On 03 Jan 1437 [his grandmother] Catherine of Valois (35) died at Bermondsey Abbey. She had been married aged eighteen to King Henry V of England 1386-1422 (50) for two years three months. Their son was King Henry VI of England and II of France 1421-1471 (15).
After Henry V died she disappears somewhat from the records other than for Parliament to legislate against her marrying without permission, which she then duly did, to [his grandfather] Owen Tudor 1400-1461 (37), and had two sons, the elder of which was father to Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509.
On 15 Dec 1449 [his father] Edmund Tudor 1st Earl Richmond 1430-1456 (19) was created 1st Earl Richmond 7C 1452 by King Henry VI of England and II of France 1421-1471 (28).
Around Jan 1450 [his step-father] John Pole 2nd Duke Suffolk 1442-1492 (7) and Margaret Beaufort Countess Richmond 1443-1509 (6) were married. They were half third cousins. He a great x 5 grandson of Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307. She a great x 2 granddaughter of King Edward III England. The date subject to debate. Papal dispensation was granted on 18 August 1450. Margaret never recognised this marriage, and considered her next husband her first; as confirmed by her 1472 will.
In Feb 1453 [his step-father] John Pole 2nd Duke Suffolk 1442-1492 (10) and Margaret Beaufort Countess Richmond 1443-1509 (9) marriage annulled.
On 01 Nov 1455 [his father] Edmund Tudor 1st Earl Richmond 1430-1456 (25) and Margaret Beaufort Countess Richmond 1443-1509 (12) were married at Bletsoe Castle. He a great x 5 grandson of Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307. She a great x 2 granddaughter of King Edward III England. She by marriage Countess Richmond.
On 03 Nov 1456 [his father] Edmund Tudor 1st Earl Richmond 1430-1456 (26) died of plague at Carmarthen Castle leaving his twelve year old wife Margaret Beaufort Countess Richmond 1443-1509 (13) pregnant with their child Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509.
On 28 Jan 1457 Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509 was born to [his father] the late Edmund Tudor 1st Earl Richmond (26) and Margaret Beaufort Countess Richmond 1443-1509 (13) at Pembroke Castle. He a great x 3 grandson of King Edward III England.
On 03 Jan 1458 [his step-father] Henry Stafford 1425-1471 (33) and Margaret Beaufort Countess Richmond 1443-1509 (14) were married probably at Maxstoke Castle. They were second cousins. He a great x 2 grandson of King Edward III England. She a great x 2 granddaughter of King Edward III England. Her third marriage (second if you don't include the one annulled) aged fourteen and already the mother of the future King Henry VII. She had no further issue.
In Oct 1466 [his future brother-in-law] Thomas Grey 1st Marquess Dorset 1455-1501 (11) and Anne Holland 1461-1474 (5) were married at Greenwich. She a great x 3 granddaughter of King Edward III England.
In 1471 or 1474 [his illegitimate son] Roland de Velville 1471-1535 (3) was born illegitimately to Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509 (13). His mother was an unknown Breton lady. There is not specific record of his father being Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509 (13)? He was a favourite of Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509 (13).
Around 12 Jun 1472 [his step-father] Thomas Stanley 1st Earl Derby 1435-1504 (37) and Margaret Beaufort Countess Richmond 1443-1509 (29) were married. They were third cousins. He a great x 4 grandson of Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307. She a great x 2 granddaughter of King Edward III England. She by marriage Queen Mann, Baron Stanley.
On 05 Sep 1474 [his future brother-in-law] Thomas Grey 1st Marquess Dorset 1455-1501 (19) and Cecily Bonville Marchioness Dorset 1460-1529 (14) were married. They were half second cousins once removed. She a great x 3 granddaughter of King Edward III England.
In 1475 [his future brother-in-law] Thomas Grey 1st Marquess Dorset 1455-1501 (20) was created 1st Marquess Dorset 3C 1475. Cecily Bonville Marchioness Dorset 1460-1529 (14) by marriage Marchioness Dorset.
In 1479 [his future brother-in-law] Thomas Grey 1st Marquess Dorset 1455-1501 (24) was created 1st Earl Huntingdon 6C 1479. Cecily Bonville Marchioness Dorset 1460-1529 (18) by marriage Countess Huntingdon.
On 23 Jan 1483 Elizabeth Ferrers 6th Baroness Ferrers Groby 1419-1483 (64) died. Her grandson [his future brother-in-law] Thomas Grey 1st Marquess Dorset 1455-1501 (28) succeeded 7th Baron Ferrers Groby. Cecily Bonville Marchioness Dorset 1460-1529 (22) by marriage Baroness Ferrers Groby.
The History of King Richard the Third by Thomas More. King Edward of that name the Fourth (40), after he had lived fifty and three years, seven months, and six days, and thereof reigned two and twenty years, one month, and eight days, died at Westminster the ninth day of April, the year of our redemption, a thousand four hundred four score and three, leaving much fair issue, that is, Edward the Prince (12), thirteen years of age; Richard Duke of York (9), two years younger; Elizabeth (17), whose fortune and grace was after to be queen, wife unto King Henry the Seventh (26), and mother unto the Eighth; Cecily (14) not so fortunate as fair; Brigette (2), who, representing the virtue of her whose name she bore, professed and observed a religious life in Dertford, a house of cloistered Nuns; Anne (7), who was after honorably married unto Thomas (10), then Lord Howard and after Earl of Surrey; and Katherine (3), who long time tossed in either fortune—sometime in wealth, often in adversity—at the last, if this be the last, for yet she lives, is by the goodness of her nephew, King Henry the Eighth, in very prosperous state, and worthy her birth and virtue.
In Oct 1483 Buckingham's Rebellion was an attempt to replace Richard III King England 1452-1485 (30) with Henry Tudor (26). Richard Haute -1487 took part. He escaped execution, and was subsequently pardoned. Richard Woodville 3rd Earl Rivers 1453-1491 (30) was attainted.
On 25 Dec 1483 Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509 (26) promised to marry [his future wife] Elizabeth York Queen Consort England 1466-1503 (17) at a ceremony in Rennes Cathedral.
Wriothesley's Chronicle Henry VII. 1485. This yeare was great death of the sicknesse called the sweatinge sicknesse; and crosse in Cheepe new made; and a great taske and disme grawnted to the Kinge (27).
On 07 Aug 1485 Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509 (28) landed at Mill Bay Milford Haven with John Blount 3rd Baron Mountjoy 1450-1485 (35), John Cheney 1st Baron Cheyne 1442-1499 (43), Richard Guildford 1450-1506 (35), [his uncle] John Welles 1st Viscount Welles 1450-1498 (35), Philibert Chandee 1st Earl Bath -1486 and Edward Courtenay 1st Earl Devon 1459-1509 (26) all of whom were knighted.
Those supporting Henry Tudor included:
John Cheney 1st Baron Cheyne 1442-1499 (43).
Richard Guildford 1450-1506 (35).
Rhys ap Thomas Deheubarth 1449-1525 (36).
[his uncle] Jasper Tudor 1st Duke Bedford 1431-1495 (53).
Roger Kynaston of Myddle and Hordley 1433-1495 (52).
Henry Marney 1st Baron Marney 1447-1523 (38).
John Howard 1st Duke Norfolk 1425-1485 (60) was killed. He was buried firstly at Thetford Priory and therafter at Church of St Michael the Archangel Framlingham. His son Thomas Howard 2nd Duke Norfolk 1443-1524 (42) succeeded 13th Baron Mowbray 1C 1283, 14th Baron Segrave 1C 1283. Elizabeth Tilney Countess Surrey 1444-1497 (41) by marriage Baroness Mowbray, Baron Segrave 1C 1283.
John Sacheverell 1400-1485 (85) was killed.
Philibert Chandee 1st Earl Bath -1486,.
Those who fought for Richard III included:
John Pole 1st Earl Lincoln 1462-1487 (23).
John Babington 1423-1485 (62), William Alington 1420-1485 (65), Robert Mortimer 1442-1485 (43), Robert Brackenbury -1485, Richard Ratclyffe 1430-1485 (55) and Richard Bagot 1412-1485 (73) were killed.
On 16 Oct 1485 Philibert Chandee 1st Earl Bath -1486 was created 1st Earl Bath 1C 1486 at Tower of London by Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509 (28) for having supported Henry' claim to the throne.
On 27 Oct 1485 Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509 (28) and Robert Fitzroger 5th Baron Warkworth 1240-1310 dined together at Lambeth Palace.
On 27 Oct 1485 Thomas Lovell 1478-1524 (7) was appointed Esquire to the Body to Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509 (28).
On 28 Oct 1485 [his uncle] Jasper Tudor 1st Duke Bedford 1431-1495 (53) was created 1st Duke Bedford 5C 1485 by Henry VII (28) for having supported Henry's claim to the throne. Catherine Woodville Duchess Buckingham Duchess Bedford 1458-1497 (27) by marriage Duchess Bedford.
[his step-father] Thomas Stanley 1st Earl Derby 1435-1504 (50) was created 1st Earl Derby 3C 1485.
Edward Courtenay 1st Earl Devon 1459-1509 (26) was created 1st Earl Devon 3C 1485.
Reginald Bray 1440-1503 (45), John Fitzwalter, Thomas Cokesge, Roger Lewknor, Henry Haydon and John Verney were appointed Knight of the Bath.
On 29 Oct 1485 Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509 (28) processed from Tower of London to Westminster Abbey. Ahead of him marched the heralds and serjeants-at-arms, the Esquire of the Body, the King's Secretary Richard Fox (37), almoner Christopher Urswick (37), the mayor of London and the Garter King of Arms. Also ahead of him were [his step-father] Thomas Stanley 1st Earl Derby 1435-1504 (50), John Pole 1st Earl Lincoln 1462-1487 (23), John Vere 13th Earl Oxford 1442-1513 (43) and William Berkeley 1st Marquess Berkeley 1426-1492 (59). Following behind were the only two Dukes: Jasper Tudor 1st Duke Bedford 1431-1495 (53), created the day before, and John Pole 2nd Duke Suffolk 1442-1492 (43).
On 30 Oct 1485 Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509 (28) was crowned VII King England by Cardinal Thomas Bourchier 1418-1486 (67) at Westminster Abbey. [his mother] Margaret Beaufort Countess Richmond 1443-1509 (42), his mother, attended.
Around 1486 John Vere 13th Earl Oxford 1442-1513 (43) was appointed 228th Knight of the Garter by Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509 (28).
In 1486 John Cheney 1st Baron Cheyne 1442-1499 (44) was appointed 229th Knight of the Garter by Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509 (28).
On 18 Jan 1486 Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509 (28) and [his wife] Elizabeth, Edward IV's eldest daughter (19) were married at Westminster Abbey. They were third cousins. He a great x 3 grandson of King Edward III England. She a daughter of King Edward IV of England 1442-1483. [his wife] She by marriage Queen Consort England.
Around Apr 1486 the Stafford and Lovell Rebellion was an armed uprising against Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509 (29). With the failure of the plot Francis Lovell 1st Viscount Lovell 1456-1488 (30) fled to Margaret of York Duchess of Burgundy 1446-1503 (39) in Flanders.
Before May 1486 Marmaduke Constable 1457-1518 was appointed Knight of the Body to Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509.
Vatican Regesta Vol. DCLXXXV Secretarum Tomus IV 2 Innocent VIII. 10 Kal. Aug. Decree, at the petition of king Henry (29) and [his wife] queen Elizabeth (20), that a notarial copy of the process before James, bishop of Imola (7), Apostolic Nuncio with the power of a legate de latere, in regard to the dispensation granted by him to them to contract marriage, notwithstanding the impediment arising from their being related in the double fourth degree of kindred, shall have the same credence as the original letters of the said bishop (7). The Pope (54) exemplifies the said letters and process as follows:
Public instrument, setting forth that in the year of the Incarnation 1486, after the computation of the English church, the 4th indiction, anno 2 Innocent VIII [16 Jan 1486], in the chapel of St. Mary [the Virgin] on the east side of the cathedral church of St. Paul, London, before James, bishop of Imola (7), apostolic legate to England and Scotland, in presence of the below-written notaries public, appointed by the said bishop as scribes in the below-written matter of dispensation, and witnesses below-named, there appeared in person Master Robert Morton (51), Archdeacon of Winchester, and John de Giglis, I.U.D., as proctors of king Henry (29), and Richard Hill, dean of the chapel of the household of the said king, and David William, doctor of decrees, dean of St. Mary's Arches, London, as proctors of the [his wife] lady Elizabeth (20), eldest daughter of the late king Edward IV (44), who produced their mandates of procuration and presented to the said legate a schedule of petition on behalf of the said king and lady, praying him to dispense them to marry, notwithstanding the impediment of their relationship in the fourth and fourth degrees of kindred, as was specified by the said Master Robert Morton (51).
The said instrument exemplifies the said procurations and schedule, as follows:
(i) A public instrument, setting forth that in the year of the Incarnation, etc., 1486, the 4th indiction, anno 2 Innocent VIII, January 14, in a certain great chamber within the palace royal at Westminster, before Thomas, archbishop of York (62) and legate of the apostolic see, John, bishop of Worcester (56), chancellor of England, and [his uncle] Jasper duke of Bedford (54), and many other nobles and magnates, in the presence of me, Richard Spencer, notary public below-written, the said king (29), present in person, appointed Masters John de Giglis, I.U.D., and Robert Morton (51), master or keeper of the rolls of the chancery of the said king, as his proctors to appear before the said bishop and legate (who, as is said, has faculty from the apostolic see to dispense a certain number of persons related in the fourth and fourth degrees of kindred and affinity to contract marriage), and to request him to exhibit, etc., the said letters, and execute them in accordance with the desire of the said king, etc. Of all which things, done on the above date and in the above place, in the presence of the above-named witnesses and of Richard Spencer, clerk, of the diocese of Lincoln, notary public by apostolic and imperial authorities, registrar-principal of the court of Canterbury, and keeper of the registers of the same court, the said notary has made the present public instrument, and, being otherwise engaged, has caused it to be written by another, and has published and drawn it up in this public form, and has signed it with his wonted sign and name;.
(ii) A like public instrument, setting forth that on the same date as in the preceding, and in a certain chamber within the royal palace of Westminster, before John, bishop of Worcester, chancellor of England (56), [his uncle] John lord de Wellys (36), Master William Smyth, dean of the chapel royal of Wymbourn in the diocese of Salisbury, and other witnesses, in the presence of the above notary, Richard Spencer, the above lady [his wife] Elizabeth (20), present in person, appointed Masters Richard Hill, dean of the chapel of the king's household, and David William, doctor of decrees, dean of St. Mary's Arches, London, and commissary-general of the official of the court of Canterbury and president of the said court, in the absence of the said official, as her proctors to appear, etc., as in the preceding. Of all which things, done on the above date and in the above place, in the presence of the abovenamed witnesses and of … Richard Spencer, clerk, etc., as above, the said notary has made, written, subscribed, published, and drawn up in this public form the present public instrument, and has signed it with his wonted sign and name;.
(iii) The petition to James, bishop of Imola (7), apostolic legate to England and Scotland, on behalf of the most serene prince and lord, the lord Henry (29), by the grace of God king of England and France and lord of Ireland, of the one part, and of the most illustrious (clarissime) lady, the lady [his wife] Elizabeth (20), eldest legitimate and natural daughter of the late Edward, sometime king of England and France and lord of Ireland, of the other part, setting forth that whereas the said king Henry has by God's providence won his realm of England, and is in peaceful possession thereof, and has been asked by all the lords of his realm, both spiritual and temporal, and also by the general council of the said realm, called Parliament, to take the said lady Elizabeth to wife, he, wishing to accede to the just petitions of his subjects, desires to take the said lady to wife, but cannot do so without dispensation, inasmuch as they are related in the fourth and fourth degrees of kindred, wherefore petition is made on their behalf to the said legate to grant them dispensation by his apostolic authority to contract marriage and remain therein, notwithstanding the said impediment of kindred, and to decree the offspring to be born thereof legitimate.
On 20 Sep 1486 [his son] Arthur Tudor Prince of Wales 1486-1502 was born to Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509 (29) and Elizabeth York Queen Consort England 1466-1503 (20) at Winchester Cathedral Priory.
Around 15 Dec 1486 Giles Daubeney 1st Baron Daubeney 1451-1508 (35) was appointed 231st Knight of the Garter by Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509 (29).
The Earle of Lincolne, the Lord Lovell, and one Martin Swarte, a staraunger, slayne all in a feild that they made againste the Kinge (29).
In 1487 George Stanley 9th Baron Strange Knockin 5th Baron Mohun Dunster 1460-1504 (27) was appointed 233rd Knight of the Garter by Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509 (29).
Around 1487 John Dynham 1st Baron Dynham 1433-1501 (54) was appointed 230th Knight of the Garter by Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509 (29).
Around 1487 [his step-uncle] William Stanley Lord Chamberlain 1435-1495 (52) was appointed 232nd Knight of the Garter by Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509 (29).
On 16 Jun 1487 George Talbot 4th Earl Shrewsbury 4th Earl Waterford 1468-1538 (19) was appointed 234th Knight of the Garter by Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509 (30).
In 1488 [his mother] Margaret Beaufort Countess Richmond 1443-1509 (44) was appointed Lady of the Garter by her son Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509 (30).
In 1488 Edward Woodville Lord Scales 1456-1488 (32) was appointed 235th Knight of the Garter by Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509 (30).
Around 1488 [his uncle] John Welles 1st Viscount Welles 1450-1498 (38) was appointed 236th Knight of the Garter by Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509 (30).
On 16 Nov 1488 John Savage 1444-1492 (44) was appointed 237th Knight of the Garter by Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509 (31).
Wriothesley's Chronicle Henry VII. 1489. This yeare the Kinge (31) sent manye knightes with seaven thowsand men into Brytane.
Th' Earle of Northumberlande (40) slayne in the Northe.
A capp of mayntenance brought from Rome to the Kinge (31).
In 1489 Parliament granted Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509 (31) £10,000 taxes to pay for his support of Anne of Brittany Queen Consort France 1477-1514's claim to the throne of Brittany. The North rebelled claiming to have already paid through local taxes.
Around 1489 Robert Willoughby 1st Baron Willoughby Broke 1452-1502 (37) was appointed 238th Knight of the Garter by Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509 (31).
Around 1489 Maximilian Habsburg I Holy Roman Emperor 1459-1519 (29) was appointed 239th Knight of the Garter by Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509 (31).
On 28 Nov 1489 [his daughter] Margaret Tudor Queen Scotland 1489-1541 was born to Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509 (32) and Elizabeth York Queen Consort England 1466-1503 (23) at Westminster Palace.
In Dec 1489 Edward Stafford 3rd Duke of Buckingham 1478-1521 (11) and Eleanor Percy Duchess Buckingham -1530 were married. They were third cousins. He a great x 4 grandson of King Edward III England. She a great x 4 granddaughter of King Edward III England. She by marriage Duchess of Buckingham. The executors of her father Henry Percy 4th Earl of Northumberland 1449-1489 (40), who had been hanged by rebels during the Northern Rebellion earlier in the year, having paid Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509 (32) £4000 for the privilege. His father, Henry Stafford 2nd Duke of Buckingham 1454-1483 (35), had been hanged for treason in 1483.
Wriothesley's Chronicle Henry VII. 1491. This yeare, June, [his son] King Henrie the Eight was borne at Greenewich, which was second sonne to King Henry the Vllth (33), named Duke of Yorke. Sir Robert Chamberlayne (53) beheaded. A conduict begon at Christ Churche. Note. Christ Churche is believed to be a typo for Grace Church.
On 08 May 1491 [his son] Arthur Tudor Prince of Wales 1486-1502 (4) was appointed 240th Knight of the Garter by Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509 (34). at St George's Chapel Windsor Castle.
On 28 Jun 1491 [his son] Henry VIII was born to Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509 (34) and Elizabeth York Queen Consort England 1466-1503 (25) at Palace of Placentia. [his son] He was created as Duke Cornwall.
Hall's Chronicle Henry VII 7th Year Aug 1491. This yere was borne at Grenewiche lord Henry, seconde sonne to y kyng (34), whiche was created duke of Yorke, and after prynce of Wales, and in conclusion succeded his father in eroune and dignitee. Nowe let vs returne to the newe founde sonne of kynge Edwarde, coniured by mennespollicies from death to lyfe.
And first to declare hys lignage and beginning, yon must vnderstad that the duches of Burgoyne (45) so norished and brought vp in the sedicious andscelerate faccions of false contryuers & founders of discorde coulde never cease nor be in quyet (lyke a vyper that is ready to burste with superfluyte of poyson) except he should infest and vnguyet y king of England, for no desert or displeasure by hym to her committed, but onely because he was propagate ant! deseeded of the house of Lacastre, euer beyng aduerse & enemy to her lyne & lynage. For which only cause she compassed, ymagenedand inuented how to cast a scorpio in his bosome, and to infect his whole reahne with, a pestiferous discorde. To thentent that he beyng vanquyshed and brought to confusion, both the boylynge heate of her malicious harte mighte be fully saciated with hys innocent bloude, and also auauce and preferre some darlyng of her faccion to his Empire rule and dignitee. And principally remembring that the erie of Lyncoln, which was by her set foorth and al his copany had small fortune & worsse successe in their progression and enterprice, contrary to her hope and expectacion, she lyke a dogge reuertynge to her olde vomyte, beganne to deuyse & spynne a new w ebbe, lyke a spyder that dayly weaueth when hys calle is torne. And as the deuell prouydeth venemous sauce to corrupt banckettes, so for her purpose she espyed a certayne younge man of visage beutiful, of countenaunce demure, of wit subtile crafty and pregnant, called Peter Watbecke. And for his dastard cowardnes of the Englishmen, in derision called Perkyn Warbeck (17), accordyng to the duche phrase, whiche chauge the name of Peter to Perfcyn, to yogelinges of no strength nor courage for their timerous hartes and pusillanimitee: Whiehe yonge man traueyiyng many coun treys, coulde speake English and many other languages, & for his basenes of stocke and birthe was knowen of none almoost, and only for the gayne of hys liuyng from his childehoode was of necessitee, compelled to seke and frequet dyuerse realmes and regions. Therfore the duches (45) thinkyng to haue gotten God by the foote, whe she had the deuell by the tayle, & adjudging this youg man to be a mete organe to conuey her purpose, and one not vnlike to be'f duke of Yorke (17), sonne to her brother kyng Edward (49), whiche was called Richard (17), kept hym a certayne space with her preuely, and hym with such diligece instructed, bothe of the secretes and common affaires of the realrne of England, & of the lignage, dissent and ordre of the house of Yorke, that he like a good scholer not forgettyng his lesson coulde tell all that was taught him promptly without any difficultie or signe of any subornacion: and besides, he kept suche a princely countenaunce, and so countrefeate a maiestie royall, that all men in maner did fermely beleue that he was extracted of the noble house and familie of the dukes of Yorke. For surely it was a gift geuen to that noble progeny as of nature in the rootc plated that all the sequele of that lyne and stock did study and deuyse how to be equyualent in honoure and fame with their forefathers and noble predecessors.
Wriothesley's Chronicle Henry VII. 1492. This yeare the Kinge (34) went to Calis with a great armie againste France, but the peace was made without battell. The [his mother-in-law] Queenes mother (55) deceased, and the Lowers [sic:Towers] set upon Guylde Hall.
Hall's Chronicle Henry VII 7th Year Aug 1491. In this very ceason Charles the Freeh kyng (22), receaued lady Anne (15) as his pupille into his hades, & with great solempnite her espoused, hauing with her for her dower the whole countrey of Briteyne. And so by this meatie the Brytones became subiect to the French kyng. Maximilia (33). beyng certefied of this, fell into a great rage and agony, for y he was not cotent with the forsaking and refusing of his daughter lady Margaret (12), but also had take & rauished away from him his assured wife lady Anne duches of Britayne (15). And calling vpon God for vengeaunce & ponishmet for such an heynous & execrable facte, cryed out & rayled on him, wishynge him a thousand deathes. Yet after that he was pacefied, and came to hym selfe agayne, and had gathered hys wyttes together, he thought it was moost expedient to vindicate and reuenge hys honour and digniteeso manifestly touched, with the dynt of sworde. And beyng in this mynde, sent certain Ambassadours to kyng Henry (35) with hys lettres, desyringe him with all diligence to prepare an army, and he hym selfe woulde do likewise, to inuade the Frenche kynges realmes with fyer, swoord and blood.
Hall's Chronicle Henry VII 7th Year Aug 1491. Kynge Henry (35) hearyng of this, and putting no diffidence in the promes of Maximilian (33), whome he knew to haue a deadly hatred and loge grudge agaynst the French kyng (22), caused a muster to be made in all the partes of hys realme, and put hys men of warre in a redynes armed & weaponed accordyng to their feates: besyde thys he rygged, maned and vyteiled his nauy ready to set forward euery houre, and sent curryers into euery shyre to accelerate and hast the souldiers to the sea side. After the message was declared, there came without any delai an houge army of men, aswell of the lowe sorte and commonaltie as other noble men, harnyssed and armed to battaile, partely glad to helpe their price and to do him seruice and partely to buckle with the Frenchmen, with whome the Englishmen very willingly desyre to cope and fight in ope battail. And immediatly, as monicion was geuen, euery man with hys bande of souldionres repayred to London.
Hall's Chronicle Henry VII 7th Year Aug 1491. The kynge of Englande (35), maturely consideryng that Britayne was clerely lost, and in maner irrecuperable, beynge nowe adioyned too the croune of Fraunce by mariage, whiche duchy, hys whole mynde was to defende, protect and conferme, and that Maximilian what for lacke of money, and what for mistrust that he had in his awne subiectes, laye styll lyke a dormouse nothynge doynge, perceauynge also that it should be bothe to his people profitable, and to hym greate honour to determyn this warre without losse or bloodshed, appoynted for commissioners the bishop of Exceter (40), & Gyles lord Dawbeney (41) to passe the seas to Caleys, to comen with the lorde Cordes of articles of peace to be agreed vpon-and concluded.
When the commissioners were once met, they so ingeniously and effecteously proceded in, their great affaires, that they agreed that an amytie and peace should be assented to and concluded, so that the condicions of the league should be egall, indifferent and acceptable to bothe partes as after shalbe declared.
Hall's Chronicle Henry VII 7th Year Aug 1491. After that, all this army was arrayed and euen readie to set forward wherof were cheuetaynes and leaders, [his uncle] Jasper duke of Bedford (61), & Iho erle of Oxforde (50) beside other the kynge (35) sent Christopher Vrswikehys (44) aulmoner, and syr Ihon Ryseley knyght to Maximilia (33), to certefie him that the kyng (35) was all in a redines, and woulde shortely arryue in the continent land, assoneas he were aduertised that Maximilian (33) and hys men, were ready and prepared to ioyne with hym. The Ambassadours sayled into Flaunders, and after their message done, they sent. ii. letters in all hast to kyng Henry (35), the whiche not onely sore vnquyeted & vexed hym, but also caused him to take more thought, care and study on hym then he did before: for they declared that no prince coulde be more vnprouided or more destitute of men and armure, no more lackynge all thynges, apperteignynge to warre then was Maximilian (33), and that he lave lackynge in a corner, sore sicke of the fluxe of y pursse, so that he had neyther men, horsses, municions, armure nor money, neuer the lesse his mynd & will was good, if his power and habilite had been correspodet & therfore there was no trust to be put in his aide or puissaunce. Their letters bothe appalled, and made sorowful the kyng of Englad (35), which like a prudent prince did well consider & ponder, y it were both ieopardous and costly, for him alone to enterprice so great a warre. And on y other parte, if he should desist and leaue of his pretensed purpose, all me might call hym cowarde and recreant prynce. Beside this, he thoughte that his awne nacion woulde not take his tarijng at home in good nor favourable part, cosideryng y syth they had geuen so large money for the preparacio of all thinges necessary and conueniet for the same, they might conceaue in their heddes & ymagin, that vnder coloure & pretece of a dissimuled warre he had exacted of the notable summes of money, & now the treasure was once payed, then y warre was done, & his cofers well enryched, & the commos enpouerisshed. So that at thys tyme he doubted & cast perels on euery side & parte, & beside this he was not a litle sory y Maximilia (33) authour of this warre did absent him selfe, & defraude him of his societe & assistece. And while he studied & mused what counsaill he shoulde best take in suche a doubtfull and sodeyne case, he like a graue prince, remembring the saiyng of the wise man, woorke by counsayll & thou shall not repet the, assembled together all his lordes and other of his priuate counsayl, by whose myndes it was concluded and determined, that he shoulde manfully and couragiously perceauer and precede in thys broched and begonne enterprice, recordynge well with them selfes, and affirming playnely that all cheualry and marsial prowesses, the more difficile and heard that it is to attayne to, the more renoumed is the glory, and the fame more immortall of the vanquisher and obteyner. Therfore by this counsayl of his frendes and senate, he made Proclamacion that euery man should set forward into Fraunce, and yet not openynge howe ludasly Maximilian had deceaued hym, least that they knowynge the whole fact, shoulde not be so courageous to go towarde that battaile and precede forward on their iorney. And therfore to prouide and forse all perels and daungiers that might accidentally ensue, he so strengthened, multeplied and augmented his army in such numbre before he toke ship, that he with his awne powre might discourage and ouercomethe whole puihsauce of his aduersaries.
Hall's Chronicle Henry VII 7th Year Aug 1491. he had thus gathered and assembled his armye, he sayled to Caleys the. vi. daye of October, & there encaped him selfe, tariyng there a certaine space to se his men harnessed & appareled, that neither weapon nor any engyne necessary for his Journey should be neglected. At which place all the army had knowlegeby the Ambassadours, whiche were newly returned out of Flaunders (for they did not knowe of it before) y Maximilian coulde make no preparacio for lacke of money, & therfore there was no succour to be exspected at hys hand. At the which report, y Englishmen were nothing abashed nor dismayed, trusting so muche to their awne puissauce & copany: but yet they meruayled and wondered greatly y heard it related, y Maximilian receauyng such great vilany not loge before at the hand of kyng Charles, was not present to pricke them forward, to crye & call, to moue and excite the Englishmen, ye and if he had had. vi. hundred bodyes to put them all in hasard, rather then to leaue the Englishme, now setting vpon his dayly enemyes & deadly aduersaries. Albeit Maximilian lacked no hart & good will to be reuenged, yet he lacked substance to cotinew warre, for he could neither haue money nor men of the dronke Fleminges nor yet of the crakyng Brabanders, so vngrat people were they to their souereigne lorde.
Hall's Chronicle Henry VII 7th Year Aug 1491. While the commissioners were thus consultinge on the marches of Fraunce, the kynge of Englande (35), as you haue heard, was arryued at Caleys, where he prepared all thinges necessary for such a journey. And from thence he remoued in. iiii. battailes, nereto the toune of Boleyne, and there pytched hys tentes before the toune, in a place propice and coueniet and determined to gene a great assaute to the toune. In y which fortresse was such a garrison of Warlike souldioures, that valiauntly defended the toune, and the same so replenyshed with artillary, and municions of warre, that the losse of the Englishmen assautyng the toune, should be greater dammage to the realme of England, then the coqueryng and gaynyng of the same should be emolument or proffite. Howbeit the kynges daily shot, rased defaced the walles of the saide toune: but when euery man was prestand ready to geue the assaute, asodeyne rumoure roase in the army, that a peace was by the commissioners taken and concluded, whiche brute as it was pleasaunt and mellifluous to the frechme, so it was to the English nacio bitter, sowre & dolorous because they were prestand ready at all tymes to set on their enemyes, and refused neuer to attempt any enterprice, whiche might seme either to be for their laude or profyt: thei were in great fumes, angry and euel content, rayling and murrmiringe emongest them selfes, that the occasion of so glorious a victory to them manifestly offerd, was by certain condicions to no man, nor yet to the kyng commodious or profitable, refused, putte by and shamefully slacked: But aboue all other dyuerse lordes and capitaynes, encoraged with desyre of fame & honour, trustyng in this iourney to haue wonne their spurres, whiche for to set themselfes and their band the more gorgeously forward had mutuate, and borowed dyuerse and sondry sumuies of money, and for the repayment of the same, had morgaged and impignorate thrir landes & possessions, sore grudged and lamented this sodeyne peace, and returne of them vnthought of, and spake largely agaynste the kynges doynges, saiynge and affirmyng, that he as a man fearyng and dreading y force and puyssaunce of his enemyes, had concluded an inconuenient peace without cause or reason: But the kynge as a wise man and moost prudent prince, to assuage the indignacion and pacefie the murmoure of $ people, declared what damage and detriment, what losse & perdicio of many nohle Capitaynes and stronge souldioures must of necessitee happen and ensue at the assaute of a toune, and especially when it is soo well fortefied with men and municions, as the toune of Boleyp at that present tyme was: protestyng farther, that he might be Justly accused & condempned of iniquite & vntruthe, except he did preferre the sauegard of their lyues, before hys awne wealth, health and aduauntage.
In 1493 Edmund Compton -1493 died. His son William Compton Courtier 1482-1528 (11) became as ward of Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509 (35) who appointed him Page to [his son] Prince Henry (1) to whom he became a close friend.
In 1493 James Ormond -1497 was knighted by Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509 (35).
In 1493 Alfonso II King Naples 1448-1495 (44) was appointed 242nd Knight of the Garter by Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509 (35).
Around 1494 Edward Courtenay 1st Earl Devon 1459-1509 (35) was appointed 241st Knight of the Garter by Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509 (36).
On 01 Apr 1495 Cecily "Rose of Raby" Neville Duchess York 1415-1495 (79) made her last will. It was proved 27 Aug 1495.
Source: A Selection From the Wills of Eminent Persons by Camden Society (Great Britain). Published 1838. Transcribed by John Gough Nichols and John Bruce.
IN the name of allmyghty God, the blessed Trinite, fader and son and the holigost, trusting in the meanes and mediacions of oure blessed Lady Moder, of oure most blessed Saviour Jh'u Crist, and by the intercession of holy Saint John Baptist, and all the saintes of heven: I, CECILLE, wife unto the right noble prince Richard late Duke of Yorke (83), fader unto the most cristen prince my Lord and son King Edward the iiij th (52), the first day of Aprill the yere of our Lord M.CCCC.lxxxxv. after the computacion of the Church of Englond, of hole mynde and body, loving therfore be it to Jh'u, make and ordeigne my testament in fourme and maner ensuyng.
Furst, I bequeath and surrendour my soule in to the mercifull handes of allmyghty God my maker, and in to protecion of the blessed yrgin our lady Saint Mary, and suffrage of Saint John Baptist, and of all other saintes of heven. Also my body to be buried beside the body of my moost entierly best beloved Lord and housbond, fader unto my said lorde and son, and in his tumbe within the collegiate church of Fodringhay, a if myn executours by the sufferaunce of the King (38) finde goode sufficient therto; and elles at the Kinges (38) pleasure. And I will that after my deceasse all my dettes sufficiently appering and proved be paid, thanking oure Lord at this tyme of making of this my testament to the knolege of my conscience I am not muche in dett; and if it happen, as I trust to God it shalnot, that there be not found sufficient money aswell to pay my dettes as to enture my body, than in advoiding such charges as myght growe for the same, the whiche God defende, I lymytte and assigne all such parcelles of plate as belongith to my chapell, pantry, cellour, ewry, and squillery, to the perfourmyng of the same, as apperith in the inventary, except such plate as I have bequeithed. Also I geve and bequeith to the Kinges noble grace all such money as is owing to me of the customes, and two cuppes of gold.
Also I geve and bequeith to the [his wife] Quene (29) a crosse croslette of diamantes, a sawter with claspes of silver and guilte enameled covered with grene clothe of golde, and a pix with the fleshe of Saint Cristofer.
Also I bequeith to my lady the [his mother] Kinges moder (51) a portuos with claspes of gold covered with blacke cloth of golde.
Also I geve to my lord [his son] Henry Duke of Yorke (3) b three tappettes of arres, oon of them of the life of Saint John Baptist, another of Mary Maudeleyn, and the thirde of the passion of our Lord and Saint George.
And if my body be buried at Fodringhay in the colege there with my most entierly best beloved lord and housbond (83), than I geve to the said colege a square canapie of crymeson clothe of gold with iiij. staves, twoo auter clothes of crymeson clothe of gold, twoo copes of crymeson cloth of gold, a chesibull and twoo tenucles of cryinyson clothe of golcrvith iij. abes, c twoo auter clothes of crymeson damaske browdered, a chesibull, twoo tenucles, and iij. copes of blewe velwett brodered, with iij. abes, thre masse bokes, thre grayles, and vij. processioners.
Also I geve to the colege of Stoke Clare a chesibull and twoo tenucles of playn crymyson cloth of gold with iij. abes, twoo auter clothes, a chesibull, twoo tenucles, and fyve coopes of white damaske browdered, with iij. abes, twoo awter clothes of crymeson velwett upon the velwete (sic), a vestement of crymeson playne velvet, iiij. antiphoners, iiij. grayles, and sixe processioners.
Also I geve to the house of Sion two of the best coopes of crymyson clothe of gold.
Note. These next four people refer to her grand-daughters, children of Edward IV.
Also I geve to my doughter [his sister-in-law] Brigitte (14) the boke of Legenda Aurea in velem, a boke of the life of Saint Kateryn of Sene, a boke of Saint Matilde.
Also I geve to my doughter [his sister-in-law] Cecill (26) a portuous with claspes silver and gilte covered with purple velvet, and a grete portuous without note.
Also I geve to my doughter [his sister-in-law] Anne (19) the largest bedde of bawdekyn, withe countrepoint of the same, the barge with bailies, tilde, and ores belonging to the same.
Also I geve to my doughter [his sister-in-law] Kateryn (15) a traves of blewe satten.
Also I geve to my doughter of Suffolke (50) a the chare with the coveryng, all the quoshons, horses, and harneys belonging to the same, and all my palfreys.
Note. The next people are her grand-children, children of her daughter Elizabeth York Duchess Suffolk 1444-1503 (50).
Also I geve to my son of Suffolke (24) b a clothe of estate and iij. quoschons of purpull damaske cloth of gold.
Also I geve to my son Humfrey (21) c two awter clothes of blewe damaske brawdered and a vestyment of crymeson satten for Jh'us masse.
Also I geve to my son William (17) d a traves of white sarcenet, twoo beddes of downe, and twoo bolsters to the same.
Also I geve to my doughter Anne priores of Sion (19), a boke of Bonaventure and Hilton in the same in Englishe, and a boke of the Revelacions of Saint Burgitte.
Also I woll that all my plate not bequeithed be sold, and the money thereof be putte to the use of my burying, that is to sey, in discharging of suche costes and expensis as shalbe for carying of my body from the castell of Barkehampstede unto the colege of Fodringhey. And if any of the said plate be lefte unexpended I woll the said colege have it.
Also I geve to the colege of saint Antonies in London an antiphoner with the ruelles of musik in the later ynd.
Also I geve unto Master Richard Lessy all suche money as is owing unto me by obligations what soever they be, and also all such money as is owing unto me by the Shirfe of Yorkeshire, to helpe to bere his charges which he has to pay to the Kinges grace, trusting he shall the rather nyghe the said dettes by the help and socour of his said grace.
Also I geve to Master William Croxston a chesibull, stoles, and fanons of blake velwett, with an abe.
Also I geve to Master Eichard Henmershe a chesibill, stoles, and fanons of crymyson damaske, with an abe; and a chesibill, stoles and fanons of crymeson saten, with an abe.
Also I geve to Sir John More a frontell of purpull cloth of gold, a legend boke, and a colett boke.
Also I give to Sir Kandall Brantingham a chesibill, stoles, and fanons of white damaske, orfreys of crymson velvet, with an abe, the better of bothe.
Also I geve to Sir William Grave a chesibill, stoles, and fanons of white damaske, orfreys of crymeson velvett, with an abe; a masse-boke that servith for the closett, a prymour with claspes silver and gilt, covered with blewe velvett, and a sawter that servith for the closett covered with white ledder.
Also I geve to Sir John Blotte a gospell boke, a pistill covered with ledder, and a case for a corporax of grene playne velvett. Also I geve to Sir Thomas Clerk a chesibill, twoo tenucles, stoles, fanons, of rede bawdeken, with iij. abes.
Also I geve to Sir William Tiler twoo coopes of rede bawdekyn.
Also I geve to Robert Claver iij. copes of white damaske brawdered, and a gowne of the Duchie b facion of playne blake velvett furred with ermyns.
Also I geve to John Bury twoo old copes of crymysyn satten cloth of gold, a frontell of white bawdekyn, twoo curteyns of rede sarcenett fringed, twoo curteyns of whit sarcenet fringed, a feder bed, a bolstour to the same, the best of feders, and two whit spervers of lynyn.
Also I geve to John Poule twoo auter clothes, a chesibull, twoo tenucles, stoles, and fanons of white bawdekyn, with iij. abes; a short gowne of purple playne velvett furred with ermyns, the better of ij. and a kirtill of damaske with andelettes of silver and gilt furred.
Also I geve to John Smyth twoo auter clothes, a chesibill, twoo tenucles, stoles, and fanons of blew bawdekyn, with iij. abes. Also I geve to John Bury twoo copes of crymysyn clothe of gold that servith for Sondays.
Also I geve to John Walter a case for corporax of purple playne velvett, twoo cases for corporax of blewe bawdekyn, twoo auter clothes, a chesibill of rede and grene bawdekyn, a canapie of white sarcenett, iij. abes for children, and iiij. pair of parrours of white bawdekyn, twoo pair parrours of crymsyn velvett, twoo pair parrours of rede bawdekyn, a housling towell that servith for my selfe, twoo corteyns of blewe sarcenett fringed, a sudory of crymy-syn and white, the egges blak, a crose cloth and a cloth of Saint John Baptist of sarcenett painted, a long lantorn, a dext standing doble, twoo grete stondardes and ij. litill cofers.
Also I geve to John Peit-wynne twoo vestimentes of white damaske, a white bedde of lynnyn, a federbedde and a bolstour, and a short gowne of purple playne velvet furred with sabilles. Also I geve to Thomas Lentall six auter clothes of white sarcenett, with crosses of crymsyn velvet.
Also I geve to John Long iij. peces of bawdekyn of the lengur sorte. Also I geve to Sir [John] Verney knighte and Margarett his wiffe a a crosse [of] silver and guilte and berall, and in the same a pece of the holy crosse and other diverse reliques.
Also I geve to Dame Jane Pesemershe, widue, myne Inne that is called the George in Grauntham, during terme of her life; and after her decesse I woll that the reversion therof be unto the college of Fodringhay for evermore, to find a prest to pray for my Lord my housbond (83) and me.
Also I geve to Nicholas Talbott and Jane his wife a spone of gold with a sharp diamount in the ende, a dymy-sent of gold with a collumbine and a diamont in the same, a guirdill of blewe tissue harnessed with gold, a guirdill of gold with a bokull and a pendaunt and iiij. barres of gold, a hoke of gold with iij. roses, a pomeamber of gold garnesshed with a diamont, sex rubies and sex perles, and the surnap and towell to the same.
Also I geve to Richard Boyvile and Gresild his wife my charrett and the horses with the harnes that belongith therunto, a gowne with a dymy trayn of purpull saten furred with ermyns, a shorte gowne of purple saten furred with jennetes, a kirtill of white damaske with aunde lettes silver and gilte, a spone of gold, a dymysynt of gold with a columbyne garnesshed with a diainant, a saphour, an amatist, and viij. perles, a pomeamber of gold enameled, a litell boxe with a cover of gold and a diamant in the toppe.
Also I geve to Richard Brocas and Jane his wife a long gown of purpull velvett upon velvet furred with ermyns, a greate Agnus of gold with the Trinite, Saint Erasmus, and the Salutacion of our Lady; an Agnus of gold with our Lady and Saint Barbara; a litell goblett with a cover silver and part guild; a pair of bedes of white amber gauded with vj. grete stones of gold, part aneled, with a pair of bedes of x. stones of gold and v. of corall; a cofor with a rounde lidde bonde with iron, which the said Jane hath in her keping, and all other thinges that she hath in charge of keping.
Also I geve to Anne Pinchbeke all other myne Agnus unbequeithed, that is to sey, ten of the Trinite, a litell malmesey pott with a cover silver and parte guilte, a possenett with a cover of silver, a short gowne of playne russett velvett furred with sabilles, a short gowne of playne blewe velvett furred with sabilles, a short gowne of purple playn velvet furred with grey, a tester, a siler, and a countrepoint of bawdekyn, the lesser of ij.
Also I geve to Jane Lessy a dymysent of gold with a roos, garnisshed with twoo rubies, a guirdell of purple tissue with a broken bokull, and a broken pendaunt silver and guilte, a guirdill of white riband with twoo claspes of gold with a columbyne, a guirdell of blewe riband with a bokell and a pendaunt of gold, a litell pair of bedes of white amber gaudied with vij. stones of gold, an haliwater stope with a strynkkill silver and gilte, and a laier silver and part guilte.
Also I geve to John Metcalfe and Alice his wife all the ringes that I have, except such as hang by my bedes and Agnus, and also except my signet, a litell boxe of golde with a cover of golde, a pair of bedes of Ixj. rounde stones of golde gaudied with sex square stones of golde enemeled, with a crosse of golde, twoo other stones, and a scalop shele of geete honging by.
Also I geve to Anne Lownde a litell bokull and a litell pendaunt of golde for a guirdill, a litell guirdell of golde and silke with a bokill and a pendaunt of golde, a guirdell of white riband with aggelettes of golde enameled, a hoke of golde playne, a broken hoke of golde enameled, and a litell rounde bottumed basyn of silver.
Also I geve to the house of Asshe-rugge a chesibull and ij. tenucles of crymysyn damaske embrawdered, with thre abes.
Also I geve to the house of Saint Margaretes twoo auter clothes with a crucifix and a vestiment of grete velvet.
Also I geve to the parish church of Stoundon a coope of blewe bawdekyn, the orffreys embrawdered.
Also I geve to the parishe church of Much Barkehampstede a coope of blewe bawdekyn, the orffreys embrawdered.
Also I geve to the parish church of Compton by sides Guilford a eorporax case of blake cloth of gold and iiij. auter clothes of white sarcenett embrawdered with garters.
Also I geve to Alisaunder Cressener my best bedde of downe and a bolster to the same.
Also I geve to Sir Henry Haidon knyght a tablett and a cristall garnesshed with ix. stones and xxvij. perles, lacking a stone and iij. perles.
Also I geve to Gervase Cressy a long gown of playn blewe velvet furred with sabilles.
Also I geve to Edward Delahay twoo gownes of musterdevilers furred with mynckes, and iiij u of money.
Also I geve to Thomas Manory a short gowne of crymesyn playn velvet lyned, purfilled with blake velvet, and iiij ll in money.
Also I geve to John Broune all such stuf as belongith to the kechyn in his keping at my place at Baynardcastell in London, and iiij u in money.
Also I geve to William Whitington a short gown of russett cloth furred with matrons and calabour wombes, a kirtill of purpull silke chamblett with awndelettes silver and gilte, all such floures of brawdery werke and the cofer that they be kept in, and xls. in money.
Also I geve to all other gentilmen that be daily a waiting in my houshold with Mr. Richard Cressy and Robert Lichingham everich of theime iiij u in money.
Also I geve to every yoman that be daily ad waiting in my houshold with John Otley xls. in money.
Also I geve to every grome of myne xxvj s. viij d. in money. And to every page of myne xiij s. iiij d. in money.
Also I geve to Robert Harison xls. in money and all the gootes.
And if ther be no money founde in my cofers to perfourme this my will and bequest, than I will that myne executours, that is to sey the reverend fader in God Master Olyver King bisshop of Bath (63), Sir Reignolde Bray (55) knight, Sir Thomas Lovell, councellours to the Kinges grace, Master William Pikinham doctour in degrees dean of the colege of Stoke Clare, Master William Felde master of the colege of Fodringhey, and Master Richard Lessy dean of my chapell, havyng God in reverence and drede, unto whome I geve full power and auctorite to execute this my will and testament, make money of such goodes as I have not geven and bequeithed, and with the same to content my dettes and perfourme this my will and testament.
And the foresaid reverend fader in God, Sir Rignold Bray knyght, Sir Thomas Lovell knyght, Master William Pikenham, and Master William Felde, to be rewarded of suche thinges as shalbe delivered unto theme by my commaundement by the hondes of Sir Henry Haidon knyght stieward of my houshold and Master Richard Lessy, humbly beseching the Kinges habundant grace in whome is my singuler trust to name such supervisour as shalbe willing and favorabull diligently to se that this my present testament and will be perfittely executed and perfourmyd, gevyng full power also to my said executours to levey and receyve all my dettes due and owing unto me at the day of my dethe, as well of my receyvours as of all other officers, except such dettes as I have geven and bequeathed unto Master Richard Lessy aforesaid, as is above specified in this present will and testament.
And if that Master Richard Lessy cannot recover such money as I have geven to hym of the Shirffes of Yorkeshire and of my obligacions, than I will he be recompensed of the revenues of my landes to the sume of v c. marcs at the leest.
IN WITTENESSE HEROF I have setto my signet and signemanuell at my castell of Berkehamstede the last day of May the yere of our Lord abovesaid, being present Master Richard Lessy, Sir William Grant my confessour, Richard Brocas clerc of my kechyn, and Gervays Cressy. Proved at "Lamehithe" the 27 th day of August, A.D. 1495, and commission granted to Master Richard Lessy the executor in the said will mentioned to administer, &c. &c.
In Oct 1495 William Courtenay 1st Earl Devon 1475-1511 (20) and [his sister-in-law] Catherine York Countess Devon 1479-1527 (16) were married. He a great x 5 grandson of Edward "Longshanks" I King England 1239-1307. She a daughter of King Edward IV of England 1442-1483.
Around Apr 1497 Cornish rose in rebellion against taxes being raised by Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509 (40) to support his wars against Scotland and against changes to the operation and privileges of the Cornish tin mining industry. The rebel army of 15,000 sought to replace Henry's ministers who they saw as responsible for the taxation: Cardinal John Morton 1420-1500 (77) and Reginald Bray 1440-1503 (57), the Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster. The army travelled from Cornwall through Devon and Somerset attempting, unsuccessfully, to recruit more men. At Wells they were joined by James Tuchet 7th Baron Audley of Heighley 1463-1497 (34) who took on command. The rebel army then travelled through Salisbury and Winchester.
When Henry became aware of the rebel army he diverted his main army led by Giles Daubeney 1st Baron Daubeney 1451-1508 (45) to meet the rebels. Daubeny's army camped at Hounslow Heath on 13 Jun 1497.
On 17 Jun 1497 the Cornish rebel army was destroyed at the Battle of Blackheath aka Deptford Bridge.
Richard Guildford 1450-1506 (47) was created Knight Banneret.
Edward Stafford 2nd Earl Wiltshire 1470-1499 (27), Henry Willoughby 1451-1528 (46), Edward Belknapp of Blackfriars in London -1521 and Thomas Fiennes 8th Baron Dacre Gilsland 1472-1534 (25) fought at Deptford.
Giles Brugge 6th Baron Chandos 1462-1511 (35), John Hussey 1st Baron Hussey of Sleaford 1465-1537 (32), Robert Sheffield 1461-1518 (36), Edward Stanhope 1462-1487, John Peche 1450-1548 (47) and Robert Constable 1478-1537 (19) were knighted by Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509 (40).
On 04 Oct 1497 Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509 (40) received the surrender of the Cornish Army at Taunton.
Wriothesley's Chronicle Henry VII. 1498. This yeare was Blackheath feild in June. The Lord Awdley (35) chiefe capteyn with 30,000 Cornishe men. The capteynes put to death, and in August Perkin Warbeck (24) landed in Cornwale, and by pursuit fledd to Bowdley St. Marie, but by appoyntment he came to the Kinge (40), followinge the Courte.
In the name of oure Lorde Jeshu, Amen. I, [his uncle] John, Viscounte lorde Wellis (48), uncle to the Kynge (41), oure soveraigne lorde, and brodre to the right noble prynces, [his mother] Margaret, countes of Richemond (54), naturall and dere modre to oure said soveregne lord, beyng of goode and hole memory, ye viij daie of February, the yere of oure Lorde God 1498, and in the xiiij yere of the regne of our saide soverayne lorde, make this my testament. My bodie to be buried in suche place as [to] the kynge (41), the quene (31), my lady, his [his mother] moder (54), and my lady, my wife (28), shalbe thought, most convenyent, and the costis and charge of the same burying, the obsequyes, masses, funeralles and all oder thynges therto convenyent and necessarie. And also I remyt the makyng of my tumbe to the ordre and discrecionn of my saide soverayne lady the quene (31), my lady his modre, and my wife (28). And after these charges and costis aforesaid had and done, I will that all the dettis nowe by me dewe or to be dewe be treuly contented and paied. And I will that to the honour of Almighty God in the aulter afore which my bodie shall next lie my executors shall delyver a pair of candelstickes of silver, a masse booke covered with clothe of goolde, a chales of silver and gilte, a vestament of blewe velvet enbrodered with my armes, a pair of litle cruettes of silver and parcellis gilte, and a crosse of silver p[arcell] gilt, which 1 will do remayne there to serve Almyghty God with for ever and in noo oder place. Also I geve and bequethe to my dere beloved lady and wife Cecille (28), for terme of her life, all my castelles, manors, landes and tenements, aswell suche as I have purchased as all odre duryng only her life, whome I trust above all oder, that if my goodes and catallis wilnot suffice for the performance of this my laste will, that she will thenne of the revenues of the profittes of my inheritance perform this my laste will. Also I will that a preste be founde for ever after my said wifes decease to sey masse daily for my sowle and all Cristen sowles at the said aulter of the yerely revenues of my purchased landes, and over which my saide lady hath promysed me faithfully to purchase to the same entent if my saide purchased landes suffice not therto. And I will yt suche residue as shall fortune to be of my goodes that my saide dere beloved lady aud wife have theym to her owne use. And I make executors the saide Cecill (28), my dere beloved wife, and Sr Raynold Bray (58), knyght, and in my mooste humble wise beseche my said soverayne lorde the kyng and the quenes grace, my lady the kynges modre, to be supervisours.
On 11 Sep 1498 Edward Stafford 2nd Earl Wiltshire 1470-1499 (28) entertained Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509 (41) at Drayton House.
In 1499 Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509 (41) created a number of Garter Knights ...
244th John King Denmark Norway and Sweden 1455-1513 (43).
246th [his son] King Henry VIII of England and Ireland 1491-1547 (7).
249th Charles Somerset 1st Earl Worcester 1460-1526 (39). The date sometimes given as 1496?
253rd Richard Pole 1462-1504 (37).
On 21 Feb 1499 [his son] Edmund Tudor 1st Duke Somerset 1499-1500 was born to Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509 (42) and Elizabeth York Queen Consort England 1466-1503 (33) at the Palace of Placentia being their sixth child. On 24 Feb 1499 he was christened at the Church of the Observant Friars. His godparents were Margaret Beaufort Countess Richmond 1443-1509 (55), Edward Stafford 3rd Duke of Buckingham 1478-1521 (21) and Richard Foxe Bishop 1448-1528 (51), then Bishop of Durham. [his son] He is believed to have been created 1st Duke Somerset 3C 1499 on the same day although there is no documentation. On 19 Jun 1500 [his son] he died at the Royal Palace, Hatfield; possibly of plague of which an outbreak was occuring. He was buried in Westminster Abbey.
On 28 Nov 1499 Edward "Last Plantagenet" York 17th Earl Warwick 1475-1499 (24) was executed at Tower Hill.
Documentation held in Spain apparently describes [his future daughter-in-law] Catherine of Aragon's (13) parents Ferdinand II King Aragon 1452-1516 (47) and Isabella Queen Castile 1451-1504 (48) expressing concern that Edward "Last Plantagenet" York 17th Earl Warwick 1475-1499 (24) was a potential claimant to throne, and being reluctant for their daughter to marry Arthur Prince of Wales (13) whilst there was a threat to his (13) accession causing Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509 (42) to use Perkin Warbreck's (25) attempted escape with Edward "Last Plantagenet" York 17th Earl Warwick 1475-1499 (24) as a means to an end.
Wriothesley's Chronicle Henry VII. 1500. This yeare the Kinge (42) buylded new his manner at Sheene, and chaunged the name and named it Eichmonde; and buylded new his place called the Baynards Castle, in London; and repayred his place in Greenewich, with muche new buyldinge.
On 20 Sep 1501 [his brother-in-law] Thomas Grey 1st Marquess Dorset 1455-1501 (46) died. On 20 Sep 1501 His son Thomas Grey 2nd Marquess Dorset 1477-1530 (24) succeeded 2nd Marquess Dorset 3C 1475, 2nd Earl Huntingdon 6C 1479, 8th Baron Ferrers Groby. Eleanor St John Marchioness Dorset by marriage Marchioness Dorset.
On 14 Nov 1501 [his son] Arthur Prince of Wales (15) and [his daughter-in-law] Catherine of Aragon (15) were married at St Paul's Cathedral by Henry Deane Archbishop of Canterbury -1503 assisted by William Warham Bishop of London (51) and a further eighteen bishops They were half third cousins once removed. He a son of Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509. She a great x 3 granddaughter of King Edward III England. She wore a white satin dress with a farthingale and over her head wore a veil of fine silk trimmed with gold and pearls.
[his son] Prince Henry (10) who escorted her up the aisle and gave her away.
[his sister-in-law] Cecily York Viscountess Welles 1469-1507 (32) bore the train, Thomas Grey 2nd Marquess Dorset 1477-1530 (24) was Chief Answerer.
Thomas Englefield Speaker of the House of Commons 1453-1514 was appointed Knight of the Bath.
Immediately after their marriage [his son] Arthur Prince of Wales (15) and [his daughter-in-law] Catherine of Aragon (15) resided at Tickenhill Manor Bewdley for a month. Thereafter they travelled to Ludlow.
Around 1502 Reginald Bray 1440-1503 (62) was appointed 255th Knight of the Garter by Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509 (44).
Around 1502 Thomas Grey 2nd Marquess Dorset 1477-1530 (24) was appointed 256th Knight of the Garter by Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509 (44).
Around 1502 William Pole 1478-1539 (24) was imprisoned for allegedly plotting against King Henry VII (44) with his brothers Edmund (31) and Richard (22), who fled the country in 1501, after their conspiracy was detected. William Pole 1478-1539 (24) remained in prison for thrity-seven years, dying in 1539.
On 02 Apr 1502 [his son] Arthur Tudor Prince of Wales 1486-1502 (15) died at Ludlow Castle. See Death of Prince Arthur. The cause of death unknown other than being reported as "a malign vapour which proceeded from the air". Catherine of Aragon (16) had recovered.
On 02 May 1502 James Tyrrell 1455-1502 (47) confessd to the murder of the Princes in the Tower at Guildhall during the Trial of James Tyrrell attended by Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509 (45) and [his wife] Elizabeth York Queen Consort England 1466-1503 (36).
Around 1503 Richard Guildford 1450-1506 (53) was appointed 254th Knight of the Garter by Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509 (45).
Wriothesley's Chronicle Henry VII. 1503. This yeare, in Februarie, died [his wife] Queene Elizabeth (36) at the Towre of London, lyeinge in childebedd of a daughter named Katherine (the 8th day after her birth), and was buried at Westminster; and on Passion Sundaye a peace made betwene the Emperoure (43) and the Kinge (45) duringe their lyves, solemnized upon a great oathe at the highe aulter in Paules queere.
Around 1503 Philip "Handsome Fair" King Castile 1478-1506 (24) was appointed 257th Knight of the Garter by Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509 (45).
On 02 Feb 1503 [his daughter] Katherine Tudor 1503-1503 was born to Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509 (46) and [his wife] Elizabeth York Queen Consort England 1466-1503 (36) at the Tower of London. She died eight days later on 10 Feb 1503.
On 08 Aug 1503 [his son-in-law] James IV King Scotland 1473-1513 (30) and Margaret Tudor (13) were married at Holyrood Abbey, Holyrood They were third cousins. He a great x 4 grandson of King Edward III England. She a daughter of Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509. Thomas Howard 2nd Duke Norfolk 1443-1524 (60) and James Hamilton 1st Earl Arran 1475-1529 (28) were present.
Cuthbert Cunningham 3rd Earl Glencairn 1476-1541 (27) was restored 3rd Earl Glencairn.
Around 1504 Guidabaldo Montefeltro 1472-1508 (31) was appointed 259th Knight of the Garter by Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509 (46).
Around 1504 Gerald Fitzgerald 8th Earl Kildare 1456-1513 (47) was appointed 258th Knight of the Garter by Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509 (46).
Grafton's Chronicle Henry VII. In which yere the xviij. day of February, the king (47) at his Palace of Westminster, wyth all solemnitie created his onely sonne [his son] Henry Prince of Wales (12), Erle of Chester. & c. which noble yonglyng succeded his father, not onely in the inheritaunce and regalitie, but also was to him equall in honour, fame, learnyng and pollicie.
On 18 Feb 1504 [his son] Henry VIII (12) was created Prince of Wales and Earl Chester 8C 1504. John Mordaunt 1st Baron Mordaunt 1480-1562 (24) was created as Knight of the Bath. Richard Empson 1450-1510 (54) was knighted.
In 1505 Richard Grey 3rd Earl Kent 1481-1524 (24) was appointed 260th Knight of the Garter by Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509 (47).
In 1505 Rhys ap Thomas Deheubarth 1449-1525 (56) was appointed 262nd Knight of the Garter by Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509 (47)..
On 22 Apr 1505 Henry Stafford 1st Earl Wiltshire 1479-1523 (26) was appointed 261st Knight of the Garter by Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509 (48).
Around Feb 1506 Philip "Handsome Fair" King Castile 1478-1506 (27) was blown off course whilst travelling to Castile to claim his inheritance. He landed in England where he became the guest of Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509 (49) who negociated the Malus Intercursus Treaty as part of the conditions of his release. The Treaty include favourable commercial terms by removing all duties on English exports, and the marriage of Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509 (49) with Philip's sister Margaret Habsburg Princess Asturias 1480-1533 (26) (which didn't take place). Most importantly it secured the return of Edmund Pole 3rd Duke Suffolk 1471-1513 (35) who was Philip's (27) prisoner. Edmund Pole was immediately imprisoned in the Tower of London and executed seven years later.
In 1507 Thomas Brandon -1510 was appointed 263rd Knight of the Garter by Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509 (49).
In 1508 Charles V Holy Roman Emperor 1500-1558 (7) was appointed 264th Knight of the Garter by Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509 (50).
Wriothesley's Chronicle Henry VII. 1509. This yeare, in Aprill, died King Henry the Vllth (51) at Richmond; and his [his son] Sonne King Henry the VIII (17) was proclaymed Kinge on St. Georges daye, in the same moneth. And in June follwinge the [his son] King (17) was married to Queene Katherin (23), late wife of his brother Prince Arthure (22), and were both crowned on Mid-sommer day. See Marriage of King Henry VIII and Catherine of Aragon, Coronation of Henry VIII and Catherine of Aragon.
Letters and Papers Foreign and Domestic Henry VIII April 1509. Apr 1509. Will of Henry VII (52):
At his manor of Richmond March 24 Hen. VII., the King (52) makes his last will, commending his soul to the Redeemer with the words he has used since his first "years of discretion," Domine Jesu Christe, qui me ex nichilo creasti, fecisti, redemisti et predestinasti ad hoc quod sum, Tu scis quid de me facere vis, fac de me secundum voluntatem Tuam cum misericordia, trusting in the grace of His Blessed Mother in whom, after Him, has been all his (testator's) trust, by whom in all his adversities he has had special comfort, and to whom he now makes his prayer (recited), as also to all the company of Heaven and especially his "accustumed avoures" St. Michael, St. John Baptist, St. John Evangelist, St. George, St. Anthony, St. Edward, St. Vincent, St. Anne, St. Mary Magdalene and St. Barbara, to defend him at the hour of death and be intercessors for the remission of his sins and salvation of his soul.
Desires to be buried at Westminster, where he was crowned, where lie buried many of his progenitors, especially his granddame [his grandmother] Katharine wife to Henry V and daughter to Charles of France, and whereto he means shortly to translate the remains of Henry IV in the chapel which he has begun to build (giving full directions for the placing and making of his tomb and finishing of the said chapel according to the plan which he has "in picture delivered" to the prior of St. Bartholomew's beside Smithfield, master of the works for the same); and he has delivered beforehand to the abbot, &c., of Westminster, 5,000l., by indenture dated Richmond, 13 April 23 Hen VII, towards the cost.
His executors shall cause 10,000 masses in honor of the Trinity, the Five Wounds, the Five Joys of Our Lady, the Nine Orders of Angels, the Patriarchs, the Twelve Apostles and All Saints (numbers to each object specified) to be said within one month after his decease, at 6d. each, making in all 250l, and shall distribute 2,000l. in alms; and to ensure payment he has left 2,250l. with the abbot, &c., of West-minster, by indenture dated (blank) day of (blank) in the (blank) year of his reign.
His debts are then to be paid and reparation for wrongs made by his executors at the discretion of the following persons, by whom all complaints shall be tenderly weighed, viz, the abp of Canterbury (59), Richard bp of Winchester (61), the bps of London and Rochester (39), Thomas Earl of Surrey (66), Treasurer General, George Earl of Shrewsbury (41), Steward of the House, Sir Charles Somerset Lord Herbert (49), Chamberlain, the two Chief Justices, Mr. John Yong (44), Master of the Rolls, Sir Thos. Lovell (31), Treasurer of the House, Mr. Thomas Routhall, secretary, Sir Ric Emson (59), Chancellor of the Duchy, Edm. Dudley (47), the King's attorney at the time of his decease, and his confessor, the Provincial of the Friars Observants, and Mr. William Atwater, dean of the Chapel, or at least six of them and three of his executors.
His executors shall see that the officers of the Household and Wardrobe discharge any debts which may be due for charges of the same.
Lands to the yearly value of above 1,000 mks have been "amortised" for fulfilment of certain covenants (described) with the abbey of Westminster.
For the completion of the hospital which he has begun to build at the Savoie place beside Charingcrosse, and towards which 10,000 mks in ready money has been delivered to the dean and chapter of St. Paul's, by indenture dated (blank), his executors shall deliver any more money which may be necessary; and they shall also make (if he has not done it in his lifetime) two similar hospitals in the suburbs of York and Coventry.
Certain cathedrals, abbeys, &c., named in a schedule hereto annexed [not annexed now] have undertaken to make for him orisons, prayers and suffrages "while the world shall endure," in return for which he has made them large confirmations, licences and other grants; and he now wishes 6s. 8d. each to be delivered soon after his decease to the rulers of such cathedrals, &c., 3s. 4d. to every canon and monk, being priest, within the same and 20d. to every canon, monk, vicar and minister not being priest. His executors shall bestow 2,000l. upon the repair of the highways and bridges from Windsor to Richmond manor and thence to St. George's church beside Southwark, and thence to Greenwich manor, and thence to Canterbury.
To divers lords, as well of his blood as other, and also to knights, squires and other subjects, he has, for their good service, made grants of lands, offices and annuities, which he straitly charges his son, the [his son] Prince (17), and other heirs to respect; as also the enfeoffments of the Duchy of Lancaster made by Parliaments of 7 and 19 Hen. VII. for the fulfilment of his will.
Bequests for finishing of the church of the New College in Cambridge and the church of Westminster, for the houses of Friars Observants, for the altar within the King's grate (i.e. of his tomb), for the high altar within the King's chapel, for the image of the King to be made and set upon St. Edward's shrine, for the College of Windsor, for the monastery of Westminster, for the image of the King to be set at St. Thomas's shrine at Canterbury, and for chalices and pixes of a certain fashion to be given to all the houses of Friars and every parish church not suitably provided with such.
Bequest of a dote of 50,000l. for the marriage of [his daughter] Lady Mary (13) the King's daughter with Charles Prince of Spain (9), as contracted at Richmond (blank) Dec. 24 Hen. VIII., or (if that fail) her marriage with any prince out of the realm by "consent of our said son the [his son] Prince (17), his Council and our said executors.".
After 21 Apr 1509 Thomas Wriothesley Garter King of Arms 1488-1534, who wasn't present, made a drawing of the death of Henry VII. The drawing shows those present and in some cases provides their arms by which they can be identified. From top left clockwise:
Richard Foxe Bishop 1448-1528 (61).
Two tonsured clerics.
Matthew Baker Governor of Jersey -1513.
John Sharpe of Coggleshall in Essex -1518.
Physician holding urine bottle.
William Fitzwilliam 1st Earl of Southampton 1490-1542 (19) closing the King's eyes. There is doubt as to whether the person shown is William Fitzwilliam 1st Earl of Southampton 1490-1542 (19) given his age of around nineteen at the King's death. He appears to be holding a Staff of Office although sources state he wasn't appointed Gentleman Usher, in which role he would have a Staff of Office, until Henry VIII's Coronation in Jun 1509.
The Arms below him are Quarterly 1 Lozengy argent & gules (FitzWilliam); 2 Arms of John Neville 1st Marquess Montagu 1431-1471 (78) 3 Quartered 1 possibly Plantagenet with white border ie Holland 2&3 Tibetot, 4 Unknown, overall a star for difference indicating third son. William Fitzwilliam 1st Earl of Southampton 1490-1542 (19) was his father's third son, and his mother was Lucy Neville 1468-1534 (41) daughter of John Neville 1st Marquess Montagu 1431-1471 (78). It appears correct that the person represented is William Fitzwilliam 1st Earl of Southampton 1490-1542 (19). William Fitzwilliam 1st Earl of Southampton 1490-1542 (19) was the childhood companion of [his son] Henry VIII (17).
PAINTINGS/WRIOTHESLEY/Henry_VII_Death.jpgPhysician holding urine bottle.
On 11 May 1509 Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509 (52) was buried in the Henry VII Chapel Westminster Abbey. Henry Willoughby 1451-1528 (58) and Anthony Wingfield 1487-1552 (22) attended. The ladies given mantelets and kerchiefs were as follows:
Household of Mary Tudor:
[his daughter] Mary Tudor Queen Consort France 1496-1533 (13).
[his former sister-in-law] Catherine York Countess Devon 1479-1527 (29).
Eleanor Pole 1462- (47).
Jane Popincourt -1516.
Household of the Princess of Wales Catherine of Aragon:
Agnes or Inez Vanegas.
María de Salinas Baroness Willoughby Eresby 1490-1539 (19).
Household of Margaret Beaufort the King's Mother:
[his mother] Margaret Beaufort Countess Richmond 1443-1509 (65).
Around 1510 Meynnart Wewyck Painter 1460-1525 (50) is believed to have painted the portrait of Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509 (52).
On 17 Aug 1510 Edmund Dudley 1462-1510 (48) and Richard Empson 1450-1510 (60) were beheaded at Tower Hill for constructive treason for having carried out King Henry VII's (53) rigorous and arbitrary system of taxation. The new King [his son] King Henry VIII of England and Ireland 1491-1547 (19) attempting to distance himself from his father's policies.
On 16 Aug 1513 [his son] Henry VIII (22) fought at Thérouanne during the Battle of the Spurs. Henry's army included George Talbot 4th Earl Shrewsbury 4th Earl Waterford 1468-1538 (45) (commanded), Thomas Grey 2nd Marquess Dorset 1477-1530 (36), Thomas Brooke 8th Baron Cobham 1470-1529 (43), Henry Bourchier 2nd Earl Essex 3rd Count Eu -1540, John Vere 15th Earl Oxford 1471-1540 (42) and Anthony Wingfield 1487-1552 (26). John "Tilbury Jack" Arundell 1495-1561 (18), William Compton Courtier 1482-1528 (31), John Hussey 1st Baron Hussey of Sleaford 1465-1537 (48) and William Hussey 1472-1531 (41) was knighted by Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509 (56). Thomas West 8th Baron De La Warr 5th Baron West 1457-1525 (56) and Andrew Windsor 1st Baron Windsor 1467-1543 (46) was created as Knight Banneret.
Around 1520 Unknown Painter. Netherlands. Portrait of Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509 (62).
Letters and Papers Foreign and Domestic Henry VIII August 1527. After 28 Jun 1529. Vit. B. XII. 70. B. M. 5774. KATHARINE OF ARRAGON.
A set of depositions as to Katharine's marriage with prince Arthur.
1. Of George earl of Shrewsbury (61), seneschal of the King's household, at the Coldherbar, on Monday, 28 June 1529. Is 59 years of age. Was present at the marriage of Henry VII (72). at Westminster, and at the creation of Arthur prince of Wales and Henry Duke of York. They were always considered as brothers, and he never heard it contradicted. Was present at the marriage of prince Arthur with Katharine, now Queen, at St. Paul's, in Nov. 17 Hen. VII. 1521 (sic). Believes that Arthur was then 14 or more. Saw the queen [his former wife] Elizabeth (63) and him a month after his birth, at Winchester, in 2 Hen. VII. Believes that Catharine was more than 14. Thinks that Arthur must have been nearer 15 than 14. At night, with the lord of Oxford and others, conducted prince Arthur to the lady [his former daughter-in-law] Catharine's (43) bedchamber, and left him there. Supposes that the Prince consummated the marriage,as he did so, being only 15 years when he was married. They were always considered lawfully married during the life of prince Arthur. Saw the funeral of prince Arthur at Worcester, and the marriage of the King and Queen at Greenwich. Cannot answer the 6th and 7th articles, but leaves them to the laws. Never heard what is contained in the 8th article. As to the 9th, knows that the King and Queen cohabited and treated each other as husband and wife, but cannot say whether lawfully or not. Can say nothing from his own knowledge as to the 10th, 11th, and 12th articles. Has made this deposition without being instructed or corrupted in any way, only for the sake of truth.
Vit. B. XII. 80. B. M.
2. Of Thomas marquis of Dorset (52). Is 52 years of age. The 1st and 2nd articles contain the truth. Was present at the baptism of Arthur and Henry, the former at Winchester, and the latter at Greenwich. Was present at the marriage of prince Arthur with Catharine, now Queen, at St Paul's, on a Sunday in Nov. 1501, 17 Hen. VII. Believes Arthur was about 15, for he has seen in the book in which are written the births of the King's children that he was born 20 Sept. 1486. Was present when prince Arthur went to bed after his marriage, where the [his former daughter-in-law] lady Catharine (43) lay under the coverlet, "as the manner is of queens in that behalf." Thinks that he used the princess as his wife, for he was of a good and sanguine complexion, and they were commonly reputed as man and wife during prince Arthur's life. As to the 5th article, he can depose nothing to the first part, as he was then prisoner at Calais; but the remainder, touching cohabitation and reputation, is true. Can say nothing to the 6th, 7th, and 8th. The 9th, 10th, 11th, and 12th contain the truth, as he believes.
Vit. B. XII. 85. B. M.
3. Of Sir Antony Willoughby. Has lived 15 years in Hampshire, for 12 years previously in Wiltshire. Was five years in the service of prince Arthur, for five years before that in the service of the bishop of Durham, and before that time in his father's household. Believes the 1st and 2nd articles to be true. To the 3rd and 4th, was present at the marriage of prince Arthur and lady Catharine. By favor of his father, lord Broke (57), steward of the King's household, was present when prince Arthur went to bed on his marriage night in the palace of the bishop of London. In the morning the prince, in the presence of Mores St. John, Mr. Cromer, Mr. William Woddall, Mr. Griffith Rice, and others, said to him, "Willoughby, bring me a cup of ale, for I have been this night in the midst of Spain;" and afterward said openly, "Masters, it is good pastime to have a wife." He, therefore, supposes that the marriage was consummated; and he heard that they lay together the Shrovetide following at Ludlow.
Knows that they lived together as man and wife during the remainder of the Prince's life.
Believes the 5th article to be true. Can depose nothing to the 6th, 7th and 8th. Believes the 9th, 10th and 11th to be true. The 12th contains law; to which he is not bound to reply. To the second additional interrogatory he replies, that it contains the truth, for he has been present twenty times at the solemnization of marriage, and the said form of words is always used.
In 1539 Richard Manners Esquire to the Body 1509-1551 (30) was appointed Esquire to the Body to Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509 (81).
On 01 Jan 1562 the New Years Gift Giving was held. Those who gave gifts provide an interesting who's who of the Elizabethan Court soon after Elizabeth I's Coronation. Queen Elizabeth (28) was present since a number are described as "With the Qene her Majestie."
For 'dimy' read 'demi' ie half-sovereigns.
Neweeyeur's Gyftes gevon to the Quene her Majestie by those Parsons whose Names hereafter ensue, the first of January, the Yere above wrytten.
By the Lady Margaret Strainge (22), a little round mounte of golde to conteyne a pomaunder in it. With the Qene her Majestie. Note. Lady Margaret Strange married Henry Stanley Lord Strange (30) on 07 Feb 1555. In 1561 he had not succeeded to Earldom of Derby and was known by the courtesy title Lord Strange. She is listed first since she was one of the few remaining direct descendants of Henry VII, being a great-granddaughter by his daughter [his daughter] Mary Tudor (65). Margaret Clifford (22) was first in line to succeed in 1568 but died in 1596 before Elizabeth I.
Dukes, Marquises and Earls.
By the Earle of Westmerlande (37), in a red silk purse, in dimy soveraigns £10 0s 0d.
Bishops. The list of Bishops ends with "With her said Majestie"; unclear whether this refers to all the Bishops listed.
By the Archbusshop of York (61), in soveraigns £30 0s 0d.
By the Busshop of Duresme (42), in a purse of crymson silk and gold knytt, in angells £30 0s 0d.
By the Busshop of Ely (69), in a red vellat purse, in angells £30 0s 0d.
By the Busshop of Wynchester (52), in a purse of crymsen silk and gold knytt and set with pearles, in angells £20 0s 0d.
By the Busshop of London (43), in a red satten purse, in dimy soveraignes £20 0s 0d.
By the Busshop of Salisbury (39), in a red satten purse, in dimy soveraignes £20 0s 0d.
By the Busshop of Worcester (43), in a black vellat purse, in dimy soveraignes £20 0s 0d.
By the Busshop of Lyncoln (42), in a red purse, in dimy soveraignes £20 0s 0d.
By the Busshop of Chychester (64), in a red purse, in dimy soveraignes £10 0s 0d.
By the Busshop of Norwich (50), in a blew silk purse £13 6s 8d.
By the Busshop of Hereforde (52), in a green silk purse, in dimy soveraignes £10 0s 0d.
By the Busshop of Lychfield and Coventry (48), in a red satten purse, in angells £13 0s 0d.
By the Busshop of Rochester (48), in a red purse, in gold £13 6s 8d.
By the Busshop of Saint Davies (55), in a red silk purse, in angells £10 0s 0d.
By the Busshop of Bathe, in a purse of red silk, in angells £10 0s 0d.
By the Busshop of Exetour, in a blew silk purse, in angells £10 0s 0d.
By the Busshop of Peterborowe, in a red purse, in dimy soveraignes £10 0s 0d.
By the Busshop of Chester, in a red purse, in angells and soveraignes £10 0s 0d.
Duchesses and Countesses.
By the Duchess of Somerset (65), in a purse of silver and black silk, in royalls and ducketts £14 0s 0d. Probably the Dowager Duchess of Somerset since her husband Edward Seymour 1st Duke Somerset 1500-1552 (62) had been executed in 1552, and their children disinherited as a result.
By the Countess of Surrey, in a purse of tawny silk and gold, in dimy soveraignes £5 0s 0d. Dowager since her husband Henry Howard 1516-1547, by courtesy Earl Surrey, had been executed in 1547.
By the Countess of Oxford (36), in a red purse, in dimy soveraignes £5 0s 0d.
By the Countess of Shrewisbury, Dowager (62), in a purse of black silk knytt, in dimy soveraignes £12 0s 0d.
By the Countess of Huntingdon, Dowager (51), in a red purse, in dimy soveraignes £10 0s 0d.
By the Countess of Northumberland (24), in a purse of black silk and silver knytt, in angells £10 0s 0d.
By the Lorde North (66), in a purse of purple silk and silver, in dimy soveraignes £20 0s 0d.
By the Lorde Windsor (30), in a purse of crymsn silk and gold knytt, in dimy soveraignes £10 0s 0d. With her said Majestie.
By Lorde John Graye (38), a haunce pott of allabaster garnished with silver gilt. Delivered in charge to John Asteley, Esq Master and Threasourer of her Highnes Jewels and Plate. Lord John Grey assumed to be a courtesy title his father being Thomas Grey 2nd Marquess Dorset 1477-1530 (84).
By the Lorde Abergavennye (36), in a purse of red silke, in dimy soveraignes £5 0s 0d.
By the Lorde Shefild (24), in a red silk purse, in gold £10 0s 0d.
By the Lorde Shandowes (40), in a blak silk purse, in angells £10 0s 0d. With her said Majestie.
By the Baroness Howarde (47), in a purse of crymsen silk and knytt, in dimy soveraignes £10 0s 0d. With her said Majestie.
By the Lady Mountejoye (30), in a red silk purse, in angells £10 0s 0d.
By the Lady Abergavenny, in a red satten purse, in dimy soveraignes £5 0s 0d.
By the Lady Caree of Hundesdon (33), in a blak purse knytt, in angells £10 0s 0d.
By the Lady Butler, in a little white purse, in French crowns £6 0s 0d. With her said Majestie. Unclear as to who Lady Butler refers to.
Original Letters Illustrative of English History Second Series Volume III. Ellis notes that "the present narrative is from the Lansdowne MS. 51. art. 46. It is indorsed in Lord Burghley's hand, "8 Feb. 1586. The Manner of the Q. of Scotts death at Fodrynghay, wr. by Ro. Wy.
A Reporte of the manner of the execution of the Sc. Q. performed the viijth. of February, Anno 1586 [modern dating 1587] in the great hall at Fotheringhay, with relacion of speeches uttered and accions happening in the said execution, from the delivery of the said Sc. Q. to Mr Thomas Androwes Esquire Sherife of the County of Northampton unto the end of said execution..
THE READER shall now be presented with the Execution of the Queen of Scots (44) which was to the Court or three Statements of this Transaction were There was a Short one copies of which are Manuscripts Jul F vi foll 246 266 b and b Another a Copy of the Account of the Earl to the Lords of the Council dated on the day is MS Calig C ix fol 163 And there is a Office somewhat longer said to have been drawn evidently one of her servants present Narrative is from the Lansdowne MS in Lord Burghley s hand 8 Feb 1586 of Scotts death at Fodrynghay wr by Ro Wy Queen s death have been dressed up from writers but it is here given accurate and entire.
First, the said Scottish Queen, being carried by two of Sir Amias Paulett's (54) gentlemen, and the Sheriff (46) going before her, came most willingly out of her chamber into an entry next the Hall, at which place the Earl of Shrewsbury (59) and the Earl of Kent (46), commissioners for the execution, with the two governors of her person, and divers knights and gentlemen did meet her, where they found one of the Scottish Queen's servants, named Melvin [NOTE. Possibly Andrew Melville of Garvock Steward], kneeling on his knees, who uttered these words with tears to the Queen of Scots (44), his mistress, "Madam, it will be the sorrowfullest message that ever I carried, when I shall report that my Queen (44) and dear mistress is dead." Then the Queen of Scots, shedding tears, answered him, "You ought to rejoice rather than weep for that the end of Mary Stuart's (44) troubles is now come. Thou knowest, Melvin, that all this world is but vanity, and full of troubles and sorrows; carry this message from me, and tell my friends that I die a true woman to my religion, and like a true Scottish woman and a true Frenchwoman. But God forgive them that have long desired my end; and He that is the true Judge of all secret thoughts knoweth my mind, how that it ever hath been my desire to have Scotland and England united together. Commend me to my son, and tell him that I have not done anything that may prejudice his kingdom of Scotland; and so, good Melvin, farewell;" and kissing him, she bade him pray for her.
Then she turned to the Lords and told them that she had certain requests to make unto them. One was for a sum of money, which she said Sir Amyas Paulet (54) knew of, to be paid to one Curle her servant; next, that all her poor servants might enjoy that quietly which by her Will and Testament she had given unto them; and lastly, that they might be all well entreated, and sent home safely and honestly into their countries. "And this I do conjure you, my Lords, to do.".
Answer was made by Sir Amyas Paulet (54), "I do well remember the money your Grace speaketh of, and your Grace need not to make any doubt of the not performance of your requests, for I do surely think they shall be granted.".
"I have," said she, "one other request to make unto you, my Lords, that you will suffer my poor servants to be present about me, at my death, that they may report when they come into their countries how I died a true woman to my religion.".
Then the Earl of Kent (46), one of the commissioners, answered, "Madam, it cannot well be granted, for that it is feared lest some of them would with speeches both trouble and grieve your Grace, and disquiet the company, of which we have had already some experience, or seek to wipe their napkins in some of your blood, which were not convenient." "My Lord," said the Queen of Scots, "I will give my word and promise for them that they shall not do any such thing as your Lordship has named. Alas! poor souls, it would do them good to bid me farewell. And I hope your Mistress (53), being a maiden Queen, in regard of womanhood, will suffer me to have some of my own people about me at my death. And I know she hath not given you so straight a commission, but that you may grant me more than this, if I were a far meaner woman than I am." And then (seeming to be grieved) with some tears uttered these words: "You know that I am cousin to your Queen (53) [NOTE. They were first-cousin once-removed], and descended from the blood of Henry the Seventh [NOTE. She was a Great Granddaughter of Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509], a married Queen of France [NOTE. She had married Francis II King France King Consort Scotland 1544-1560 (43)], and the anointed Queen of Scotland.".
Whereupon, after some consultation, they granted that she might have some of her servants according to her Grace's request, and therefore desired her to make choice of half-a-dozen of her men and women: who presently said that of her men she would have Melvin, her apothecary, her surgeon, and one other old man beside; and of her women, those two that did use to lie in her chamber.
After this, she being supported by Sir Amias's (54) two gentlemen aforesaid, and Melvin carrying up her train, and also accompanied with the Lords, Knights, and Gentlemen aforenamed, the Sheriff (46) going before her, she passed out of the entry into the Great Hall, with her countenance careless, importing thereby rather mirth than mournful cheer, and so she willingly stepped up to the scaffold which was prepared for her in the Hall, being two feet high and twelve feet broad, with rails round about, hung and covered with black, with a low stool, long cushion, and block, covered with black also. Then, having the stool brought her, she sat her down; by her, on the right hand, sat the Earl of Shrewsbury (59) and the Earl of Kent (46), and on the left hand stood the Sheriff (46), and before her the two executioners; round about the rails stood Knights, Gentlemen, and others.
Then, silence being made, the Queen's Majesty's Commission for the execution of the Queen of Scots (44) was openly read by Mr. Beale, clerk of the Council (46); and these words pronounced by the Assembly, "God save the Queen." During the reading of which Commission the Queen of Scots (44) was silent, listening unto it with as small regard as if it had not concerned her at all; and with as cheerful a countenance as if it had been a pardon from her Majesty (53) for her life; using as much strangeness in word and deed as if she had never known any of the Assembly, or had been ignorant of the English language.
Then one Doctor Fletcher, Dean of Peterborough (42), standing directly before her, without the rail, bending his body with great reverence, began to utter this exhortation following: "Madam, the Queen's most excellent Majesty," &c, and iterating these words three or four times, she told him, "Mr. Dean (42), I am settled in the ancient Catholic Roman religion, and mind to spend my blood in defence of it." Then Mr. Dean (42) said: "Madam, change your opinion, and repent you of your former wickedness, and settle your faith only in Jesus Christ, by Him to be saved." Then she answered again and again, "Mr. Dean (42), trouble not yourself any more, for I am settled and resolved in this my religion, and am purposed therein to die." Then the Earl of Shrewsbury (59) and the Earl of Kent (46), perceiving her (44) so obstinate, told her that since she would not hear the exhortation begun by Mr. Dean (42), "We will pray for your Grace, that it stand with God's will you may have your heart lightened, even at the last hour, with the true knowledge of God, and so die therein." Then she answered, "If you will pray for me, my Lords, I will thank you; but to join in prayer with you I will not, for that you and I are not of one religion.".
Then the Lords called for Mr. Dean (42), who, kneeling on the scaffold stairs, began this prayer, "O most gracious God and merciful Father," &c, all the Assembly, saving the Queen of Scots (44) and her servants, saying after him. During the saying of which prayer, the Queen of Scots (44), sitting upon a stool, having about her neck an Agnus Dei, in her hand a crucifix, at her girdle a pair of beads with a golden cross at the end of them, a Latin book in her hand, began with tears and with loud and fast voice to pray in Latin; and in the midst of her prayers she slided off from her stool, and kneeling, said divers Latin prayers; and after the end of Mr. Dean's (42) prayer, she kneeling, prayed in English to this effect: "For Christ His afflicted Church, and for an end of their troubles; for her son; and for the Queen's Majesty (53), that she might prosper and serve God aright." She confessed that she hoped to be saved "by and in the blood of Christ, at the foot of whose Crucifix she would shed her blood." Then said the Earl of Kent (46), "Madam, settle Christ Jesus in your heart, and leave those trumperies." Then she little regarding, or nothing at all, his good counsel, went forward with her prayers, desiring that "God would avert His wrath from this Island, and that He would give her grief and forgiveness for her sins." These, with other prayers she made in English, saying she forgave her enemies with all her heart that had long sought her blood, and desired God to convert them to the truth; and in the end of the prayer she desired all saints to make intercession for her to Jesus Christ, and so kissing the crucifix, and crossing of her also, said these words: "Even as Thy arms, O Jesus, were spread here upon the Cross, so receive me into Thy arms of mercy, and forgive me all my sins.".
Her (44) prayer being ended, the executioners, kneeling, desired her Grace to forgive them her death; who answered, "I forgive you with all my heart, for now, I hope, you shall make an end of all my troubles." Then they, with her two women, helping of her up, began to disrobe her of her apparel; she never changed her countenance, but with smiling cheer she uttered these words, "that she never had such grooms to make her unready, and that she never put off her clothes before such a company.".
Then she, being stripped of all her apparel saving her petticoat and kirtle, her two women beholding her made great lamentation, and crying and crossing themselves prayed in Latin; she, turning herself to them, embracing them, said these words in French, "Ne criez vous; j'ay promis pour vous;" and so crossing and kissing them, bade them pray for her, and rejoice and not weep, for that now they should see an end of all their mistress's (44) troubles. Then she, with a smiling countenance, turning to her men servants, as Melvin and the rest, standing upon a bench nigh the scaffold, who sometime weeping, sometime crying out aloud, and continually crossing themselves, prayed in Latin, crossing them with her hand bade them farewell; and wishing them to pray for her even until the last hour.
This done, one of the women having a Corpus Christi cloth lapped up three-corner ways, kissing it, put it over the Queen of Scots' (44) face, and pinned it fast to the caul of her head. Then the two women departed from her, and she kneeling down upon the cushion most resolutely, and without any token or fear of death, she spake aloud this Psalm in Latin, "In te, Domine, confido, non confundar in eternum," &c. [Ps. xxv.]. Then, groping for the block, she laid down her head, Putting her chin over the block with both her hands, which holding there, still had been cut off, had they not been espied. Then lying upon the block most quietly, and stretching out her arms, cried, "In manus tuas, Domine," &c, three or four times. Then she lying very still on the block, one of the executioners holding of her slightly with one of his hands, she endured two strokes of the other executioner with an axe, she making very small noise or none at all, and not stirring any part of her from the place where she lay; and so the executioner cut off her head, saving one little grisle, which being cut asunder, he lifted up her head to the view of all the assembly, and bade "God save the Queen." Then her dressing of lawn falling off from her head, it appeared as grey as one of threescore and ten years old, polled very short, her face in a moment being so much altered from the form she had when she was alive, as few could remember her by her dead face. Her lips stirred up and down a quarter of an hour after her head was cut off.
Then Mr. Dean (42) said with a loud voice, "So perish all the Queen's enemies;" and afterwards the Earl of Kent (46) came to the dead body, and standing over it, with a loud voice said, "Such end of all the Queen's and the Gospel's enemies.".
Then one of the executioners pulling off her (44) garters, espied her little dog which was crept under her clothes, which could not be gotten forth but by force, yet afterward would not depart from the dead corpse, but came and lay between her head and her shoulders, which being imbrued with her blood, was carried away and washed, as all things else were that had any blood was either burned or clean washed; and the executioners sent away with money for their fees, not having any one thing that belonged unto her. And so, every man being commanded out of the Hall, except the Sheriff (46) and his men, she was carried by them up into a great chamber lying ready for the surgeons to embalm her.
King James I of England and Ireland and VI of Scotland 1566-1625 (36) succeeded I King England Scotland and Ireland. He was Elizabeth's second cousin being the son of Mary Queen of Scots (60) who was the daughter of [his daughter] Margaret Tudor Queen Scotland 1489-1541 daughter of Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509.
Immediately following her death Robert Carey 1st Earl Monmouth 1560-1639 (43) started on horseback for Edinburgh to inform King James I of England and Ireland and VI of Scotland 1566-1625 (36) arriving at Holyrood Palace late on the 26 Mar 1603. His conduct met with general disapproval and merited censure as contrary to all decency, good manners and respect. George Carew -1612 and Thomas Lake 1561-1630 (41) were sent by the Council to formally inform James VI's death.
1667. Remigius van Leemput Painter 1607-1675 (59). Copy (for which he received £150) of Hans Holbein's "Whitehall Mural" of [his son] King Henry VIII of England and Ireland 1491-1547, Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509, Elizabeth York Queen Consort England 1466-1503 and Queen Jane Seymour 1509-1537. The original was destroyed in a fire in 1698.
Hall's Chronicle Henry VII 7th Year Aug 1491. When kynge Henry was returned into England, he first of all thinges elected into the societe of saynct George, vulgarely called the Order of the Garter, Alphose duke of Calabres sonne, accordyng to his deire whiche Alphonse was sonne and heyre to Ferdinand kyng of Naples,& after kyng of the same realme, til he was ouercome by kyng Charles. And after, the kyng sent Christopher Vrsewike, Ambassadour with y gartier, coller, mantell, and other habiliamentes apperteyninge to the companyons of the sayde noble ordre. Which Ambassadoure arryuing at Napels, deliuered to the duke the whole habile, with all the ceremonies and devre circumstaunces therunto belonging. Whiche duke very reuerently receaued it, and with more reuerence reuested him selfe w thesame in a solempne presence, thinkyng .that by this apparell and inuestittire, he was made a freride and compaygnion in ordre with j king of England, whose frendship obteyned, he feared nothing the assautes or inuasions of hys enemies. And this was the cause that he desyred so muche to be compaygnion of that noble order, fermely beleuyng that y kyng of England souereygne of that ordre, should be aider and mainteyner of hym agaynst the Frenche kyng, whome he knew woulde passe the moutaynes and make warre on hym. But this custome of assistece in ordres was, eyther neuer begonne, or before clerely abholished: For in our tyme there haue bene many noble men of Italy, compaignios as well of the golden Flese in Burgoyne, as of the ordre of sainct Mighel in Fraunce, that haue bene banyshed and profligate from their naturall countrey, and yet haue not bene aided by the souereigne nor copanyons of thesame order. For surely the statutes and ordinaunces of all thesayde orders dothe not oblige and bynde them to that case, but in certayne poyntes. After this the duke dimissed the Ambassadour, rewardyng hym moost pryncely.
History of England by Polydore Vergil Book 26 Henry VII Chapter 38. But, whichever it was, while he lingered in Ireland in a fever of uncertainty, reliable messengers informed him that the Cornishmen, undeterred by their recent disaster, were still badly affected towards Henry and ready to take up arms once more to avenge the wrong. And so, thinking it would be useful not to ignore this proffered opportunity, went flying to them without delay. He solicited them, he incited them, he promised them such great things that a stroke he was hailed as their leader, with all men shouting they would obey his commands. Restored to good hope by these things, Peter decided that nothing should be done rashly. First he should go in all directions, gaining power over fortified places that could serve for his protection. Then, having increased his forces, he should attack all who offered resistance. Adopting this strategy, he attacked and besieged Exeter. Since he lacked artillery to batter down its walls, he only sought to smash its gates opens, and with great vigor he began to pound them with stones, pry at them with steel, heap them with wood, and set them afire. At first, the townsmen, seeing the walls surrounded by the enemy at one point, and a fire to be started at another, were afraid. But they immediately let down messengers from the walls during the night, who were to inform the king. Then they courageously decided to fight fire with fire and, since the bars of the gates were already shattered, they added their own wood to the fire, so that the flames raging on either side would both prevent the enemy from coming within and their own citizens from leaving. And meanwhile they themselves dug ditches inside in front of the entry days and made earthworks. Thus all of the besiegers’ efforts around the gates came to naught, and fire rescued the citizenry from fire. Then Peter, of necessity breaking off the fight at the gates, attacked the city at various points where it seemed weaker, and, bringing up ladders, frequently tried to take the walls, suffering great losses. Meanwhile he hoped that the burghers would be overwhelmed either by fear or want of provisions, could be impelled to surrender.
History of England by Polydore Vergil Book 26 Henry VII Chapter 38. King James of Scotland did not break his word. Now being dead sure that he had been the victim of a fraud, he summoned Peter Warbeck and, gently reminding him of all the benefits he had conferred, urged him to migrate to some other country where he could live in peace until a better opportunity for conducting his business offered itself. For he himself had been obliged to make peace with the King of England, and because of the affinity he enjoyed with the king and valued so highly, it was scarcely possible that in the future he could take up arms in Peter’s name, as he had gladly done at the beginning when he hoped that Peter would be furnished with timely help by his English friends. But since this expectation had proved to be in vain, he told him he should not take this delay amiss, for it might turn out to be helpful for him in his affliction. Saying these and similar things, he told Peter to go elsewhere. And he, learning the king’s will, was devastated by this desertion, now seeing that there was nothing left for him among the Scots. Although he was not able to requite the many benefits he had received from them, nevertheless, so as not to appear to be an ingrate, he accepted the king’s command calmly, and a few days later took his wife and left for Ireland, with the idea of returning to Margaret in Flanders, or of attaching himself to the Cornishmen.
History of England by Polydore Vergil Book 26 Henry VII Chapter 37. Amidst these things Pedro de Ayala came Scotland a man of great intelligence and prudence, although possessed with no similar education, sent by King Ferdinand of Spain to King James to negotiate a truce between the kings. For Ferdinand and his wife Isabella, a woman all but unmatched in Christendom, enjoyed a great friendship with Henry, and hoped for nothing more than for kinship to obtain between them, since their daughter Catherine had been affianced to his son Arthur Prince of Wales. Likewise, they had equal affinity with James King of Scots. Therefore Ferdinand freely offered himself as an agent for making peace between the two kings. Pedro immediately began to deal earnestly with James to discover by what conditions peace could to made, and, since he was in high hopes, he wrote a letter asking Henry that he send some representative to join him in completing the business. Henry was a lover and (if I may say so) a son of peace, inasmuch as he could be without suffering great inconvenience, and particularly at the time when he was being troubled by his subjects’ seditions, promptly assigned the task to Richard Bishop of Durham, who was near at hand, of joining Pedro as soon as he could. And so Richard and Pedro (the latter serving as an umpire for the peace) met with a Scottish delegation. Here countless conditions were proposed, but after a lengthy debate they all failed to satisfy. The obstacle was that Henry demanded Peter Warbeck be handed over him, being a disturber of the peace of his realm. For his part, King James flatly refused to make any concession which could be held against him afterwards. Although he had already begun to divine the fraud, nevertheless, since Peter was his kinsman, he thought it a very shameful wrong to hand a man over for the killing. And so many days were wasted, and in the end, since no peace could obtain between minds so differently disposed, in lieu of a peace they settled on a truce to last for several years, upon condition that James would immediately banish Peter Warbeck from all of Scotland.
William Parr 1st Baron Parr Horton 1483-1547 was appointed Esquire to the Body to Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509.
Hall's Chronicle Henry VII 7th Year Aug 1491. The duches thinkynge euery houre from his departure a whole yere, vntill suche tyme she heard from hym, and efiecteously desiring to knowe whiche waye lady Fortune turned her whele, herynge hym to be repudiate and abiected oute of the Frenche courte, was in a greate agony and muche amased and more appalled: But when she was asserteyned of hys arryuall in Flaunders, she nolesse reuiued, then he that bathe in steade of the sworde of execucion, a perdon and restauracion of hys lyfe and degree to hym delyuered and shewed. And at hys commynge to her presence, she receaued hym wyth suche gladnes, with suche reioysyng and suche comforte (as in dede she coulde dissemble alone aboue all other) as though she had neuer sene nor knowe him before, or as he were newly cropen oute of hys mothers lappe agayne, that what in trust to preferre hyrn to the prehemynence by her ymagened, and what for the hope that she had to destroye kynge Henry, she fell into suche an vnmeasurable ioye, that she had almost lost her wytte and senses. And that thys her gladnes mighte be notified and made apparauntto euery man, she first reioyced of her nephewes health and welfare: And secondarely she much thrusted and sore longed, not once, but dyuerse and sundry tymes in open audience, and in solempne presence to here hym declare and shewe by what meanes he was preserued from deathe and destruction, and in what countreys he had wandered and'soughte frendshippe: And finally, by what chaunce of fortune he came to her courte and presence. To the entent that by the open declaracion of these feyned phantasies, the people myghte be persuaded to geue credite and belefe, that he was the true begotten sonne of her brother kynge Edwarde. And after thys she assigned hym a garde of thirty persones in Murrey. and blewe, and highly honoured hym as a greate estate and called i hym the whyte Rose, prynce of Englande.
Hall's Chronicle Henry VII 7th Year Aug 1491. When this diabolicall duches had framed her cloth mete for y market, and ymagened that all thinges was ready and prepared for the confusion of kyng Henry, sodeynly she was enformed that the sayde kynge of England prepared a puissant army agaynste Charles the Frenche kyng. Then she considering the oportunitie of the tyme, as who would saye, a tyme wished and a daye desyred to achcue and brynge too passe her olde malicious and cantarde inuencions, which alwayes nothinge lesse mynded then peace and tranquilite, and nothing more desired then dissencion, ciuile warre and destruccion of kyng Henry. Wherefore she sent Perkyn Werbeck, her new inuented Mawmet first into Portyngall, and so craftely into the realm of Ireland, to thentent that he beynge bothe witty and wilye might moue, inuegle and prouoke the rude and rusticall Irishenacion (beyng more of nature euclyived to rebellion then to reasonable ordre) to a new conflict and a sedicious commocion. This worshipfull Perkyn, arriuyng in Ireland, whether it were more by hys crafty witte, or by the malicious and beastly exhortacion of the saltiage Irish gouernours, within short space entred so farre into their fauoures, and so seriously perswaded and allured them to his purpose, that the greatest lordes and princes of the coutry, adhibited such faith and credite to his woordes, as that thing had bene true in dede, whiche he vntruly with false demonstracions setfoorth and diuulged. And as though he had bene the very sonne of kynge Edwarde, they honoured, exalted and applauded hym with all reuerence and dewe honoure, promising to hym aide, comforte and assistence of all thinges to the feat of warre, necessary and apperteynyng.
History of England by Polydore Vergil Book 26 Henry VII Chapter 40. A rumor came to Flanders that Peter had achieved nothing, but rather was in chains, and this brought Princess Margaret many tears, for she had spent many fearful nights waiting news of his doings. Having done these things with success, Henry, not unaware that the greatest enticement to wrongdoing is the hope of impunity, quickly held an inquisition so that he might henceforth keep his subjects loyal more easily. He discovered that there were many men, both in Devonshire and Someret, who had helped the Cornishmen with their money and provisions when they were undertaking this war, and afterwards when they were routed and fleeing homeward. And he decided to mulct these people of as much as they could pay, in proportion to the gravity of their offence. He assigned this responsibility to Sir Amyas Powlet, who soon thereafter was given Robert Scherburn, Dean of St. Paul’s, as a colleague. They first swept like a gale through the fortunes of virtual the inhabitants of both counties, so that no man implicated in that capital affair could evade his deserved punishment. But they dealt more mildly with many men who had committed their misdeeds out of fear or compulsion, rather than free will.
Hall's Chronicle Henry VII 7th Year Aug 1491. Shortely after that kyng Henry had taryed a conuenient space, he transfreted and arryued at Douer, and so came to his maner of Grenewiche. And this was the yere of our lorde a. M.CCCC.xciii. and y. vii. yere of his troubleous reigne. Also in this soiournynge and be segynge of Boleyne (whiche Ive spake of before) there was few or none kylled, sauyng onely John Savage knyght, which goyng preuely out of hys pauylion with syr Ihon Hiseley, roade about the walles to viewe and se their strength, was sodeynly intercepted and taken of hys enemies. And he beyng inflamed withy re, although he were captyue, of his high courage disdeyned to be taken of suche vileynes, defended his life toy vttennost and was manfullv (I will notsaye wilfully) slayne and oppressed, albeit syr Ihon Riseley fled fro theim & escaped their daunger.
William Carey 1500-1528 was appointed Esquire to the Body to Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509.
Hall's Chronicle Henry VII 7th Year Aug 1491. When he had thus prudently cosolate and appeased the myndes of hys me of warrre, he returned backe agayn vf his whole army, to y toun of Caieys, where he beganne to smell certayn secret smoke, whiche was lyke to turn to a great flame, without it were well watched and polletiquely sene to. For by the crai'tie inuencion and deuelishe ymaginacid of that pesteferns serpent lady Margaret, duches of Burgoyne, a new ydoll was sett vp in Flaunders, and called Richard Plantagenet, secod sonne to kvng Edward the. iiii. as though he had bene resuscitate from death to lyfe, whiche sodeyne newes more stacke and fretted in his stomack, then the battaile which now was set late foiward & more payne he had (not without great jeopardie of him selte) toappeache & qutche this newe spronge conspiracy, then in makynge peace with the Frenche kyng his enemy. And so he was content to accept and reccaue (and not to offre and geue) the honest condicions of peace of his enemy proffred and oblated, except he woulde at one tyme make warre, be the at home in his owne countrey, and also inforeyne and externe nacions. Wherfore kynge Henry forseynge all these thinges before (and not without great counsayll) concluded with the French kyng, to thentet that he beyng deliuered of al outward enuytie mighte the more quickly prouide for the ciuyle and domestical comocions, which he perceaued well to be budding out. The conclusion of the peace was thus, y the peace should continue bothe their lyues, and that the Frenche kynge should pay to kynge Henry a certayne sumine of money in hand, accordyng as the commissioners shoulde appoynt for his charges susteyned in his iourney:
Henry Willoughby 1451-1528 was appointed Knight of the Body to Henry VII King England and Ireland 1457-1509.
The Antiquarian Repertory Volume 4 Funeral Ceremonies of Queen Elizabeth. REMEMBRANCE for the enterment of the right high right excelent and most Christen Princese Elizabeth Queene of England and of France Lady of Ireland and the Eldest daughter of king Edward the fourth wife to the most hygh most puyssant and most victorious king Henry the viith our most dread Souveraigne Lord the which deceased in childbed in The Tower of London the xith day of Februarye which was upon Saturday and the xviiith yeare of the reigne of our said Soveraigne Lord the king her most dearest husband whose departing was as heveye and dolorous to the kings hcighuess as hath been sene or heard of. And also in likeyse to all the Estates of this Realme as well Citizens as Comnyns for she was one of the most gracious and best, beloved princesses in the world in her tyme beinge.
Then the king of his wisdom ordeyned certaine of his Counsell for the ordering of her buryall to be at Westminster. That is to say The Erle of Surry Treasurer of England and Sr Richard Guilford Comptrowler of his noble household And himselfe tooke with him certain of his secretest and prevely departed to a solitary place to passe his sorrows and would no man should resort to him but such his grace appointed untill such tyme it should please him to showe his pleasure and over yt every Officer to give their Attendance upon the said Councellours And over yt in his Departing ordeyned Incontinent the next day following for vi Hundredth and xxxvi hole masses said in London and by Sr Charles Somerset and Sr Richard Guilford sent the best comfort to all the Queens servants that hath bene sene of a soveraigne Lord with as good words.
Also then were ronngen the bells of London everye one and after that through out the Realme with solomne Dyrgies and Masses of Requiems and everye Religious place collegs and Churches.
History of England by Polydore Vergil Book 26 Henry VII Chapter 40. While staying at Exeter, the king scarcely imagined he had conquered or had removed all occasion for rebellion, unless he were to lay his hands on Peter, the head man of that plague. First he surrounded the asylum by two squadrons of horse so that no hope of escape would remain for Peter. Then, proposing a pardon and amnesty for everything he had done, he sent trusty messengers to make trial of the young man, to see if he would submit. Peter, now lacking in hope, lacking a home, lacking a fortune, when he saw he was enmeshed in these supreme difficulties because he was relying on that desperadoes’ refuge, and calculated that all future ability gain to success had slipped through his hands, and had heard that a pardon was being offered, at length, relying on the faith of the nation, voluntarily came out of the asylum, and placed himself in Henry’s power. And so this great rising was suddenly put down. Having waged this war with success and wonderfully happy, the king went to London. Wherever he went, men came running to have a look at Peter, a source of wonderment for everybody. For he, a foreign-born man relying on nothing else but the recommendation of his betters (although it was proclaimed otherwise), had dared cause trouble for such a great kingdom with his pranks and by his wily schemes, and had led so many people and sovereigns to believe the lies he had said about himself, not without their great harm.
Hall's Chronicle Henry VII 7th Year Aug 1491. Whiche (as the kynge certefied the Mayre of London by hys letters the. ix. daye of Novembre) amounted to the summe of. vii.C.xlv.M. ducates, whiche is in sterlynge money. i.C. Ixxxvi.M.ii.C.I./, and also should yerely for a certayne space paye or cause to be paide for the money that the kynge of England had sent and expended in the tuycio & aide of the Britones. xxv.M. crounes, which yerely tribute, y Freeh kynge afterwarde vexed and troubled with the warres of Italy, ye rely satisfied, contented and payde, euen to the tyme of hys sonne kynge Henry the. viii. to thentent to pay the whole duetie and tribute, and for the further coseruacion and stablishyng of the league & amitie betwene bothe the realmes.
The History of King Richard the Third by Thomas More. For hereupon, soon after, began the conspiracy, or rather good confederation, between the Duke of Buckingham and many other gentlemen against him. The occasion whereupon the King and the Duke fell out is by different folk, different ways presented. This duke, as I have for certain been informed, as soon as the Duke of Gloucester, upon the death of King Edward, came to York and there had solemn funeral service for King Edward, sent thither, in the most secret way he could, one Percival, his trusty servant, who came to John Ward, a chamber-man of like secret trust with the Duke of Gloucester, desiring that in the most close and covert manner he might be admitted to the presence and speech of his master. And the Duke of Gloucester, informed of his desire, caused him in the dead of the night, after all other folk left, to be brought unto him in his secret chamber, where Percival, after his master's recommendation, showed him what his master had secretly sent him to show him that in this new world he could take such part as he would, and Buckingham would wait upon him with a thousand good fellows if need were. The messenger, sent back with thanks and some secret instruction of the Protector's mind, yet he met him again with further message from the Duke, his master, within a few days after at Nottingham, to where the Protector from York with many gentlemen of the north country, up to the number of six hundred horse, was coming on his way to London. And after secret meeting and communication had, at once departed. Whereupon at Northampton the Duke met with the Protector himself, with three hundred horse, and from there still continued with him, partner of all his devices, such that after his coronation they departed, as it seemed, very great friends at Gloucester.
And surely the occasion of their variance is of different men differently reported. Some I have heard say that the Duke—a little before the coronation, among other things—required of the Protector the Duke of Hereford's lands, to which he pretended himself just inheritor. And forasmuch as the title that he claimed by inheritance was somewhat interlaced with the title to the crown by the line of King Henry VI, before deprived, the Protector conceived such indignation that he rejected the Duke's request with many spiteful and threatening words, which so wounded his heart with hatred and mistrust that he never after could endure to look aright on King Richard, but ever feared his own life, so far forth that when the Protector rode through London toward his coronation, he feigned himself sick because he would not ride with him. And the other, taking it in evil part, sent him word to rise and come ride, or he would make him be carried. Whereupon he rode on with evil will and, that notwithstanding, on the morrow rose from the feast feigning himself sick, and King Richard said it was done in hatred and contempt of him. And they say that ever after, continually, each of them lived in such hatred and distrust of other that the Duke verily looked to have been murdered at Gloucester, from which, nevertheless, he in fair manner departed.
But surely some right from those days' secrets deny this; and many right wise men think it unlikely (the deep dissimulating nature of both those men considered, and what need in that green world the Protector had of the Duke, and in what peril the Duke stood if he fell once in suspicion of the tyrant) that either the Protector would give the Duke occasion of displeasure, or the Duke the Protector occasion of mistrust. And men in fact think that, if King Richard had any such opinion conceived of the Duke, he would never have suffered him to escape his hands.
Very truth it is, the Duke was a high-minded man and could ill bear the glory of another, so that I have heard of some who said they saw it that the Duke, at such time as the crown was first set upon the Protector's head, his eye could not abide the sight thereof, but turned his head another way. But men say that he was, of truth, not well at ease, and that to King Richard was both well known and not ill taken, nor any demand of the Duke's discourteously rejected, but he with great gifts and high promises both, in most loving trusty manner departed at Gloucester. But soon after his coming home to Brecknock, having there in his custody by the commandment of King Richard, Doctor Morton, Bishop of Ely, who as you heard before was taken in the Council at the Tower, growing familiar with him, whose wisdom deceived his pride—to his own deliverance and the Duke's destruction.
The Bishop was a man of great natural wit, very well learned, and honorable in behavior, lacking no wise ways to win favor. He had been loyal to the part of King Henry while that part was in wealth, and nevertheless left it not, nor forsook it in woe, but fled the realm with the Queen and the Prince, and while King Edward had the King in prison, he never came home but to the battlefield. After this loss, and that part was utterly subdued, King Edward, for Morton's steadfast faith and wisdom, not only was content to receive him, but also wooed him to come and had him from thence forth both in secret trust and very special favor, in which he nothing deceived. For he was, as you have heard, after King Edward's death, first taken by the tyrant for his loyalty to the King, but found the means to turn this Duke to his plans, joining gentlemen together in the aid of King Henry, devising first the marriage between him and King Edward's daughter, by which he declared his faith and good service to both his masters at once, with infinite benefit to the realm, by the conjunction of those two bloods in one, whose several titles had long left the land without quiet. Afterwards, he fled the realm, went to Rome, never minding more to meddle with the world till the noble prince, King Henry the Seventh, got him home again, made him Archbishop of Canterbury and Chancellor of England, whereunto the Pope joined the honor of Cardinal. Thus living many days in as much honor as one man might well wish, ended them so godly that his death, with God's mercy, well changed his life.
This man, therefore, as I was about to tell you, by long and often alternate proof, as well from prosperity as adverse fortune, had gotten by great experience, the very mother and mistress of wisdom, a deep insight in political, worldly drifts.
Whereby, perceiving now this Duke glad to come with him, he fed him with fair words and many pleasant praises. And perceiving by the process of their communications the Duke's pride now and then to let slip a little outburst of envy toward the glory of the King, and thereby feeling him easy to fall out if the matter were well handled, he craftily sought the ways to prick him forward, taking always the occasion of his coming, and so keeping himself close within his bonds that he rather seemed to follow him than to lead him.
For when the Duke first began to praise and boast of the King and show how much profit the realm should take by his reign, my Lord Morton answered, "Surely, my Lord, folly it were for me to lie, for if I would swear the contrary, your Lordship would not, I know, believe it, but that, if the world would have gone as I would have wished, King Henry's son had had the crown and not King Edward. But after God had ordered him to lose it, and King Edward to reign, I was never so mad that I would with a dead man strive against the living. So was I to King Edward faithful chaplain, and glad would have been that his child had succeeded him. However, if the secret judgment of God has otherwise provided, I propose not to spurn against a spur, nor labor to set up what God pulls down. And as for the late Protector and now King...." And even there he left off, saying that he had already meddled too much with the world and would from that day meddle with his book and his beads alone, and no further.
Then longed the Duke sore to hear what he would have said because he ended with the King and there so suddenly stopped, and so exhorted him familiarly between them to be so bold to say whatsoever he thought, whereof he faithfully promised there should never come hurt and perchance more good than he would know, and that he himself intended to use his faithful, secret advice and counsel; this counsel, he said, was the only cause for which he procured of the King to have him in his custody, where he might reckon himself at home, or else had he been put in the hands of them with whom he should not have found the like favor.
The Bishop right humbly thanked him and said, "In good faith, my Lord, I love not much to talk much of princes, as things not all out of peril even though the word be without fault—forasmuch as it shall not be taken as the party meant it, but as it pleases the prince to construe it. And ever I think on Aesop's tale, that one in which the lion had proclaimed on pain of death that no horned beast should abide in that wood. Then one who had on his forehead a lump of flesh fled away at great pace. The fox who saw him run so fast asked him why he made all that haste. And he answered: 'In faith, I neither know nor care, so I were once hence because of this proclamation made about horned beasts.'
"'What, fool!' said the fox. 'Thou may abide well enough; the lion meant not thee, for it is no horn that is on your head.'
"'No, marry,' said he. 'That know I well enough. But what if he call it a horn? Where am I then?'"
"In good faith, Sir," said the Bishop, "if it did, the thing that I was about to say, taken as well as before God as I meant it, could deserve but thanks. And yet taken as I know it would, might happen to turn me to little good and you to less."
Then longed the Duke yet much more to know what it was. Whereupon the Bishop said: "In good faith, my Lord, as for the late Protector, since he is now King in possession, I propose not to dispute his title. But for the welfare of this realm, whereof his Grace has now the governance and whereof I am myself one poor member, I was about to wish that to those good abilities, whereof he has already right many, little needing my praise, it might yet have pleased God for the better store to have given him some of such other excellent virtues suitable for the rule of a realm, as our Lord has planted in the person of your Grace."
History of England by Polydore Vergil Book 26 Henry VII Chapter 37. While these things were happening elsewhere, with great congratulation King Henry gave an audience to those ambassadors of King Charles, whom I have previously recorded were kept back so as not to come to him while the Cornish business was brewing. He received an embassy from Prince Philippe of Flanders with equal friendliness, for they had come in search of friendship and a treaty, which he was most happy to grant, for this was very opportune amidst his domestic troubles. Having thus gained peace with his neighboring nations, he finally wrote a letter giving great thanks to Ferdinand and Isabella for having arranged this recent peace between himself and the King of Scots, and suitably rewarded their representative Pedro. This concord of kings occurred in the year of human salvation 1497, the twelfth of Henry’s reign. But Pedro de Ayala remained at Henry’s court, taking this occasion to arrange a betrothal between his son Arthur Prince of Wales and Ferdinand’s daughter Catherine soon thereafter, at a time and place to be decided after the girl had become nubile. I return to the King of Scots.
My Recollections by Adeline Horsey Countess Cardigan 1824 1915 Chapter IX: Deene and its History. There are many features of interest in the old house. In the Great Hall there is a blocked-up entrance to an underground passage through which despatches were carried in the Civil War; and there is a hiding-place large enough to hold twenty people. Henry VII slept at Deene, when as Earl of Richmond he rode to Bosworth Field; the room is known as " the King's Room", and the Royal arms are sculptured over the fireplace. The Tapestry Room has a fine ceiling, and is the room always reserved for Royal guests, the last visitors who occupied it being the sons of the Infanta Eulalia, Don Alphonso and his brother, who stayed at Deene in 1907. They both thoroughly enjoyed the shooting, and used to telegraph the bags to King Alfonso, who wired that he was not having anything like such good sport !
History of England by Polydore Vergil Book 26 Henry VII Chapter 39. Learning that Peter had decamped, Henry sent out horsemen in every direction to follow him and seek his capture, but he, having covered most of the distance, was not seen before he reached the asylum. But not so his captains, who were taken in mid-flight and brought to the king. And the mob, when they could not see Peter nor his captains’ standards, having no idea where he was, whether he had been killed by some trick or had fled, were unsure of what counsel to take or what was best to do. In the end, learning of his shameful flight, everybody, immediately unhinged by their common evil, their common fear, their common danger, cast aside their weapons and began to hold up their hands, and out of his kindness the king readily forgave them. Being a victor without having had a fight, he went to Exeter, where he praised the citizenry for having done its duty and extended his thanks, and while there he presided over the execution of some of the Cornishmen responsible for the recent rising. Meanwhile the king’s horsemen rode as far as St. Michael’s Mount, and there they found Peter’s wife Catherine and brought her captive to the king. Henry, marveling at the woman’s beauty, thought she was not plunder for soldiers, but worthy of an emperor, and forthwith sent her to the queen at London with an escort of honorable matrons, as a sure harbinger of the victory he had won.
History of England by Polydore Vergil Book 26 Henry VII Chapter 39. Learning of his enemies’ departure, Henry headed straight for Taunton. Duke Edward of Buckingham arrived there, a young man endowed with great spirit and virtue of character, and he was followed by a host of right noble knights with armor and all the other things requisite for warfare. In that number were Giles Briggs, Alexander Baynham, Maurice Berkeley, Robert Tames, John Guise, Robert Point, Henry Vernon, John Mortimer, Thomas Tremayle, Edward Sutton, Amyas Powlet, John Bicknell, John Sapcot, Hugh Luterell, John Wadham and his son Nicholas, John Speck, Richard Beauchamp of St. Amand, Francis Cheney, Rogerd Tokett, Thomas Long, Nicholas Lattimer, John d’Urbeville, William Storton, Roger Newberg, William Martin, Thomas Lind, Henry Rogers, Walter Hungerford, John Semery, Edward Carell, Maurice Borroughs, William Norris, John Langford, Richard Corbett, Thomas Blount, Richard Lacon, Thomas Cornwallis, and many other excellent soldiers. Meanwhile, when the king had come up, either to avoid delaying the fight or fearing the fortune of war, he sent ahead Robert Lord Broke, Richard Thomas, and Giles Daubney to begin the battle, while he followed after, so that, when he saw the battle begin, he could either come to the aid of his men or launch a simultaneous attack on the enemy rear. But the king’s plan was unnecessary. For Peter was so far from standing his ground, that after he learned the enemy were in arms, he furtively slipped away in the night and quickly fled to the asylum at Beaulieu Abbey. Whether he did this out of cowardice (with which he was well supplied), or because he suspected trickery, is not known, but it is well enough agreed that it was a good thing for the king that he was not compelled to come to blows with the Cornishmen, whose strength was so enhanced by despair that they had all determined on conquering or dying to the last man in that battle.
History of England by Polydore Vergil Book 26 Henry VII Chapter 39. Hearing the news, the king was no slower in leading an army to Exeter than the situation required. He sent ahead a goodly number of light horse to let everyone know of his approach. For meanwhile, under the leadership of Edward Courteney Earl of Devonshire and his son William, an excellent and very brave young man, every noble hastened to come to the aid of Exeter with a great company of soldiers. Among these were Thomas Trenchard, Edmund Carew, Thomas Fulford, William Courteney, John Halliwell, John Croker, Walter Courteney, Peter Edgercombe, and William St. Maurice. When these things came to Peter’s ears, he abandoned the siege and removed to Taunton, the nearest town. There he reviewed his army and drew it up for the coming battle, although it later came to light that he had no great trust in that army. A goodly part were armed only with swords, otherwise unarmed, and ignorant of how to fight.
Hall's Chronicle Henry VII 7th Year Aug 1491. In the meane ceason these newes were related to Charles the Freeh kyng, then beyng in displeasure with kyng Henry, which without delay sent for Perkyn into Irelande to the entent to sende hytn agaynste the kynge of England, whiche was inuadyng France (as you before haue heard). This Flemyng Perkyn was not a litle joyfull of thys message, thinkinge by this onely request to be exalted into heauen, when he was called to the familiarite and acquayntaunce of kynges and prynces: & so with all diligence sayled into Fraunce, with a very small nauy, not so small as smally furnished. And commynge to the kynges presence was of hyin royally accepted, and after a princely fassion entreteyned, & had a garde to hym assigned, wherof was gouernour y lord Cogreshal. And to hym at Parys resorted syr George Neuell bastard, Syr IhonTayler, Rouland Robynson and an hundred Englishe rebelles. But after that a peace, as before is sayde was appoynted and concluded betwixt him and the kynge of England, the ayde kynge Charles dismissed the younge man, and woulde no lenger kepe hym. But some men saye whiche were there attendynge on hym, that he fearynge that kyng Charles, woulde deliuer hym to the kynge of Englande, beguyled the lord Congreshall, andi fledde awaye from Parys by nyght. But whether he departed without the Frenche kynges consent or disassent, he deceaned in his expectation, and in maner in despayre, returned agayn to the lady Margaret his first foolishe foundacion.