put him upon taking the closett and my chamber from me, which I protest I am now afraid of. But it is my very great folly to be so much troubled at these trifles, more than at the loss of £100, or things of greater concernment; but I forget the lesson I use to preach to others.

After dinner to my office with my head and heart full of troublesome business, and thence by water with Mr. Smith, to Mr. Lechmore, the Counsellor at the Temple, about Field's business; and he tells me plainly that, there being a verdict against me, there is no help for it, but it must proceed to judgment. It is £30 damage to me for my joining with others in committing Field to prison, we being not justices of the Peace in the City, though in Middlesex; this troubled me, but I hope the King (32) will make it good to us.

Thence to Mr. Smith, the scrivener, upon Ludgate Hill, to whom Mrs. Butler do committ her business concerning her daughter and my brother. He tells me her daughter's portion is but £400, at which I am more troubled than before; and they find fault that his house is too little. So after I had told him my full mind, I went away to meet again to-morrow, but I believe the business will be broke off, which for Tom's sake I am much grieved for, but it cannot be helped without his ruin.

Thence to see Mr. Moore, who is pretty well again, and we read over and discoursed about Mrs. Goldsborough's business, and her son coming by my appointment thither, I did tell him our resolution as to her having her estate reconveyed to her. Hither also came my brother, and before Mr. Moore I did advise and counsel him about his match, and how we had all been abused by Mr. Cooke's folly.

So home and to my office, and there settled many businesses, and so home and to supper, and so to bed, Sir W. Pen (41) being still in great pain.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 24 October 1662. 24 Oct 1662. After with great pleasure lying a great while talking and sporting in bed with my wife (for we have been for some years now, and at present more and more, a very happy couple, blessed be God), I got up and to my office, and having done there some business, I by water, and then walked to Deptford to discourse with Mr. Lowly and Davis about my late conceptions about keeping books of the distinct works done in the yards, against which I find no objection but their ignorance and unwillingness to do anything of pains and what is out of their ordinary dull road, but I like it well, and will proceed in it.

So home and dined there with my wife upon a most excellent dish of tripes of my own directing, covered with, mustard, as I have heretofore seen them done at my Lord Crew's, of which I made a very great meal, and sent for a glass of wine for myself, and so to see Sir W. Pen (41), who continues bed-rid in great pain, and hence to the Treasury to Sir J. Minnes (63) paying off of tickets, and at night home, and in my study (after seeing Sir W. Batten (61), who also continues ill) I fell to draw out my conceptions about books for the clerk that cheques in the yard to keep according to the distinct works there, which pleases me very well, and I am confident it will be of great use.

At 9 at night home, and to supper, and to bed.

This noon came to see me and sat with me a little after dinner Mr. Pierce, the chyrurgeon, who tells me how ill things go at Court: that the King (32) do show no countenance to any that belong to the [his wife] Queen (23); nor, above all, to such English as she brought over with her, or hath here since, for fear they should tell her how he carries himself to Mrs. Palmer (21); insomuch that though he has a promise, and is sure of being made her chyrurgeon, he is at a loss what to do in it, whether to take it or no, since the King's mind is so altered in favour to all her dependants, whom she is fain to let go back into Portugall (though she brought them from their friends against their wills with promise of preferment), without doing any thing for them. But he tells me that her own physician did tell him within these three days that the [his wife] Queen (23) do know how the King (32) orders things, and how he carries himself to my Baroness Castlemaine's (21) and others, as well as any body; but though she hath spirit enough, yet seeing that she do no good by taking notice of it, for the present she forbears it in policy; of which I am very glad. But I pray God keep us in peace; for this, with other things, do give great discontent to all people.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 27 October 1662. 27 Oct 1662. Up, and after giving order to the plasterer now to set upon the finishing of my house, then by water to wait upon the Duke, and walking in the matted Gallery, by and by comes Mr. Coventry (34) and Sir John Minnes (63), and then to the Duke, and after he was ready, to his closet, where I did give him my usual account of matters, and afterwards, upon Sir J. Minnes' (63) desire to have one to assist him in his employment, Sir W. Pen (41) is appointed to be his, and Mr. Pett (52) to be the Surveyor's assistant. Mr. Coventry (34) did desire to be excused, and so I hope (at least it is my present opinion) to have none joined with me, but only Mr. Coventry (34) do desire that I would find work for one of his clerks, which I did not deny, but however I will think of it, whether without prejudice to mine I can do it.

Thence to my Lord Sandwich (37), who now-a-days calls me into his chamber, and alone did discourse with me about the jealousy that the Court have of people's rising; wherein he do much dislike my Lord Monk's (53) being so eager against a company of poor wretches, dragging them up and down the street; but would have him rather to take some of the greatest ringleaders of them, and punish them; whereas this do but tell the world the King's fears and doubts.

For Dunkirk; he wonders any wise people should be so troubled thereat, and scorns all their talk against it, for that he says it was not Dunkirk, but the other places, that did and would annoy us, though we had that, as much as if we had it not. He also took notice of the new Ministers of State, Sir H. Bennet (44) and Sir Charles Barkeley (32), their bringing in, and the high game that my Baroness Castlemaine's (21) plays at Court (which I took occasion to mention as that that the people do take great notice of), all which he confessed.

Afterwards he told me of poor Mr. Spong, that being with other people examined before the King (32) and Council (they being laid up as suspected persons; and it seems Spong is so far thought guilty as that they intend to pitch upon him to put to the wracke or some other torture), he do take knowledge of my Lord Sandwich (37), and said that he was well known to Mr. Pepys. But my Lord knows, and I told him, that it was only in matter of musique and pipes, but that I thought him to be a very innocent fellow; and indeed I am very sorry for him. !After my Lord and I had done in private, we went out, and with Captain Cuttance and Bunn did look over their draught of a bridge for Tangier, which will be brought by my desire to our office by them to-morrow.

Thence to Westminster Hall, and there walked long with Mr. Creed, and then to the great half-a-crown ordinary, at the King's Head, near Charing Cross, where we had a most excellent neat dinner and very high company, and in a noble manner.

After dinner he and I into another room over a pot of ale and talked. He showed me our commission, wherein the [his brother] Duke of York (29), Prince Rupert (42), Duke of Albemarle (53), Lord Peterborough (40), Lord Sandwich (37), Sir G. Carteret (52), Sir William Compton (37), Mr. Coventry (34), Sir R. Ford (48), Sir William Rider, Mr. Cholmley, Mr. Povy (48), myself, and Captain Cuttance, in this order are joyned for the carrying on the service of Tangier, which I take for a great honour to me.

He told me what great faction there is at Court; and above all, what is whispered, that young [his illegitimate son] Crofts (13) is lawful son to the King (32), the King (32) being married to his mother (32)1. How true this is, God knows; but I believe the [his brother] Duke of York (29) will not be fooled in this of three crowns.

Thence to White Hall, and walked long in the galleries till (as they are commanded to all strange persons), one come to tell us, we not being known, and being observed to walk there four or five hours (which was not true, unless they count my walking there in the morning), he was commanded to ask who we were; which being told, he excused his question, and was satisfied.

These things speak great fear and jealousys. Here we staid some time, thinking to stay out the play before the King (32) to-night, but it being "The Villaine", and my wife not being there, I had no mind.

So walk to the Exchange, and there took many turns with him; among other things, observing one very pretty Exchange lass, with her face full of black patches, which was a strange sight. So bid him good-night and away by coach to Mr. Moore, with whom I staid an hour, and found him pretty well and intends to go abroad tomorrow, and so it raining hard by coach home, and having visited both Sir Williams, who are both sick, but like to be well again, I to my office, and there did some business, and so home and to bed.

At Sir W. Batten's (61) I met with Mr. Mills, who tells me that he could get nothing out of the maid hard by (that did poyson herself) before she died, but that she did it because she did not like herself, nor had not liked herself, nor anything she did a great while. It seems she was well-favoured enough, but crooked, and this was all she could be got to say, which is very strange.

Note 1. There has been much confusion as to the name and parentage of Charles's mistress. Lucy Walter (32) was the daughter of William Walter of Roch Castle, co. Pembroke, and Mr. S. Steinman, in his "Althorp Memoirs" (privately printed, 1869), sets out her pedigree, which is a good one. Roch Castle was taken and burnt by the Parliamentary forces in 1644, and Lucy was in London in 1648, where she made the acquaintance of Colonel Algernon Sidney (39). She then fell into the possession of his brother, Colonel Robert Sidney1. In September of this same year she was taken up by Charles, Prince of Wales. Charles terminated his connection with her on October 30th, 1651, and she died in 1658, as appears by a document (administration entry in the Register of the Prerogative Court) met with by the late Colonel Chester. William Erskine, who had served Charles as cupbearer in his wanderings, and was appointed Master of the Charterhouse in December, 1677, had the care of Lucy Walter, and buried her in Paris. He declared that the King (32) never had any intention of marrying her, and she did not deserve it. Thomas Ross, the tutor of her son, put the idea of this claim into his head, and asked Dr. Cosin to certify to a marriage. In consequence of this he was removed from his office, and Lord Crofts (51) took his place (Steinman's "Althorp Memoirs"). Lucy Walter took the name of Barlow during her wanderings.

Note 1. TT. Not clear who Colonel Robert Sidney is since Algernon Sidney 1623-1683 (39) didn't have a brother called Robert. Algernon's brothers were Philip Sidney 3rd Earl of Leicester 1619-1698 (43) and Henry Sidney 1st Earl Romney 1641-1704 (21).

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John Evelyn's Diary 28 October 1662. 28 Oct 1662. To Court in the evening where the [his mother] Queen-Mother (52), the Queen-Consort (23), and his Majesty (32) being advertised of some disturbance, forbore to go to the Lord Mayor's show and feast appointed next day, the new Queen (23) not having yet seen that triumph.

John Evelyn's Diary 29 October 1662. 29 Oct 1662. Was my Lord Mayor's show, with a number of sumptuous pageants, speeches, and verses. I was standing in a house in Cheapside against the place prepared for their Majesties. The Prince (9) and heir of Denmark was there, but not our King. There were also the maids of honor. I went to Court this evening, and had much discourse with Dr. Basiers, one of his Majesty's (32) chaplains, the great traveler, who showed me the syngraphs and original subscriptions of divers eastern patriarchs and Asian churches to our confession.

Before 28 Oct 1708 John Closterman Painter 1660-1711. Portrait of Prince George of Denmark 1st Duke Cumberland 1653-1708. Around 1705. Michael Dahl Painter 1659-1743. Portrait of Prince George of Denmark 1st Duke Cumberland 1653-1708. Walmer Castle.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 30 October 1662. 30 Oct 1662. Could sleep but little to-night for thoughts of my business. So up by candlelight and by water to Whitehall, and so to my Lord Sandwich (37), who was up in his chamber and all alone, did acquaint me with his business; which was, that our old acquaintance Mr. Wade (in Axe Yard) hath discovered to him £7,000 hid in the Tower, of which he was to have two for discovery; my Lord himself two, and the King (32) the other three, when it was found; and that the King's warrant runs for me on my Lord's part, and one Mr. Lee for Sir Harry Bennet (44), to demand leave of the Lieutenant of the Tower for to make search. After he had told me the whole business, I took leave and hastened to my office, expecting to be called by a letter from my Lord to set upon the business, and so there I sat with the officers all the morning.

At noon when we were up comes Mr. Wade with my Lord's letter, and tells me the whole business. So we consulted for me to go first to Sir H. Bennet (44), who is now with many of the Privy Counsellors at the Tower, examining of their late prisoners, to advise with him when to begin.

So I went; and the guard at the Tower Gate, making me leave my sword at the gate, I was forced to stay so long in the ale-house hard by, till my boy run home for my cloak, that my Lord Mayor that now is, Sir John Robinson (47), Lieutenant of the Tower, with all his company, was gone with their coaches to his house in Minchen Lane. So my cloak being come, I walked thither; and there, by Sir G. Carteret's (52) means, did presently speak with Sir H. Bennet (44), who did show and give me the King's warrant to me and Mr. Leigh, and another to himself, for the paying of £2,000 to my Lord, and other two to the discoverers. After a little discourse, dinner come in; and I dined with them. There was my Lord Mayor, my Lord Lauderdale, Mr. Secretary Morris, to whom Sir H. Bennet (44) would give the upper hand; Sir Wm. Compton, Sir G. Carteret (52), and myself, and some other company, and a brave dinner.

After dinner, Sir H. Bennet (44) did call aside the Lord Mayor and me, and did break the business to him, who did not, nor durst appear the least averse to it, but did promise all assistance forthwith to set upon it. So Mr. Lee and I to our office, and there walked till Mr. Wade and one Evett his guide did come, and W. Griffin, and a porter with his picke-axes, &c.; and so they walked along with us to the Tower, and Sir H. Bennet (44) and my Lord Mayor did give us full power to fall to work.

So our guide demands, a candle, and down into the cellars he goes, inquiring whether they were the same that Baxter1 always had. We went into several little cellars, and then went out a-doors to view, and to the Cole Harbour; but none did answer so well to the marks which was given him to find it by, as one arched vault. Where, after a great deal of council whether to set upon it now, or delay for better and more full advice, we set to it, to digging we went to almost eight o'clock at night, but could find nothing. But, however, our guides did not at all seem discouraged; for that they being confident that the money is there they look for, but having never been in the cellars, they could not be positive to the place, and therefore will inform themselves more fully now they have been there, of the party that do advise them. So locking the door after us, we left work to-night, and up to the Deputy Governor (my Lord Mayor, and Sir H. Bennet (44), with the rest of the company being gone an hour before); and he do undertake to keep the key of the cellars, that none shall go down without his privity.

But, Lord! to see what a young simple fantastique coxcombe is made Deputy Governor, would make one mad; and how he called out for his night-gown of silk, only to make a show to us; and yet for half an hour I did not think he was the Deputy Governor, and so spoke not to him about the business, but waited for another man; at last I broke our business to him; and he promising his care, we parted. And Mr. Leigh and I by coach to White Hall, where I did give my Lord Sandwich (37) an account of our proceedings, and some encouragement to hope for something hereafter, and so bade him good-night, and so by coach home again, where to my trouble I found that the painter had not been here to-day to do any thing, which vexes me mightily.

So to my office to put down my journal, and so home and to bed. This morning, walking with Mr. Coventry (34) in the garden, he did tell me how Sir G. Carteret (52) had carried the business of the Victuallers' money to be paid by himself, contrary to old practice; at which he is angry I perceive, but I believe means no hurt, but that things maybe done as they ought. He expects Sir George (52) should not bespatter him privately, in revenge, but openly. Against which he prepares to bedaub him, and swears he will do it from the beginning, from Jersey to this day.

And as to his own taking of too large fees or rewards for places that he had sold, he will prove that he was directed to it by Sir George (52) himself among others. And yet he did not deny Sir G. Carteret (52) his due, in saying that he is a man that do take the most pains, and gives himself the most to do business of any man about the Court, without any desire of pleasure or divertisements; which is very true. But which pleased me mightily, he said in these words, that he was resolved, whatever it cost him, to make an experiment, and see whether it was possible for a man to keep himself up in Court by dealing plainly and walking uprightly, with any private game a playing: in the doing whereof, if his ground do slip from under him, he will be contented; but he is resolved to try, and never to baulke taking notice of any thing that is to the King's prejudice, let it fall where it will; which is a most brave resolucion. He was very free with me; and by my troth, I do see more reall worth in him than in most men that I do know. I would not forget two passages of Sir J. Minnes's (63) at yesterday's dinner. The one, that to the question how it comes to pass that there are no boars seen in London, but many sows and pigs; it was answered, that the constable gets them a-nights. The other, Thos. Killigrew's way of getting to see plays when he was a boy. He would go to the Red Bull, and when the man cried to the boys, "Who will go and be a devil, and he shall see the play for nothing?" then would he go in, and be a devil upon the stage, and so get to see plays.

Note 1. Intended for John Barkstead, Lieutenant of the Tower under Cromwell. Committed to the Tower (see March 17th, 1661-62).

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 31 October 1662. 31 Oct 1662. Lay pretty long in bed, and then up and among my workmen, the carpenters being this day laying of my floor of my dining room, with whom I staid a good while, and so to my office, and did a little business, and so home to dinner, and after dinner all the afternoon with my carpenters, making them lay all my boards but one in my dining room this day, which I am confident they would have made two good days work of if I had not been there, and it will be very pleasant.

At night to my office, and there late doing of my office business, and so home to supper and bed.

Thus ends this month, I and my family in good health, but weary heartily of dirt, but now in hopes within two or three weeks to be out of it. My head troubled with much business, but especially my fear of Sir J. Minnes (63) claiming my bed-chamber of me, but I hope now that it is almost over, for I perceive he is fitting his house to go into it the next week. Then my law businesses for Brampton makes me mad almost, for that I want time to follow them, but I must by no means neglect them. I thank God I do save money, though it be but a little, but I hope to find out some job or other that I may get a sum by to set me up.

I am now also busy in a discovery for my Lord Sandwich (37) and Sir H. Bennett (44) by Mr. Wade's means of some of Baxter's [Barkstead] money hid in one of his cellars in the Tower. If we get it it may be I may be 10 or £20 the better for it. I thank God I have no crosses, but only much business to trouble my mind with. In all other things as happy a man as any in the world, for the whole world seems to smile upon me, and if my house were done that I could diligently follow my business, I would not doubt to do God, and the King (32), and myself good service.

And all I do impute almost wholly to my late temperance, since my making of my vowes against wine and plays, which keeps me most happily and contentfully to my business; which God continue! Public matters are full of discontent, what with the sale of Dunkirk, and my Baroness Castlemaine's (21), and her faction at Court; though I know not what they would have more than to debauch the King (32), whom God preserve from it! And then great plots are talked to be discovered, and all the prisons in town full of ordinary people, taken from their meeting-places last. Sunday. But for certain some plots there hath been, though not brought to a head.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 03 November 1662. 03 Nov 1662. Up and with Sir J. Minnes (63) in his coach to White Hall, to the Duke's; but found him gone out a-hunting.

Thence to my Lord Sandwich (37), from whom I receive every day more and more signs of his confidence and esteem of me. Here I met with Pierce the chyrurgeon, who tells me that my Baroness Castlemaine's (21) is with child; but though it be the King's, yet her Lord (28) being still in town, and sometimes seeing of her, though never to eat or lie together, it will be laid to him. He tells me also how the [his brother] Duke of York (29) is smitten in love with my Lady Chesterfield (22)1 (a virtuous lady, daughter to my Lord of Ormond (52)); and so much, that the Duchess of York (25) hath complained to the King (32) and her father (53) about it, and my Lady Chesterfield (22) is gone into the country for it. At all which I am sorry; but it is the effect of idleness, and having nothing else to employ their great spirits upon.

Thence with Mr. Creede and Mr. Moore (who is got upon his legs and come to see my Lord) to Wilkinson's, and there I did give them and Mr. Howe their dinner of roast beef, cost me 5s., and after dinner carried Mr. Moore as far as Paul's in a coach, giving him direction about my law business, and there set him down, and I home and among my workmen, who happened of all sorts to meet to their making an end of a great many jobbs, so that after to-morrow I shall have but a little plastering and all the painting almost to do, which was good content to me. At night to my office, and did business; and there came to me Mr. Wade and Evett, who have been again with their prime intelligencer, a woman, I perceive: and though we have missed twice, yet they bring such an account of the probability of the truth of the thing, though we are not certain of the place, that we shall set upon it once more; and I am willing and hopefull in it. So we resolved to set upon it again on Wednesday morning; and the woman herself will be there in a disguise, and confirm us in the place. So they took leave for the night, and I to my business, and then home to my wife and to supper and bed, my pain being going away. So by God's great blessing my mind is in good condition of quiet.

Note 1. Lady Elizabeth Butler (22), daughter of James Butler (52), first Duke of Ormond, second wife of Philip Stanhope (28), second Earl of Chesterfield. She died July, 1665 (see "Memoires de Grammont", chap. viii.). Peter Cunningham thinks that this banishment was only temporary, for, according to the Grammont Memoirs, she was in town when the Russian ambassador was in London, December, 1662, and January, 1662- 63. "It appears from the books of the Lord Steward's office... that Lord Chesterfield (28) set out for the country on the 12th May, 1663, and, from his 'Short Notes' referred to in the Memoirs before his Correspondence, that he remained at Bretby, in Derbyshire, with his wife, throughout the summer of that year" ("Story of Nell Gwyn", 1852, p. 189).

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John Evelyn's Diary 05 November 1662. 05 Nov 1662. The Council of the Royal Society met to amend the Statutes, and dined together; afterward meeting at Gresham College, where was a discourse suggested by me, concerning planting his Majesty's (32) Forest of Dean with oak, now so much exhausted of the choicest ship timber in the world.

Diary of Samuel Pepys 10 November 1662. 10 Nov 1662. Up betimes and to set my workmen to work, and then a little to the office, and so with Sir J. Minnes (63), Sir W. Batten (61), and myself by coach to White Hall, to the [his brother] Duke (29), who, after he was ready, did take us into his closett. Thither come my Lord General Monk (53), and did privately talk with the [his brother] Duke (29) about having the life-guards pass through the City today only for show and to fright people, for I perceive there are great fears abroad; for all which I am troubled and full of doubt that things will not go well. He being gone, we fell to business of the Navy. Among other things, how to pay off this fleet that is now come from Portugall; the King (32) of Portugall sending them home, he having no more use for them, which we wonder at, that his condition should be so soon altered. And our landmen also are coming back, being almost starved in that poor country. Having done here I went by my Lord Sandwich's (37), who was not at home, and so to Westminster Hall, where full of term, and here met with many about business, among others my cozen Roger Pepys (45), who is all for a composition with my uncle Thomas, which upon any fair terms I am for also and desire it.

Thence by water, and so by land to my Lord Crew's, and dined with him and his brother, I know not his name; where very good discourse; among others, of France's intention to make a patriarch of his own, independent from the Pope, by which he will be able to cope with the Spaniard in all councils, which hitherto he has never done. My Lord Crew told us how he heard my Lord of Holland say that, being Embassador about the match with the [his wife] Queene-Mother (23) that now is, the King (32) of France [Louis XIII (61), in 1624.] insisted upon a dispensation from the Pope, which my Lord Holland (72) making a question of, and that he was commanded to yield to nothing to the prejudice of our religion, says the King (32) of France, "You need not fear that, for if the Pope will not dispense with the match, my Bishopp of Paris shall". By and by come in great Mr. Swinfen, the Parliament-man, who, among other discourse of the rise and fall of familys, told us of Bishopp Bridgeman (brother of Sir Orlando (56)) who lately hath bought a seat anciently of the Levers, and then the Ashtons; and so he hath in his great hall window (having repaired and beautified the house) caused four great places to be left for coates of armes. In one, he hath put the Levers, with this motto, "Olim". In another the Ashtons, with this, "Heri". In the next his own, with this, "Hodie". In the fourth nothing but this motto, "Cras nescio cujus". Thence towards my brother's; met with Jack Cole in Fleet Street, and he and I went into his cozen Mary Cole's (whom I never saw since she was married), and drank a pint of wine and much good discourse. I found him a little conceited, but he had good things in him, and a man may know the temper of the City by him, he being of a general conversation, and can tell how matters go; and upon that score I will encourage his acquaintance.

Thence to my brother's, and taking my wife up, carried her to Charing Cross, and there showed her the Italian motion [possibly Punch and Judy], much after the nature of what I showed her a while since in Covent Garden. Their puppets here are somewhat better, but their motions not at all.

Thence by coach to my Lady's, and, hiding my wife with Sarah below, I went up and heard some musique with my Lord, and afterwards discoursed with him alone, and so good night to him and below, having sent for Mr. Creed, had thought to have shown my wife a play before the King (32), but it is so late that we could not, and so we took coach, and taking up Sarah at my brother's with their night geare we went home, and I to my office to settle matters, and so home and to bed. This morning in the Duke's chamber Sir J. Minnes (63) did break to me his desire about my chamber, which I did put off to another time to discourse of, he speaking to me very kindly to make me the less trouble myself, hoping to save myself and to contrive something or other to pleasure him as well, though I know not well what. The town, I hear, is full of discontents, and all know of the King's new bastard by Mrs. Haslerigge, and as far as I can hear will never be contented with Episcopacy, they are so cruelly set for Presbytery, and the Bishopps carry themselves so high, that they are never likely to gain anything upon them.

In 1634 Daniel Mijtens Painter 1590-1648. Portrait of Henry Rich 1st Earl Holland 1590-1649. 1639. Follower of Anthony Van Dyck Painter 1599-1641. Portrait of Henry Rich 1st Earl Holland 1590-1649. Before 1691. John Riley Painter 1646-1691. Portrait of Orlando Bridgeman 1st Baronet Bridgeman 1606-1674. Around 1670 Pieter Borsseler Painter 1634-1687. Portrait of Orlando Bridgeman 1st Baronet Bridgeman 1606-1674. Chirk Castle.

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Diary of Samuel Pepys 17 November 1662. 17 Nov 1662. To the Duke's to-day, but he is gone a-hunting, and therefore I to my Lord Sandwich's (37), and having spoke a little with him about his businesses, I to Westminster Hall and there staid long doing many businesses, and so home by the Temple and other places doing the like, and at home I found my wife dressing by appointment by her woman [Mrs. Gosnell.] that I think is to be, and her other sister being here to-day with her and my wife's brother, I took Mr. Creed, that came to dine, to an ordinary behind the Change, and there dined together, and after dinner home and there spent an hour or two till almost dark, talking with my wife, and making Mrs. Gosnell sing; and then, there being no coach to be got, by water to White Hall; but Gosnell not being willing to go through bridge, we were forced to land and take water, again, and put her and her sister ashore at the Temple. I am mightily pleased with her humour and singing. At White Hall by appointment, Mr. Creed carried my wife and I to the Cockpitt, and we had excellent places, and saw the King (32), [his wife] Queen (23), Duke of Monmouth (13), his son, and my Baroness Castlemaine's (21), and all the fine ladies; and "The Scornful Lady", well performed. They had done by eleven o'clock, and it being fine moonshine, we took coach and home, but could wake nobody at my house, and so were fain to have my boy get through one of the windows, and so opened the door and called up the maids, and went to supper and to bed, my mind being troubled at what my wife tells me, that her woman will not come till she hears from her mother, for I am so fond of her that I am loth now not to have her, though I know it will be a great charge to me which I ought to avoid, and so will make it up in other things.

So to bed.

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John Evelyn's Diary 20 November 1662. 20 Nov 1662. Dined with the Comptroller, Sir Hugh Pollard (59); afterward saw "The Young Admiral" acted before the King (32).

Diary of Samuel Pepys 24 November 1662. 24 Nov 1662. Sir J. Minnes (63), Sir W. Batten (61), and I, going forth toward White Hall, we hear that the King (32) and [his brother] Duke (29) are come this morning to the Tower to see the Dunkirk money! So we by coach to them, and there went up and down all the magazines with them; but methought it was but poor discourse and frothy that the King's companions (young Killigrew (25) among the rest) about the codpieces of some of the men in armour there to be seen, had with him. We saw none of the money, but Mr. Slingsby did show the King (32), and I did see, the stamps of the new money that is now to be made by Blondeau's fashion1, which are very neat, and like the King (32).

Thence the King (32) to Woolwich, though a very cold day; and the [his brother] Duke (29) to White Hall, commanding us to come after him, which we did by coach; and in his closett, my Lord Sandwich (37) being there, did discourse with us about getting some of this money to pay off the Fleets, and other matters; and then away hence, and, it being almost dinner time, I to my Lord Crew's, and dined with him, and had very good discourse, and he seemed to be much pleased with my visits.

Thence to Mr. Phillips, and so to the Temple, where met my cozen Roger Pepys (45) and his brother, Dr. John, as my arbitrators against Mr. Cole and Mr. John Bernard for my uncle Thomas, and we two with them by appointment. They began very high in their demands, and my friends, partly being not so well acquainted with the will, and partly, I doubt, not being so good wits as they, for which I blame my choosing of relations (who besides that are equally engaged to stand for them as me), I was much troubled thereat, and taking occasion to deny without my father's consent to bind myself in a bond of £2000 to stand to their award, I broke off the business for the present till I hear and consider further, and so thence by coach (my cozen, Thomas Pepys, being in another chamber busy all the while, going along with me) homeward, and I set him down by the way; but, Lord! how he did endeavour to find out a ninepence to clubb with me for the coach, and for want was forced to give me a shilling, and how he still cries "Gad!" and talks of Popery coming in, as all the Fanatiques do, of which I was ashamed.

So home, finding my poor wife very busy putting things in order, and so to bed, my mind being very much troubled, and could hardly sleep all night, thinking how things are like to go with us about Brampton, and blaming myself for living so high as I do when for ought I know my father and mother may come to live upon my hands when all is done.

Note 1. Peter Blondeau was employed by the Commonwealth to coin their money. After the Restoration, November 3rd, 1662, he received letters of denization, and a grant for being engineer of the Mint in the Tower of London, and for using his new invention for coining gold and silver with the mill and press, with the fee of £100 per annum (Walpole's "Anecdotes of Painting").

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