Biography of King Æthelred "Unready" II of England 966-1016

Paternal Family Tree: Wessex

959 Death of King Eadwig

975 Death of King Edgar Peaceful

978 Murder of King Edward the Martyr

978 Coronation of King Æthelred

1001 First Battle of Alton

1002 St. Brice's Day Massacre

1010 Battle of Ringmere

1012-Siege of Canterbury

1014 Death of King Sweyn "Forkbeard"

1016 Death of King Æthelred "Unready"

1017 Marriage of Canute and Emma of Normandy

Death of King Eadwig

On 01 Oct 959 [his uncle] Eadwig "All Fair" I King England died. He was buried at Winchester, Hampshire [Map]. His brother [his father] King Edgar "Peaceful" I of England (age 16) succeeded I King England.

Before 962 Æthelwald Ealdorman of East Anglia and [his mother] Aelfthryth Queen Consort England (age 16) were married. She the daughter of Ordgar Earldorman Devon. He the son of Æthelstan Half King.

Around 962 [his father] King Edgar "Peaceful" I of England (age 19) and [his mother] Aelfthryth Queen Consort England (age 17) were married. She by marriage Queen Consort England. She the daughter of Ordgar Earldorman Devon. He the son of King Edmund I of England and Aelfgifu of Shaftesbury Queen Consort England.

Around 966 King Æthelred "Unready" II of England was born to King Edgar "Peaceful" I of England (age 23) and Aelfthryth Queen Consort England (age 21).

William of Malmesbury Book 2 Chapter 9. 975In the year of our Lord 975, [his illegitimate half-brother] Edward (age 13) the son of Edgar (age 32) began to reign, and enjoyed the sovereignty for three years and a half. Dunstan (age 66), in common consent with the other bishops, elevated him to the royal dignity, in opposition, as it is said, to the will of some of the nobility, and of his [his mother] stepmother (age 30); who was anxious to advance her son Ethelred (age 9), a child scarcely seven years of age, in order that herself might govern under colour of his name. Then, from the increasing malice of men, the happiness of the kingdom was impaired; then too, comets were seen, which were asserted certainly to portend either pestilence to the inhabitants, or a change in the government. Nor was it long ere there followed a scarcity of corn; famine among men; murrain among cattle; and an extraordinary accident at a royal town called Calne. For as soon as Edgar (age 32) was dead, the secular canons who had been for some time expelled their monasteries, rekindled the former feuds, alleging, that it was a great and serious disgrace, for new comers to drive the ancient inmates from their dwellings; that it could not be esteemed grateful to God, who had granted them their ancient habitations: neither could it be so to any considerate man, who might dread that injustice as likely to befall himself, which he had seen overtake others. Hence they proceeded to clamour and rage, and hastened to Dunstan (age 66); the principal people, as is the custom of the laity, exclaiming more especially, that the injury which the canons had wrongfully suffered, ought to be redressed by gentler measures. Moreover, one of them, Elferius, with more than common audacity, had even overturned almost all the monasteries which that highly revered monk Ethelwold, bishop of Winchester (age 71), had built throughout Mercia. On this account a full synod being convened, they first assembled at Winchester. What was the issue of the contest of that place, other writings declare;1 relating, that the image of our Saviour, speaking decidedly, confounded the canons and their party. But men's minds being not yet at rest on the subject, a council was called at Calne; where, when all the senators of England, the king being absent on account of his youth, had assembled in an upper chamber, and the business was agitated with much animosity and debate; while the weapons of harsh reproach were directed against that firmest bulwark of the church, I mean Dunstan (age 66), but could not shake it; and men of every rank were earnestly defending their several sides of the question; the floor with its beams and supporters gave way suddenly and fell to the ground. All fell with it except Dunstan (age 66), who alone escaped unhurt by standing on a single rafter which retained its position: the rest were either killed, or subjected to lasting infirmity. This miracle procured the archbishop peace on the score of the canons; all the English, both at that time and afterwards, yielding to his sentiments.

Note 1. When the question was agitated, whether the monks should be supported or the canons restored, the crucifix is said to have exclaimed, "Far be it from you: you have done well; to change again would be wrong". See Edmer, and Osberne, Angl. Sacra, ii. 219, 112.

Death of King Edgar Peaceful

On 08 Jul 975 [his father] King Edgar "Peaceful" I of England (age 32) died at Winchester, Hampshire [Map]. He was buried in Glastonbury Abbey [Map]. His son [his illegitimate half-brother] King Edward "Martyr" I of England (age 13) succeeded I King England.

Murder of King Edward the Martyr

William of Malmesbury Book 2 Chapter 9. 18 Mar 978. Meanwhile [his illegitimate half-brother] king Edward (age 16) conducted himself with becoming affection to his infant brother (age 12) and his [his mother] step-mother (age 33); he retained only the name of king, and gave them the power; following the footsteps of his father's piety, and giving both his attention and his heart to good council. The woman (age 33), however, with that hatred which a step-mother only can entertain, began to meditate a subtle stratagem, in order that not even the title of king might be wanting to her child, and to lay a treacherous snare for her son-in-law [step-son], which she accomplished in the following manner. He was returning home, tired with the chase and gasping with thirst from the exercise, while his companions were following the dogs in different directions as it happened, when hearing that they dwelt in a neighbouring mansion, the youth proceeded thither at full speed, unattended and unsuspecting, as he judged of others by his own feelings. On his arrival, alluring him to her with female blandishment, she made him lean forward, and after saluting him while he was eagerly drinking from the cup which had been presented, the dagger of an attendant pierced him through. Dreadfully wounded, with all his remaining strength he clapped spurs to his horse in order to join his companions; when one foot slipping, he was dragged by the other through the trackless paths and recesses of the wood, while the streaming blood gave evidence of his death to his followers. Moreover, they then commanded him to be ingloriously interred at Wareham; envying him even holy ground when dead, as they had envied him his royal dignity while living. They now publicly manifested their extreme joy as if they had buried his memory with his body; but God's all-seeing eye was there, who ennobled the innocent victim by the glory of miracles. So much is human outweighed by heavenly judgment. For there lights were shown from above; there the lame walked; there the dumb resumed his fticulty of speech; there every malady gave way to health. The fame of this pervading all England, proclaimed the merits of the martyr. The murderess excited by it, attempted a progress thither; and was already urging forward the horse slie had mounted, when she perceived the manifest anger of God; for the same creature which she had heretofore constantly ridden, and which was used to outstrip the very wind in speed, now by command of God, stood motionless. The attendants, both with whips and clamours, urged him forward that he might carry his noble mistress with his usual readiness; but their labour was in vain. They changed the horse; and the same circumstance recurred. Her obdurate heart, though late, perceived the meaning of the miracle; wherefore, what she was not herself permitted to do, she suffered to be performed by another: for that Elferius, whom I before blamed for destroying the monasteries, repenting of his rashness, and being deeply distressed in mind, took up the sacred corpse from its unworthy burial-place, and paid it just and distinguished honours at Shaftesbury [Map]. He did not escape unpunished, however, for, within a year afterwards, he was eaten of the vermin which we call lice. Moreover, since a mind unregulated is a torment to itself, and a restless spirit endures its own peculiar punishment in this life, Elfthrida declining from her regal pride, became extremely penitent; so that at Werewell [Map], for many years, she clothed her pampered body in hair-cloth, slept at night upon the ground without a pillow; and mortified her flesh with every kind of penance. She was a beautiful woman; singularly faithful to her husband; but deserving punishment from the commission of so great a crime. It is believed and commonly reported, that from her violence to Edward, the country for a long time after groaned under the yoke of barbarian servitude.

On 18 Mar 978 [his illegitimate half-brother] King Edward "Martyr" I of England (age 16) was murdered at Corfe Castle, Dorset [Map] when visiting his younger half-brother Æthelred (age 12) and his [Æthelred's] mother [his mother] Aelfthryth (age 33). He was buried in Wareham, Dorset [Map] without ceremony. His half brother King Æthelred "Unready" II of England (age 12) succeeded II King England.

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 978. This year was [his illegitimate half-brother] King Edward (age 16) slain, at eventide, at Corfe-gate [Map], on the fifteenth day before the calends of April. And he was buried at Wareham, Dorset [Map] without any royal honour. No worse deed than this was ever done by the English nation since they first sought the land of Britain. Men murdered him but God has magnified him. He was in life an earthly king-he is now after death a heavenly saint. Him would not his earthly relatives avenge-but his heavenly father has avenged him amply. The earthly homicides would wipe out his memory from the earth-but the avenger above has spread his memory abroad in heaven and in earth. Those, Who would not before bow to his living body, now bow on their knees to His dead bones. Now we may conclude, that the wisdom of men, and their meditations, and their counsels, are as nought against the appointment of God. In this same year succeeded Ethelred Etheling (age 12), his brother, to the government; and he was afterwards very readily, and with great joy to the counsellors of England, consecrated king at Kingston [Map]. In the same year also died Alfwold, who was Bishop of Dorsetshire, and whose body lieth in the minster at Sherborn [Map].

Coronation of King Æthelred

Florence of Worcester Continuation. 14 Apr 978. His brother Ethelred (age 12), the illustrious etheling, a youth of graceful manners, handsome countenance, and fine person, was on the Sunday after Easter, the eighteenth of the calends of May in the sixth indiction, crowned and consecrated king by archbishops Dunstan (age 69) and Oswald, and ten bishops, at Kingston [Map].

William of Malmesbury Book 2 Chapter 9. 979. In the year of our Lord's incarnation 979, Ethelred (age 13), son of Edgar and Elfthrida (age 34), obtaining the kingdom, occupied, rather than governed it for thirty-seven years. The career of his life is said to have been cruel in the beginning, wretched in the middle, and disgraceful in the end. Thus, in the murder to which he gave his concurrence, he was cruel; base in his flight, and effeminacy; miserable in his death. Dunstan (age 70), indeed, had foretold his worthlessness, having discovered it by a very filthy token: for when quite an infant, the bishops standing round, as he was immersed in the baptismal font, he defiled the sacrament by a natural evacuation: at which Dunstan (age 70), being extremely angered, exclaimed, "By God, and his mother, this will be a sorry fellow". I have read, that when he was ten years of age, hearing it noised abroad that his brother was killed, he so irritated his furious mother (age 34) by his weeping, that not having a whip at hand, she beat the little innocent with some candles she had snatched up: nor did she desist, till herself bedewed him, nearly lifeless, with her tears. On this account he dreaded candles during the rest of his life, to such a degree that he would never suffer the light of them to be brought into his presence. The nobility being assembled by the contrivance of his mother, and the day appointed for Dunstan (age 70), in right of his see, to crown him, he, though he might be ill-affected to them, forbore to resist, being a prelate of mature age, and long versed in secular matters. But, when placing the crown on his head he could not refrain from giving vent with a loud voice, to that prophetic spirit which he had so deeply imbibed. "Since", said he, "thou hast aspired to the kingdom by the death of thy brother, hear the word of God; thus saith the Lord God: the sin of thy abandoned mother (age 34), and of the accomplices of her base design, shall not be washed out but by much blood of the wretched inhabitants; and such evils shall come upon the English nation as they have never suffered from the time they came to England until then". Nor was it long after, that is, in his third year, that seven piratical vessels came to Southampton, a port near Winchester, and having ravaged the coast fled back to the sea: this I think right to mention because many reports are circulated among the English, concerning these vessels.

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 979. In this year was Ethelred (age 13) consecrated king, on the Sunday fortnight after Easter, at Kingston [Map]. And there were at his consecration two archbishops [Note. Archbishop Dunstan (age 70) and Archbishop Oswald], and ten diocesan bishops. This same year was seen a bloody welkin oft-times in the likeness of fire; and that was most apparent at midnight, and so in misty beams was shown; but when it began to dawn, then it glided away.

William of Malmesbury Book 2 Chapter 9. After 979. A quarrel between the king (age 13) and the bishop of Rochester had arisen from some unknown cause; in consequence of which he led an army against that city. It was signified to him by the archbishop, that he should desist from his fury, and not irritate St. Andrew, under whose guardianship that bishopric was; for as he was ever ready to pardon, so was he equally formidable to avenge. This simple message being held in contempt, he graced the intimation with money, and sent him a hundred pounds, as a bribe, that he should raise the siege and retire. He therefore took the money, retreated, and dismissed his army. Dunstan (age 70), astonished at his avarice, sent messengers to him with the following words, "Since you have preferred silver to God, money to the apostle, and covetousness to me; the evils which God has pronounced will shortly come upon you; but they will not come while I live, for this also hath God spoken". Soon after the death of this holy man, which was in the tenth year of his reign, the predictions speedily began to be fulfilled, and the prophecies to have their consummation. For the Danes infested every port, and made descents on all sides with great activity, so that it was not known where they could be opposed. But Siric, the second archbishop after Dunstan (age 70), advised that money should repel those whom the sword could not: thus a payment of ten thousand pounds satisfied the avarice of the Danes. This was an infamous precedent, and totally unworthy the character of men, to redeem liberty, which no violence can ever extirpate from a noble mind, by money. They now indeed abstained a short time from their incursions; but as soon as their strength was recruited by rest, they returned to their old practices. Such extreme fear had seized the English, that there was no thought of resistance: if any indeed, mindful of their ancient glory, made an attempt to oppose, or engage them, they were unsuccessful, from the multitude of their enemies, and the desertion of their allies. The leader of revolt was one Elfric, whom the king had appointed to command the fleet: he, instead of trying his fortune, as he ought, in a naval conflict, went over, on the night preceding the battle, a base deserter to the enemy, whom he had apprised, by messengers, what preparations to make; and though the king, for this perfidious crime, ordered his son's eyes to be put out, yet he returned again, and again deserted. All Northumbria being laid waste, the enemy was met in battle and worsted. London was besieged, but honourably defended by its citizens. In consequence, the besiegers, after suffering severely and despairing of taking the city, retired; and devastating the whole province to the eastward, compelled the king to pay a sum of money amounting to sixteen thousand pounds. Moreover, hostages being given, he caused their king Anlaf to come to him, stood for him at the font, and soothing him with royal munificence, bound him by an oath that he should never return into England again. The evil however was not thus put to rest. For they could never provide against their enemies from Denmark, springing up afresh, like the heads of the hydra. The province in the west of England, called Devonshire, was laid waste; the monasteries destroyed; and the city of Exeter set on fire: Kent was given up to plunder; the metropolitan city and seat of the patriarchs, burnt; the holy patriarch himself, the most reverend Elphege (age 26), carried away and bound in chains: and at last, when required to plunder his tenants in order to ransom himself, and refusing to do so, he was stoned, struck with a hatchet, and glorified heaven with his soul. After he was murdered, God exalted him; insomuch, that when the Danes, who had been instrumental to his death, saw that dead wood besmeared with his blood miraculously grew green again in one night, they ran eagerly to kiss his remains, and to bear them on their shoulders. Thus they abated their usual pride, and suffered his sacred corpse to be carried to London. There it was honorably buried; and when taken up, ten years afterwards, free from every taint of corruption, it conferred honour on his cathedral at Canterbury.1 To the present moment both its blood remains fresh, and its soundness unimpaired, and it is considered a miracle, that a carcass should be divested of life, and yet not decay. That I may not be tedious in mentioning severally all the provinces which the Danes laid waste, let it be briefly understood, that out of thirty-two counties, which are reckoned in England, they had already overrun sixteen; the names of which I forbear to enumerate on account of the harshness of the language. In the meantime, the king, admirably calculated for sleeping, did nothing but postpone and hesitate, and if ever he recovered his senses enough to raise himself upon his elbow, he quickly relapsed into his original wretchedness, either from the oppression of indolence, or the adverseness of fortune. His brother's ghost also, demanding dire expiation, tormented him.

Note 1. The life of Elphege, by Osberne, is in the Anglia Sacra, ii. 122.

Around 985 King Æthelred "Unready" II of England (age 19) and Aelfgifu of York Queen Consort England were married. She by marriage Queen Consort England. She the daughter of Thored Northumbria. He the son of King Edgar "Peaceful" I of England and Aelfthryth Queen Consort England (age 40).

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 986. This year the king (age 20) invaded the bishopric of Rochester [Map]; and this year came first the great murrain of cattle in England.

Around 990 [his son] King Edmund "Ironside" I of England was born to King Æthelred "Unready" II of England (age 24) and [his wife] Aelfgifu of York Queen Consort England.

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 992. This year Oswald the blessed archbishop died, and Abbot Eadulf succeeded to York and to Worcester. And this year the king (age 26) and all his witan decreed that all the ships which were worth anything should be gathered together at London, in order that they might try if they could anywhere betrap the army from without. But Aelfric the ealdorman, one of those in whom the king had most confidence, directed the army to be warned; and in the night, as they should on the morrow have joined battle, the selfsame Aelfric fled from the forces; and then the army escaped.

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 994. This year died Archbishop Siric: and Elfric, Bishop of Wiltshire, was chosen on Easter-day, at Amesbury [Map], by King Ethelred (age 28) and all his council. This year came Anlaf and Sweyne to London, on the Nativity of St. Mary, with four and ninety-ships. And they closely besieged the city, and would fain have set it on fire; but they sustained more harm and evil than they ever supposed that any citizens could inflict on them. The holy mother of God on that day in her mercy considered the citizens, and ridded them of their enemies. Thence they advanced, and wrought the greatest evil that ever any army could do, in burning and plundering and manslaughter, not only on the sea-coast in Essex, but in Kent and in Sussex and in Hampshire. Next they took horse, and rode as wide as they would, and committed unspeakable evil. Then resolved the king and his council to send to them, and offer them tribute and provision, on condition that they desisted from plunder. The terms they accepted; and the whole army came to Southampton, Hampshire [Map], and there fixed their winter-quarters; where they were fed by all the subjects of the West-Saxon kingdom. And they gave them 16,000 pounds in money. Then sent the king; after King Anlaf Bishop Elfeah and Alderman Ethelwerd;48 and, hostages being left with the ships, they led Anlaf with great pomp to the king at Andover, Hampshire [Map]. And King Ethelred (age 28) received him at episcopal hands, and honoured him with royal presents. In return Anlaf promised, as he also performed, that he never again would come in a hostile manner to England.

Note 48. This was probably the veteran historian of that name, who was killed in the severe encounter with the Danes at Alton (Aethelingadene) in the year 1001.

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 996. This year was Elfric consecrated archbishop at Christ church.49

Note 49. i.e. at Canterbury. He was chosen or nominated before, by King Ethelred (age 30) and his council, at Amesbury: vid. an. 994. This notice of his consecration, which is confirmed by Florence of Worcester, is now first admitted into the text on the authority of three MSS.

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 999. This year came the army about again into the Thames, and went up thence along the Medway to Rochester, Kent [Map]; where the Kentish army came against them, and encountered them in a close engagement; but, alas! they too soon yielded and fled; because they had not the aid that they should have had. The Danes therefore occupied the field of battle, and, taking horse, they rode as wide as they would, spoiling and overrunning nearly all West-Kent. Then the king (age 33) with his council determined to proceed against them with sea and land forces; but as soon as the ships were ready, then arose delay from day to day, which harassed the miserable crew that lay on board; so that, always, the forwarder it should have been, the later it was, from one time to another;-they still suffered the army of their enemies to increase;-the Danes continually retreated from the sea-coast;-and they continually pursued them in vain. Thus in the end these expeditions both by sea and land served no other purpose but to vex the people, to waste their treasure, and to strengthen their enemies."

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 1000. This year the king (age 34) went into Cumberland, and nearly laid waste the whole of it with his army, whilst his navy sailed about Chester [Map] with the design of co-operating with his land-forces; but, finding it impracticable, they ravaged Anglesey. The hostile fleet was this summer turned towards the kingdom of Richard.

First Battle of Alton

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 1001. This year there was great commotion in England in consequence of an invasion by the Danes, who spread terror and devastation wheresoever they went, plundering and burning and desolating the country with such rapidity, that they advanced in one march as far as the town of Alton [Note. Not clear whether this is Alton, Hampshire]; where the people of Hampshire came against them, and fought with them. There was slain Ethelwerd, high-steward of the king (age 35), and Leofric of Whitchurch, and Leofwin, high-steward of the king, and Wulfhere, a bishop's thane, and Godwin of Worthy, son of Bishop Elfsy; and of all the men who were engaged with them eighty-one. Of the Danes there was slain a much greater number, though they remained in possession of the field of battle. Thence they proceeded westward, until they came into Devonshire; where Paley came to meet them with the ships which he was able to collect; for he had shaken off his allegiance to King Ethelred (age 35), against all the vows of truth and fidelity which he had given him, as well as the presents which the king had bestowed on him in houses and gold and silver. And they burned Teignton, and also many other goodly towns that we cannot name; and then peace was there concluded with them. And they proceeded thence towards Exmouth, Devon, so that they marched at once till they came to Pin-hoo; where Cole, high-steward of the king, and Edsy, reve of the king, came against them with the army that they could collect. But they were there put to flight, and there were many slain, and the Danes had possession of the field of battle. And the next morning they burned the village of Pin-hoo, and of Clist, and also many goodly towns that we cannot name. Then they returned eastward again, till they came to the Isle of Wight [Map]. The next morning they burned the town of Waltham, and many other small towns; soon after which the people treated with them, and they made peace.

In or before 1002 [his son] Ecgberht Ætheling Wessex was born to King Æthelred "Unready" II of England (age 35) and [his wife] Aelfgifu of York Queen Consort England.

In 1002 King Æthelred "Unready" II of England (age 36) and Emma aka Ælfgyfu of Normandy Queen Consort England (age 17) were married. She by marriage Queen Consort England. She the daughter of Richard "Fearless" Normandy I Duke Normandy and Gunnora Countess Ponthieu. He the son of King Edgar "Peaceful" I of England and Aelfthryth Queen Consort England (age 57).

St. Brice's Day Massacre

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 1002. This year the king (age 36) and his council agreed that tribute should be given to the fleet, and peace made with them, with the provision that they should desist from their mischief. Then sent the king to the fleet Alderman Leofsy, who at the king's word and his council made peace with them, on condition that they received food and tribute; which they accepted, and a tribute was paid of 24,000 pounds. In the meantime Alderman Leofsy slew Eafy, high-steward of the king; and the king banished him from the land. Then, in the same Lent, came the Lady Elfgive Emma, Richard's daughter, to this land. And in the same summer died Archbishop Eadulf; and also, in the same year the king gave an order to slay all the Danes that were in England. This was accordingly done on the mass-day of St. Brice; because it was told the king, that they would beshrew him of his life, and afterwards all his council, and then have his kingdom without any resistance.

On 13 Nov 1002 King Æthelred "Unready" II of England (age 36) ordered the St Brice's Day Massacre. Its isn't clear how many died.

William of Malmesbury Book 2 Chapter 9. 13 Nov 1002. For, besides the English, whom he King Æthelred (age 36) despoiled of their hereditary possessions without any cause, or defrauded of their property for supposititious crimes: besides the Danes, whom, from light suspicion only, he ordered to be all butchered [St. Brice's Day Massacre] on the same day throughout England; which was a dreadful spectacle to behold; each one compelled to betray his dearest guests, now become dearer from the tenderest connexions of affinity, and to cut short their embraces with the sword: yet besides all this, I say, he was so inconstant towards his wife [[his wife] Emma aka Ælfgyfu of Normandy Queen Consort England (age 17)], that he scarcely deigned her his bed, and degraded the royal dignity by his intercourse with harlots. She too, a woman, conscious of her high descent, became indignant at her husband, as she found herself endeared to him neither by her blameless modesty nor her fruitfulness; for she had borne him two children, Elfred and Edward. She was the daughter of Richard, earl of Normandy, the son of William, who, after his father, presided over that earldom for fifty-two years, and died in the twenty-eighth year of this king. He lies at the monastery of Fescamp, which he augmented with certain revenues, and which he adorned with a monastic order, by means of William, formerly abbat of Dijon. Richard was a distinguished character, and had also often harassed Ethelred: which, when it became known at Rome, the holy see, not enduring that two Christians should be at enmity, sent Leo, bishop of Treves, into England, to restore peace: the epistle describing this legation was as follows:- "John the fifteenth, pope of the holy Roman church, to all faithful people, health. Be it known to all the faithful of the holy mother church, and our children spiritual and secular, dispersed through the several climates of the world, that inasmuch as we had been informed by many of the enmity between Ethelred, king of the West-Saxons, and Richard the marquis, and were grieved sorely at this, on account of our spiritual children; taking, therefore, wholesome counsel, we summoned one of our legates, Leo, bishop of the holy church of Treves, and sent him with our letters, admonishing them, that they should return from their ungodliness. He, passing vast spaces, at length crossed the sea, and, on the day of the Lord's nativity, came into the presence of the said king; whom, having saluted on our part, he delivered to him the letters we had sent. And all the faithful people of his kingdom, and senators of either order, being summoned, he granted, for love and fear of God Almighty, and of St. Peter, the chief of the apostles, and on account of our paternal admonition, the firmest peace for all his sons and daughters, present and future, and all his faithful people, without deceit. On which account he sent Edelsin, prelate of the holy church of Sherborne, and Leofstan, son of Alfwold, and Edelnoth, son of Wulstan, who passed the maritime boundaries, and came to Richard, the said marquis. He, peaceably receiving our admonitions, and hearing the determination of the said king, readily confirmed the peace for his sons and daughters, present and future, and for all his faithful people, with this reasonable condition, that if any of their subjects, or they themselves, should commit any injustice against each other, it should be duly redressed; and that peace should remain for ever unshaken and confirmed by the oath of both parties: on the part of king Ethelred, to wit, Edelsin, prelate of the holy church of Sherborne; Leofstan, the son of Alfwold; Edelnoth, the son of Wulstan. On the part of Richard, Roger, the bishop; Rodolph, son of Hugh; Truteno, the son of Thurgis. "Done at Rouen, on the kalends of March, in the year of our Lord 991, the fourth of the indiction. Moreover, of the king's subjects, or of his enemies, let Richard receive none, nor the king of his, without their respective seals".

Around 1002 [his wife] Aelfgifu of York Queen Consort England died.

In 17 Nov 1002 [his mother] Aelfthryth Queen Consort England (age 57) died.

Around 1003 [his son] King Edward "Confessor" of England was born to King Æthelred "Unready" II of England (age 37) and [his wife] Emma aka Ælfgyfu of Normandy Queen Consort England (age 18) at Islip, Oxfordshire [Map].

In 1004 [his daughter] Goda Wessex Countess Boulogne was born to King Æthelred "Unready" II of England (age 38) and [his wife] Emma aka Ælfgyfu of Normandy Queen Consort England (age 19).

Around 1005 [his son] Ecgberht Ætheling Wessex (age 3) died.

Around 1005 [his son] Ælfred Ætheling Wessex was born to King Æthelred "Unready" II of England (age 39) and [his wife] Emma aka Ælfgyfu of Normandy Queen Consort England (age 20).

In 1006 Earldorman Eadric "Streona aka Acquisitive" Mercia instigated the killing of Aelfhelm Northumbria on behalf of King Æthelred "Unready" II of England (age 40).

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 1006. This year Elfeah (age 53) was consecrated Archbishop; Bishop Britwald succeeded to the see of Wiltshire; Wulfgeat was deprived of all his property;51 Wulfeah and Ufgeat were deprived of sight; Alderman Elfelm was slain; and Bishop Kenulf52 departed this life. Then, over midsummer, came the Danish fleet to Sandwich, Kent [Map], and did as they were wont; they barrowed and burned and slew as they went. Then the king (age 40) ordered out all the population from Wessex and from Mercia; and they lay out all the harvest under arms against the enemy; but it availed nothing more than it had often done before. For all this the enemy went wheresoever they would; and the expedition did the people more harm than either any internal or external force could do. When winter approached, then went the army home; and the enemy retired after Martinmas to their quarters in the Isle of Wight, and provided themselves everywhere there with what they wanted. Then, about midwinter, they went to their ready farm, throughout Hampshire into Berkshire, to Reading. And they did according to their custom,-they lighted their camp-beacons as they advanced. Thence they marched to Wallingford, Oxfordshire [Map], which they entirely destroyed, and passed one night at Cholsey, Oxfordshire. They then turned along Ashdown to Cuckamsley-hill, and there awaited better cheer; for it was often said, that if they sought Cuckamsley, they would never get to the sea. But they went another way homeward. Then was their army collected at Kennet; and they came to battle there, and soon put the English force to flight; and afterwards carried their spoil to the sea. There might the people of Winchester see the rank and iniquitous foe, as they passed by their gates to the sea, fetching their meat and plunder over an extent of fifty miles from sea. Then was the king (age 40) gone over the Thames into Shropshire; and there he fixed his abode during midwinter. Meanwhile, so great was the fear of the enemy, that no man could think or devise how to drive them from the land, or hold this territory against them; for they had terribly marked each shire in Wessex with fire and devastation. Then the king (age 40) began to consult seriously with his council, what they all thought most advisable for defending this land, ere it was utterly undone. Then advised the king (age 40) and his council for the advantage of all the nation, though they were all loth to do it, that they needs must bribe the enemy with a tribute. The king (age 40) then sent to the army, and ordered it to be made known to them, that his desire was, that there should be peace between them, and that tribute and provision should be given them. And they accepted the terms; and they were provisioned throughout England.

Note 51. See a more full and circumstantial account of these events, with some variation of names, in Florence of Worcester.

Note 52. The successor of Elfeah, or Alphege, in the see of Winchester, on the translation of the latter to the archiepiscopal see of Canterbury.

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 1008. This year bade the king (age 42) that men should speedily build ships over all England; that is, a man possessed of three hundred and ten hides to provide on galley or skiff; and a man possessed of eight hides only, to find a helmet and breastplate53.

Note 53. This passage, though very important, is rather confused, from the Variations in the MSS.; so that it is difficult to ascertain the exact proportion of ships and armour which each person was to furnish. Vid. Flor." an. 1008.

Around 1008 [his son] Edgar Ætheling Wessex died.

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 1009. This year were the ships ready, that we before spoke about; and there were so many of them as never were in England before, in any king (age 43) days, as books tell us. And they were all transported together to Sandwich, Kent [Map]; that they should lie there, and defend this land against any out-force. But we have not yet had the prosperity and the honour, that the naval armament should be useful to this land, any more than it often before was. It was at this same time, or a little earlier, that Brihtric, brother of Earldorman Eadric "Streona aka Acquisitive" Mercia, betrayed Wulnoth, the South-Saxon knight, father of Earl Godwin (age 8), to the king (age 43); and he went into exile, and enticed the navy, till he had with him twenty ships; with which he plundered everywhere by the south coast, and wrought every kind of mischief. When it was told the navy that they might easily seize him, if they would look about them, then took Brihtric with him eighty ships; and thought that he should acquire for himself much reputation, by getting Wulnoth into his hands alive or dead. But, whilst they were proceeding thitherward, there came such a wind against them, as no man remembered before; which beat and tossed the ships, and drove them aground; whereupon Wulnoth soon came, and burned them. When this was known to the remaining ships, where the king (age 43) was, how the others fared, it was then as if all were lost. The king (age 43) went home, with the aldermen and the nobility; and thus lightly did they forsake the ships; whilst the men that were in them rowed them back to London. Thus lightly did they suffer the labour of all the people to be in vain; nor was the terror lessened, as all England hoped. When this naval expedition was thus ended, then came, soon after Lammas, the formidable army of the enemy, called Thurkill's army, to Sandwich, Kent [Map]; and soon they bent their march to Canterbury, Kent [Map]; which city they would quickly have stormed, had they not rather desired peace; and all the men of East-Kent made peace with the army, and gave them 3,000 pounds for security. The army soon after that went about till they came to the Isle of Wight; and everywhere in Sussex, and in Hampshire, and also in Berkshire, they plundered and burned, as THEIR CUSTOM IS.54 Then ordered the king (age 43) to summon out all the population, that men might hold firm against them on every side; but nevertheless they marched as they pleased. On one occasion the king (age 43) had begun his march before them, as they proceeded to their ships, and all the people were ready to fall upon them; but the plan was then frustrated through Earldorman Eadric "Streona aka Acquisitive" Mercia, AS IT EVER IS STILL. Then after Martinmas they went back again to Kent, and chose their winter-quarters on the Thames; obtaining their provisions from Essex, and from the shires that were next, on both sides of the Thames. And oft they fought against the city of London; but glory be to God, that it yet standeth firm: and they ever there met with ill fare. Then after midwinter took they an excursion up through Chiltern55, and so to Oxford, Oxfordshire [Map]; which city they burned, and plundered on both sides of the Thames to their ships. Being fore-warned that there was an army gathered against them at London, they went over at Staines; and thus were they in motion all the winter, and in spring, appeared again in Kent, and repaired their ships.

Note 54. These expressions in the present tense afford a strong proof that the original records of these transactions are nearly coeval with the transactions themselves. Later MSS. use the past tense.

Note 55. i.e. the Chiltern Hills; from which the south-eastern part of Oxfordshire is called the Chiltern district.

Battle of Ringmere

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 1010. This year came the aforesaid army, after Easter, into East Anglia; and went up at Ipswich, Suffolk [Map], marching continually till they came where they understood [his future son-in-law] Ulfcytel was with his army. This was on the day called the first of the Ascension of our Lord. The East-Angles soon fled. Cambridgeshire stood firm against them. There was slain Athelstan, the king's relative, and Oswy, and his son, and Wulfric, son of Leofwin, and Edwy, brother of Efy, and many other good thanes, and a multitude of the people. Thurkytel Myrehead first began the flight; and the Danes remained masters of the field of slaughter. There were they horsed; and afterwards took possession of East-Anglia, where they plundered and burned three months; and then proceeded further into the wild fens, slaying both men and cattle, and burning throughout the fens. Thetford, Norfolk [Map] also they burned, and Cambridge [Map]; and afterwards went back southward into the Thames; and the horsemen rode towards the ships. Then went they west-ward into Oxfordshire, and thence to Buckinghamshire, and so along the Ouse till they came to Bedford [Map], and so forth to Temsford, always burning as they went. Then returned they to their ships with their spoil, which they apportioned to the ships. When the king's army should have gone out to meet them as they went up, then went they home; and when they were in the east, then was the army detained in the west; and when they were in the south, then was the army in the north. Then all the privy council were summoned before the king (age 44), to consult how they might defend this country. But, whatever was advised, it stood not a month; and at length there was not a chief that would collect an army, but each fled as he could: no shire, moreover, would stand by another. Before the feast-day of St. Andrew came the enemy to Northampton, Northamptonshire [Map], and soon burned the town, and took as much spoil thereabout as they would; and then returned over the Thames into Wessex, and so by Cannings-marsh, burning all the way. When they had gone as far as they would, then came they by midwinter to their ships.

1012-Siege of Canterbury

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 1011. This year sent the king (age 45) and his council to the army, and desired peace; promising them both tribute and provisions, on condition that they ceased from plunder. They had now overrun East-Anglia, and Essex, and Middlesex, and Oxfordshire, and Cambridgeshire, and Hertfordshire, and Buckinghamshire, and Bedfordshire, and half of Huntingdonshire, and much of Northamptonshire; and, to the south of the Thames, all Kent, and Sussex, and Hastings, and Surrey, and Berkshire, and Hampshire, and much of Wiltshire. All these disasters befel us through bad counsels; that they would not offer tribute in time, or fight with them; but, when they had done most mischief, then entered they into peace and amity with them. And not the less for all this peace, and amity, and tribute, they went everywhere in troops; plundering, and spoiling, and slaying our miserable people. In this year, between the Nativity of St. Mary and Michaelmas, they beset Canterbury, Kent [Map], and entered therein through treachery; for Elfmar delivered the city to them, whose life Archbishop Elfeah (age 58) formerly saved. And there they seized Archbishop Elfeah (age 58), and Elfward the king's steward, and Abbess Leofruna56, and Bishop Godwin; and Abbot Elfmar they suffered to go away. And they took therein all the men, and husbands, and wives; and it was impossible for any man to say how many they were; and in the city they continued afterwards as long as they would. And, when they had surveyed all the city, they then returned to their ships, and led the archbishop with them. Then was a captive he who before was of England head and Christendom;- there might be seen great wretchedness, where oft before great bliss was seen, in the fated city, whence first to us came Christendom, and bliss 'fore God and 'fore the world. And the archbishop (age 58) they kept with them until the time when they martyred him.

Note 56. "Leofruna abbatissa".-Flor. The insertion of this quotation from Florence of Worcester is important, as it confirms the reading adopted in the text. The abbreviation "abbt", instead of "abb", seems to mark the abbess. She was the last abbess of St. Mildred's in the Isle of Thanet; not Canterbury, as Harpsfield and Lambard say.

Before 1013 [his son] Eadred Ætheling Wessex died.

In 1013 Archibishop Ælfstan aka Lyfing was appointed Archbishop of Canterbury by King Æthelred "Unready" II of England (age 47).

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 1013. The year after that Archbishop Elfeah was martyred, the king (age 47) appointed Lifing to the archiepiscopal see of Canterbury. And in the same year, before the month August, came King Sweyne (age 53) with his fleet to Sandwich, Kent [Map]; and very soon went about East-Anglia into the Humber-mouth, and so upward along the Trent, until he came to Gainsborough [Map]. Then soon submitted to him Earl Utred, and all the Northumbrians, and all the people of Lindsey, and afterwards the people of the Five Boroughs, and soon after all the army to the north of Watling-street; and hostages were given him from each shire. When he understood that all the people were subject to him, then ordered he that his army should have provision and horses; and he then went southward with his main army, committing his ships and the hostages to his son Knute (age 18). And after he came over Watling-street, they wrought the greatest mischief that any army could do. Then he went to Oxford, Oxfordshire [Map]; and the population soon submitted, and gave hostages; thence to Winchester, where they did the same. Thence went they eastward to London; and many of the party sunk in the Thames, because they kept not to any bridge. When he came to the city, the population would not submit; but held their ground in full fight against him, because therein was King Ethelred (age 47), and Thurkill with him. Then went King Sweyne (age 53) thence to Wallingford; and so over Thames westward to Bath, where he abode with his army. Thither came Alderman Ethelmar, and all the western thanes with him, and all submitted to Sweyne (age 53), and gave hostages. When he had thus settled all, then went he northward to his ships; and all the population fully received him, and considered him full king. The population of London also after this submitted to him, and gave hostages; because they dreaded that he would undo them. Then bade Sweyne (age 53) full tribute and forage for his army during the winter; and Thurkill bade the same for the army that lay at Greenwich, Kent [Map]: besides this, they plundered as oft as they would. And when this nation could neither resist in the south nor in the north, King Ethelred (age 47) abode some while with the fleet that lay in the Thames; and the [his wife] lady (age 28)57 went afterwards over sea to her brother [his brother-in-law] Richard (age 49), accompanied by Elfsy, Abbot of Peterborough. The king sent Bishop Elfun with the ethelings, [his son] Edward (age 10) and [his son] Alfred (age 8), over sea; that he might instruct them. Then went the king from the fleet, about midwinter, to the Isle of Wight [Map]; and there abode for the season; after which he went over sea to Richard (age 49), with whom he abode till the time when Sweyne (age 53) died. Whilst the lady (age 28) was with her brother (age 49) beyond sea, Elfsy, Abbot of Peterborough, who was there with her, went to the abbey called Boneval, where St. Florentine's body lay; and there found a miserable place, a miserable abbot, and miserable monks: because they had been plundered. There he bought of the abbot, and of the monks, the body of St. Florentine, all but the head, for 500 pounds; which, on his return home, he offered to Christ and St. Peter.

Note 57. This was a title bestowed on the queen.

Death of King Sweyn "Forkbeard"

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 1014. This year King Sweyne (age 54) ended his days at Candlemas, the third day before the nones of February; and the same year Elfwy, Bishop of York, was consecrated in London, on the festival of St. Juliana. The fleet all chose Knute (age 19) for king; whereupon advised all the counsellors of England, clergy and laity, that they should send after King Ethelred (age 48); saying, that no sovereign was dearer to them than their natural lord, if he would govern them better than he did before. Then sent the king hither his son Edward, with his messengers; who had orders to greet all his people, saying that he would be their faithful lord-would better each of those things that they disliked-and that each of the things should be forgiven which had been either done or said against him; provided they all unanimously, without treachery, turned to him. Then was full friendship established, in word and in deed and in compact, on either side. And every Danish king they proclaimed an outlaw for ever from England. Then came King Ethelred (age 48) home, in Lent, to his own people; and he was gladly received by them all. Meanwhile, after the death of Sweyne (age 54), sat Knute (age 19) with his army in Gainsborough [Map] until Easter; and it was agreed between him and the people of Lindsey, that they should supply him with horses, and afterwards go out all together and plunder. But King Ethelred (age 48) with his full force came to Lindsey before they were ready; and they plundered and burned, and slew all the men that they could reach. Knute (age 19), the son of Sweyne (age 54), went out with his fleet (so were the wretched people deluded by him), and proceeded southward until he came to Sandwich, Kent [Map]. There he landed the hostages that were given to his father, and cut off their hands and ears and their noses. Besides all these evils, the king ordered a tribute to the army that lay at Greenwich, Kent [Map], of 21,000 pounds. This year, on the eve of St. Michael's day, came the great sea-flood, which spread wide over this land, and ran so far up as it never did before, overwhelming many towns, and an innumerable multitude of people.

On 03 Feb 1014 Sweyn "Forkbeard" King Denmark King Norway King England (age 54) died. His son Harald King Denmark succeeded King Denmark. There was a dispute as to who succeeded to the Kingdom of England with some supporting King Æthelred "Unready" II of England (age 48) and some King Canute of England (age 19).

In 1014 [his son] Æthelstan Ætheling Wessex died.

In 1015 [his son] King Edmund "Ironside" I of England (age 25) and [his daughter-in-law] Ealdgyth Unknown were married. He the son of King Æthelred "Unready" II of England (age 49) and Aelfgifu of York Queen Consort England.

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 1015. This year was the great council at Oxford, Oxfordshire [Map]; where Earldorman Eadric "Streona aka Acquisitive" Mercia betrayed Sigferth and Morcar, the eldest thanes belonging to the Seven Towns. He allured them into his bower, where they were shamefully slain. Then the king took all their possessions, and ordered the widow of Sigferth to be secured, and brought within Malmsbury [Map]. After a little interval, [his son] Edmund Etheling (age 25) went and seized her, against the king's (age 49) will, and had her to wife. Then, before the Nativity of St. Mary, went the etheling west-north into the Five Towns58, and soon plundered all the property of Sigferth and Morcar; and all the people submitted to him. At the same time came King Knute (age 20) to Sandwich, Kent [Map], and went soon all about Kent into Wessex, until he came to the mouth of the Frome; and then plundered in Dorset, and in Wiltshire, and in Somerset. King Ethelred (age 49), meanwhile, lay sick at Corsham, Wiltshire; and Earldorman Eadric "Streona aka Acquisitive" Mercia collected an army there, and Edmund the etheling (age 25) in the north. When they came together, the alderman designed to betray Edmund the etheling (age 25), but he could not; whereupon they separated without an engagement, and sheered off from their enemies. Earldorman Eadric "Streona aka Acquisitive" Mercia then seduced forty ships from the king, and submitted to Knute (age 20). The West-Saxons also submitted, and gave hostages, and horsed the army. And he continued there until midwinter.

Note 58. The "seven" towns mentioned above are reduced here to "five"; probably because two had already submitted to the king on the death of the two thanes, Sigferth and Morcar. These five were, as originally, Leicester, Lincoln, Stamford, Nottingham, and Derby. Vid. an. 942, 1013.

In or before 1016 [his son-in-law] Ulfcytel Snillingr and [his daughter] Wulfhilda Wessex were married. She the daughter of King Æthelred "Unready" II of England (age 49) and Aelfgifu of York Queen Consort England.

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 1016. This year came King Knute (age 21) with a marine force of one hundred and sixty ships, and Earldorman Eadric "Streona aka Acquisitive" Mercia with him, over the Thames into Mercia at Cricklade, Wiltshire [Map]; whence they proceeded to Warwickshire, during the middle of the winter, and plundered therein, and burned, and slew all they met. Then began [his son] Edmund the etheling (age 26) to gather an army, which, when it was collected, could avail him nothing, unless the king (age 50) were there and they had the assistance of the citizens of London. The expedition therefore was frustrated, and each man betook himself home. After this, an army was again ordered, under full penalties, that every person, however distant, should go forth; and they sent to the king (age 50) in London, and besought him to come to meet the army with the aid that he could collect. When they were all assembled, it succeeded nothing better than it often did before; and, when it was told the king, that those persons would betray him who ought to assist him, then forsook he the army, and returned again to London. Then rode Edmund the etheling (age 26) to Earl Utred in Northumbria; and every man supposed that they would collect an army King Knute (age 21); but they went into Stafforddhire, and to Shrewsbury, Shropshire [Map], and to Chester [Map]; and they plundered on their parts, and Knute (age 21) on his. He went out through Buckinghamshire to Bedfordshire; thence to Huntingdonshire, and so into Northamptonshire along the fens to Stamford [Map]. Thence into Lincolnshire. Thence to Nottinghamshire; and so into Northumbria toward York [Map]. When Utred understood this, he ceased from plundering, and hastened northward, and submitted for need, and all the Northumbrians with him; but, though he gave hostages, he was nevertheless slain by the advice of Earldorman Eadric "Streona aka Acquisitive" Mercia, and Thurkytel, the son of Nafan, with him. After this, King Knute (age 21) appointed Eric earl over Northumbria, as Utred was; and then went southward another way, all by west, till the whole army came, before Easter, to the ships. Meantime Edmund Etheling (age 26) went to London to his father (age 50): and after Easter went King Knute (age 21) with all his ships toward London; but it happened that King Ethelred (age 50) died ere the ships came. He ended his days on St. George's day; having held his kingdom in much tribulation and difficulty as long as his life continued.

Death of King Æthelred "Unready"

On 23 Apr 1016 King Æthelred "Unready" II of England (age 50) died. His son [his son] King Edmund "Ironside" I of England (age 26) succeeded I King England although tthe Witan meeting at Southampton chose King Canute of England (age 21).

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 1017. This year King Knute (age 22) took to the whole government of England, and divided it into four parts: Wessex for himself, East-Anglia for Thurkyll, Mercia for Edric, Northumbria for Eric. This year also was Earldorman Eadric "Streona aka Acquisitive" Mercia slain at London, and Norman, son of Alderman Leofwin, and Ethelward, son of Ethelmar the Great, and Britric, son of Elfege of Devonshire. King Knute (age 22) also banished [his son] Edwy etheling, whom he afterwards ordered to be slain, and Edwy, king of the churls; and before the calends of August the king gave an order to fetch him the [his former wife] widow (age 32) of the other king, Ethelred, the daughter of Richard (age 53), to wife.

Marriage of Canute and Emma of Normandy

Around Aug 1017 King Canute of England (age 22) and [his former wife] Emma aka Ælfgyfu of Normandy Queen Consort England (age 32) were married. She the daughter of Richard "Fearless" Normandy I Duke Normandy and Gunnora Countess Ponthieu. He the son of Sweyn "Forkbeard" King Denmark King Norway King England.

On 06 Mar 1052 [his former wife] Emma aka Ælfgyfu of Normandy Queen Consort England (age 67) died.

[his son] Edgar Ætheling Wessex was born to King Æthelred "Unready" II of England and Aelfgifu of York Queen Consort England. His sobriquet Ætheling means Prince.

[his daughter] Aelfgifu Wessex was born to King Æthelred "Unready" II of England and Aelfgifu of York Queen Consort England.

[his daughter] Eadgyth or Edith Wessex was born to King Æthelred "Unready" II of England and Aelfgifu of York Queen Consort England.

[his son] Eadwig Ætheling Wessex was born to King Æthelred "Unready" II of England and Aelfgifu of York Queen Consort England. His sobriquet Ætheling means Prince.

[his daughter] Wulfhilda Wessex was born to King Æthelred "Unready" II of England and Aelfgifu of York Queen Consort England.

[his daughter] Unamed Wessex Abbess Wherwell was born to King Æthelred "Unready" II of England and Aelfgifu of York Queen Consort England.

[his son] Æthelstan Ætheling Wessex was born to King Æthelred "Unready" II of England and Aelfgifu of York Queen Consort England.

[his son] Eadred Ætheling Wessex was born to King Æthelred "Unready" II of England and Aelfgifu of York Queen Consort England is sobriquet Ætheling means Prince.

King Æthelred "Unready" II of England 966-1016 appears on the following Descendants Family Trees:

King Alfred "The Great" of Wessex 849-899

Royal Ancestors of King Æthelred "Unready" II of England 966-1016

Kings Wessex: Son of King Edgar "Peaceful" I of England

Royal Descendants of King Æthelred "Unready" II of England 966-1016

King Edmund "Ironside" I of England x 1

King Edward "Confessor" of England x 1

Ancestors of King Æthelred "Unready" II of England 966-1016

Great x 4 Grandfather: Egbert King Wessex

Great x 3 Grandfather: King Æthelwulf of Wessex

Great x 2 Grandfather: King Alfred "The Great" of Wessex

Great x 4 Grandfather: Oslac

Great x 3 Grandmother: Osburgh Queen Consort Wessex

Great x 1 Grandfather: King Edward "Elder" of the Anglo Saxons

Great x 3 Grandfather: Æthelred Mucel Mercia Earldorman Gaini

Great x 2 Grandmother: Æalhswith of Mercia Queen Consort of England

Great x 3 Grandmother: Eadburh of Mercia

GrandFather: King Edmund I of England

Great x 2 Grandfather: Sigehelm Earldorman Kent

Great x 1 Grandmother: Eadgifu Kent Queen Anglo Saxons

Father: King Edgar "Peaceful" I of England

GrandMother: Aelfgifu of Shaftesbury Queen Consort England

King Æthelred "Unready" II of England

GrandFather: Ordgar Earldorman Devon

Mother: Aelfthryth Queen Consort England