Hall's Chronicle Henry VII 7th Year Aug 1491

Hall's Chronicle Henry VII 7th Year Aug 1491 is in Hall's Chronicle.

In this very ceason Charles the Freeh kyng (22), receaued lady Anne as his pupille into his hades, & with great solempnite her espoused, hauing with her for her dower the whole countrey of Briteyne. And so by this meatie the Brytones became subiect to the French kyng. Maximilia (33). beyng certefied of this, fell into a great rage and agony, for y he was not cotent with the forsaking and refusing of his daughter lady Margaret (12), but also had take & rauished away from him his assured wife lady Anne duches of Britayne. And calling vpon God for vengeaunce & ponishmet for such an heynous & execrable facte, cryed out & rayled on him, wishynge him a thousand deathes. Yet after that he was pacefied, and came to hym selfe agayne, and had gathered hys wyttes together, he thought it was moost expedient to vindicate and reuenge hys honour and digniteeso manifestly touched, with the dynt of sworde. And beyng in this mynde, sent certain Ambassadours to kyng Henry (35) with hys lettres, desyringe him with all diligence to prepare an army, and he hym selfe woulde do likewise, to inuade the Frenche kynges realmes with fyer, swoord and blood.

Kynge Henry (35) hearyng of this, and putting no diffidence in the promes of Maximilian (33), whome he knew to haue a deadly hatred and loge grudge agaynst the French kyng (22), caused a muster to be made in all the partes of hys realme, and put hys men of warre in a redynes armed & weaponed accordyng to their feates: besyde thys he rygged, maned and vyteiled his nauy ready to set forward euery houre, and sent curryers into euery shyre to accelerate and hast the souldiers to the sea side. After the message was declared, there came without any delai an houge army of men, aswell of the lowe sorte and commonaltie as other noble men, harnyssed and armed to battaile, partely glad to helpe their price and to do him seruice and partely to buckle with the Frenchmen, with whome the Englishmen very willingly desyre to cope and fight in ope battail. And immediatly, as monicion was geuen, euery man with hys bande of souldionres repayred to London.

After that, all this army was arrayed and euen readie to set forward wherof were cheuetaynes and leaders, Jasper duke of Bedford (61), & Iho erle of Oxforde (50) beside other the kynge (35) sent Christopher Vrswikehys (44) aulmoner, and syr Ihon Ryseley knyght to Maximilia (33), to certefie him that the kyng (35) was all in a redines, and woulde shortely arryue in the continent land, assoneas he were aduertised that Maximilian (33) and hys men, were ready and prepared to ioyne with hym. The Ambassadours sayled into Flaunders, and after their message done, they sent. ii. letters in all hast to kyng Henry (35), the whiche not onely sore vnquyeted & vexed hym, but also caused him to take more thought, care and study on hym then he did before: for they declared that no prince coulde be more vnprouided or more destitute of men and armure, no more lackynge all thynges, apperteignynge to warre then was Maximilian (33), and that he lave lackynge in a corner, sore sicke of the fluxe of y pursse, so that he had neyther men, horsses, municions, armure nor money, neuer the lesse his mynd & will was good, if his power and habilite had been correspodet & therfore there was no trust to be put in his aide or puissaunce. Their letters bothe appalled, and made sorowful the kyng of Englad (35), which like a prudent prince did well consider & ponder, y it were both ieopardous and costly, for him alone to enterprice so great a warre. And on y other parte, if he should desist and leaue of his pretensed purpose, all me might call hym cowarde and recreant prynce. Beside this, he thoughte that his awne nacion woulde not take his tarijng at home in good nor favourable part, cosideryng y syth they had geuen so large money for the preparacio of all thinges necessary and conueniet for the same, they might conceaue in their heddes & ymagin, that vnder coloure & pretece of a dissimuled warre he had exacted of the notable summes of money, & now the treasure was once payed, then y warre was done, & his cofers well enryched, & the commos enpouerisshed. So that at thys tyme he doubted & cast perels on euery side & parte, & beside this he was not a litle sory y Maximilia (33) authour of this warre did absent him selfe, & defraude him of his societe & assistece. And while he studied & mused what counsaill he shoulde best take in suche a doubtfull and sodeyne case, he like a graue prince, remembring the saiyng of the wise man, woorke by counsayll & thou shall not repet the, assembled together all his lordes and other of his pri- uate counsayl, by whose myndes it was concluded and determined, that he shoulde manfully and couragiously perceauer and precede in thys broched and begonne enterprice, recordynge well with them selfes, and affirming playnely that all cheualry and marsial prowesses, the more difficile and heard that it is to attayne to, the more renoumed is the glory, and the fame more immortall of the vanquisher and obteyner. Therfore by this counsayl of his frendes and senate, he made Proclamacion that euery man should set forward into Fraunce, and yet not openynge howe ludasly Maximilian had deceaued hym, least that they know- ynge the whole fact, shoulde not be so courageous to go towarde that battaile and precede forward on their iorney. And therfore to prouide and forse all perels and daungiers that might accidentally ensue, he so strengthened, multeplied and augmented his army in such numbre before he toke ship, that he with his awne powre might discourage and ouercomethe whole puihsauce of his aduersaries.

he (35) had thus gathered and assembled his armye, he (35) sayled to Caleys the. vi. daye of October, & there encaped him selfe, tariyng there a certaine space to se his men harnessed & appareled, that neither weapon nor any engyne necessary for his Journey should be neglected. At which place all the army had knowlegeby the Ambassadours, whiche were newly returned out of Flaunders (for they did not knowe of it before) y Maximilian coulde make no preparacio for lacke of money, & therfore there was no succour to be exspected at hys hand. At the which report, y Englishmen were nothing abashed nor dismayed, trusting so muche to their awne puissauce & copany: but yet they meruayled and wondered greatly y heard it related, y Maximilian receauyng such great vilany not loge before at the hand of kyng Charles, was not present to pricke them forward, to crye & call, to moue and excite the Englishmen, ye and if he had had. vi. hundred bodyes to put them all in hasard, rather then to leaue the Englishme, now setting vpon his dayly enemyes & deadly aduersaries. Albeit Maximilian lacked no hart & good will to be reuenged, yet he lacked substance to cotinew warre, for he could neither haue money nor men of the dronke Fleminges nor yet of the crakyng Brabanders, so vngrat people were they to their souereigne lorde.

In the meane ceason, although the Frenche kynge was as well with courage replenished as with men furnished mete to trye a battaile, yet all this notwithstiiding he made semblauce, as though he desired nothlg more then peace, beyng not ignorat that peace to be obteined was of nosmal valure & price, & yet he determined to make more expece in getting of peace then in settinge foorth of warre and hostilitee, and regarded so much the lesse the treasure too be dispensed for the acquyrynge of vnitee and concord, for as muche as he was afrayed that he beyng diligent to resist the inuasion of the Englishmen, that the Britones wherof the moost parte bare the yoke of his subieccio contrary to their hartes and myndes, woulde sodeynly rebell and set them selfes at libertie, and plucke out their heddesout of hys colour, and set vp another duke & gouernour. And at the same very tyine he was inuited and desired of Lewes Sforcia duke of Millayn. to warre agaynst Ferdinand kynge of Napels, at whose desyre he was prest and ioyous, thinkynge that he had that occasion sent to hym from God, for the which he longe before thristed & sore wished. The whiche kingdome he pretended to be dewe to hym by succession, and entended long before to acquyre and cdquere it by force of armes, as hys very right and inheritance. For when Rene duke of Angeou last kyng of Scicile, departed without any heire male of hys wyfe lawfully begotten, he did adopt to his heyre of all his realmes & dominios, Lewes the. xi. lather to y. iii. kyng Charles, to thentet that he should deliuer quene Margaret his daughter, out of the hades of kyng Edward the. iiij. as you haue well before perceaued, wrogfully and without cause dishinheriting his cosyn, Godsonne, and heyre, Rene duke of Lorayn & Barre. For the which cause he did the more busily procure & labour for y amitie, fauour fredship of his neighbours roud about hym, y whe all thiges were appeased & set in good; stave at home he might the better employe his whole force pirissaiice on his war re in Italy. Wherfore beyng much desirous to haue all thinges pacefied & set in a perfite cocorde and securitee, he sent Philip Creueceur lord Cordes his chiefe counsailerand diliget officier to entreate, moue and persuade the kyng of Englande to be reconciled made agayne as a new frende to the French kyng. He not forgetting his message, sent letters to kyng Henry before he passed the sea, & arriued in the ferine land, by the which he notefied to hym y he of his boude duetie & obseruauce which he ought to the kyng his master, & to the proffite of his. realme woulde take payne to inuent & excogitate some mean waye, y his highnes kyng Charles his master being disseuered in amitie, & made exstreme enemyes, onely for the cause of Maximilian newly elected king of Romanes, should be reducted brought agal into their pristyne estate consuete familiaritee, doubting not to bring his ship to the porte desirrd, if it might stand with his pleasure to sende some of his cousailers to the confynes & borders of the English pale, adioynynge to Fraunce, there to here what reasonable offres, should be demonstrated and proffered: whiche condicions of peace should be so reasonable and so ample that he doubted not, but that he might with his great honoure breake vp hys campe, and retire hys army backe agayne into hys owne seignory and dominion.

The kynge of Englande (35), maturely consideryng that Britayne was clerely lost, and in maner irrecuperable, beynge nowe adioyned too the croune of Fraunce by mariage, whiche duchy, hys whole mynde was to defende, protect and conferme, and that Maximilian what for lacke of money, and what for mistrust that he had in his awne subiectes, laye styll lyke a dormouse nothynge doynge, perceauynge also that it should be bothe to his people profitable, and to hym greate honour to determyn this warre without losse or bloodshed, appoynted for commissioners the bishop of Exceter (40), & Gyles lord Dawbeney (41) to passe the seas to Caleys, to comen with the lorde Cordes of articles of peace to be agreed vpon-and concluded.
When the commissioners were once met, they so ingeniously and effecteously proceded in, their great affaires, that they agreed that an amytie and peace should be assented to and concluded, so that the condicions of the league should be egall, indifferent and acceptable to bothe partes as after shalbe declared.

While the commissioners were thus consultinge on the marches of Fraunce, the kynge of Englande (35), as you haue heard, was arryued at Caleys, where he prepared all thinges necessary for such a journey. And from thence he remoued in. iiii. battailes, nereto the toune of Boleyne, and there pytched hys tentes before the toune, in a place propice and coueniet and determined to gene a great assaute to the toune. In y which fortresse was such a garrison of Warlike souldioures, that valiauntly defended the toune, and the same so replenyshed with artillary, and municions of warre, that the losse of the Englishmen assautyng the toune, should be greater dammage to the realme of England, then the coqueryng and gaynyng of the same should be emolument or proffite. Howbeit the kynges daily shot, rased defaced the walles of the saide toune: but when euery man was prestand ready to geue the assaute, asodeyne rumoure roase in the army, that a peace was by the commissioners taken and concluded, , whiche brute as it was pleasaunt and mellifluous to the frechme, so it was to the English nacio bitter, sowre & dolorous because they were prestand ready at all tymes to set on their enemyes, and refused neuer to attempt any enterprice, whiche might seme either to be for their laude or profyt : thei were in great fumes, angry and euel content, rayling and murrmiringe emongest them selfes, that the occasion of so glorious a victory to them manifestly offerd, was by certain condicions to no man, nor yet to the kyng commodious or profitable, refused, putte by and shamefully slacked : But aboue all other dyuerse lordes and capitaynes, encoraged with desyre of fame & honour, trustyng in this iourney to haue wonne their spurres, whiche for to set themselfes and their band the more gorgeously forward had mutuate, and borowed dyuerse and sondry sumuies of money, and for the repayment of the same, had morgaged and impignorate thrir landes & possessions, sore grudged and lamented this sodeyne peace, and returne of them vnthought of, and spake largely agaynste the kynges doynges, saiynge and affirmyng, that he as a man fearyng and dreading y force and puyssaunce of his enemyes, had concluded an inconuenient peace without cause or reason : But the kynge as a wise man and moost prudent prince, to assuage the indignacion and pacefie the murmoure of $ people, declared what damage and detriment, what losse & perdicio of many nohle Capitaynes and stronge souldioures must of necessitee happen and ensue at the assaute of a toune, and especially when it is soo well fortefied with men and municions, as the toune of Boleyp at that present tyme was: protestyng farther, that he might be Justly accused & condempned of iniquite & vntruthe, except he did preferre the sauegard of their lyues, before hys awne wealth, health and aduauntage.

When he had thus prudently cosolate and appeased the myndes of hys me of warrre, he returned backe agayn vf his whole army, to y toun of Caieys, where he beganne to smell certayn secret smoke, whiche was lyke to turn to a great flame, without it were well watched and polletiquely sene to. For by the crai'tie inuencion and deuelishe ymaginacid of that pesteferns serpent lady Margaret, duches of Burgoyne, a new ydoll was sett vp in Flaunders, and called Richard Plantagenet, secod sonne to kvng Edward the. iiii. as though he had bene resuscitate from death to lyfe, whiche sodeyne newes more stacke and fretted in his stomack, then the battaile which now was set late foiward & more payne he had (not without great jeopardie of him selte) toappeache & qutche this newe spronge conspiracy, then in makynge peace with the Frenche kyng his enemy. And so he was content to accept and reccaue (and not to offre and geue) the honest condicions of peace of his enemy proffred and oblated, except he woulde at one tyme make warre, be the at home in his owne countrey, and also inforeyne and externe nacions. Wherfore kynge Henry forseynge all these thinges before (and not without great counsayll) concluded with the French kyng, to thentet that he beyng deliuered of al outward enuytie mighte the more quickly prouide for the ciuyle and domestical comocions, which he perceaued well to be budding out. The conclusion of the peace was thus, y the peace should continue bothe their lyues, and that the Frenche kynge should pay to kynge Henry a certayne sumine of money in hand, accordyng as the commissioners shoulde appoynt for his charges susteyned in his iourney:

Whiche (as the kynge certefied the Mayre of London by hys letters the. ix. daye of Novembre) amounted to the summe of. vii.C.xlv.M. ducates, whiche is in sterlynge money. i.C. Ixxxvi.M.ii.C.I./, and also should yerely for a certayne space paye or cause to be paide for the money that the kynge of England had sent and expended in the tuycio & aide of the Britones. xxv.M. crounes, which yerely tribute, y Freeh kynge afterwarde vexed and troubled with the warres of Italy, ye rely satisfied, contented and payde, euen to the tyme of hys sonne kynge Henry the. viii. to thentent to pay the whole duetie and tribute, and for the further coseruacion and stablishyng of the league & amitie betwene bothe the realmes.

Shortely after that kyng Henry had taryed a conuenient space, he transfreted and arryued at Douer, and so came to his maner of Grenewiche. And this was the yere of our lorde a. M.CCCC.xciii. and y. vii. yere of his troubleous reigne. Also in this soiournynge and be segynge of Boleyne (whiche \ve spake of before) there was few or none kylled, sauyng onely John Savage knyght, which goyng preuely out of hys pauylion with syr Ihon Hiseley, roade about the walles to viewe and se their strength, was sodeynly intercepted and taken of hys enemies. And he beyng inflamed withy re, although he were captyue, of his high courage disdeyned to be taken of suche vileynes, defended his life toy vttennost and was manfullv (I will notsaye wilfully) slayne and oppressed, albeit syr Ihon Riseley fled fro theim & escaped their daunger.

When kynge Henry was returned into England, he first of all thinges elected into the societe of saynct George, vulgarely called the Order of the Garter, Alphose duke of Calabres sonne, accordyng to his deire whiche Alphonse was sonne and heyre to Ferdinand kyng of Naples,& after kyng of the same realme, til he was ouercome by kyng Charles. And after, the kyng sent Christopher Vrsewike, Ambassadour with y gartier, coller, mantell, and other habiliamentes apperteyninge to the companyons of the sayde noble ordre. Which Ambassadoure arryuing at Napels, deliuered to the duke the whole habile, with all the ceremonies and devre circumstaunces therunto belonging. Whiche duke very reuerently receaued it, and with more reuerence reuested him selfe w thesame in a solempne presence, thinkyng .that by this apparell and inuestittire, he was made a freride and compaygnion in ordre with j king of England, whose frendship obteyned, he feared nothing the assautes or inuasions of hys enemies. And this was the cause that he desyred so muche to be compaygnion of that noble order, fermely beleuyng that y kyng of England souereygne of that ordre, should be aider and mainteyner of hym agaynst the Frenche kyng, whome he knew woulde passe the moutaynes and make warre on hym. But this custome of assistece in ordres was, eyther neuer begonne, or before clerely abholished: For in our tyme there haue bene many noble men of Italy, compaignios as well of the golden Flese in Burgoyne, as of the ordre of sainct Mighel in Fraunce, that haue bene banyshed and profligate from their naturall countrey, and yet haue not bene aided by the souereigne nor copanyons of thesame order. For surely the statutes and ordinaunces of all thesayde orders dothe not oblige and bynde them to that case, but in certayne poyntes. After this the duke dimissed the Ambassadour, rewardyng hym moost pryncely.

Shortely after this Charles the Frenche king concluded a league with Ferdinand kyng of Spayne, and also beyng entreated and solicited with the oratoures of diuerse princes, which, persuaded and mollefied the stony hart of a frosen prince, caused him to come to communicacion and treatie with Maximilian kyng of Romanes, and to conclude a peace with hym for a season, to the entet that he might without disturbaunce of hys neyghboures adioyninge, prosperously & safely make warre on Ferdynand kyng of Napels, & on all Italy, as he before had mynded and excogitated.

And so Charles, beyng furnished with men, of armes, horsemen, fotemen, nauye, and aide of some Italians, passed through Italy by Rome and without any great laboure wanne the citie of Napels. When he had obteyned this victory: in hys returne beynge assailed with the Venicians at the toune of Fornouoe, he had a great daungerous victory. And so lyke aconquerour, with great triuphe returned into his realme and countrey. After hym Lewes the. xii. beyng kynge, when he founde oportunitee and sawe the gappe open, inuaded the Italians agayne, & recouered again the realm of Napels, whiche Frecleryck the sonne of kyng Alphonse, not longe before had gotten from the French nacion : & after that he subdued and conquered the whole duchy of Millayn. Albeit not long after (fortune turnynge her whele) he lost bothethe kyngdome of Napels, and the fayre citie and duchy of Millayne both together. And so the Frenchmen warrynge vpon the Italians had no better successe in their coquestes, then their parentes and predecessours heretofore haue ben accustomed. For vndoubtedly, as many places as they vexed and sacked with murder and spoylinge, so many or more in conclusion they did enoble and decorate with their blood and slaughter. Which small recompece little profited and lesse releued, such as before were robbed and spoyled of all their goodes, substaunce and ryches. After this the Spanyades arryued iu Italy, and their puttynge too flighte the Frenchemen, obteyned the possession of the realmes of Napels and Scicile, the which they possesse and enioye at this houre. And at length a certayne nacion of Germany, called the Swytsers, called to be partakers of the spoyle of Italy, wane certayn tounes there, whiche they possesse and enioye at this present tyme.

In this warre and tumulteous busynes in Italy, whiche was y most terrible and sorest plague, that any man can remembre of that nacion, there was no person, no place, no private house, no noble familye, no capitayne or prince, but he was oppressed either with the heapes of the dead carcasses, or with the bloud of his frendes or subiectes, or els su tired some affliccion Iniurie or detryment. And insome wise at one tyme or another, euery maa did tast and suffre all the mischeues that apperteyned to the victory gotten by their enernyes. The which defacing & blottyng of the beutye of that countrey, sometyme called the quene of y earth, and floure of the worlde, chaunced not of her awneselfe of herawne cause or desert, but the Italians herawne suckyng chyldren opened the gappe, and made the waye of her destruccion. For at that tyme thus it chaunced, that when the potetates and seignories of Italy perceaued, that all thinge vnder them succeded, euen as they woulde desire and wishe, to their great exultacion and reioysinge: by reason whereof they sate still at home lyke sloggardes (as women be accustomed to do) skoldyng and brawlyng, exercisyng and practisyng preuy displeasure and malice, not agayn their enemyes as they were accustomed, but cmong them selfes one against another, caslinge out of memory drownynge their auncient renoune, glory and honoure with desyre of rule and appetite to be reuenged, and so destroyed the common weale, and subuerted the olde monurnentes and actes of their forfathers and predecessors. And because some of them, thinkynge them selfes, not of force and puissauce sufficient inough to bring their purpose to effect, and to reuenge their quarell, they entysed, stirred and procured with giftes, rewardes and promyses, straungers and foreyne nacions to their aide and assistence. The other seyngc them so desirous to haue their helpe, partely moued with their giftes, partely with desyre of rule, spoyles prayes, gathered together a great company and entred into Italy, and there distroyed, spoyled and possessed the better parte of it. And so the Italians, as men out of their wit, where as they thought one to noye & hurte another with hatefull warryng, they destroyed their natyue coutrey, beynge of nature enclosed and munyte with hygh hilles and the mayne sea rounde> aboute, and opened the waye to straungiers to their vttre ignominy and finall destruccion, which thei might haue kept out of all daungier, if they had bene their awne fredes, and loued their awne wealth and commodite. Therefore I mayesaye: O progeny, aswell wicked as vngodly, hath discorde and dissencion pleased the so much that thou wouldest vtterly extinguihhe and confoude the glory and honour of thy natiue countrey ? And in conclusion, thou thyself art come to the depest pyt of wretchednes, because that thou perceauing the ruyne that thou hast caused and procured, thou arte more repentaunte for the begynninge of it, then glad to desist and Icaue it, and so accordynge to thy desert thou hast thy penaunce and guardon. The grand capitayne and beginner of thys mischief was Sforcia, whiche at that tyme ruled at his will the duchy of Millayne vndre duke Ihon Galeas his nephew : but for a truthe this Lewes ruled al, and the duke did nothing. Wherfore Alphons duke of Calabre, and after kyng of Napels, grudgynge that this duke Ihon his sonne in la\ve, should be defrauded of his superiorite and dominio, threatened sore this Lewes Sforcia. Where hefearyng to be put from his authoritee, solicited and by great entreatie procured Charles the French kyng to inuade the reahne of Napels. By reason of whiche procurement, Alphonse duke of Calabre, whiche succeded his father Ferdinand in the kingdome of Napels (which also as you haue heard, was made knight of the garter) was first depryued of his kingdome by thesaiue kynge Charles, and shortely after of his lyfe. But Lewes force had no longe ioye after the deathe of hys enemy, for he was betrayed and taken by the Swytzers whiche warred vnder kynge Lewes the twelfth, then beynge Frenche kynge, and caryed into Fraunce, where he in the Castell of Lothes miserably finished hys lyfe, accordynge to the saiynge of the Gospell, woo be too hym by whom aslaundre begynneth. Thys mischiefe beganne at that tyme when Charles came thether, and contynueth yet, which is the yere of oure Lord. M.D.xliii. for an example to other, y straungers inuited to a prosperous countrey be lothe to departe from the swete sauoure once therof tasted.

This yere was borne at Grenewiche lord Henry, seconde sonne to y kyng (34), whiche was created duke of Yorke, and after prynce of Wales, and in conclusion succeded his father in eroune and dignitee. Nowe let vs returne to the newe founde sonne of kynge Edwarde, coniured by mennespollicies from death to lyfe.
And first to declare hys lignage and beginning, yon must vnderstad that the duches of Burgoyne (45) so norished and brought vp in the sedicious andscelerate faccions of false contryuers & founders of discorde coulde never cease nor be in quyet (lyke a vyper that is ready to burste with superfluyte of poyson) except he should infest and vnguyet y king of England, for no desert or displeasure by hym to her committed, but onely because he was propagate ant! deseeded of the house of Lacastre, euer beyng aduerse & enemy to her lyne & lynage. For which only cause she compassed, ymagenedand inuented how to cast a scorpio in his bosome, and to infect his whole reahne with, a pestiferous discorde. To thentent that he beyng vanquyshed and brought to confusion, both the boylynge heate of her malicious harte mighte be fully saciated with hys innocent bloude, and also auauce and preferre some darlyng of her faccion to his Empire rule and dignitee. And principally remembring that the erie of Lyncoln, which was by her set foorth and al his copany had small fortune & worsse successe in their progression and enterprice, contrary to her hope and expectacion, she lyke a dogge reuertynge to her olde vomyte, beganne to deuyse & spynne a new w ebbe, lyke a spyder that dayly weaueth when hys calle is torne. And as the deuell prouydeth venemous sauce to corrupt banckettes, so for her purpose she espyed a certayne younge man of visage beutiful, of countenaunce demure, of wit subtile crafty and pregnant, called Peter Watbecke. And for his dastard cowardnes of the Englishmen, in derision called Perkyn Warbeck (17), accordyng to the duche phrase, whiche chauge the name of Peter to Perfcyn, to yogelinges of no strength nor courage for their timerous hartes and pusillanimitee : Whiehe yonge man traueyiyng many coun treys, coulde speake English and many other languages, & for his basenes of stocke and birthe was knowen of none almoost, and only for the gayne of hys liuyng from his childehoode was of necessitee, compelled to seke and frequet dyuerse realmes and regions. Therfore the duches (45) thinkyng to haue gotten God by the foote, whe she had the deuell by the tayle, & adjudging this youg man to be a mete organe to conuey her purpose, and one not vnlike to be'f duke of Yorke, sonne to her brother kyng Edward, whiche was called Richard, kept hym a certayne space with her preuely, and hym with such diligece instructed, bothe of the secretes and common affaires of the realrne of England, & of the lignage, dissent and ordre of the house of Yorke, that he like a good scholer not forgettyng his lesson coulde tell all that was taught him promptly without any difficultie or signe of any subornacion: and besides, he kept suche a princely countenaunce, and so countrefeate a maiestie royall, that all men in maner did fermely beleue that he was extracted of the noble house and familie of the dukes of Yorke. For surely it was a gift geuen to that noble progeny as of nature in the rootc plated that all the sequele of that lyne and stock did study and deuyse how to be equyualent in honoure and fame with their forefathers and noble predecessors.

When this diabolicall duches had framed her cloth mete for y market, and ymagened that all thinges was ready and prepared for the confusion of kyng Henry, sodeynly she was enformed that the sayde kynge of England prepared a puissant army agaynste Charles the Frenche kyng. Then she considering the oportunitie of the tyme, as who would saye, a tyme wished and a daye desyred to achcue and brynge too passe her olde malicious and cantarde inuencions, which alwayes nothinge lesse mynded then peace and tranquilite, and nothing more desired then dissencion, ciuile warre and destruccion of kyng Henry. Wherefore she sent Perkyn Werbeck, her new inuented Mawmet first into Portyngall, and so craftely into the realm of Ireland, to thentent that he beynge bothe witty and wilye might moue, inuegle and prouoke the rude and rusticall Irishenacion (beyng more of nature euclyived to rebellion then to reasonable ordre) to a new conflict and a sedicious commocion. This worshipfull Perkyn, arriuyng in Ireland, whether it were more by hys crafty witte, or by the malicious and beastly exhortacion of the saltiage Irish gouernours, within short space entred so farre into their fauoures, and so seriously perswaded and allured them to his purpose, that the greatest lordes and princes of the coutry, adhibited such faith and credite to his woordes, as that thing had bene true in dede, whiche he vntruly with false demonstracions setfoorth and diuulged. And as though he had bene the very sonne of kynge Edwarde, they honoured, exalted and applauded hym with all reuerence and dewe honoure, promising to hym aide, comforte and assistence of all thinges to the feat of warre, necessary and apperteynyng.

In the meane ceason these newes were related to Charles the Freeh kyng, then beyng in displeasure with kyng Henry, which without delay sent for Perkyn into Irelande to the entent to sende hytn agaynste the kynge of England, whiche was inuadyng France (as you before haue heard). This Flemyng Perkyn was not a litle joyfull of thys message, thinkinge by this onely request to be exalted into heauen, when he was called to the familiarite and acquayntaunce of kynges and prynces: & so with all diligence sayled into Fraunce, with a very small nauy, not so small as smally furnished. And commynge to the kynges presence was of hyin royally accepted, and after a princely fassion entreteyned, & had a garde to hym assigned, wherof was gouernour y lord Cogreshal. And to hym at Parys resorted syr George Neuell bastard, Syr IhonTayler, Rouland Robynson and an hundred Englishe rebelles. But after that a peace, as before is sayde was appoynted and concluded betwixt him and the kynge of England, the ayde kynge Charles dismissed the younge man, and woulde no lenger kepe hym. But some men saye whiche were there attendynge on hym, that he fearynge that kyng Charles, woulde deliuer hym to the kynge of Englande, beguyled the lord Congreshall, andi fledde awaye from Parys by nyght. But whether he departed without the Frenche kynges consent or disassent, he deceaned in his expectation, and in maner in despayre, returned agayn to the lady Margaret his first foolishe foundacion.

The duches thinkynge euery houre from his departure a whole yere, vntill suche tyme she heard from hym, and efiecteously desiring to knowe whiche waye lady Fortune turned her whele, herynge hym to be repudiate and abiected oute of the Frenche courte, was in a greate agony and muche amased and more appalled: But when she was asserteyned of hys arryuall in Flaunders, she nolesse reuiued, then he that bathe in steade of the sworde of execucion, a perdon and restauracion of hys lyfe and degree to hym delyuered and shewed. And at hys commynge to her presence, she receaued hym wyth suche gladnes, with suche reioysyng and suche comforte (as in dede she coulde dissemble alone aboue all other) as though she had neuer sene nor knowe him before, or as he were newly cropen oute of hys mothers lappe agayne, that what in trust to preferre hyrn to the prehemynence by her ymagened, and what for the hope that she had to destroye kynge Henry, she fell into suche an vnmeasurable ioye, that she had almost lost her wytte and senses. And that thys her gladnes mighte be notified and made apparauntto euery man, she first reioyced of her nephewes health and welfare: And secondarely she much thrusted and sore longed, not once, but dyuerse and sundry tymes in open audience, and in solempne presence to here hym declare and shewe by what meanes he was preserued from deathe and destruction, and in what countreys he had wandered and'soughte frendshippe: And finally, by what chaunce of fortune he came to her courte and presence. To the entent that by the open declaracion of these feyned phantasies, the people myghte be persuaded to geue credite and belefe, that he was the true begotten sonne of her brother kynge Edwarde. And after thys she assigned hym a garde of thirty persones in Murrey. and blewe, and highly honoured hym as a greate estate and called i hym the whyte Rose, prynce of Englande.

By reason whereof, the nobilite of Flaunders were to hym diligent, & with dewereuerence dyd him all the pleasure that laye in their powre or officies. And to be shorte, the more that, thys poeticall and feyned inuencion was shadowed with the pretence of sincere veritie, the more faythe and vndubitate credence was adhibited to it. In so muche that many one thought hym to be preserued, onely by the will and mightie powre of almightie God, and to to be conueyghed at the f'yrste daungier by some faythfull frende of kyng Edward his father into some straiige country, and so escaped the violet tyranny of his vncle kyng Rychard, whiche vndubitately, hereafter should recouer his fathers possessions & kingdome. The fame & bruyte of thys iuggled myracle was almoost in one momet blowe ouer all the coutrey of Flanders, & the territories therabouts. But in England it was biased in euery place soner then a man could thiivke or deuise it: In which coutrey more than in other places it was receaued for an infallible veritie & moost sure truthe, and that not onely of the comon people, but also of diuerse noble & worshipfull men of no small estimacio, w hichesw are affirmed it to be true, and no conaent or fable phantastically ymagened. After this deuulgacio y Rychard sonne to kyng Edward was yet liuyng, had in great honour emongest the Fleminges, there began sedicion to springe on euery syde, none otherwise tiien in y pleasant time of vere, trees are wote to budde or blossome. For not onely they y were in sanctuaryes, for great & hey nous offences by them committed, but also many other that were falle in debte, and doubtyng 10 be brought to captiuitie & bondage, assembled together in a copany, and were passed ouer the sea into Flaunders, to their coutrefeate Richard sonne to kynge Edwarde, otherwise named Perkyn Warbeke. After this many of the noble me conspired together some through rashnes & temerite induced therunto, some beyng so earnestly perswaded in their awn coceipt, as though they knew perfightly that this Perkyn was f vndubitate sonne of king Edward the. iiij. solicited, slurred & allured to their opinion all such as were fredes & fautoures of the house of Yorke. Other through indignacio, enuye & auarice, euer grudginge & thinkynge they were not condignly rewarded for their paynes and partes taken in the kyngc-s behalfe and quarell. Other whorne it greued and vexed to see the worlde stande still in one staye, and all men to lyue in peace and tranquilitie, desyrous of some chaunge, ranne hedlinge into that fury, madnes and sedicious coiuracion.

This rumour and vayne fable of this twise borne duke Richard, deuyded all Englad and drewe the realme into Partakyngcs & seuerall faccions, so that the myndes of all men were vexed either with hope of gaync and preferment, or with feare of losse and confusion. For no man was quyet in his awne mynde, but his braynes & senses daily laboured & bet about this great & weightie matter, euery man according to their intelligece, podering & weiyng in egal balauce, the incomoditie & daungier that might hereof ensue, and the gayne & com- moditie that by thesame might be obteyned & gotte. Albeit the kyng, & hys cousayl & other hys faythfull frendes, not a litle mcruayled that any person (beynge in hys ryght wyt) coulde induce in hys mynde or fynde in hys hart falsely to thynke and fraudulentlye too ytnagen, suche a pernicious fable and ficcion, beyng not onely strange and marueylous, but also pro- digious and vnnaturall, to feyne a dead man to be renated and newely borne agayne. By the whiche open fallax and vntrue surmyse setfoorth and palliated with the vesture and garment of a professed veritee. Many of the noble men (as he well then perceaued) toke and reputed it, whiche was folishely and maliciously setforth to vnquyet perturbe hym and his realme, to be a thinge true, iust and vnfeyned. So that he then sawe as farre as lynce with his bright eyes, that this newe inuented coment and poeticall peynted fable, woulde make some broyle and discorde in' his realme. Except it were manifestly published and openly declared to be a fayned fable, a sedicious fraude and a craftye imagened mischiefe. Other persones, to whome warre, sedicion, and stryfe, were as pleasaunt as delicate vyand or Epicures liuynge, were very ioyous of these newes, and belcuing no fraude nor deceate to be hid or cloked vn- dre this golden tale. But whatsoeuer the fame was and the voice that ranne abrodc, that they reputed, syncere, true, and as an ope playne thing, thinking that to redounde both to their aduauntage, comoditee and hygh preferment anil honoure, whiche thinge did greatly animate and encourage them to set vp the sayles, and lanchefoorth the owcr of their pernicious and detestable entreprice. And because the matter was weighty and requyred great aide and assistence. Therfore they determined to sende messengers to the lady Margaret, to knowe when Rychard duke of Yorke might come conueniently into England to thentent that they beyng therof certefied might be in a redynes to helpe and succoure hym at hys first arryuall.