Around 962 [his father] King Edgar "Peaceful" I of England (age 19) and [his mother] Aelfthryth Queen Consort England (age 17) were married. She by marriage Queen Consort England. She the daughter of Ordgar Earldorman Devon. He the son of King Edmund I of England and Aelfgifu of Shaftesbury Queen Consort England.
Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 978. This year was [his illegitimate half-brother] King Edward (age 16) slain, at eventide, at Corfe-gate [Map], on the fifteenth day before the calends of April. And he was buried at Wareham [Map] without any royal honour. No worse deed than this was ever done by the English nation since they first sought the land of Britain. Men murdered him but God has magnified him. He was in life an earthly king-he is now after death a heavenly saint. Him would not his earthly relatives avenge-but his heavenly father has avenged him amply. The earthly homicides would wipe out his memory from the earth-but the avenger above has spread his memory abroad in heaven and in earth. Those, Who would not before bow to his living body, now bow on their knees to His dead bones. Now we may conclude, that the wisdom of men, and their meditations, and their counsels, are as nought against the appointment of God. In this same year succeeded Ethelred Etheling (age 12), his brother, to the government; and he was afterwards very readily, and with great joy to the counsellors of England, consecrated king at Kingston [Map]. In the same year also died Alfwold, who was Bishop of Dorsetshire, and whose body lieth in the minster at Sherborn [Map].
On 18 Mar 978 [his illegitimate half-brother] Edward "Martyr" I King England (age 16) was murdered at Corfe Castle [Map] when visiting King Æthelred "Unready" II of England (age 12) and his mother [his mother] Aelfthryth Queen Consort England (age 33). He was buried in Wareham [Map] without ceremony. His brother King Æthelred "Unready" II of England (age 12) succeeded II King England.
Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 979. In this year was Ethelred (age 13) consecrated king, on the Sunday fortnight after Easter, at Kingston [Map]. And there were at his consecration two archbishops [Note. Archbishop Dunstan (age 70) and Archbishop Oswald], and ten diocesan bishops. This same year was seen a bloody welkin oft-times in the likeness of fire; and that was most apparent at midnight, and so in misty beams was shown; but when it began to dawn, then it glided away.
Around 990 [his son] King Edmund "Ironside" I of England was born to King Æthelred "Unready" II of England (age 24) and [his wife] Aelfgifu of York Queen Consort England.
Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 992. This year Oswald the blessed archbishop died, and Abbot Eadulf succeeded to York and to Worcester. And this year the king (age 26) and all his witan decreed that all the ships which were worth anything should be gathered together at London, in order that they might try if they could anywhere betrap the army from without. But Aelfric the ealdorman, one of those in whom the king had most confidence, directed the army to be warned; and in the night, as they should on the morrow have joined battle, the selfsame Aelfric fled from the forces; and then the army escaped.
Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 994. This year died Archbishop Siric: and Elfric, Bishop of Wiltshire, was chosen on Easter-day, at Amesbury [Map], by King Ethelred (age 28) and all his council. This year came Anlaf and Sweyne to London, on the Nativity of St. Mary, with four and ninety-ships. And they closely besieged the city, and would fain have set it on fire; but they sustained more harm and evil than they ever supposed that any citizens could inflict on them. The holy mother of God on that day in her mercy considered the citizens, and ridded them of their enemies. Thence they advanced, and wrought the greatest evil that ever any army could do, in burning and plundering and manslaughter, not only on the sea-coast in Essex, but in Kent and in Sussex and in Hampshire. Next they took horse, and rode as wide as they would, and committed unspeakable evil. Then resolved the king and his council to send to them, and offer them tribute and provision, on condition that they desisted from plunder. The terms they accepted; and the whole army came to Southampton [Map], and there fixed their winter-quarters; where they were fed by all the subjects of the West-Saxon kingdom. And they gave them 16,000 pounds in money. Then sent the king; after King Anlaf Bishop Elfeah and Alderman Ethelwerd;48 and, hostages being left with the ships, they led Anlaf with great pomp to the king at Andover [Map]. And King Ethelred (age 28) received him at episcopal hands, and honoured him with royal presents. In return Anlaf promised, as he also performed, that he never again would come in a hostile manner to England.
Note 48. This was probably the veteran historian of that name, who was killed in the severe encounter with the Danes at Alton (Aethelingadene) in the year 1001.
Note 49. i.e. at Canterbury. He was chosen or nominated before, by King Ethelred (age 30) and his council, at Amesbury: vid. an. 994. This notice of his consecration, which is confirmed by Florence of Worcester, is now first admitted into the text on the authority of three MSS.
Before 997 Geoffrey Penthièvre I Duke Brittany (age 17) and [his future sister-in-law] Hawise Normandy Countess Rennes were married. She by marriage Countess Rennes. She the daughter of Richard "Fearless" Normandy I Duke Normandy and Gunnora Countess Ponthieu. He the son of Conan "Crooked" Penthièvre III Duke Brittany and Ermengarde Gerberga Ingelger Duchess Brittany (age 40).
Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 999. This year came the army about again into the Thames, and went up thence along the Medway to Rochester [Map]; where the Kentish army came against them, and encountered them in a close engagement; but, alas! they too soon yielded and fled; because they had not the aid that they should have had. The Danes therefore occupied the field of battle, and, taking horse, they rode as wide as they would, spoiling and overrunning nearly all West-Kent. Then the king (age 33) with his council determined to proceed against them with sea and land forces; but as soon as the ships were ready, then arose delay from day to day, which harassed the miserable crew that lay on board; so that, always, the forwarder it should have been, the later it was, from one time to another;-they still suffered the army of their enemies to increase;-the Danes continually retreated from the sea-coast;-and they continually pursued them in vain. Thus in the end these expeditions both by sea and land served no other purpose but to vex the people, to waste their treasure, and to strengthen their enemies."
Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 1000. This year the king (age 34) went into Cumberland, and nearly laid waste the whole of it with his army, whilst his navy sailed about Chester [Map] with the design of co-operating with his land-forces; but, finding it impracticable, they ravaged Anglesey. The hostile fleet was this summer turned towards the kingdom of Richard.
Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 1001. This year there was great commotion in England in consequence of an invasion by the Danes, who spread terror and devastation wheresoever they went, plundering and burning and desolating the country with such rapidity, that they advanced in one march as far as the town of Alton [Note. Not clear whether this is Alton]; where the people of Hampshire came against them, and fought with them. There was slain Ethelwerd, high-steward of the king (age 35), and Leofric of Whitchurch, and Leofwin, high-steward of the king, and Wulfhere, a bishop's thane, and Godwin of Worthy, son of Bishop Elfsy; and of all the men who were engaged with them eighty-one. Of the Danes there was slain a much greater number, though they remained in possession of the field of battle. Thence they proceeded westward, until they came into Devonshire; where Paley came to meet them with the ships which he was able to collect; for he had shaken off his allegiance to King Ethelred (age 35), against all the vows of truth and fidelity which he had given him, as well as the presents which the king had bestowed on him in houses and gold and silver. And they burned Teignton, and also many other goodly towns that we cannot name; and then peace was there concluded with them. And they proceeded thence towards Exmouth, so that they marched at once till they came to Pin-hoo; where Cole, high-steward of the king, and Edsy, reve of the king, came against them with the army that they could collect. But they were there put to flight, and there were many slain, and the Danes had possession of the field of battle. And the next morning they burned the village of Pin-hoo, and of Clist, and also many goodly towns that we cannot name. Then they returned eastward again, till they came to the Isle of Wight [Map]. The next morning they burned the town of Waltham, and many other small towns; soon after which the people treated with them, and they made peace.
In or before 1002 [his son] Ecgberht Ætheling Wessex was born to King Æthelred "Unready" II of England (age 35) and [his wife] Aelfgifu of York Queen Consort England.
Around 1002 [his wife] Aelfgifu of York Queen Consort England died.
Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 1002. This year the king (age 36) and his council agreed that tribute should be given to the fleet, and peace made with them, with the provision that they should desist from their mischief. Then sent the king to the fleet Alderman Leofsy, who at the king's word and his council made peace with them, on condition that they received food and tribute; which they accepted, and a tribute was paid of 24,000 pounds. In the meantime Alderman Leofsy slew Eafy, high-steward of the king; and the king banished him from the land. Then, in the same Lent, came the Lady Elfgive Emma, Richard's daughter, to this land. And in the same summer died Archbishop Eadulf; and also, in the same year the king gave an order to slay all the Danes that were in England. This was accordingly done on the mass-day of St. Brice; because it was told the king, that they would beshrew him of his life, and afterwards all his council, and then have his kingdom without any resistance.
On 13 Nov 1002 King Æthelred "Unready" II of England (age 36) ordered the St Brice's Day Massacre. Its isn't clear how many died.
In 1002 King Æthelred "Unready" II of England (age 36) and Emma aka Ælfgyfu of Normandy Queen Consort England (age 17) were married. She by marriage Queen Consort England. She the daughter of Richard "Fearless" Normandy I Duke Normandy and Gunnora Countess Ponthieu. He the son of King Edgar "Peaceful" I of England and Aelfthryth Queen Consort England (age 57).
In 17 Nov 1002 [his mother] Aelfthryth Queen Consort England (age 57) died.
Around 1003 [his son] King Edward "Confessor" of England was born to King Æthelred "Unready" II of England (age 37) and [his wife] Emma aka Ælfgyfu of Normandy Queen Consort England (age 18) at Islip [Map].
Around 1004 Odo Blois II Count Blois (age 21) and [his sister-in-law] Maud Normandy Countess Blois were married. She by marriage Countess Blois. She the daughter of Richard "Fearless" Normandy I Duke Normandy and Gunnora Countess Ponthieu. He the son of Odo Blois I Count Blois and Bertha Welf Queen Consort France (age 40).
In 1004 [his daughter] Goda Wessex Countess Boulogne was born to King Æthelred "Unready" II of England (age 38) and [his wife] Emma aka Ælfgyfu of Normandy Queen Consort England (age 19).
Around 1005 [his son] Ecgberht Ætheling Wessex (age 3) died.
Around 1005 [his son] Ælfred Ætheling Wessex was born to King Æthelred "Unready" II of England (age 39) and [his wife] Emma aka Ælfgyfu of Normandy Queen Consort England (age 20).
In 1006 [his sister-in-law] Maud Normandy Countess Blois died.
Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 1006. This year Elfeah (age 53) was consecrated Archbishop; Bishop Britwald succeeded to the see of Wiltshire; Wulfgeat was deprived of all his property;51 Wulfeah and Ufgeat were deprived of sight; Alderman Elfelm was slain; and Bishop Kenulf52 departed this life. Then, over midsummer, came the Danish fleet to Sandwich [Map], and did as they were wont; they barrowed and burned and slew as they went. Then the king (age 40) ordered out all the population from Wessex and from Mercia; and they lay out all the harvest under arms against the enemy; but it availed nothing more than it had often done before. For all this the enemy went wheresoever they would; and the expedition did the people more harm than either any internal or external force could do. When winter approached, then went the army home; and the enemy retired after Martinmas to their quarters in the Isle of Wight, and provided themselves everywhere there with what they wanted. Then, about midwinter, they went to their ready farm, throughout Hampshire into Berkshire, to Reading. And they did according to their custom,-they lighted their camp-beacons as they advanced. Thence they marched to Wallingford [Map], which they entirely destroyed, and passed one night at Cholsey. They then turned along Ashdown to Cuckamsley-hill, and there awaited better cheer; for it was often said, that if they sought Cuckamsley, they would never get to the sea. But they went another way homeward. Then was their army collected at Kennet; and they came to battle there, and soon put the English force to flight; and afterwards carried their spoil to the sea. There might the people of Winchester see the rank and iniquitous foe, as they passed by their gates to the sea, fetching their meat and plunder over an extent of fifty miles from sea. Then was the king (age 40) gone over the Thames into Shropshire; and there he fixed his abode during midwinter. Meanwhile, so great was the fear of the enemy, that no man could think or devise how to drive them from the land, or hold this territory against them; for they had terribly marked each shire in Wessex with fire and devastation. Then the king (age 40) began to consult seriously with his council, what they all thought most advisable for defending this land, ere it was utterly undone. Then advised the king (age 40) and his council for the advantage of all the nation, though they were all loth to do it, that they needs must bribe the enemy with a tribute. The king (age 40) then sent to the army, and ordered it to be made known to them, that his desire was, that there should be peace between them, and that tribute and provision should be given them. And they accepted the terms; and they were provisioned throughout England.
Note 51. See a more full and circumstantial account of these events, with some variation of names, in Florence of Worcester.
Note 52. The successor of Elfeah, or Alphege, in the see of Winchester, on the translation of the latter to the archiepiscopal see of Canterbury.
In 1006 Earldorman Eadric "Streona aka Acquisitive" Mercia instigated the killing of Aelfhelm Northumbria on behalf of King Æthelred "Unready" II of England (age 40).
Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 1008. This year bade the king (age 42) that men should speedily build ships over all England; that is, a man possessed of three hundred and ten hides to provide on galley or skiff; and a man possessed of eight hides only, to find a helmet and breastplate53.
Note 53. This passage, though very important, is rather confused, from the Variations in the MSS.; so that it is difficult to ascertain the exact proportion of ships and armour which each person was to furnish. Vid. Flor." an. 1008.
Around 1008 [his son] Edgar Ætheling Wessex died.
Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 1009. This year were the ships ready, that we before spoke about; and there were so many of them as never were in England before, in any king (age 43) days, as books tell us. And they were all transported together to Sandwich [Map]; that they should lie there, and defend this land against any out-force. But we have not yet had the prosperity and the honour, that the naval armament should be useful to this land, any more than it often before was. It was at this same time, or a little earlier, that Brihtric, brother of Earldorman Eadric "Streona aka Acquisitive" Mercia, betrayed Wulnoth, the South-Saxon knight, father of Earl Godwin (age 8), to the king (age 43); and he went into exile, and enticed the navy, till he had with him twenty ships; with which he plundered everywhere by the south coast, and wrought every kind of mischief. When it was told the navy that they might easily seize him, if they would look about them, then took Brihtric with him eighty ships; and thought that he should acquire for himself much reputation, by getting Wulnoth into his hands alive or dead. But, whilst they were proceeding thitherward, there came such a wind against them, as no man remembered before; which beat and tossed the ships, and drove them aground; whereupon Wulnoth soon came, and burned them. When this was known to the remaining ships, where the king (age 43) was, how the others fared, it was then as if all were lost. The king (age 43) went home, with the aldermen and the nobility; and thus lightly did they forsake the ships; whilst the men that were in them rowed them back to London. Thus lightly did they suffer the labour of all the people to be in vain; nor was the terror lessened, as all England hoped. When this naval expedition was thus ended, then came, soon after Lammas, the formidable army of the enemy, called Thurkill's army, to Sandwich [Map]; and soon they bent their march to Canterbury, Kent [Map]; which city they would quickly have stormed, had they not rather desired peace; and all the men of East-Kent made peace with the army, and gave them 3,000 pounds for security. The army soon after that went about till they came to the Isle of Wight; and everywhere in Sussex, and in Hampshire, and also in Berkshire, they plundered and burned, as THEIR CUSTOM IS.54 Then ordered the king (age 43) to summon out all the population, that men might hold firm against them on every side; but nevertheless they marched as they pleased. On one occasion the king (age 43) had begun his march before them, as they proceeded to their ships, and all the people were ready to fall upon them; but the plan was then frustrated through Earldorman Eadric "Streona aka Acquisitive" Mercia, AS IT EVER IS STILL. Then after Martinmas they went back again to Kent, and chose their winter-quarters on the Thames; obtaining their provisions from Essex, and from the shires that were next, on both sides of the Thames. And oft they fought against the city of London; but glory be to God, that it yet standeth firm: and they ever there met with ill fare. Then after midwinter took they an excursion up through Chiltern55, and so to Oxford [Map]; which city they burned, and plundered on both sides of the Thames to their ships. Being fore-warned that there was an army gathered against them at London, they went over at Staines; and thus were they in motion all the winter, and in spring, appeared again in Kent, and repaired their ships.
Note 54. These expressions in the present tense afford a strong proof that the original records of these transactions are nearly coeval with the transactions themselves. Later MSS. use the past tense.
Note 55. i.e. the Chiltern Hills; from which the south-eastern part of Oxfordshire is called the Chiltern district.
Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 1010. This year came the aforesaid army, after Easter, into East Anglia; and went up at Ipswich [Map], marching continually till they came where they understood [his future son-in-law] Ulfcytel was with his army. This was on the day called the first of the Ascension of our Lord. The East-Angles soon fled. Cambridgeshire stood firm against them. There was slain Athelstan, the king's relative, and Oswy, and his son, and Wulfric, son of Leofwin, and Edwy, brother of Efy, and many other good thanes, and a multitude of the people. Thurkytel Myrehead first began the flight; and the Danes remained masters of the field of slaughter. There were they horsed; and afterwards took possession of East-Anglia, where they plundered and burned three months; and then proceeded further into the wild fens, slaying both men and cattle, and burning throughout the fens. Thetford [Map] also they burned, and Cambridge [Map]; and afterwards went back southward into the Thames; and the horsemen rode towards the ships. Then went they west-ward into Oxfordshire, and thence to Buckinghamshire, and so along the Ouse till they came to Bedford [Map], and so forth to Temsford, always burning as they went. Then returned they to their ships with their spoil, which they apportioned to the ships. When the king's army should have gone out to meet them as they went up, then went they home; and when they were in the east, then was the army detained in the west; and when they were in the south, then was the army in the north. Then all the privy council were summoned before the king (age 44), to consult how they might defend this country. But, whatever was advised, it stood not a month; and at length there was not a chief that would collect an army, but each fled as he could: no shire, moreover, would stand by another. Before the feast-day of St. Andrew came the enemy to Northampton [Map], and soon burned the town, and took as much spoil thereabout as they would; and then returned over the Thames into Wessex, and so by Cannings-marsh, burning all the way. When they had gone as far as they would, then came they by midwinter to their ships.
Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 1011. This year sent the king (age 45) and his council to the army, and desired peace; promising them both tribute and provisions, on condition that they ceased from plunder. They had now overrun East-Anglia, and Essex, and Middlesex, and Oxfordshire, and Cambridgeshire, and Hertfordshire, and Buckinghamshire, and Bedfordshire, and half of Huntingdonshire, and much of Northamptonshire; and, to the south of the Thames, all Kent, and Sussex, and Hastings, and Surrey, and Berkshire, and Hampshire, and much of Wiltshire. All these disasters befel us through bad counsels; that they would not offer tribute in time, or fight with them; but, when they had done most mischief, then entered they into peace and amity with them. And not the less for all this peace, and amity, and tribute, they went everywhere in troops; plundering, and spoiling, and slaying our miserable people. In this year, between the Nativity of St. Mary and Michaelmas, they beset Canterbury, Kent [Map], and entered therein through treachery; for Elfmar delivered the city to them, whose life Archbishop Elfeah (age 58) formerly saved. And there they seized Archbishop Elfeah (age 58), and Elfward the king's steward, and Abbess Leofruna56, and Bishop Godwin; and Abbot Elfmar they suffered to go away. And they took therein all the men, and husbands, and wives; and it was impossible for any man to say how many they were; and in the city they continued afterwards as long as they would. And, when they had surveyed all the city, they then returned to their ships, and led the archbishop with them. Then was a captive he who before was of England head and Christendom;- there might be seen great wretchedness, where oft before great bliss was seen, in the fated city, whence first to us came Christendom, and bliss 'fore God and 'fore the world. And the archbishop (age 58) they kept with them until the time when they martyred him.
Note 56. "Leofruna abbatissa".-Flor. The insertion of this quotation from Florence of Worcester is important, as it confirms the reading adopted in the text. The abbreviation "abbt", instead of "abb", seems to mark the abbess. She was the last abbess of St. Mildred's in the Isle of Thanet; not Canterbury, as Harpsfield and Lambard say.
Before 1013 [his son] Eadred Ætheling Wessex died.
Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 1013. The year after that Archbishop Elfeah was martyred, the king (age 47) appointed Lifing to the archiepiscopal see of Canterbury. And in the same year, before the month August, came King Sweyne (age 53) with his fleet to Sandwich [Map]; and very soon went about East-Anglia into the Humber-mouth, and so upward along the Trent, until he came to Gainsborough [Map]. Then soon submitted to him Earl Utred, and all the Northumbrians, and all the people of Lindsey, and afterwards the people of the Five Boroughs, and soon after all the army to the north of Watling-street; and hostages were given him from each shire. When he understood that all the people were subject to him, then ordered he that his army should have provision and horses; and he then went southward with his main army, committing his ships and the hostages to his son Knute (age 18). And after he came over Watling-street, they wrought the greatest mischief that any army could do. Then he went to Oxford [Map]; and the population soon submitted, and gave hostages; thence to Winchester, where they did the same. Thence went they eastward to London; and many of the party sunk in the Thames, because they kept not to any bridge. When he came to the city, the population would not submit; but held their ground in full fight against him, because therein was King Ethelred (age 47), and Thurkill with him. Then went King Sweyne (age 53) thence to Wallingford; and so over Thames westward to Bath, where he abode with his army. Thither came Alderman Ethelmar, and all the western thanes with him, and all submitted to Sweyne (age 53), and gave hostages. When he had thus settled all, then went he northward to his ships; and all the population fully received him, and considered him full king. The population of London also after this submitted to him, and gave hostages; because they dreaded that he would undo them. Then bade Sweyne (age 53) full tribute and forage for his army during the winter; and Thurkill bade the same for the army that lay at Greenwich [Map]: besides this, they plundered as oft as they would. And when this nation could neither resist in the south nor in the north, King Ethelred (age 47) abode some while with the fleet that lay in the Thames; and the [his wife] lady (age 28)57 went afterwards over sea to her brother [his brother-in-law] Richard (age 49), accompanied by Elfsy, Abbot of Peterborough. The king sent Bishop Elfun with the ethelings, [his son] Edward (age 10) and [his son] Alfred (age 8), over sea; that he might instruct them. Then went the king from the fleet, about midwinter, to the Isle of Wight [Map]; and there abode for the season; after which he went over sea to Richard (age 49), with whom he abode till the time when Sweyne (age 53) died. Whilst the lady (age 28) was with her brother (age 49) beyond sea, Elfsy, Abbot of Peterborough, who was there with her, went to the abbey called Boneval, where St. Florentine's body lay; and there found a miserable place, a miserable abbot, and miserable monks: because they had been plundered. There he bought of the abbot, and of the monks, the body of St. Florentine, all but the head, for 500 pounds; which, on his return home, he offered to Christ and St. Peter.
Note 57. This was a title bestowed on the queen.
In 1014 [his son] Æthelstan Ætheling Wessex died.
Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 1014. This year King Sweyne (age 54) ended his days at Candlemas, the third day before the nones of February; and the same year Elfwy, Bishop of York, was consecrated in London, on the festival of St. Juliana. The fleet all chose Knute (age 19) for king; whereupon advised all the counsellors of England, clergy and laity, that they should send after King Ethelred (age 48); saying, that no sovereign was dearer to them than their natural lord, if he would govern them better than he did before. Then sent the king hither his son Edward, with his messengers; who had orders to greet all his people, saying that he would be their faithful lord-would better each of those things that they disliked-and that each of the things should be forgiven which had been either done or said against him; provided they all unanimously, without treachery, turned to him. Then was full friendship established, in word and in deed and in compact, on either side. And every Danish king they proclaimed an outlaw for ever from England. Then came King Ethelred (age 48) home, in Lent, to his own people; and he was gladly received by them all. Meanwhile, after the death of Sweyne (age 54), sat Knute (age 19) with his army in Gainsborough [Map] until Easter; and it was agreed between him and the people of Lindsey, that they should supply him with horses, and afterwards go out all together and plunder. But King Ethelred (age 48) with his full force came to Lindsey before they were ready; and they plundered and burned, and slew all the men that they could reach. Knute (age 19), the son of Sweyne (age 54), went out with his fleet (so were the wretched people deluded by him), and proceeded southward until he came to Sandwich [Map]. There he landed the hostages that were given to his father, and cut off their hands and ears and their noses. Besides all these evils, the king ordered a tribute to the army that lay at Greenwich [Map], of 21,000 pounds. This year, on the eve of St. Michael's day, came the great sea-flood, which spread wide over this land, and ran so far up as it never did before, overwhelming many towns, and an innumerable multitude of people.
On 03 Feb 1014 Sweyn "Forkbeard" King Denmark King Norway King England (age 54) died. His son Harald King Denmark succeeded King Denmark. There was a dispute as to who succeeded to the Kingdom of England with some supporting King Æthelred "Unready" II of England (age 48) and some King Canute of England (age 19).
Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 1015. This year was the great council at Oxford [Map]; where Earldorman Eadric "Streona aka Acquisitive" Mercia betrayed Sigferth and Morcar, the eldest thanes belonging to the Seven Towns. He allured them into his bower, where they were shamefully slain. Then the king took all their possessions, and ordered the widow of Sigferth to be secured, and brought within Malmsbury [Map]. After a little interval, [his son] Edmund Etheling (age 25) went and seized her, against the king's (age 49) will, and had her to wife. Then, before the Nativity of St. Mary, went the etheling west-north into the Five Towns58, and soon plundered all the property of Sigferth and Morcar; and all the people submitted to him. At the same time came King Knute (age 20) to Sandwich [Map], and went soon all about Kent into Wessex, until he came to the mouth of the Frome; and then plundered in Dorset, and in Wiltshire, and in Somerset. King Ethelred (age 49), meanwhile, lay sick at Corsham, Wiltshire; and Earldorman Eadric "Streona aka Acquisitive" Mercia collected an army there, and Edmund the etheling (age 25) in the north. When they came together, the alderman designed to betray Edmund the etheling (age 25), but he could not; whereupon they separated without an engagement, and sheered off from their enemies. Earldorman Eadric "Streona aka Acquisitive" Mercia then seduced forty ships from the king, and submitted to Knute (age 20). The West-Saxons also submitted, and gave hostages, and horsed the army. And he continued there until midwinter.
Note 58. The "seven" towns mentioned above are reduced here to "five"; probably because two had already submitted to the king on the death of the two thanes, Sigferth and Morcar. These five were, as originally, Leicester, Lincoln, Stamford, Nottingham, and Derby. Vid. an. 942, 1013.
Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 1016. This year came King Knute (age 21) with a marine force of one hundred and sixty ships, and Earldorman Eadric "Streona aka Acquisitive" Mercia with him, over the Thames into Mercia at Cricklade, Wiltshire [Map]; whence they proceeded to Warwickshire, during the middle of the winter, and plundered therein, and burned, and slew all they met. Then began [his son] Edmund the etheling (age 26) to gather an army, which, when it was collected, could avail him nothing, unless the king (age 50) were there and they had the assistance of the citizens of London. The expedition therefore was frustrated, and each man betook himself home. After this, an army was again ordered, under full penalties, that every person, however distant, should go forth; and they sent to the king (age 50) in London, and besought him to come to meet the army with the aid that he could collect. When they were all assembled, it succeeded nothing better than it often did before; and, when it was told the king, that those persons would betray him who ought to assist him, then forsook he the army, and returned again to London. Then rode Edmund the etheling (age 26) to Earl Utred in Northumbria; and every man supposed that they would collect an army King Knute (age 21); but they went into Stafforddhire, and to Shrewsbury [Map], and to Chester [Map]; and they plundered on their parts, and Knute (age 21) on his. He went out through Buckinghamshire to Bedfordshire; thence to Huntingdonshire, and so into Northamptonshire along the fens to Stamford [Map]. Thence into Lincolnshire. Thence to Nottinghamshire; and so into Northumbria toward York [Map]. When Utred understood this, he ceased from plundering, and hastened northward, and submitted for need, and all the Northumbrians with him; but, though he gave hostages, he was nevertheless slain by the advice of Earldorman Eadric "Streona aka Acquisitive" Mercia, and Thurkytel, the son of Nafan, with him. After this, King Knute (age 21) appointed Eric earl over Northumbria, as Utred was; and then went southward another way, all by west, till the whole army came, before Easter, to the ships. Meantime Edmund Etheling (age 26) went to London to his father (age 50): and after Easter went King Knute (age 21) with all his ships toward London; but it happened that King Ethelred (age 50) died ere the ships came. He ended his days on St. George's day; having held his kingdom in much tribulation and difficulty as long as his life continued.
Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 1017. This year King Knute (age 22) took to the whole government of England, and divided it into four parts: Wessex for himself, East-Anglia for Thurkyll, Mercia for Edric, Northumbria for Eric. This year also was Earldorman Eadric "Streona aka Acquisitive" Mercia slain at London, and Norman, son of Alderman Leofwin, and Ethelward, son of Ethelmar the Great, and Britric, son of Elfege of Devonshire. King Knute (age 22) also banished [his son] Edwy etheling, whom he afterwards ordered to be slain, and Edwy, king of the churls; and before the calends of August the king gave an order to fetch him the [his former wife] widow (age 32) of the other king, Ethelred, the daughter of Richard (age 53), to wife.
Around Aug 1017 King Canute of England (age 22) and [his former wife] Emma aka Ælfgyfu of Normandy Queen Consort England (age 32) were married. She the daughter of Richard "Fearless" Normandy I Duke Normandy and Gunnora Countess Ponthieu. He the son of Sweyn "Forkbeard" King Denmark King Norway King England.
On 06 Mar 1052 [his former wife] Emma aka Ælfgyfu of Normandy Queen Consort England (age 67) died.
[his daughter] Unamed Wessex Abbess Wherwell was born to King Æthelred "Unready" II of England and Aelfgifu of York Queen Consort England.
[his daughter] Eadgyth or Edith Wessex was born to King Æthelred "Unready" II of England and Aelfgifu of York Queen Consort England.
[his son] Edgar Ætheling Wessex was born to King Æthelred "Unready" II of England and Aelfgifu of York Queen Consort England. His sobriquet Ætheling means Prince.
[his son] Æthelstan Ætheling Wessex was born to King Æthelred "Unready" II of England and Aelfgifu of York Queen Consort England.
[his son] Eadwig Ætheling Wessex was born to King Æthelred "Unready" II of England and Aelfgifu of York Queen Consort England. His sobriquet Ætheling means Prince.
[his daughter] Aelfgifu Wessex was born to King Æthelred "Unready" II of England and Aelfgifu of York Queen Consort England.
[his daughter] Wulfhilda Wessex was born to King Æthelred "Unready" II of England and Aelfgifu of York Queen Consort England.
[his son] Eadred Ætheling Wessex was born to King Æthelred "Unready" II of England and Aelfgifu of York Queen Consort England is sobriquet Ætheling means Prince.
Kings Wessex: Son of King Edgar "Peaceful" I of England
Great x 1 Grandfather: King Edward "Elder" of the Anglo Saxons
GrandFather: King Edmund I of England
Great x 1 Grandmother: Eadgifu Kent Queen Anglo Saxons
GrandMother: Aelfgifu of Shaftesbury Queen Consort England