Biography of King James I of England and Ireland and VI of Scotland 1566-1625

1542 Death of King James V of Scotland

1558 Marriage of Mary Queen of Scots and the Francis Dauphin of France

1567 Murder of Lord Darnley

1567 Marriage of Mary "Queen of Scots" and Lord Bothwell

1580 Earldoms of Lennox and March Swapped

1582 Raid of Ruthven

1587 Execution of Mary Queen of Scots

1600 Gowrie Conspiracy

1600 Baptism of Prince Charles

1603 Death of Queen Elizabeth I Accession of James I

1603 Knighting at Theobalds House

1603 Main and Bye Plots

1603 Coronation of James I

1605 New Years Honours

1605 Christening of Princess Mary Stuart

1605 Gunpowder Plot

1605 Marriage of Philip Herbert and Susan Howard

1608 Masque of Beauty

1608 Masque of The Hue and Cry After Cupid

1610 Prince Henry invested as Prince of Wales and Earl Chester

May 1611 Creation of Baronets

1611 Jun Creation of Baronets

Nov 1611 Creation of Baronets

1612 Death of Prince Frederick

1613 Marriage of Elizabeth Stewart and Frederick V Elector Palatine

1613 Thomas Overbury Murder and Trial of his Murderers

1614 Spanish Match

1616 Creation of Garter Knights

1616 Investiture of Charles as Prince of Wales

1623 Happy Parliament

1625 Death of James I

Death of King James V of Scotland

On 14 Dec 1542 [his grandfather] King James V of Scotland 1512-1542 (30) died at Falkland Palace. His daughter Mary Queen of Scots succeeded I King Scotland: Stewart. She was six days old.

Around 1535 Corneille de Lyon Painter 1520-1575. Portrait of King James V of Scotland 1512-1542. Around 1536 Corneille de Lyon Painter 1520-1575. Portrait of King James V of Scotland 1512-1542. Around 1559 François Clouet Painter 1510-1572. Portrait of Mary Queen of Scots. Around 1576 Unknown Painter. Portrait of Mary Queen of Scots. In 1576. After Nicholas Hilliard Painter 1547-1619. Portrait of Mary Queen of Scots. Around 1575. Adrian Vanson -1602. Portrait of George Seton 5th Lord Seton -1513. Wearing the clothes he wore at the wedding of Mary Queen of Scots and the French Dauphin on 24 Apr 1558.

Marriage of Mary Queen of Scots and the Francis Dauphin of France

On 24 Apr 1558 Dauphin of France (14) and [his mother] Mary Queen of Scots (15) were married at Notre Dame de Paris Cathedral. They were fourth cousins. She a great granddaughter of Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509. She by marriage King Consort Scotland.

Around 1560 François Clouet Painter 1510-1572. Portrait of Francis II King France King Consort Scotland 1544-1560. 1572. After François Clouet Painter 1510-1572. Portrait of Francis II King France King Consort Scotland 1544-1560. Around 1575. Adrian Vanson -1602. Portrait of George Seton 5th Lord Seton -1513. Wearing the clothes he wore at the wedding of Mary Queen of Scots and the French Dauphin on 24 Apr 1558.

On 22 Jul 1565 [his father] Henry "Lord Darnley" Stewart 1545-1567 (19) was created 1st Duke Albany 3C 1565.

On 29 Jul 1565 [his father] Henry "Lord Darnley" Stewart 1545-1567 (19) and Mary Queen of Scots (22) were married at Holyrood Palace, Holyrood They were half first cousins. He a great grandson of Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509. She a great granddaughter of Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509.

On 19 Jun 1566 King James I of England and Ireland and VI of Scotland 1566-1625 was born to [his father] Henry "Lord Darnley" Stewart 1545-1567 (20) and Mary Queen of Scots (23) at Edinburgh Castle. He a great x 2 grandson of Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509. Coefficient of inbreeding 3.67%.

Murder of Lord Darnley

On 10 Feb 1567 [his father] Henry "Lord Darnley" Stewart 1545-1567 (21) was murdered at Kirk O Field. Around two in the morning two barrels of gunpowder exploded beneath his room. His body and that of his valet William Taylor were found outside, surrounded by a cloak, a dagger, a chair, and a coat. Darnley was dressed only in his nightshirt. There were no visible marks on the body. He was buried at Holyrood Abbey, Holyrood.

Marriage of Mary "Queen of Scots" and Lord Bothwell

On 15 May 1567 [his step-father] James "Lord Bothwell" Hepburn 1st Duke Orkney 1534-1578 (33) and Mary Queen of Scots (24) were married in the Great Hall Holyrood House They were half third cousins once removed. He a great x 5 grandson of King Edward III England. She a great granddaughter of Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509.

On 29 Jul 1567 King James I of England and Ireland and VI of Scotland 1566-1625 (1) was crowned VI King Scotland: Stewart.

John Graham 6th Earl Menteith 1574-1598 was present.

In 1571 [his uncle] Charles Stewart 5th Earl Lennox 1557-1576 (13) was created 1st Earl Lennox 3C 1571 by older brother King James I of England and Ireland and VI of Scotland 1566-1625 (4) who had inherited the Earl Lennox 2C 1488 when he became King.

On 05 May 1576 Nicholas Hilliard Painter 1547-1619 (29) was given the monopoly on producing miniatures and engravings of King James I of England and Ireland and VI of Scotland 1566-1625 (9) by the King.

1580. Adrian Vanson -1602. Portrait of King James I of England and Ireland and VI of Scotland 1566-1625 (13).

Earldoms of Lennox and March Swapped

On 05 Mar 1580 Robert Stewart 1st Earl Lennox 1st Earl Dunbar aka March 1522-1586 (58) resigned Earl Lennox 4C 1578. On the same day he was created 1st Earl March 3C 1581. Elizabeth Stewart Countess Arran Countess Lennox Countess March 1549-1595 (31) by marriage Countess March.

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On the same day Esme Stewart 1st Duke Lennox 1542-1583 (38) was created 1st Earl Lennox 5C 1580 by King James I of England and Ireland and VI of Scotland 1566-1625 (13) for being his favourite. Catherine Balsac Duchess Lennox by marriage Lord Aubigny.

Raid of Ruthven

22 Aug 1582. The Raid of Ruthven was a plot by several nobles led by William Ruthven 1st Earl Gowrie 1541-1584 (39) to kidnap the fifteen years old King James VI of Scotland (16), son of [his mother] Mary Queen of Scots (39), (before he became King of England) to reform the government of Scotland.

The nobles included John Erskine 19th Earl Mar 1562-1634 (20), Thomas Lyon Master of Glamis -1608, Robert Boyd 5th Lord Boyd 1517-1590 (65), Patrick Lindsay 6th Lord Lindsay of the Byres 1521-1589 (61), and David Erskine Commendator of Dryburgh.

They were opposed by Esme Stewart 1st Duke Lennox 1542-1583 (40) and James Stewart 1st Earl Arran -1595 who controlled the government.

King James VI of Scotland (16) was captured whilst hunting near Ruthven Castle.

The rebels were joined by Francis Stewart 5th Earl Bothwell 1562-1612 (19) and James Cunningham 7th Earl Glencairn 1552-1630 (30).

Esme Stewart 1st Duke Lennox 1542-1583 (40) was exiled; he died a year later in Paris. James Stewart 1st Earl Arran -1595 was imprisoned.

1626. Adam de Colone 1572-1651. Portrait of John Erskine 19th Earl Mar 1562-1634.

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In 1583 Pieter Bronckhorst Painter -1583. Portrait of King James I of England and Ireland and VI of Scotland 1566-1625 (16).

Raid of Ruthven

In Jul 1583 the King (17) gained his freedom after nearly a year of being imprisoned. Most of the rebels appear to have been pardoned except William Ruthven 1st Earl Gowrie 1541-1584 (40) who continued to plot against the King.

Robert Douglas Master of Morton -1585 and his brother-in-law Laurence Oliphant Master of Oliphant -1585 were exiled.

Execution of Mary Queen of Scots

On 08 Feb 1587 [his mother] Mary Queen of Scots (44) was beheaded in the Great Hall at Fotheringay Castle.

George Talbot 6th Earl Shrewsbury 6th Earl Waterford 1528-1590 (59), Henry Grey 6th Earl Kent 1541-1615 (46), Richard Knightley 1533-1615 (54) and Henry Wriothesley 3rd Earl of Southampton 1573-1624 (13) witnessed her execution.

There are few extant original sources describing Mary's execution. Those that do exist are somewhat contradictory. They include The letter-books of Sir Amias Poulet, Keeper of Mary Queen of Scots, the Calendar of State Papers, Spain (known as the Simancas), Volume 4, 1587-1603 and Beale's sketch of the execution. The most reliable primary source appears to be Jebb's De vita et rebus gestis serenissimæ principis Mariæ Scotorum Reginæ published in Paris in 1589 in French; there doesn't appear to be an extant translation.

In 1582 Unknown Painter. Portrait of George Talbot 6th Earl Shrewsbury 6th Earl Waterford 1528-1590. In 1567 attrbuted to Hans Eworth Painter 1520-1574. Portrait of Richard Knightley 1533-1615. Around 1603 John Critz 1551-1642. Portrait of Henry Wriothesley 3rd Earl of Southampton 1573-1624. The Latin inscription 'In vinculis invictus' ( In 1618 Daniel Mijtens Painter 1590-1648. Portrait of Henry Wriothesley 3rd Earl of Southampton 1573-1624.

On 04 Apr 1588 Frederick II King Denmark 1534-1588 (53) died. His son Christian IV King Denmark 1577-1648 (10) succeeded IV King Denmark.

On 23 Nov 1589 King James I of England and Ireland and VI of Scotland 1566-1625 (23) and [his wife] Anne of Denmark (14) were married at Bishop's Palace. They were third cousins once removed. He a great x 2 grandson of Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509. [his wife] She by marriage Queen Consort Scotland.

Around 1605 John Critz 1551-1642. Portrait of Anne of Denmark. 1595. Circle of Adrian Vanson -1602. Portrait of Anne of Denmark.

In 1590 King James I of England and Ireland and VI of Scotland 1566-1625 (23) was appointed 375th Knight of the Garter by Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (56).

Around 1546. William Scrots Painter 1517-1553. Portrait of Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland before her accession painted for her father. Around 1570 Hans Eworth Painter 1520-1574. Portrait of Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland. In 1579 George Gower Painter 1540-1596. The Plimton Sieve Portrait of Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland. Around 1585 William Segar Painter 1554-1663. Ermine Portrait of Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland. Around 1592 Marcus Gheeraerts Painter 1562-1636. The Ditchley Portrait of Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland. After 1585 Unknown Painter. Portrait of Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland. Around 1563 Steven van der Meulen Painter -1564. Portrait of Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland.

On 19 Feb 1594 [his son] Henry Frederick Stewart Prince of Wales 1594-1612 was born to King James I of England and Ireland and VI of Scotland 1566-1625 (27) and Anne of Denmark (19) at Stirling Castle.

Before 1619 Robert After 07 Feb 1612 Unknown Painter. Portrait of Princess Elizabeth Stewart Queen Bohemia 1596-1662. Elizabeth's standing collar of reticella is worked with the Royal coat of arms with its lion and unicorn supporters. She wears a gown of Italian silk brocade. The black armband is thought to be a sign of mourning for her brother Henry Frederick, Prince of Wales who died on 07 Feb 1612.

On 19 Aug 1596 [his daughter] Princess Elizabeth Stewart Queen Bohemia 1596-1662 was born to King James I of England and Ireland and VI of Scotland 1566-1625 (30) and Anne of Denmark (21) at Falkland Palace, Falkland, Fife.

In 1610 Robert In 1642 Gerrit van Honthorst Painter 1592-1656. Portrait of Princess Elizabeth Stewart Queen Bohemia 1596-1662. After 07 Feb 1612 Unknown Painter. Portrait of Princess Elizabeth Stewart Queen Bohemia 1596-1662. Elizabeth's standing collar of reticella is worked with the Royal coat of arms with its lion and unicorn supporters. She wears a gown of Italian silk brocade. The black armband is thought to be a sign of mourning for her brother Henry Frederick, Prince of Wales who died on 07 Feb 1612.

On 24 Dec 1598 [his daughter] Margaret Stewart 1598-1600 was born to King James I of England and Ireland and VI of Scotland 1566-1625 (32) and Anne of Denmark (24).

Around 1600 Nicholas Hilliard Painter 1547-1619 (53) painted the portrait of King James I of England and Ireland and VI of Scotland 1566-1625 (33).

On 05 Feb 1600 John Gordon 13th Earl Sutherland 1576-1615 (24) and Agnes Elphinstone -1617 were married. The marriage was celebrated ovre two days at his lodgings Royal Mint aka Cunyiehous. King James VI of Scotland (33) and [his wife] Queen Anne of Denmark (25) were house guests. As wedding gifts, James VI gave Agnes and Jean Elphinstone suites of gold and pearl accessories comprising, a necklace, a belt, and back and fore "garnishings" for their hair, which cost £1,333-6s-8d Scots.

Gowrie Conspiracy

On 05 Aug 1600. The Gowrie Conspiracy was an attempt by John Ruthven 3rd Earl Gowrie 1577-1600 (23) and his brother Alexander Ruthven 1580-1600 (20) to kill King James I (34). He, King James, had had their father William Ruthven 1st Earl Gowrie 1541-1584 (57) executed for his part in the Raid of Ruthven eighteen years earlier.

The attempt was botched. John Ruthven 3rd Earl Gowrie 1577-1600 (23) and Alexander Ruthven 1580-1600 (20) were killed, the former by John Ramsay 1st Earl Holderness 1580-1626 (20).

William Ruthven -1622 fled to France.

Patrick Ruthven was imprisoned for nineteen years at the Tower of London.

On 19 Nov 1600 [his son] King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland 1600-1649 was born to King James I of England and Ireland and VI of Scotland 1566-1625 (34) and Anne of Denmark (25) at Dunfermline Palace, Dunfermline.

In 1611 Robert In 1633 Anthony Van Dyck Painter 1599-1641. Portrait of King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland 1600-1649 known as Charles I with M.De St Antoine. Around 1637 Anthony Van Dyck Painter 1599-1641. Portrait of King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland 1600-1649.

Baptism of Prince Charles

On 23 Dec 1600 [his son] the future King Charles I was baptised at Holyrood Palace. [his son] He was created Duke Albany 4C 1600.

In 1602 Henry Wriothesley 3rd Earl of Southampton 1573-1624 (28) was appointed 396th Knight of the Garter by King James I of England and Ireland and VI of Scotland 1566-1625 (35).

On 18 Jan 1602 [his son] Robert Stewart 1602-1602 was born to King James I of England and Ireland and VI of Scotland 1566-1625 (35) and Anne of Denmark (27).

Before 1603 Thomas Lucas 1559-1625 was exiled for duelling with a Mr Brooks. He was pardoned by King James I of England and Ireland and VI of Scotland 1566-1625 and returned to England in 1603.

In 1603 John Erskine 19th Earl Mar 1562-1634 (41) was appointed 397th Knight of the Garter by King James I of England and Ireland and VI of Scotland 1566-1625 (36).

In 1603 [his brother-in-law] Christian IV King Denmark 1577-1648 (25) was appointed 394th Knight of the Garter by King James I of England and Ireland and VI of Scotland 1566-1625 (36)..

In 1603 Robert Killigrew 1580-1633 (23) was knighted by King James I of England and Ireland and VI of Scotland 1566-1625 (36).

In 1603 Ludovic Stewart 2nd Duke Lennox 1st Duke Richmond 1574-1624 (28) was appointed 395th Knight of the Garter by King James I of England and Ireland and VI of Scotland 1566-1625 (36).

Around 1620 Daniel Mijtens Painter 1590-1648. Portrait of Ludovic Stewart 2nd Duke Lennox 1st Duke Richmond 1574-1624.

In 1603 William Herbert 3rd Earl Pembroke 1580-1630 (22) was appointed 398th Knight of the Garter by King James I of England and Ireland and VI of Scotland 1566-1625 (36).

Before 1630 Daniel Mijtens Painter 1590-1648. Portrait of William Herbert 3rd Earl Pembroke 1580-1630.

Death of Queen Elizabeth I Accession of James I

On 24 Mar 1603 Elizabeth I (69) died at Richmond Palace around three in the morning.

King James I of England and Ireland and VI of Scotland 1566-1625 (36) succeeded I King England Scotland and Ireland. He was Elizabeth's second cousin being the son of [his mother] Mary Queen of Scots (60) who was the daughter of Margaret Tudor Queen Scotland 1489-1541 daughter of Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509.

Immediately following her death Robert Carey 1st Earl Monmouth 1560-1639 (43) started on horseback for Edinburgh to inform King James I of England and Ireland and VI of Scotland 1566-1625 (36) arriving at Holyrood Palace late on the 26 Mar 1603. His conduct met with general disapproval and merited censure as contrary to all decency, good manners and respect. George Carew -1612 and Thomas Lake 1561-1630 (41) were sent by the Council to formally inform James VI's death.

Around 1525 Unknown Painter. French. Portrait of an Unknown Woman formerly known as Margaret Tudor Queen Scotland 1489-1541. Around 1510 Meynnart Wewyck Painter 1460-1525 is believed to have painted the portrait of Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509. Around 1520 Unknown Painter. Netherlands. Portrait of Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509.

On 24 Mar 1603 [his son] Henry Frederick Stewart Prince of Wales 1594-1612 (9) was created as Duke Cornwall.

On 23 Apr 1603 Anthony Markham of Sedgebrook 1577-1604 (26) was knighted by King James I of England and Ireland and VI of Scotland 1566-1625 (36) at Belvoir Castle.

On 23 Apr 1603 Gregory Cromwell was knighted by King James I of England and Ireland and VI of Scotland 1566-1625 (36) at Belvoir Castle.

1603 Knighting at Theobalds House

On 07 May 1603 during his journey south King James I of England and Ireland and VI of Scotland 1566-1625 (36) stayed at Theobalds House as a guest of William Cecil 1st Baron Burghley 1520-1598 (82).

King James I of England and Ireland and VI of Scotland 1566-1625 (36) knighted:

Gervase Helwys 1561-1615 (41)

John Leventhorpe 1st Baronet 1560-1625 (43)

Michael Stanhope 1549-1621 (54).

Thomas Bisshopp 1st Baronet Bisshopp 1553-1626 (50).

After 1585 Marcus Gheeraerts Painter 1562-1636 (attributed). Portrait of William Cecil 1st Baron Burghley 1520-1598. His right-hand is holding the Lord Treasurer Staff of Office. Around 1565 Unknown Painter. Portrait of William Cecil 1st Baron Burghley 1520-1598. His right-hand is holding the Lord Treasurer Staff of Office. After 1590 Unknown Painter. Portrait of William Cecil 1st Baron Burghley 1520-1598. His left-hand is holding the Lord Treasurer Staff of Office.

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On 13 May 1603 William Dethick Officer of Arms 1542-1612 (61) was knighted by King James I of England and Ireland and VI of Scotland 1566-1625 (36).

On 14 Jun 1603 [his son] Henry Frederick Stewart Prince of Wales 1594-1612 (9) was appointed 393rd Knight of the Garter by King James I of England and Ireland and VI of Scotland 1566-1625 (36).

Main and Bye Plots

In Jul 1603 the Main and Bye Plots led by Henry Brooke 11th Baron Cobham 1564-1618 (38) and Thomas Grey 15th Baron Grey Wilton 1576-1614 (27) sought to replace King James I of England and Ireland and VI of Scotland 1566-1625 (37) with Arbella Stewart 1575-1615 (28).

Thomas Grey 15th Baron Grey Wilton 1576-1614 (27) was sentenced to death, attainted, and imprisoned in the Tower of London.

In 1605 Robert

Coronation of James I

On 21 Jul 1603 King James I of England and Ireland and VI of Scotland 1566-1625 (37) created a number of new Baronies ...

Thomas Egerton 1st Viscount Brackley 1540-1617 (63) was created 1st Baron Ellesmere. Alice Spencer Countess Derby 1549-1637 (54) by marriage Baroness Ellesmere.

Robert Spencer 1st Baron Spencer Wormleighton 1570-1627 (33) was created 1st Baron Spencer Wormleighton.

John Harington 1st Baron Harington 1540-1613 (63) was created 1st Baron Harington of Exton. Anne Keilway Baroness Harington 1554-1620 (49) by marriage Baroness Harington of Exton.

Around 1590 Unknown Painter. Portrait of John Harington 1st Baron Harington 1540-1613.

On 23 Jul 1603 King James I of England and Ireland and VI of Scotland 1566-1625 (37) created a number Knights at the Royal Gardens Whitehall Palace:

Henry Savile 1st Baronet 1579-1632 (24), William Morgan 1560-1655 (43), George Carew -1612, Baptist Hicks 1st Viscount Campden -1629, Richard Musgrave 1st Baronet Musgrave of Eden Hall 1585-1615 (18), James Calthorpe 1558-1615 (44), Thomas Gresham 1547-1630 (56), George Fane of Burston 1581-1640 (22), Francis Fane 1st Earl Westmoreland 1580-1629 (23), Robert Chichester 1578-1627 (25), William Pope 1st Earl Downe 1573-1631 (29), Gervase Clifton 1st Baronet Clifton 1587-1666 (15), Thomas Berkeley 1575-1611 (28), Edward Montagu 1st Baron Montagu 1563-1644 (40), William Herbert 1st Baron Powis 1573-1655 (30), Anthony Irby 1577-1610 (26) and Arnold Lygon 15518-1612 (45).

24 Jul 1603 Richard Browne Clerk 1539-1604 (64).

Around 1625 Cornelius Johnson Painter 1593-1661. Portrait of Francis Fane 1st Earl Westmoreland 1580-1629. Before 1619 Robert

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On 25 Jul 1603 King James I of England and Ireland and VI of Scotland 1566-1625 (37) was crowned I King England Scotland and Ireland at Westminster Abbey.

Charles Howard 1st Earl Nottingham 1536-1624 (67) was appointed Lord High Steward.

On 26 Jul 1603 Thomas Bennett Lord Mayor of London 1543-1627 (60) was knighted.

On 27 Jul 1603 William Wrey 1st Baronet Wrey -1636 was knighted at Whitehall Palace.

On 30 Jul 1603 Richard Preston 1st Earl Desmond -1628 was knighted at Whitehall Palace.

Bishop Thomas Bilson 1547-1616 (56) gave the sermon. While the wording conceded something to the divine right of kings, it also included a caveat about lawful resistance to a monarch.

1576. Nicholas Hilliard Painter 1547-1619. Miniature Portrait of Charles Howard 1st Earl Nottingham 1536-1624. Around 1620 Daniel Mijtens Painter 1590-1648. Portrait of Charles Howard 1st Earl Nottingham 1536-1624.

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In 1604 William Brabazon 1st Earl Meath 1580-1651 (24) was knighted by King James I of England and Ireland and VI of Scotland 1566-1625 (37).

In 1604 Robert Devereux 3rd Earl Essex 1591-1646 (12) was restored 3rd Earl Essex 8C 1572, 4th Viscount Hereford, 12th Baron Ferrers Chartley, 10th Baron Bourchier. Frances Howard Countess Essex and Somerset 1590-1632 (13) by marriage Countess Essex. On 25 Sep 1613 King James I of England and Ireland and VI of Scotland 1566-1625 (47) annulled their marriage. She married Robert Carr 1st Earl Somerset 1587-1645 (17) three months later.

Around 1615 William Larkin Painter 1582-1619. Portrait of Frances Howard Countess Essex and Somerset 1590-1632. Around 1628 John Hoskins Painter 1590-1664 (copy from original). Portrait of Robert Carr 1st Earl Somerset 1587-1645.

In 1604 Edmund Pelham 1533-1606 (71) was knighted by King James I of England and Ireland and VI of Scotland 1566-1625 (37) at Greenwich.

On 15 Mar 1604 John Acland 1552-1620 (52) was knighted by King James I of England and Ireland and VI of Scotland 1566-1625 (37) at the Tower of London.

Around 1605 John Critz 1551-1642 (54). Portrait of King James I of England and Ireland and VI of Scotland 1566-1625 (38) with Garter Collar and Leg Garter.

In 1605 King James I of England and Ireland and VI of Scotland 1566-1625 (38) granted Harbottle Castle to George Home 1st Earl Dunbar 1556-1611 (49).

In 1605 George Home 1st Earl Dunbar 1556-1611 (49) was appointed 403rd Knight of the Garter by King James I of England and Ireland and VI of Scotland 1566-1625 (38).

New Years Honours

On 05 Jan 1605 [his son] King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland 1600-1649 (4) was created 1st Duke York 4C 1605 and Knight of the Bath by his father King James I of England and Ireland and VI of Scotland 1566-1625 (38)

Francis Manners 6th Earl Rutland 1578-1632 (27) and Thomas Somerset 1st Viscount Somerset 1579-1651 (26) were appointed Knight of the Bath.

Memorials of affairs of state in the reigns of Q Elizabeth and K James I Volume 2 Dudley Carleton to Mr Winwood Jan 1605. The King (38) is gone to Huntington where he will stay till towards Candlemas. The [his wife] Queen (30) goes to Greenwich this Week, to give Whitehall some Ayre against that time; and presently after the King goes back sur ses brisees, and the Queen returns to Greenwich to lay down her great Belly, which is iook'd for about three Months hence.

On 24 Feb 1605 Henry Howard 1st Earl of Northampton 1540-1614 (64) was appointed 400th Knight of the Garter by King James I of England and Ireland and VI of Scotland 1566-1625 (38).

1624. Unknown Painter. Portrait of Henry Howard 1st Earl of Northampton 1540-1614.

On 08 Apr 1605 [his daughter] Princess Mary Stewart 1605-1607 was born to King James I of England and Ireland and VI of Scotland 1566-1625 (38) and Anne of Denmark (30) at the Palace of Placentia. Alice Dennis was chosen as midwife for which she received a reward of £100.

Christening of Princess Mary Stuart

On 05 May 1605 [his daughter] Princess Mary Stewart 1605-1607 was christened at the Palace of Placentia. Elizabeth Vere Countess Derby 1575-1627 (29) carried the child. The infant's clothing, a train of purple velvet, embroidered with gold and furred with Ermines, was supported by two countesses, being so long that it fell to the ground. Richard Bancroft Archibishop Canterbury 1544-1610 (60) performed the christening. The Queen's (30) brother Prince Ulrik Oldenburg 1578-1624 (26), the King's (38) first cousin Arbella Stewart 1575-1615 (30) and Dorothy Devereux Countess Northumberland 1564-1619 (41) were godparents. The King (38) presented Queen Anne (30) (who was not present) with new jewelry.

Before 09 Dec 1641 Anthony Van Dyck Painter 1599-1641. Portrait of Dorothy Devereux Countess Northumberland 1564-1619.

On 16 May 1605 [his brother-in-law] Prince Ulrik Oldenburg 1578-1624 (26) was appointed 399th Knight of the Garter by King James I of England and Ireland and VI of Scotland 1566-1625 (38). at Windsor Castle.

Gunpowder Plot

In Oct 1605 the Gunpowder Plot sought to blow up Parliament, with King James I of England and Ireland and VI of Scotland 1566-1625 (39) and his MPs. The conspirators included Robert Catesby 1572-1605 (33), Anthony Maria Browne 2nd Viscount Montague 1574-1629 (31) and Edward Stourton 10th Baron Stourton 1555-1633 (50).

Marriage of Philip Herbert and Susan Howard

Memorials of affairs of state in the reigns of Q Elizabeth and K James I Volume 2 Dudley Carleton to Mr Winwood Jan 1605. Jan_1605. Dudley Carleton (32) to Ralph Winwood 1563-1617 (42)

Sir

I had written unto you at this time, though I had not been invited by your Letters I received by Captain Doyly. For in Mr. Chamberlain's Absense, I come in quarter, and have waited so diligently at Court this Christmas, that I have Matter enough, if the Report of Masks and Mummings can please you.

On St. John's Day we had the Marriage of Sir Philip Herbert (21) and the Lady Susan (18) performed at Whitehall, with all the Honour could be done a great Favourite. The Court was great, and for that Day put on the best Bravery. The [his son] Prince (11) and Duke of Holst (26) led the Bride (18) to Church, the Queen (31) follow'd her from thence. The King (39) gave her, and she in her Tresses, and Trinketts brided and bridled it so handsomly, and indeed became her self so well, that the King (39) said, if he were unmarried he would not give her, but keep her himself. The Marriage Dinner was kept in the great Chamber, where the [his son] Prince (11) and the Duke of Holst (26), and the great Lords and Ladies accompanied the Bride. The Ambassador of Venice was the only bidden Guest of Strangers, and he had place above the Duke of Holst (26), which the Duke took not well. But after Dinner he was as little pleased himself; for being brought into the Closet to retire himself, he was there suffered to walk out his Supper unthought of. At Night there was a Mask in the Hall, which for Conceit and Fashion was fuitable to the Occasion. The Actors, were the Earle of Pembrook (25), the Lord Willoby, Sir Samuel Hays, Sir Thomas Germain, Sir Robert Cary (22), Sir John Lee, Sir Richard Preston, and Sir Thomas Eager. There was no smal Loss that Night of Chaines and Jewells, and many great Ladies were made shorter by the Skirts, and were well enough served that they could keep cut no better. The Presents of Plate, and other Things given by the Noblemen, were valued at £2500, but that which made it a good Marriage, was a Gift of the King's of £500 Land for the Bride's Joynture. They were lodged in the Councill Chamber, where the King in his Shirt and NightGown gave them a Reveille Matin before they were up, and spent a good time in or upon the Bed, chuse which you will believe. No Ceremony was omitted of Bride-Cakes, Points, Garters, and Gloves, which have been ever since the Livery of the Court; and at Night there was sewing into the Sheet, casting off the Bride's left Hose, with many other petty Sorceries.

Around 1615 William Larkin Painter 1582-1619. Portrait of Philip Herbert 4th Earl Pembroke 1st Earl Montgomery 1584-1650. In 1634 Daniel Mijtens Painter 1590-1648. Portrait of Philip Herbert 4th Earl Pembroke 1st Earl Montgomery 1584-1650 wearing his Leg Garter and Garter Collar. Around 1634 Anthony Van Dyck Painter 1599-1641. Portrait of Philip Herbert 4th Earl Pembroke 1st Earl Montgomery 1584-1650. Around 1615 Unknown Painter. Posthumous portrait of Philip Herbert 4th Earl Pembroke 1st Earl Montgomery 1584-1650 wearing his Garter Robes and Garter Collar.

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In 1606 Thomas Howard 3rd Viscount Howard Bindon -1611 was appointed 402nd Knight of the Garter by King James I of England and Ireland and VI of Scotland 1566-1625 (39).

In 1606 Robert Cecil 1st Earl Salisbury 1563-1612 (42) was appointed 401st Knight of the Garter by King James I of England and Ireland and VI of Scotland 1566-1625 (39).

Around 1602 John Critz 1551-1642. Portrait of Robert Cecil 1st Earl Salisbury 1563-1612.

In 1606 Anthony Cope 1st Baronet Hanwell 1548-1614 (58) entertained King James I of England and Ireland and VI of Scotland 1566-1625 (39) at Hanwell.

Gunpowder Plot The Effect Of the Indictment. On 27 Jan 1606 the trial of the conspirators took place at Westminster Hall.

The Commissioners were:.

Charles Howard 1st Earl Nottingham 1536-1624 (70).

Thomas Howard 1st Earl Suffolk 1561-1626 (44).

Edward Somerset 4th Earl Worcester 1550-1628 (56).

Charles Blount 1st Earl Devonshire 1563-1606 (43).

Henry Howard 1st Earl of Northampton 1540-1614 (65).

Robert Cecil 1st Earl Salisbury 1563-1612 (42).

John Popham Lord Chief Justice 1531-1607 (75).

Thomas Fleming Judge 1544-1613 (61).

Peter Warburton Judge 1540-1621 (66).

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The Effect of the Indictment.

Note. We have broken this very lengthy paragraph up into more manageable chunks..

THAT whereas our Sovereign Lord the King (39) had, by the Advice and Assent of his Council, for divers weighty and urgent Occasions concerning, his Majesty, the State, and Defence of the Church and Kingdom of England, appointed a Parliament to be holden at his City of Westminster; That Henry Garnet (50), Superior of the Jesuits within the Realm of England, (called also by the several names of Wally, Darcy, Roberts, Farmer, and Henry Philips), Oswald Tesmond Jesuit (43), otherwise called Oswald Greenwell, John Gerrard Jesuit (41), (called also by the several names of Lee and Brooke), Robert Winter (38), Thomas Winter (35), Gentlemen, Guy Fawkes (35) Gent. otherwise called Guy Johnson, Robert Keyes Gent. and Thomas Bates Yeoman, late Servant to Robert Catesby Esquire; together with the said Robert Catesby and Thomas Percy Esquires, John Wright and Christopher Wright Gentlemen, in open Rebellion and Insurrection against his Majesty, lately slain, and Francis Tresham Esq; lately dead; as false Traitors against our said Sovereign Lord the King, did traitorously meet and assemble themselves together; and being so met, the said Henry Garnet (50), Oswald Tesmond (43), John Gerrard (41), and other Jesuits, did maliciously, falsly, and traitorously move and persuade as well the said Thomas Winter (35), Guy Fawkes (35), Robert Keyes, and Thomas Bates, as the said Robert Catesby, Thomas Percy, John Wright, Christopher Wright, and Francis Tresham, That our said Sovereign Lord the King, the Nobility, Clergy, and whole Commonalty of the Realm of England, (Papists excepted) were Hereticks; and that all Hereticks were accursed and excommunicate; and that none Heretick could be a King; but that it was lawful and meritorious to kill our said Sovereign Lord the King, and all other Hereticks within this Realm of England, for the Advancing and Enlargement of the pretended and usurped Authority and Jurisdiction of the Bishop of Rome, and for the restoring of the superstitious Romish Religion within this Realm of England.

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To which traitorous Persuasions, the said Thomas Winter (35), Guy Fawkes (35), Robert Keyes, Thomas Bates, Robert Catesby, Thomas Percy, John Wright, Christopher Wright, and Francis Tresham, traitorously did yield their Assents: And that thereupon the said Henry Garnet (50), Oswald Tesmond (43), John Gerrard (41), and divers other Jesuits; Thomas Winter (35), Guy Fawkes (35), Robert Keyes, and Thomas Bates, as also the said Robert Catesby, Thomas Percy, John Wright, Christopher Wright and Francis Tresham, traitorously amongst themselves did conclude and agree, with Gunpowder, as it were with one Blast, suddenly, traitorously and barbarously to blow up and tear in pieces our said Sovereign Lord the King, the excellent, virtuous and gracious Queen Anne, his dearest Wife, the most noble Prince Henry, their eldest Son, and future Hope and Joy of England; and the Lords Spiritual and Temporal, the Reverend Judges of the Realm, the Knights, Citizens and Burgesses of Parliament, and divers other faithful Subjects and Servants of the King in the said Parliament, for the Causes aforesaid, to be assembled in the House of Parliament; and all them, without any respect of Majesty, Dignity, Degree, Sex, Age or Place, most barbarously, and more than beastly, traitorously and suddenly to destroy and swallow up.

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And further did most traitorously conspire and conclude among themselves, That not only the whole Royal Issue-Male of our said Sovereign Lord the King should be destroyed and rooted out; but that the Persons aforesaid, together with divers other false Traitors, traitorously with them to be assembled, should surprize the Persons of the most noble Ladies Elizabeth and Mary, Daughters of our said Sovereign Lord the King, and falsly and traitorously should proclaim the said Lady Elizabeth to be Queen of this Realm: And thereupon should publish a Proclamation in the name of the said Lady Elizabeth; wherein, as it was especially agreed by and between the said Conspirators, That no mention should be made at the first, of the alteration of Religion established within within this Realm of England; neither would the said false Traitors therein acknowledge themselves to be Authors, or Actors, or Devisers of the aforesaid most wicked and horrible Treasons, until they had got sufficient Power and Strength for the assured Execution and Accomplishment of their said Conspiracy and Treason; and that then they would avow and justify the said most wicked and horrible Treasons, as Actions that were in the number of those, Quae non laudantur, nisi peracta, which be not to be commended before they be done: but by the said feign'd and traitorous Proclamation they would publish, That all and singular Abuses and Grievances within this Realm of England, should, for satisfying of the People, be reform'd.

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And that as well for the better concealing, as for the more effectual accomplishing of the said horrible Treasons, as well the said Thomas Winter (35), Guy Fawkes (35), Robert Keyes, and Thomas Bates, as the said Robert Catesby, Thomas Percy, John Wright, Christopher Wright, and Francis Tresham, by the traitorous Advice and Procurement of the said Henry Garnet (50), Oswald Tesmond (43), John Gerrard (41), and other Jesuits, traitorously did further conclude and agree, that as well the said Thomas Winter (35), Guy Fawkes (35), Robert Keyes, and Thomas Bates, as the said Robert Catesby, Thomas Percy, John Wright, Christopher Wright, and Francis Tresham, thereupon severally and traitorously should receive several corporal Oaths upon the holy Evangelists, and the Sacrament of the Eucharist, That they the Treasons aforesaid would traitorously conceal and keep secret, and would not reveal them, directly or indirectly, by Words or Circumstances, nor ever would desist from the Execution and final Accomplishment of the said Treasons, without the consent of some three of the aforesaid false Traitors first in that behalf traitorously had: And that thereupon as well the said Thomas Winter (35), Guy Fawkes (35), Robert Keyes, and Thomas Bates, as the said Robert Catesby, Thomas Percy, John Wright, Christ. Wright, and Francis Tresham, did traitorously take the said several corporal Oaths severally, and did receive the Sacrament of the Eucharist aforesaid, by the Hands of the said Henry Garnet (50), John Gerrard (41), Oswald Tesmond (43), and other Jesuits.

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And further, that the said Thomas Winter (35), Guy Fawkes (35),Robert Keyes, and Thomas Bates, together with the said Robert Catesby, Thomas Percy, John Wright,Christopher Wright, and Francis Tresham, by the like traitorous Advice and Counsel of the said Henry Garnet (50), John Gerrard (41), Oswald Tesmond (43), and other Jesuits, for the more effectual compassing and final execution of the said Treasons, did traitorously among themselves conclude and agree to dig a certain Mine under the said House of Parliament, and there secretly, under the said House, to bestow and place a great Quantity of Gunpowder; and that according to the said traitorous Conclusion, the said Thomas Winter (35), Guy Fawkes (35), Robert Keyes, and Thomes Bates, together with the said Robert Catesby, Thomas Percy, John Wright, and Christopher Wright, afterwards secretly, not without great labour and difficulty, did dig and make the said Mine unto the midst of the Foundation of the Wall of the said House of Parliament, the said Foundation being of the thickness of three yards, with a traitorous Intent to bestow and place a great Quantity of Gunpowder in the Mine aforesaid, so as aforesaid traitorously to be made for the traitorous accomplishing of their traitorous Purposes aforesaid.

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And that the said Thomas Winter (35), Guy Fawkes (35), Robert Keyes, and Thomas Bates, together with the said Robert Catesby, Thomas Percy, John Wright, and Christopher Wright, finding and perceiving the said Work to be of great difficulty, by reason of the Hardness and thickness of the said Wall; and understanding a certain Cellar under the said House of Parliament, and adjoining to a certain House of the said Thomas Percy, then to be letten to farm for a yearly Rent, the said Thomas Percy, by the traitorous Procurement, as well of the said Henry Garnet (50), Oswald Tesmond (43), John Gerrard (41), and other Jesuits, Thomas Winter (35), Guy Fawkes (35), Robert Keyes, and Thomas Bates, as of the said Robert Catesby, John Wright, and Christopher Wright, traitorously did hire the Cellar aforesaid for a certain yearly Rent and Term: and then those Traitors did remove twenty Barrels full of Gunpowder out of the said House of the said Thomas Percy, and secretly and traitorously did bestow and place them in the Cellar aforesaid, under the said House of Parliament, for the traitorous effecting of the Treason, and traitorous Purposes aforesaid.

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And that afterwards the said Henry Garnet (50), Oswald Tesmond (43), John Gerrard (41), and other Jesuits, Thomas Winter (35), Guy Fawkes (35), Robert Keyes and Thomas Bates, together with the said Robert Catesby, Thomas Percy, John Wright, and Christopher Wright traitorously did meet with Robert Winter (38), John Grant, and Ambrose Rookwood, and Francis Tresham, Esquires; and traitorously did impart to the said Robert Winter (38), John Grant, Ambrose Rookwood, and Francis Tresham, the Treasons, traitorous Intentions and Purposes aforesaid; and did require the said Robert Winter (38), John Grant, Ambrose Rookwood, and Francis Tresham, to join themselves as well with the said Henry Garnet (50), Oswald Tesmond (43), John Gerrard (41), Thomas Winter (35), Guy Fawkes (35), Robert Keyes, and Thomas Bates, as with the said Robert Catesby, Thomas Percy, John Wright, and Christopher Wright, in the Treasons, traitorous Intentions and Purposes aforesaid; and traitorously to provide Horse, Armour, and other Necessaries, for the better Accomplishment and effecting of the said Treasons.

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To which traitorous Motion and Request, the said Robert Winter (38), John Grant, Ambrose Rookwood, and Francis Tresham, did traitorously yield their Assents, and as well with the said Henry Garnet (50), Oswald Tesmond (43), John Gerrard (41), Robert Winter (38), Thomas Winter (35), Guy Fawkes (35), Robert Keyes, and Thomas Bates, as with the said Robert Catesby, Thomas Percy, John Wright, Christopher Wright, and Francis Tresham, in the said Treasons, traitorous Intentions and Purposes aforesaid, traitorously did adhere and unite themselves: And thereupon several corporal Oaths, in form abovesaid, traitorously did take, and the Sacrament of the Eucharist, by the hands of the said Jesuits did receive, to such intent and Purpose, as is aforesaid; and Horses, Armour, and other Necessaries for the better effecting of the said Treasons, according to their traitorous Assents aforesaid, traitorously did provide.

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And that afterwards all the said false Traitors did traitorously provide, and bring into the Cellar aforesaid ten other Barrels full of Gunpowder, newly bought, fearing lest the former Gunpowder, so as aforesaid bestow'd and placed there, was become dankish; and the said several Quantities of: Gunpowder aforesaid, with Billets and Faggots, lest they should be spy'd, secretly and traitorously did cover.

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And that afterwards the said false Traitors traitorously provided, and brought into the Cellar aforesaid, four Hogsheads full of Gunpowder, and laid divers great Iron Bars and Stones upon the said four Hogsheads, and the aforesaid other Quantities of Gunpowder: And the said Quantities of Gunpowder, Bars, and Stones, with Billets and Faggots, lest they should be espy'd, secretly and traitorously did likewise cover.

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And that the said Guy Fawkes (35), afterwards, for a full and final Accomplishment of the said Treasons, traitorous Intentions and Purposes aforesaid, by the traitorous Procurement, as well of the said Henry Garnet (50), Oswald Tesmond (43), John Gerrard (41), and other Jesuits, Robert Winter (38), Thomas Winter (35), Robert Keyes, Thomas Bates, John Grant, and Ambrose Rookwood, as of the said Robert Catesby, Thomas Percy, John Wright, Christopher Wright, and Francis Tresham, traitorously had prepared, and had upon his Person Touchwood and Match, therewith traitorously to give fire to the several Barrels, Hogsheads, and Quantities of Gunpowder aforesaid, at the time appointed for the Execution of the said horrible Treasons.

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And further, that after the said horrible Treasons were, by the great Favour and Mercy of God, in a wonderful manner discover'd, not many hours before it should have been executed, as well the said Henry Garnet (50), Oswald Tesmond (43), John Gerrard (41), Robert Winter (38), Thomas Winter (35), Robert Keyes, Thomas Bates, John Grant, and Ambrose Rookwood, as the said Robert Catesby, Thomas Percy, John Wright, and Christopher Wright, traitorously did fly and withdraw themselves, to the intent traitorously to stir up and procure such Popish Persons, as they could, to join with them in actual, publick and open Rebellion against our said Sovereign Lord the King; and to that end did publish divers feigned and false Rumours, that the Papists Throats should have been cut; and that thereupon divers Papists were in Arms, and in open, publick, and actual Rebellion against our said Sovereign Lord the King, in divers Parts of this Realm of England.

In 1598 Unknown Painter. Portrait of Thomas Howard 1st Earl Suffolk 1561-1626. In 1621 Gilbert Jackson Painter 1595-1648. Portrait of Edward Somerset 4th Earl Worcester 1550-1628.

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In 1607 Robert "The Elder" Peake Painter 1551-1619 (56) was appointed Sarjeant Painter to King James I of England and Ireland and VI of Scotland 1566-1625 (40) sharing the office with John Critz 1551-1642 (56).

In 1607 George St Paul Baronet St Paul 1562-1613 (45) was knighted by King James I of England and Ireland and VI of Scotland 1566-1625 (40).

Before Jun 1607 Robert Carr 1st Earl Somerset 1587-1645 broke his leg at a tilting match bringing him to the attention to King James I of England and Ireland and VI of Scotland 1566-1625.

In Jun 1607 [his daughter] Princess Sophia Stewart 1607-1607 was born to King James I of England and Ireland and VI of Scotland 1566-1625 (40) and Anne of Denmark (32).

In Jun 1607 Robert Carr 1st Earl Somerset 1587-1645 (20) was knighted by King James I of England and Ireland and VI of Scotland 1566-1625 (40).

In 1608 Philip Herbert 4th Earl Pembroke 1st Earl Montgomery 1584-1650 (23) was appointed 404th Knight of the Garter by King James I of England and Ireland and VI of Scotland 1566-1625 (41).

In 1608 Mervyn Tuchet 2nd Earl Castlehaven 1593-1631 (15) was knighted by King James I of England and Ireland and VI of Scotland 1566-1625 (41).

Masque of Beauty

On 10 Jan 1608 the Ben Johnson Playwright 1572-1637 (36) Masque of Beauty was performed at the Banqueting House to celebrate the completion of its refurburbishment. King James I of England and Ireland and VI of Scotland 1566-1625 (41) attended.

The performers included:

[his wife] Anne of Denmark (33).

Alethea Talbot Countess Arundel, Surrey and Norfolk 1585-1654 (23).

Catherine Brydges Countess Bedford 1580-1657 (28).

Elizabeth Vere Countess Derby 1575-1627 (32).

Susan Vere Countess Montgomery 1587-1628 (20).

Lettice Perrot Baroness Chichester 1560-1620 (48).

Audrey Shelton Lady Walsingham 1568-1624 (39).

Catherine Somerset Baroness Windsor 1575-1654 (33).

Anne Clifford Countess Dorset and Pembroke 1590-1676 (17).

Elizabeth Barkham Lady Garrard 1593-1632 (15).

Elizabeth Somerset 1590-1625 (18).

Elizabeth Cecil Lady Hatton 1578-1646 (30).

Mary Neville 7th Baroness Bergavenny 3rd Baroness Despencer 1554-1626 (54).

Catherine Somerset Baroness Windsor 1575-1654 (33).

Arbella Stewart 1575-1615 (33).

Around 1616 William Larkin Painter 1582-1619. Portrait of Anne Clifford Countess Dorset and Pembroke 1590-1676.

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Masque of The Hue and Cry After Cupid

On 09 Feb 1608 John Ramsay 1st Earl Holderness 1580-1626 (28) and Elizabeth Radclyffe Viscountess Haddington -1618 were married at Whitehall Palace. She by marriage Viscountess Haddington.

James I (41) gave the bride away and sent the bride a gold cup containing a grant of lands worth an income of £600 per year, also paid off Ramsay's debts of £10,000.

The marriage was celebrated with the Masque of The Hue and Cry After Cupid in the evening of 09 Feb 1608 at the Banqueting House written by Ben Johnson Playwright 1572-1637 (36).

The principal masquers, nobles and gentlemen of the Court, appeared in the guise of the twelve signs of the Zodiac; the men, five English and seven Scottish courtiers, were:

Ludovic Stewart 2nd Duke Lennox 1st Duke Richmond 1574-1624 (33).

Thomas Howard 21st Earl Arundel 4th Earl Surrey 1st Earl Norfolk 1585-1646 (22).

Philip Herbert 4th Earl Pembroke 1st Earl Montgomery 1584-1650 (23).

William Herbert 3rd Earl Pembroke 1580-1630 (27).

Esmé Stewart 3rd Duke Lennox 1579-1624 (29).

Theophilus Howard 2nd Earl Suffolk 1582-1640 (25).

James Hay 1st Earl Carlisle 1580-1636 (28).

Robert Crichton 8th Lord Sanquhar -1612.

John Kennedy, Master of Mar.

Robert Rich 2nd Earl Warwick 1587-1658 (20).

Mr Erskine.

In 1618 Daniel Mijtens Painter 1590-1648. Portrait of Thomas Howard 21st Earl Arundel 4th Earl Surrey 1st Earl Norfolk 1585-1646. In 1630 Daniel Mijtens Painter 1590-1648. Portrait of Thomas Howard 21st Earl Arundel 4th Earl Surrey 1st Earl Norfolk 1585-1646 and wearing his Garter Collar. Around 1629 Peter Paul Rubens Painter 1577-1640. Portrait of Thomas Howard 21st Earl Arundel 4th Earl Surrey 1st Earl Norfolk 1585-1646. 1624. Unknown Painter. Portrait of James Hay 1st Earl Carlisle 1580-1636. In 1631 Daniel Mijtens Painter 1590-1648. Portrait of Robert Rich 2nd Earl Warwick 1587-1658. Around 1632 Daniel Mijtens Painter 1590-1648. Portrait of Robert Rich 2nd Earl Warwick 1587-1658. In 1633 Daniel Mijtens Painter 1590-1648. Portrait of Robert Rich 2nd Earl Warwick 1587-1658. Around 1633 Anthony Van Dyck Painter 1599-1641. Portrait of Robert Rich 2nd Earl Warwick 1587-1658.

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On 17 Mar 1608 Maximilian Colt Sculptor 1575-1641 (33) was employed on a second monument in Westminster Abbey above the grave of the [his daughter] Princess Sophia, the infant child of King James I (41), who was born and died in the preceding June. Colt received 215l for this work.

On 29 Mar 1608 John Isham 1st Baronet Isham 1582-1651 (25) was knighted by King James I of England and Ireland and VI of Scotland 1566-1625 (41).

Prince Henry invested as Prince of Wales and Earl Chester

On 01 Jun 1610 [his son] Prince Frederick (16) was created Prince of Wales and Earl Chester 10C 1610. Peregrine Bertie 1584-1639 (26) was appointed Knight of the Bath.

On 22 Jun 1610 William Seymour 2nd Duke Somerset 1588-1660 (22) and Arbella Stewart 1575-1615 (35) were married in secret at Palace of Placentia. They were third cousins once removed. He a great x 3 grandson of Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509. She a great x 2 granddaughter of Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509. For having married without permission King James I of England and Ireland and VI of Scotland 1566-1625 (44) had Arbella Stewart 1575-1615 (35) imprisoned in Sir Thomas Perry's House Lambeth and he in the Tower of London.

In 1611 Robert Carr 1st Earl Somerset 1587-1645 (24) was appointed 407th Knight of the Garter by King James I of England and Ireland and VI of Scotland 1566-1625 (44).

In 1611 Thomas Howard 21st Earl Arundel 4th Earl Surrey 1st Earl Norfolk 1585-1646 (25) was appointed 406th Knight of the Garter by King James I of England and Ireland and VI of Scotland 1566-1625 (44).

In 1611 [his son] King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland 1600-1649 (10) was appointed 405th Knight of the Garter by King James I of England and Ireland and VI of Scotland 1566-1625 (44).

On 24 Mar 1611 Robert Carr 1st Earl Somerset 1587-1645 (24) was created 1st Viscount Rochester and to the Privy Council. Robert Carr 1st Earl Somerset 1587-1645 (24) was now the Kings (44) favourite.

May 1611 Creation of Baronets

On 22 May 1611 the first Baronets were created by James I (44) who granted letters patent to two hundred gentlemen of good birth with an income of at least £1,000 a year in return for which each was required to pay for the upkeep of thirty soldiers for three years. The first Baronets were:

Nicolas Bacon (71) was created 1st Baronet Bacon of Redgrave. The Premier Baronet being the first creation.

Lionel Tollemache 1st Baronet Talmash 1562-1621 (48) was created 1st Baronet Talmash of Helmingham in Suffolk.

George Booth (54) was created 1st Baronet Dunham Massey. Katherine Anderson Lady Dunham Massey 1568-1639 (43) by marriage Lady Dunham Massey.

Phillip Knyvet (41) was created 1st Baronet Knyvet of Buckenham in Norfolk.

Edward Carr (68) was created 1st Baronet Carr of Sleaford in Lincolnshire. Anne Dyer Lady Carr -1639 by marriage Lady Carr of Sleaford in Lincolnshire.

John St John (25) was created 1st Baronet St John Lydiard Tregoze in Wiltshire 1611.

Thomas Gerard 1st Baronet Bryn 1560-1621 (51) was created 1st Baronet Gerard of Bryn.

Thomas 1st Baronet Mansel 1556-1631 (55) was created 1st Baronet Mansel of Margam.

George Savile 1st Baronet Thornhill 1550-1622 (61) was created 1st Baronet Savile of Thornhill.

Thomas Temple 1st Baronet Temple 1567-1637 (44) was created 1st Baronet Temple of Stowe.

Henry Belasyse 1st Baronet 1555-1624 (55) was created 1st Baronet Belasyse of Newborough.

George Shirley 1st Baronet Staunton Harold 1559-1622 (52) was created 1st Baronet Staunton Harold in Leicestershire.

Henry Hobart 1st Baronet Hobart 1560-1625 (51) was created 1st Baronet Hobart of Intwood in Norfolk. Dorothy Bell Lady Hobart by marriage Lady Hobart of Intwood in Norfolk.

The next creations may have been in the later creations on 29 Jun and 25 Nov ...

Henry Lee 1st Baronet Lee 1571-1631 (40) was created 1st Baronet Lee of Quarrendon in Buckinghamshire.

Moyle Finch 1st Baronet Eastwell 1550-1614 (61) was created 1st Baronet Eastwell in Kent. Elizabeth Heneage 1st Countess Winchelsea 1556-1634 (54) by marriage Lady Eastwell in Kent.

James Harrington 1st Baronet Ridlington 1542-1614 (69) was created 1st Baronet Ridlington.

Gervase Clifton 1st Baronet Clifton 1587-1666 (23) was created 1st Baronet Clifton of Clifton in Nottinghamshire.

Thomas Pelham 1st Baronet Pelham of Laughton 1540-1624 (71) was created 1st Baronet Pelham of Laughton. Mary Walsingham Baroness Pelham Laughton 1564-1624 (47) by marriage Lady Pelham of Laughton.

Thomas Penyston 1st Baronet Penyston 1591-1644 (20) was created 1st Baronet Penyston. Martha Temple Lady Penyston 1595-1620 (16) by marriage Lady Penyston.

George St Paul Baronet St Paul 1562-1613 (49) was created as Baronet St Paul in Snarford in Lincolnshire. Frances Wray Countess Warwick -1634 by marriage Lady St Paul in Snarford in Lincolnshire.

Philip Wodehouse 3rd Baronet Woodhouse 1608-1681 (2) was created 1st Baronet Woodhouse of Wilberhall.

In 1631 Cornelius Johnson Painter 1593-1661. Portrait of John St John 1st Baronet St John Lydiard Tregoze 1585-1648. Lydiard House. Before 1631. Unknown Painter. Portrait of Thomas 1st Baronet Mansel 1556-1631 and Jane Pole. Unusual for showing the couple holding hands. Sir Thomas was one of the richest and most influential people in south Wales. Not only had he acted as MP and Sheriff of Glamorgan on several occasions, he had been knighted, and in 1611 became one of the first ever to be given the title Baronet - see May 1611 Creation of Baronets. Sir Thomas wears a white doublet with delicate lace collars and cuff, and a dark tunic intricately embroidered with gold. These were not his everyday clothes, but would have been chosen especially for the portrait, to demonstrate his wealth and taste. Beards were considered a sign of virility, and were important fashion statements for men. Thomas Mansel wears his long and squared. Lady Jane wears a dark dress embroidered with gold and an elaborate lace collar and headdress, offset by a lavish triple-string of pearls. This was an age when new fashions and luxury materials like lace were being imported from abroad. Her costume was not of the latest fashion, and suggests the taste of an older generation.  Lady Jane holds a marigold, also called Mary's Gold. This may be a reference to their daughter Mary, who appears with her parents in another, almost identical portrait. Marigolds were often used to symbolise grief and comfort, so it may also refer to the death of Jane's second husband. In 1611 Marcus Gheeraerts Painter 1562-1636. Portrait of George Savile 1st Baronet Thornhill 1550-1622. In 1624 Daniel Mijtens Painter 1590-1648. Portrait of Henry Hobart 1st Baronet Hobart 1560-1625. Around 1620 Cornelius Johnson Painter 1593-1661. Portrait of Martha Temple Lady Penyston 1595-1620.

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1611 Jun Creation of Baronets

On 29 Jun 1611 another tranche of Baronets were created by King James I of England and Ireland and VI of Scotland 1566-1625 (45) as a means of generating revenue ...

William Wentworth 1st Baronet Wentworth Woodhouse 1562-1612 (49) was created 1st Baronet Wentworth Woodhouse.

John Molyneux 1st Baronet Molyneux Teversall 1581-1618 (30) was created 1st Baronet Molyneux of Teversall in Nottinghamshire.

Robert Cholmondeley 1st Earl Leinster 1584-1659 (27) was created 1st Baronet Cholmondley of Cholmondeley. Catherine Stanhope Countess Leinster by marriage Lady Cholmondley of Cholmondeley.

Estrange Mordaunt 1st Baronet Mordaunt of Massingham Parva 1572-1627 (39) was created 1st Baronet Mordaunt of Massingham Parva.

John Savage 1st Baronet Savage 1550-1615 (61) was created 1st Baronet Savage.

Edward Seymour 1st Baronet Seymour 1563-1613 (48) was created 1st Baronet Seymour of Berry Pomeroy. Elizabeth Champernowne Baroness Seymour by marriage Lady Seymour of Berry Pomeroy.

John Tufton 1st Baronet Tufton 1544-1624 (67) was created 1st Baronet Tufton of Hothfield. Christian Browne Lady Tufton 1554-1589 (57) by marriage Lady Tufton of Hothfield.

Anthony Cope 1st Baronet Hanwell 1548-1614 (63) was created 1st Baronet Hanwell. Anne Paston Lady Hanwell 1553-1637 (58) by marriage Lady Hanwell.

William Twysden 1st Baronet Roydon in Kent 1566-1628 (45) was created 1st Baronet Twysden of Roydon in Kent. Anne Finch Lady Twysden 1574-1638 (37) by marriage Lady Twysden of Roydon in Kent.

Richard Worsley 1st Baronet 1589-1621 (22) was created 1st Baronet Worsley of Appuldurcombe.

Richard Molyneux 1st Baronet Molyneux 1560-1622 (51) was created 1st Baronet Molyneux of Sefton. Frances Gerard Lady Molyneux 1569-1620 (42) by marriage Lady Molyneux of Sefton.

William Twysden 1st Baronet Roydon in Kent 1566-1628 (45) was created 1st Baronet Twysden of Roydon in Kent.

Henry Savile 1st Baronet 1579-1632 (32) was created 1st Baronet Savile of Methley.

Thomas Mildmay 1st Baronet 1573-1626 (38) was created 1st Baronet Mildmay of Moulsham.

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Nov 1611 Creation of Baronets

On 25 Nov 1611 a further tranche of Baronets was created by King James I of England and Ireland and VI of Scotland 1566-1625 (45) ...

Edward Devereux 1st Baronet Devereux 1544-1622 (67) was created 1st Baronet Devereux of Castle Bromwich. Catherine Arden Baroness Devereux 1558-1627 (53) by marriage Lady Devereux of Castle Bromwich.

Francis Englefield 1st Baronet Englefield 1561-1631 (50) was created 1st Baronet Englefield of Wootton Bassett in Wiltshire.

Harbottle Grimston 1st Baronet of Bradfield 1569-1648 (42) was created 1st Baronet Grimston of Bradfield.

John Portman 1st Baronet Portman 1575-1612 (36) was created 1st Baronet Portman of Orchard Portman in Somerset.

William Wray 1st Baronet Glentworth 1555-1617 (56) was created 1st Baronet Glentworth. Frances Drury Lady Glentworth 1576-1637 (35) by marriage Lady Glentworth.

Thomas Puckering 1st Baronet 1592-1637 (19) was created 1st Baronet Puckering of Weston.

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Before 1612 John Eyre 1580-1639 was appointed Gentleman of the Privy Chamber and received a gift of £500 from King James I of England and Ireland and VI of Scotland 1566-1625. He served to at least 1632.

In 1612 the remains of [his mother] Mary Queen of Scots (69) were moved to Westminster Abbey on the orders of her son King James I of England and Ireland and VI of Scotland 1566-1625 (45).

In 1612 Prince Maurice I of Orange 1567-1625 (44) was appointed 409th Knight of the Garter by King James I of England and Ireland and VI of Scotland 1566-1625 (45)..

Before 27 Jun 1641 Michiel Janszoon van Mierevelt Painter 1566-1641. Portrait of Prince Maurice I of Orange 1567-1625.

In 1612 Anthony Cope 1st Baronet Hanwell 1548-1614 (64) entertained King James I of England and Ireland and VI of Scotland 1566-1625 (45) at Hanwell.

Death of Prince Frederick

On 06 Nov 1612 [his son] Henry Frederick Stewart Prince of Wales 1594-1612 (18) died. The death of the heir to the throne significant; compare William Adelin Normandy Duke Normandy 1103-1120, Edward "Black Prince" Plantagenet Prince of Wales 1330-1376, Arthur Tudor Prince of Wales 1486-1502, Frederick Louis Hanover Prince of Wales 1707-1751, perhaps Edward York Prince of Wales 1473-1484.

Around 1500. Unknown Painter. Portrait of Arthur Tudor Prince of Wales 1486-1502. In 1750 Thomas Hudson Painter 1701-1779. Portrait of Frederick Louis Hanover Prince of Wales 1707-1751. In 1754 Jean Etienne Liotard Painter 1702-1789. Portrait of Frederick Louis Hanover Prince of Wales 1707-1751.

Marriage of Elizabeth Stewart and Frederick V Elector Palatine

Before 14 Feb 1613 [his future son-in-law] Frederick Palatinate Simmern V Elector Palatine Rhine 1596-1632 was appointed 408th Knight of the Garter by King James I of England and Ireland and VI of Scotland 1566-1625.

Around 1630 Michiel Janszoon van Mierevelt Painter 1566-1641. Portrait of Frederick Palatinate Simmern V Elector Palatine Rhine 1596-1632. In 1635 Gerrit van Honthorst Painter 1592-1656. Portrait of Frederick Palatinate Simmern V Elector Palatine Rhine 1596-1632.

On 14 Feb 1613 [his son-in-law] Frederick Palatinate Simmern V Elector Palatine Rhine 1596-1632 (16) and Princess Elizabeth Stewart Queen Bohemia 1596-1662 (16) were married at Chapel Royal Whitehall Palace. She a daughter of King James I of England and Ireland and VI of Scotland 1566-1625.

A grand occasion that saw more royalty than ever visit the court of England. The marriage was an enormously popular match and was the occasion for an outpouring of public affection with the ceremony described as "a wonder of ceremonial and magnificence even for that extravagant age".

It was celebrated with lavish and sophisticated festivities both in London and Heidelberg, including mass feasts and lavish furnishings that cost nearly £50,000, and nearly bankrupted King James. Among many celebratory writings of the events was John Donne's (41) "Epithalamion, Or Marriage Song on the Lady Elizabeth, and Count Palatine being married on St Valentine's Day".

Thomas Overbury Murder and Trial of his Murderers

On 06 May 1613 Gervase Helwys 1561-1615 (51) was appointed Lieutenant of the Tower of London by King James I of England and Ireland and VI of Scotland 1566-1625 (46) having been recommended by Henry Howard 1st Earl of Northampton 1540-1614 (73). Gervase Helwys 1561-1615 (51) paid £2000 for the appointment of which £1400 went to Henry Howard 1st Earl of Northampton 1540-1614 (73) and £300 to Thomas Monson 1st Baronet 1565-1641 (48), Master of the Armory in the Tower, and a friend of Gervase Helwys 1561-1615 (51).

Letters of the Court of James I 1613 Reverend Thomas Lorkin to Sir Thomas Puckering Baronet 15 Jul 1613. 15 Jul 1613. London. Reverend Thomas Lorkin to Thomas Puckering 1st Baronet 1592-1637 (21).

Since my last letters, the king hath signed the book for the prince's household, and *** first entry thereupon on Friday last. The same day were sworn unto him all such officers as have been thought fit to be about him for the present. In the bed-chamber — Sir Robert Carey (30), Sir James Fullerton (50), Robert Carr of Ancram (35), were sworn gentlemen, whereof the last came in by my Lord of Rochester's (26) means. Sir David Murray was not only rejected, but taxed openly at the council-table, for having suggested none of the best counsels to the late prince deceased. Into the same place were sworn, as grooms, Mr. Kirk, Mr. Gray (who was formerly his highness's page), and Pitcairne, who, till then, supplied the office of carver. This man is likewise one of my Lord of Rochester's (26) creatures. In the privy-chamber were sworn gentlemen-ushers, Sir William Irwin and Mr. Heydon, to the prejudice of Sir Robert Darcy, who is left out for a wrangler, notwithstanding his continual attendance since his last master's death ***. In quality of gentlemen were sworn into the same place, Sir Arthur Mainwaring (33), Sir Edward Vemey (23), Sir Edward Lewis, Mr. Clare, and Mr. Dallington. The grooms are taken out of the gentlemen-waiters to the prince, while he was Duke of York, without the addition of any, unless it be Trotter, who is either already come in, or like to obtain the like condition very soon. Mr. Young and Mr. Alexander are sworn gentlemen-ushers of the presence. For carvers, cup-bearers, and sewers, I have not yet learned certainly who they be; but I hear there is little alteration. Ramsay is the first equerry, and Sir Thomas Howard (28) master of the horse. The great officers rest still in expectation. Sir David Foulis, it seems, promiseth himself the best assurance; for he executes his place still, though more by permission and sufferance than any commission he hath received to that purpose. D. Ramsay and **** have been great suitors, but with as bad success as may be.

The court is at Theobalds, where his majesty (47) hath been much afflicted with a flux and griping of the belly. He is much amended; and, if the occasion of this sickness alter, not his purpose, begins his progress in [Wiltshire], and so to Salisbury, next Saturday. The [his wife] queen (38), likewise, returns to the Bath the Saturday following.

The chief subject of our French news is the compounding of the quarrel between the Dukes of Savoy (51) and Mantua; whereof to write aught to you, who live so near them, were to send owls to Athens.

There hath lately fallen out a great difference between the Duke de Rohan and Monsieur de Plessis (both men of principal mark of them of the Religion, though in a several kind); but what is the cause of their quarrel I yet know not. The chief church there is not a little troubled at it, insomuch that the deputies-general have sent Monsieur Durand, one of the ministers of Paris, down into those parts, to clear the matter, and to mediate a friendly peace between both. The Duke of Lennox (38) hath received there a very honourable entertainment. He was expected in the condition of ambassador; but on his arrival took no other quality than of a private person, which gives many occasion to think, that his first commission was countermanded upon the Duke of Savoy's (51) late ambassage hither. These are but conjectures.

I wish your return into these quarters as soon as the season of the year will permit you; it was your purpose when I left you, and I trust you still keep that resolution. The knowledge of that state is chiefly necessary, and the use of that language. I am sure you understand these things better than myself, and therefore dare not [presume] to advise you. Only my desire is the more earnestly led hereunto by an opinion I have of being able to do you there some pleasing service, and of putting into your hands the commodity of advantaging yourself [into] his highnesses favour, than either your friends or money are like to do in haste. I have heard that you have formerly had some inward acquaintance with Sir Robert Carr of Ancram (35). It will not be unworthy your entertaining still.

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Spanish Match

1614. The "Spanish Match" was the proposed marriage between [his son] Prince Charles (13), the son of King James I of Great Britain (47), and Infanta Maria Anna of Spain (7), the daughter of Philip III of Spain (35). Negotiations took place over the period 1614 to 1623, and during this time became closely related to aspects of British foreign and religious policy, before breaking down completely.

1630. Diego Velázquez Painter 1599-1660. Portrait of Maria Anna of Spain Holy Roman Empress 1606-1646. Around 1580 Unknown Painter. Portrait of Philip III King Spain 1578-1621. 1606. Juan Pantoja de La Cruz Painter 1553–1608. Portrait of Philip III King Spain 1578-1621. Around 1617. Andrés López Polanco Painter -1641. Portrait of Philip III King Spain 1578-1621.

On 03 Feb 1614 Robert Ker 1st Earl Roxburghe 1570-1650 (44) and Jean Drummond Countess Roxburghe 1585-1643 (29) were married at Somerset House. She, Jean, was the sister of his son-in-law John Drummond 2nd Earl Perth 1588-1662 (26) who had married his daughter Jean Ker Countess Perth. The wedding was attended by the King (47) and [his wife] Queen (39). There was a masque Hymen's Triumph written by Samuel Daniel.

In Aug 1614 George Villiers 1st Duke of Buckingham 1592-1628 (21) caught the eye of King James I of England and Ireland and VI of Scotland 1566-1625 (48) at hunt at Apethorpe. Opponents of the king's favourite Robert Carr, Earl of Somerset (27), saw an opportunity to displace Somerset and began promoting Villiers. Money was raised to purchase Villiers a new wardrobe.

Before 1628 Michiel Janszoon van Mierevelt Painter 1566-1641. Portrait of George Villiers 1st Duke of Buckingham 1592-1628. In 1616 William Larkin Painter 1582-1619. Portrait of George Villiers 1st Duke of Buckingham 1592-1628 wearing his Garter Robes and Leg Garter. Around 1620 Daniel Mijtens Painter 1590-1648. Portrait of George Villiers 1st Duke of Buckingham 1592-1628. In 1619 Cornelius Johnson Painter 1593-1661. Portrait of George Villiers 1st Duke of Buckingham 1592-1628. Around 1625 Peter Paul Rubens Painter 1577-1640. Portrait of George Villiers 1st Duke of Buckingham 1592-1628.

After Aug 1614 George Villiers 1st Duke of Buckingham 1592-1628 was appointed Cupbearer to King James I of England and Ireland and VI of Scotland 1566-1625.

In 1615 Thomas Erskine 1st Earl Kellie 1566-1639 (49) was appointed 410th Knight of the Garter by King James I of England and Ireland and VI of Scotland 1566-1625 (48).

In 1615 William Knollys 1st Earl Banbury 1544-1632 (71) was appointed 411th Knight of the Garter by King James I of England and Ireland and VI of Scotland 1566-1625 (48).

In 1619 Daniel Mijtens Painter 1590-1648. Portrait of William Knollys 1st Earl Banbury 1544-1632 wearing his Garter Collar and Leg Garter.

On 11 May 1615 William Cope 2nd Baronet Hanwell -1637 was knighted by King James I of England and Ireland and VI of Scotland 1566-1625 (48) at Charterhouse.

Thomas Overbury Murder and Trial of his Murderers

In Sep 1615 rumours about Thomas Overbury 1581-1613 (34)'s death began to gain traction. The Governor of the Tower of London sent King James I of England and Ireland and VI of Scotland 1566-1625 (49) a letter that described how one of the warders had been bringing Thomas Overbury 1581-1613 (34) poisoned food and medicine. James' initial reluctance avoid further investigation were overcome when he was implicated. Edward Coke Lord Chief Justice 1552-1634 (63) and Francis Bacon 1st Viscount St Alban 1561-1626 (54).

Before 1634 Gilbert Jackson Painter 1595-1648. Portrait of Edward Coke Lord Chief Justice 1552-1634. 1593. Unknown Painter. Portrait of Edward Coke Lord Chief Justice 1552-1634. In 1576 Nicholas Hilliard Painter 1547-1619, whilst in France, painted a portrait of Francis Bacon 1st Viscount St Alban 1561-1626 who was attached to the English Embassy at the time. In 1731 (Copy of 1618 original).John Vanderbank Painter 1694-1739. Portrait of Francis Bacon 1st Viscount St Alban 1561-1626.

After 01 Oct 1615 Gervase Helwys 1561-1615, Thomas Monson 1st Baronet 1565-1641, the gaoler Richard Weston, widow of a London doctor Mrs Anne Turner, and an apothecary James Franklin were tried for the murder of Thomas Overbury 1581-1613 at the Guildhall by Edward Coke Lord Chief Justice 1552-1634 and Francis Bacon 1st Viscount St Alban 1561-1626. It was ruled that "poisons" had been "administered" in the form of "jellies" and "tarts" by Weston, Turner and Franklin at the direction of Frances Howard Countess Essex and Somerset 1590-1632. Frances Howard Countess Essex and Somerset 1590-1632 admitted her guilt. Her husband Robert Carr 1st Earl Somerset 1587-1645 maintained his innocence despite King James I of England and Ireland and VI of Scotland 1566-1625 urging him to admit his guilt to avoid James being implicated. Frances Howard Countess Essex and Somerset 1590-1632 and Robert Carr 1st Earl Somerset 1587-1645 were found guilty and sentenced to death. King James I of England and Ireland and VI of Scotland 1566-1625 commuted their sentence to life imprisonment. They, along with Monson, were subsequently pardoned.

The evidence for Gervase Helwys 1561-1615 (54) appeared to indicated he had attempted to undermine the plot to poison Thomas Overbury 1581-1613 (34).

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In 1616 George Villiers 1st Duke of Buckingham 1592-1628 (23) was appointed 413th Knight of the Garter by King James I of England and Ireland and VI of Scotland 1566-1625 (49). Aged twenty-four. He had become the King's favourite.

In 1616 Robert Sidney 1st Earl of Leicester 1563-1626 (52) was appointed 414th Knight of the Garter by King James I of England and Ireland and VI of Scotland 1566-1625 (49).

Around 1588 Unknown Painter. Portrait of Robert Sidney 1st Earl of Leicester 1563-1626.

1616 Creation of Garter Knights

On 24 Apr 1616 King James I of England and Ireland and VI of Scotland 1566-1625 (49) created two new Garter Knights:

Investiture of Charles as Prince of Wales

On 04 Nov 1616 [his son] King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland 1600-1649 (15) was created Prince of Wales. Robert Radclyffe 5th Earl of Sussex 1573-1629 (43) carried the Purple Ermined Robe.

James Wriothesley 1605-1624 (11), brothers Robert Howard 1584-1653 (32) and William Howard, George Berkeley 8th Baron Berkeley 1601-1658 (15), Henry Carey 1st Viscount Falkland 1575-1633 (41) and John Cavendish -1618 were appointed Knight of the Bath.

Around 1580 based on a work of 1565.Unknown Painter. Portrait of Robert Radclyffe 5th Earl of Sussex 1573-1629 wearing his Garter Collar and holding the Lord Treasurer Staff of Office. Around 1600. Unknown Painter. Portrait of Henry Carey 1st Viscount Falkland 1575-1633.

Thomas Overbury Murder and Trial of his Murderers

On 20 Nov 1616 Gervase Helwys 1561-1615 (55) was hanged at Tower Hill. He gave a speech to the crowd ...

... many others of seuerall dispositions. All you beeing thus assembled to see mee finish my dayes, the number of which is sum'd up, for the very minutes of my life may now be reckoned. Your expectation is to have mee say something, to give satisfaction to the World, and I will doe it so farre as I can, albeit in that speech of mine, I shall (as it was spoken unto me the last night) but chatter like a Crow. But whatsoeuer I deliuer, I beseech you to take from a wounded bosome, for my purpose is to rip up my very heart, and to leaue nothing there which may proue any clogge to my Conscience. Hither am I come to performe a worke which of all others is to Man the most easie and yet to Flesh and Blood is the hardest, and that is, To die. To hide therefore any thing, for any worldly respect, were to leaue a blot upon my owne Soule, which I trust shall be presented (through the mercies of my Maker, and merits of my Sauiour) acceptable before GODS high Tribunall. And first I will labour to satisfie some, who before my apprehension were well conceipted of mee, but since my Arraignment, as I vnderstand, carryed of mee but hard opinions, for that at the Barre I stood stiffly upon the Justice of my Innocence; and this they impute as a great fault, beeing afterwards that I was found guilty of the Crime. To which I answer, that I did it ignorantly: Nay I was so farre from thinking my selfe foule in the Fact, that untill these two Gentlemen, (Doctor Felton and Doctor Whiting, the Physitions for my Soule) told mee how deepely I had imbrewed my hands in the blood of that gentleman (35), making mee by GODS law as guilty in the Concealing, as if I had beene a personall Actor in it: till then I say, I held my selfe so ignorant of the deede, and my Conscience so cleere, that I did never aske GOD forgivenesse, nor once repent mee of the Fact, such was my blindnesse. So that it was not onely an error, or rather a horrible sinne, in mee to consent, but a worse, to deny it, so Bloody, so Treacherous, so Foule, so Filthy a Fact as that was; for which I must confesse the King, and the State have dealt honorably, roundly, and justly, with mee, in condemning mee unto this death. And thus have I laboured and done my best to cleere this point, being willing by all good meanes to reduce your first opinions of mee; that as formerly your conceipted well of mee, so you would now with a charitable affection performe the last duty of your Christian loues towards mee, praying to GOD, both with me, and for mee; to the intent that this Cup, whereof I am to drinke, may not be greiuous unto mee, but that it may be a ioyfull conueiance to a better and more blessed comfort.

Some perhaps will thinke it to be a Rigor of the State, or aggravation of my iudgement, that I should die in this place, but this doe I take as an honor unto me, & herein doe I acknowledge my selfe to stand much bound to the State, in that I have this favour vouchsafed me to suffer Death in sight of my Charge, even where I had sinned, on the Tower-hill, rather than in the place of common Execution, where every base Malefactor dyeth.

Many doe I see here whom I know well, and of whom I am likewise knowne: and now am I a Spectacle for them to be looked on, whom in former times (and in all mens accounts) they held never likely to come to such an end. But herein he hold the justice of God, who is so oppos'd against sinne, because that if we forget to seeke him whilst we may, he will finde us out when we would not be found of him.

It is expected I should say something of the fact which I have committed: And hither am I come resolued to cleare my conscience (before I depart this world) of all matters which I either knowe, or can now remember. And so much I have already delivered in writing to my Lo. Chiefe Justice (64) and to prove that which I wrote is true, I yesterday confirmed it with the receiuing of the blessed Sacrament, wishing unto you all as much comfort by those holy Mysteries, as I tooke by them: and I doe heere (though not with such a bloud) yet with mine own bloud, seale that which I have written. For my selfe, I will hide nothing to make my fault seeme lesse, but will rip open this very heart of mine, and confesse before God myne owne uncleannesse. I have sinned exceedingly against thee O my maker, and in this am I most faulty, that I did not reveale to the King (50), so soone as I my selfe had knowledge of the busines. But (alas) feare to loose these worldly pleasures, and the loue to promotion, made me forget my duty to my Soueraigne, and not to regard my God, who is a swift auenger of blood: and would to heaven I had trusted to his providence, and set the thinges of this world at nought, for heavens sake, and a good conscience. You see, Gentlemen, promotion cannot rescue us from the justice of God, which alwaies pursues after sinne: And therefore I exhort you not to trust in men (how great soeuer) for they cannot hide themselues when God is angry; neither can they protect you from shame, when God will consume you: he that sitteth in heaven, will deride and scorne their foolish Inventions. As for me, I will not spare to lay open my owne shame: Thinke you I care for the reputation of this world? No, I weigh it not. This my soule shall receiue more comfort from God in my upright dealing.

My sinne, in this foule fact, was great, for upon me lay all the blood, shed, and to be shed: I have made many children fatherles, many wives husbandles, many parents childelesse: and I my selfe leave a comfortlesse wife and eight children behinde me for it too: for if I had revealed it when I might, I had freed much blood from being spilt, in so much as I could wish (Gods Justice and charity reserved) I might hang in chaines, till I rotte away by peecemeale: nor cared I what tortures my body were put unto, so I might expaite or free the bloud of so many, (some in one place, and some in another) which is both like to bee shed, and is already shed, and the Lord knowes when it will have an end. Concerning my selfe, I will aggravate the crime, by speaking of every circumstance I can remember. And now it comes into my mind, what trust that gentleman put into me: hee reputed me to bee most faithfull unto him; (Oh the wildnesse of my heart!) I proved unfaithfull, and was his deadly deceitfull friend. And here (Gentlemen) I exhort you all that you would take notice of this, ever to bee faithfull to those who put you in trust. Sir Thomas O. (35) trusted me, and I was unfaithfull and treacherous to him, in drawing tickets for him to his disadvantage. I promised him secrecy, yet betrayed him, onely to satisfy greatnesse: But God, who sees the secret thoughts of mans heart, will disclose all unuist actions at last: nay, I am perswaded that whosoeuer they bee that commit sinne in their child-hood, at one time or other it will be revealed. In this place it commeth to my mind, that in my yonger dayes (as wel beyond the Seas as here) I was much addicted to that idle veyne of Gaming, I was bewitched with it indeed: And I played not for little for final sums neither, but for Great-ones, yet ever haunted with ill lucke: And upon a time, being much displeased at my losse, I sayd, not in a carelesse maner, Would I might be hanged; But seriously, and advisedly (betweene God and my selfe) clapping my hands upon my breast, I spake thus, If ever I play again, then let me be hangd. Now gentlemen here you may behold the justice of God, paying mee my wish and imprecation home. Bee carefull therefore I exhort you, that you vow nothing but that unto which you will give all diligence to performe: for the powerful God, before whom you make such vowes, will otherwise bee auegned: Jn this place Doctor VVhiting putting him in mind to satisfie the World touching his Religion thus he went on. THe matter you speake to mee of, faith hee, is well thought upon: for I heare that abroad hath beene some murmuring and questions made about mee for my Religion; Some giving out that I was infected with Anabaptisme: A fond, ridiculous, foolish and phantasticall opinion, which I never affected but rather despised. Many may thinke that the manner of my death doth much discourage mee, that I should dye in a halter: I would have you all to thinke that I scorne all such worldly thoughts: I care not for it, I value not any earthly shame at all, so as may have honour and glory anon in Heaven: and I make no doubt, but I shall sodainely be more happie then you all, and that I shall see GOD face to face: and if there be any point of innocency in mee at all, I doe utterly cast it from mee, and I doe commit it wholly to GOD.

And for any matter of Glory, I doe with the Saints of GOD expect it through the merits of Christ, at the Resurrection: yea it is my glorie to die thus. I might have died in my Bedde, or shooting the Bridge or else have fallen downe sodainly, in which death I should have wanted this space to repent, being the sweet comfort and assured hope of Gods favour which of his mercy he hath vouchsafed mee; So that it swalloweth up all feare of death or reproch of the World: wishing unto all you (Gentlemen) who now behold mee, that wheresoeuer you shall dye, (either in your Beddes or else-where howsoewer) you may feele such comfort and resolution as God in his mercy hath bestowed uppon mee and my wounded Soule for this and the rest of my grieuous Sinnes. But mee thinkes I heare some of you conjecture and say, that I expresse no great Arguments or signes of sorrow: You think my heart should rather dissolue and melt into teares, then to appeare so insensible of feare as I may seeme: but I must tell you, teares were never common in mee: I may therefore feare though I do not weepe. I have been couragious both beyond the Seas and heere in mine owne Country: but (Gentlemen) that was when there was no perill before mee. But now the stroke of death is upon mee. It affrights mee, and there is cause to feare: yet notwithstanding, my heart seemeth unto you to be rather of stone than of flesh. But I would have you understand, that this boldnes doth not proceed from any manly fortitude, for I am a man, fraile as you are, and dare as little look death in the face as any other: ther terors of death doe as much trouble my humane sense, as of any man whatsoeuer: but that which swalloweth up all manner of feare in me, & maketh me to glory and to reioyce in, is, the full assurance which I conceiue of the vnspeakable love of God to those who are his, of which number I perswade my selfe to bee one, and that I shall presently enioy it.

I confesse I have sinned exceedingly, against thee (oh God) many wayes, in prophaning thy holy Sabaoths, in taking thy glorious name in vaine, in my concupiscence in turning all thy graces into wantonnes, in my Riotous wasting so many of thy good Creatures, as would have belieued many poore people, whose prayers I might have had this day. I have sinned against thee in my Child-hood: but Childrens sinnes are childishly performed: but I confirmed them in my manhood, there was my sinne. I am perswaded, there is no sinne, that a man committeth in his life, knowing it to be a sin, and not repenting of it, but the Lord will iudge it. I admonish you therefore that are heere assembled, to take good notice of your sinnes, and let none escape you vnrepented. And yet when you have done the best you can, there will lie buried some one sinne or other sufficent to condemne you. O Lord clense mee from my secret sinnes, which are in me so rife. I abused the tender education of my Parents. You perhaps that knew mee will say no; I liued in an honest forme, and was not bad in my life. But I know best my selfe what I was: & if I who was so esteemed of amongst Men, shall scarcely be saued, what will become of those, whom you point at for notorious lievers? The last night God put into my mind the remembrance of one sinne of mine, which heere I will lay open, that others may take heed. I tooke a vaine pride in my pen, and some of my friendes would tell me I had some induments and speciall gift that way: (though I say nor so my selfe) but mark the iudgement of God in this; that Pen which I was so proud of, hatch struck mee dead, and like Absolons hayre hath hanged me: for there hath dropt a word or two from my Pen, in a letter of mine, which upon my Saluation I am not able to answer, or to give any good accompt of. At my Arraignment I pleaded hard for life, & protested my Innocency, but when my owne Pen came against mee, I was forthwith not able to speake anything for my selfe: for I stood as one amazed, or that had no Tongue. See (Gentlemen) the just Iudgement of GOD, who made that thing of which I was most proud, to be my bane: take notice how strangely sinne is punished, and learne every-one to striue against it.

I have heard the word of GOD, and often read it (but without vse) for I must tell you these two worthy, Gentlemen (to whom I am so much bounden, God reward them for their loue) even they begat mee very lately, for I am not ashamed to confesse that I was to be begotten unto Christ within these three daies: yea I have often prayed against sinne, and made many vowes to forsake it, but uppon the next occasion, my foule heart hath beene ready to runne with the wicked. Had I learned but this one lesson in the 119. Psalme, (Depart from mee ye wicked, I will keepe the Commandements of my God &c.) I had beene likely to have enioyed many dayes heere on eath: whereas now you all see mee ready to bee cut short by reason of my sinne. But (O LORD) albeit thou slayest mee, yet will I put my trust in thee: let the LORD doe to me what hee will, I will dye upon this hand (of trusting in him) if I faile many a soule hath miss'd, but I have sure hope of mercy in him; hee hath sufficed and succoured mee, I am sure, euer since the sentence of death hath passed uppon mee: such comfort flowing from the Godly indeauors of these Gentlemen (the Diuines) that neither the Reproach of this Death, nor the Torment of it hath any whit discouraged me; nay, let me tell you, the last night when I heard the time was appoynted, and saw the warrant in Master Sheriffs hand for my death, it no whit daunted me: But what put this courage into me? onely the hope which I had in GODS mercies. This Hope was a Seede, and this Seed must come from a Roote; I looked upon my selfe, and there was rather cause despaire; and just cause, that I should not approach GODS presence. Thus then I disputed with GOD: This Hope being a Seede must have a Roote, and this Roote is not any thing in Man, no, it is Praescientia (thy fore-knowledge,) O God, who hast elected me from eternity. I will tell you, I receiued more comfort this morning, comming along the streetes, than euer I did in all my life. I saw much people gathered together, all the way as I came, to see mee brought to this shamefull end: who with their hearty prayers and well wishings gladded and comforted my very soule: insomuch as I could wish that I had come from Westminster hither. I protest unto you, I thinke I could never have dyed so happily in my bed. But you will say, these are but speechees, and that I being so neere death, my heart cannot be so free, as I seeme in my speech: I confesse, there are in my brest frailties, which doe terrifie, and will still be busie with me, but I beseech you when I am at the stroake of death, that you would praie to GOD (with mee) that neither Sathans power, nor my weakenesse, may hinder my confidence. And I beseech God that amongst all who this daie heare mee, some may profit by my end: If I get but one Soule, I shall have much comfort in that; for that one soule my beget another, and that other another. I have held you too long, but I will draw to an end: intreating you all to ioyne in praier to God for me.

The summe of his Prayer.

O Lord God omnipotent, who sittest in Heaven, and seest all things which are done on earth: to whom are knowne all occasions of men; And who dost deride and laugh to scorne their Foolish inuentions: thou (Lord) who art powerfull to Saue at an instant, bow downe the heavens, and behold Mee (wretched sinner!) vnworthy to looke up, or lift up my hands unto thee. Remember not (O Lord) the sinnes which I have committed. Driue away this Mist which is before mee; and breake those thick Clowdes which my sinnes have made, and may let my request to come into thy presence. Strengthen mee in the middest of Death, in the assurance of thy.

Mercies; and give mee a ioyfull Passage into thy Heavenly Rest, now and for euer. Amen.

After hee had thus Prayed, hee tooke his leaue of all, with these words.

Gentlemen, I shall see your faces now no more: and pulling down his Cap in his eyes, said some privat prayer; in which time the Doctors prayed, and called to him, that hee would remember his assurance, and not be dismaied at the Cup, that hee was not drinke of: Hee answered, I will drinke it up, and never looke what is in it. And after a little time more spent in privat prayer, hee said, Lord receaue my Soule: And so yeelded up the Ghost. His Meditation and Vow. not long before his Death. When I considered Herods State, who though hee heard John Baptist gladly, yet was he intangled with Herodias: and how Agrippa liked so well of Paul as hee was perswaded almost to become a Christian, and how young mans will was good to follow Chirst yet was there one thing wanting: meethought the state of sinfull man was not vnlike. For also how the Angler though hauing caught a Fish but by the the chaps accounts it as his owne: the Bird taken but by the heele is a prey unto the Fowler: the Iayler also holds his prisoner by one ioint as safe, as cast in iron chaines: then did I think what do these motions good, if not effected to the full? what though not notoriously evill? one sinne sufficent to condemn: and is he guilty of all that guilty is of one? then said I vnto the Lord I will freely cleanse my waies and wash my hands in innocency: I will take heed that I offend not in my tongue. Lord let my thoughts be such as I may al-waies say, try and examine mee if there be any vnrighteousnes in mee. Sir Geruase Ellowis.

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In 1617 John Williams Archbishop of York 1582-1650 (34) was appointed Chaplain to King James I (50).

Before 1634 Gilbert Jackson Painter 1595-1648. Portrait of John Williams Archbishop of York 1582-1650.

On 05 Jan 1617 George Villiers 1st Duke of Buckingham 1592-1628 (24) was created 1st Earl Buckingham 5C 1617 by King James I of England and Ireland and VI of Scotland 1566-1625 (50); his favourite.

In Mar 1617 King James I of England and Ireland and VI of Scotland 1566-1625 (50) stayed as a guest of John "Old Sir John" Brownlow 1st Baronet Brownlow 1590-1679 (27) at the old house near to the church at Belton House on his way to Scotland.

Around 1644 Gilbert Soest Painter 1605-1681. Portrait of John

On 24 Aug 1617 Richard Grosvenor 1st Baronet Grosvenor 1585-1645 (32) was knighted by King James I of England and Ireland and VI of Scotland 1566-1625 (51) at Vale Royal.

On 29 Sep 1617 John Villiers 1st Viscount Purbeck 1591-1658 (26) and Frances Coke Viscountess Purbeck 1602-1645 (15) were married at Hampton Court Palace. King James I of England and Ireland and VI of Scotland 1566-1625 (51) gave away the bride.

In 1623 Michiel Janszoon van Mierevelt Painter 1566-1641. Portrait of Frances Coke Viscountess Purbeck 1602-1645.

On 02 Oct 1617 Edward Fitton 1st Baronet 1572-1619 (44) was created 1st Baronet Fitton of Gawsworth Hall by King James I of England and Ireland and VI of Scotland 1566-1625 (51).

On 10 Feb 1619 James Howard 3rd Earl Suffolk 1619-1689 was born to Theophilus Howard 2nd Earl Suffolk 1582-1640 (36) and Elizabeth Home Countess Suffolk 1599-1633 (20). His godfathers were King James I of England and Ireland and VI of Scotland 1566-1625 (52) and George Villiers 1st Duke of Buckingham 1592-1628 (26).

Before 1744 Enoch

On 02 Mar 1619 [his wife] Anne of Denmark (44) died.

On 19 Jul 1619 Richard Lumley 1st Viscount Lumley 1589-1663 (30) was knighted by King James I of England and Ireland and VI of Scotland 1566-1625 (53) at Theobalds House.

On 02 Jun 1620 Thomas Gower 1st Baronet Gower 1584-1651 (36) was knighted by King James I of England and Ireland and VI of Scotland 1566-1625 (53).

In 1621 Daniel Mijtens Painter 1590-1648 (31). Portrait of King James I of England and Ireland and VI of Scotland 1566-1625 (54) wearing his Garter Collar and Leg Garter.

In 1621 John Williams Archbishop of York 1582-1650 (38) was appointed Bishop of Lincoln by King James I (54).

In 1621 John Williams Archbishop of York 1582-1650 (38) was appointed Lord Keeper of the Great Seal by King James I (54).

On 22 Jan 1621 John Ramsay 1st Earl Holderness 1580-1626 (41) was created 1st Earl Holderness 1C 1621 by King James I (54).

In 1622 William Feilding 1st Earl Denbigh 1587-1643 (35) was appointed Master of the Great Wardrobe to King James I of England and Ireland and VI of Scotland 1566-1625 (55).

Around 1633 Anthony Van Dyck Painter 1599-1641. Portrait of William Feilding 1st Earl Denbigh 1587-1643.

On 03 Jul 1622 William Sherard 1st Baron Sherard 1588-1640 (33) was knighted by King James I of England and Ireland and VI of Scotland 1566-1625 (56) at Oatlands Palace.

On 11 Aug 1622 Humphrey Style 1st Baronet 1596-1659 (26) was knighted by King James I of England and Ireland and VI of Scotland 1566-1625 (56).

 1650 Adriaen Hanneman Painter 1603-1671. Portrait of Humphrey Style 1st Baronet 1596-1659.

In 1623 Ludovic Stewart 2nd Duke Lennox 1st Duke Richmond 1574-1624 (48) was created 1st Duke Richmond 1C 1623, 1st Earl Newcastle upon Tyne 1C 1623 by King James I of England and Ireland and VI of Scotland 1566-1625 (56). Frances Howard Duchess Lennox Duchess Richmond 1578-1639 (44) by marriage Duchess Richmond.

Before 1636 Marcus Gheeraerts Painter 1562-1636. Portrait of Frances Howard Duchess Lennox Duchess Richmond 1578-1639.

In 1623 James Hamilton 2nd Marquess Hamilton 1589-1625 (34) was appointed 415th Knight of the Garter by King James I of England and Ireland and VI of Scotland 1566-1625 (56).

In 1623 Daniel Mijtens Painter 1590-1648. Portrait of James Hamilton 2nd Marquess Hamilton 1589-1625 with his Lord Treasurer Staff of Office. In 1623 Daniel Mijtens Painter 1590-1648. Portrait of James Hamilton 2nd Marquess Hamilton 1589-1625.

1623. Adam de Colone 1572-1651 (51). Portrait of King James I of England and Ireland and VI of Scotland 1566-1625 (56).

On 18 May 1623 George Villiers 1st Duke of Buckingham 1592-1628 (30) was created 1st Duke of Buckingham 2C 1623 by King James I of England and Ireland and VI of Scotland 1566-1625 (56) for being his favourite; what favourite means is open to debate. Katherine Manners Duchess Buckingham 1602-1649 (21) by marriage Duchess of Buckingham.

Around 1628 Anthony Van Dyck Painter 1599-1641. Portrait of Katherine Manners Duchess Buckingham 1602-1649.

On 12 Nov 1623 Christopher Wray 1601-1646 (22) was knighted by King James I of England and Ireland and VI of Scotland 1566-1625 (57).

Happy Parliament

On 30 Dec 1623 the fourth Parliament of James I (57) known as the Happy Parliament was summoned.

On 19 Feb 1624 the Happy Parliament held its first session.

Roland Egerton 1st Baronet Egerton and Oulton 1594-1646 (29) was elected MP Wootton Bassett.

Arthur Lake 1598-1633 (25) was elected MP Minehead.

James Wriothesley 1605-1624 (18) was elected MP Winchester.

Richard Edgecumbe 1570-1639 (53) was elected MP Grampound.

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In 1624 Thomas Fanshawe 1580-1631 (44) was knighted by King James I of England and Ireland and VI of Scotland 1566-1625 (57).

In 1624 Christian Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel 1599-1626 (24) was appointed 417th Knight of the Garter by King James I of England and Ireland and VI of Scotland 1566-1625 (57).

In 1624 James Hay 2nd Earl Carlisle 1612-1660 (12) was appointed 419th Knight of the Garter by King James I of England and Ireland and VI of Scotland 1566-1625 (57).

Around 1638 Anthony Van Dyck Painter 1599-1641. Portrait of James Hay 2nd Earl Carlisle 1612-1660.

In 1624 William Cecil 2nd Earl Salisbury 1591-1668 (32) was appointed 418th Knight of the Garter by King James I of England and Ireland and VI of Scotland 1566-1625 (57).

On 08 Jul 1624 Thomas Vyner 1st Baronet of London 1588-1665 (35) was appointed Comptroller of the Mint by King James I of England and Ireland and VI of Scotland 1566-1625 (58).

In 1625 Edward Sackville 4th Earl Dorset 1591-1652 (34) was appointed 420th Knight of the Garter by King James I of England and Ireland and VI of Scotland 1566-1625 (58).

In 1613 William Larkin Painter 1582-1619. Portrait of Edward Sackville 4th Earl Dorset 1591-1652.

In 1625 Henry Rich 1st Earl Holland 1590-1649 (34) was appointed 421st Knight of the Garter by King James I of England and Ireland and VI of Scotland 1566-1625 (58).

In 1634 Daniel Mijtens Painter 1590-1648. Portrait of Henry Rich 1st Earl Holland 1590-1649. 1639. Follower of Anthony Van Dyck Painter 1599-1641. Portrait of Henry Rich 1st Earl Holland 1590-1649.

In Jan 1625 King James I of England and Ireland and VI of Scotland 1566-1625 (58) signed a warrant for the trial for adultery of the Robert Howard 1584-1653 (41) and Frances Coke Viscountess Purbeck 1602-1645 (22) in the ecclesiastical Court of High Commission. The trial was likely at the instigation of her brother-in-law George Villiers 1st Duke of Buckingham 1592-1628 (32). Robert Howard 1584-1653 (41) was imprisoned at the Fleet Prison. She was placed under house arrest.

Death of James I

On 27 Mar 1625 King James I of England and Ireland and VI of Scotland 1566-1625 (58) died at Theobalds House. His son [his son] King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland 1600-1649 (24) succeeded I King England Scotland and Ireland.

On 07 May 1625 King James I of England and Ireland and VI of Scotland 1566-1625 (58) was buried at Westminster Abbey.

In 03 Mar 1627 Bryan Maguire 1st Baron of Enniskillen 1589-1633 (38) was created 1st Baron Enniskillen by King James I of England and Ireland and VI of Scotland 1566-1625 (60).

Around 1632 Anthony Van Dyck Painter 1599-1641 (32). Portrait of King James I of England and Ireland and VI of Scotland 1566-1625 (65).

In or before 1655 Henry Vane "The Elder" 1589-1655 (65) and Frances Darcy 1591-1663 (63) were married. She being one of the heirs, possibly the only heir, of her father Thomas Darcy 1560-1593 (94). She brought considerable wealth to the marriage as evidenced by Henry's subsequent spending on court positions. Immediately after the marriage Vane writes ... I put myself into court, and bought a carver's place by means of the friendship of Sir Thomas Overbury (73), which cost me £5,000.' Next year he devoted the £3,000 of his wife's portion to purchasing from Sir Edward Gorges a third part of the subpoena office in chancery, and later so ingratiated himself with the king (88) that James (88) gave him the reversion of the whole office for forty years.

John Evelyn's Diary 02 September 1675. 02 Sep 1675. I went to see Dulwich College, being the pious foundation of one Alleyn, a famous comedian, in King James's time. The chapel is pretty, the rest of the hospital very ill contrived; it yet maintains divers poor of both sexes. It is in a melancholy part of Camberwell parish. I came back by certain medicinal Spa waters, at a place called Sydenham Wells, in Lewisham parish, much frequented in summer.

John Evelyn's Diary 19 July 1676. 19 Jul 1676. Went to the funeral of Sir William Sanderson (90), husband to the Mother of the Maids (72), and author of two large but mean histories of King James and [his son] King Charles I (75). He was buried at Westminster Abbey.

John Evelyn's Diary 12 February 1683. 12 Feb 1683. He gave to the Trinity Corporation that land in Deptford on which are built those almshouses for twenty-four widows of emerited seamen. He was born the famous year of the Gunpowder Treason, in 1605, and being the last [male] of his family, left my wife (48), his only daughter, heir. His grandfather, Sir Richard Browne, was the great instrument under the great Earl of Leicester (favorite to Queen Elizabeth) in his government of the Netherland. He was Master of the Household to King James, and Cofferer; I think was the first who regulated the compositions through England for the King's (52) household, provisions, progresses,49 etc., which was so high a service, and so grateful to the whole nation, that he had acknowledgments and public thanks sent him from all the counties; he died by the rupture of a vein in a vehement speech he made about the compositions in a Parliament of King James. By his mother's side he was a Gunson, Treasurer of the Navy in the reigns of Henry VIII., Queen Mary, and Queen Elizabeth, and, as by his large pedigree appears, related to divers of the English nobility. Thus ended this honorable person, after so many changes and tossings to and fro, in the same house where he was born. "Lord teach us so to number our days, that we may apply our hearts unto wisdom!".

In 1587 William Segar Painter 1554-1663. Portrait of Robert Dudley 1st Earl of Leicester 1532-1588. Around 1575 Unknown Painter. Portrait of Robert Dudley 1st Earl of Leicester 1532-1588. Around 1575 Unknown Painter. Portrait of Robert Dudley 1st Earl of Leicester 1532-1588 wearing his Garter Collar. Around 1642. William Dobson Painter 1611-1646. Portrait of the future King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685. Before 1691. John Riley Painter 1646-1691. Portrait of King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685. Around 1665 John Greenhill Painter 1644-1676. Portrait of King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 in his Garter Robes. Around 1661 John Michael Wright 1617-1694. Portrait of King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685 in his coronation robes. Before 11 Jul 1671 Adriaen Hanneman Painter 1603-1671. Portrait of King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland 1630-1685. 1675. Hendrick Danckerts Painter 1625-1680. Portrait of Royal Gardener John Rose presenting a pineappel to King Charles II

Christopher Villiers 1st Earl Anglesey 1593-1630 was appointed Gentlemen of the Bedchamber to King James I of England and Ireland and VI of Scotland 1566-1625.

On 22 Apr 1613, before Robert Carr 1st Earl Somerset 1587-1645 and Frances Howard Countess Essex and Somerset 1590-1632 were married, the Howard family sought to undermine Thomas Overbury's influence over Robert Carr 1st Earl Somerset 1587-1645. King James I of England and Ireland and VI of Scotland 1566-1625 offered Thomas Overbury 1581-1613 an ambassadorship, possibly on the Howard's advice, which Overbury declined to James' annoyance who put Overbury in the Tower of London.

Gunpowder Plot The Verdicts. Note. All eight Conspirators were to be hanged, drawn and quartered. The narrative provides the rationale for why this particlar punishment was applied.

The Conclusion shall be from the admirable Clemency and Moderation of the King, in that howsoever these Traitors have exceeded all others their Predecessors in Mischief, and so Crescente Malitia crescere debuit et Pæna; yet neither will the King exceed the usual Punishment of Law, nor invent any new Torture or Torment for them; but is graciously pleased to afford them as well an ordinary Course of Trial, as an ordinary Punishment, much inferior to their Offence.

And surely worthy of Observation is the Punishment by Law provided and appointed for High-Treason, which we call Crimen læsæ Majestatis. For first, after a Traitor hath had his just Trial, and is convicted and attainted, he shall have his Judgement to be drawn to the place of Execution from his Prison, as being not worthy any more to tread upon the Face of the Earth whereof he was made:

Also for that he hath been retrograde to Nature, therefore is he drawn backward at a Horse-Tail. And whereas God hath made the Head of Man the highest and most supreme Part, as being his chief Grace and Ornament, Pronaque cum spectent Animalia cætera terram, Os homini sublime dedit; he must be drawn with his Head declining downward, and lying so near the Ground as may be, being thought unfit to take benefit of the common Air. For which Cause also he shall be strangled, being hanged up by the Neck between Heaven and Earth, as deemed unworthy of both, or either; as likewise, that the Eyes of Men may behold, and their Hearts contemn him. Then he is to be cut down alive, and to have his Privy Parts cut off and burnt before his Face, as being unworthily begotten, and unfit to leave any Generation after him. His Bowels and inlay'd Parts taken out and burnt, who inwardly had conceived and harboured in his heart such horrible Treason. After, to have his Head cut off, which had imagined the Mischief. And lastly, his Body to be quartered, and the Quarters set up in some high and eminent Place, to the View and Detestation of Men, and to become a Prey for the Fowls of the Air.

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And this is a Reward due to Traitors, whose Hearts be hardened: For that it is Physic of State and Government, to let out corrupt Blood from the Heart. But, Pænitentia vera numquam, sera sed pænitentia sera raro vera: True Repentance is indeed never too late; but late Repentance is seldom found true: Which yet I pray the merciful Lord to grant unto them, that having a Sense of their Offences, they may make a true and sincere ConFession both for their Souls Health, and for the Good and Safety of the King and this State. And for the rest that are not yet apprehended, my Prayer to God is, Ut aut convertantur ne pereant, aut confundantur ne noceant; that either they may be converted, to the End they perish not, or else confounded, that they hurt not.

After this by the Direction of Master Attorney-General, were their several Examinations (subscribed by themselves) shewed particularly unto them, and acknowledged by them to be their own, and true, wherein every one had confessed the Treason. Then did Master Attorney desire, That albeit that which had been already done and confessed at the Bar, might be all-sufficient for the Declaration and Justification of the Course of Justice then held, especially seeing we have Reos confitentes, the Traitors own voluntary ConFessions at the Bar; yet for further Satisfaction to so great a Presence and Audience, and their better Memory of the Carriage of these Treasons, the voluntary and free ConFessions of all the said several Traitors in writing subscribed with their own proper Hands, and acknowledged at the Bar, by themselves to be true, were openly and distinctly read; By which, amongst other things, it appeared that Bates was absolved for what he undertook concerning the Powder-Treason, and being therein warranted by the Jesuits. Also it appeared, that Hammond the Jesuit, after that he knew the Powder-Treason was discovered, and that these Traitors had been in actual Rebellion, confessed them, and gave them Absolution: And this was on Thursday the 7th of November.

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Here also was Mention made by Master Attorney of the ConFessions of Watson and Clarke, Seminary Priests, upon their Apprehension; who affirmed, that there was some Treason intended by the Jesuits, and then in Hand; as might appear.

1 By their continual negotiating at that Time with Spain, which they assured themsleves tended to nothing but a preparation for a foreign Commotion.

2 By their collecting and gathering together such great Sums of Money, as then they had done, therewith to levy an Army when Time should serve.

3 For that sundry of the Jesuits had been tampering with Catholicks, as well to dissuade them from Acceptance of the King at his first coming, saying, That they ought rather to Die, than to admit of any Heretick (as they continually termed his Majesty) to the Crown; and that they might not, under pain of Excommunication, accept of any but a Catholick for their Sovereign; as also to dissuade Catholicks from their Loyalty after the State was settled.

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Lastly, In that they had both bought up store of great Horses throughout the Country, and conveyed Powder and Shot, and Artillery secretly to their Friends; wishing them not stir, but keep themselves quiet until they heard from them.

After the reading of their several Examinations, ConFessions, and voluntary Declaration as well of themselves, as of some of their dead Confederates, they were all by the Verdict of the Jury found guilty of the Treasons contained in their Indictment.

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Christopher Villiers 1st Earl Anglesey 1593-1630 was appointed Master of the Robes to King James I of England and Ireland and VI of Scotland 1566-1625.