Biography of King Edwin of Northumbria 586-633

Paternal Family Tree: Deira

617 Battle of the River Idle

633 Battle of Hatfield Chase

King Edwin of Northumbria and Cwenburg Mercia Queen Consort Bernicia Queen Consort Deira were married. She by marriage Queen Consort Bernicia, Queen Consort Deira. He the son of Aella King Deira.

In 560 [his father] Aella King Deira succeeded King Deira.

Around 586 King Edwin of Northumbria was born to Aella King Deira.

In 588 [his father] Aella King Deira died.

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 601. This year Pope Gregory (age 61) sent the pall to Archbishop Augustine (age 61) in Britain, with very many learned doctors to assist him; and Bishop Paulinus converted Edwin (age 15), king of the Northumbrians, to baptism.

In 616 King Edwin of Northumbria (age 30) succeeded King Bernicia, King Deira.

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 617. This year was Ethelfrith (age 45), king of the Northumbrians, slain by Redwald (age 47), king of the East-Angles; and Edwin (age 31), the son of Ella, having succeeded to the kingdom, subdued all Britain, except the men of Kent alone, and drove out the Ethelings, the sons of Ethelfrith (age 45), namely, Enfrid (age 27), Oswald (age 13), Oswy (age 5), Oslac, Oswood, Oslaf, and Offa.

Battle of the River Idle

In 617 Raedwald King East Anglia (age 47) and his son Raegenhere Wuffingas fought the Battle of the River Idle which took place at the River Idle Markham Moor Retford which forms the western border of the Isle of Lindsey [Map].

Raegenhere Wuffingas was killed.

Æthelfrith King Northumbrians (age 45) was killed. King Edwin of Northumbria (age 31) succeeded King Northumbria.

Before 25 Oct 625 Boniface V Pope sent letters to King Edwin of Northumbria (age 39) urging him to embrace the Christian faith, and to Edwin's Christian wife, Æthelburg of Kent (age 20), exhorting her to use her best endeavours for the conversion of her husband.

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 626. This year came Eamer from Cwichelm, king of the West-Saxons, with a design to assassinate King Edwin (age 40); but he killed Lilla his thane, and Forthere, and wounded the king (age 40). The same night a daughter was born to Edwin (age 40), whose name was [his daughter] Eanfleda. Then promised the king to Paulinus, that he would devote his daughter to God, if he would procure at the hand of God, that he might destroy his enemy, who had sent the assassin to him. He then advanced against the West-Saxons with an army, felled on the spot five kings, and slew many of their men. This year Eanfleda, the daughter of King Edwin (age 40), was baptized, on the holy eve of Pentecost. And the king within twelve months was baptized, at Easter, with all his people. Easter was then on the twelfth of April. This was done at York [Map], where he had ordered a church to be built of timber, which was hallowed in the name of St. Peter. There the king gave the bishopric to Paulinus; and there he afterwards ordered a larger church to be built of stone. This year Penda began to reign; and reigned thirty winters. He had seen fifty winters when he began to reign. Penda was the son of Wybba, Wybba of Creoda, Creoda of Cynewald-, Cynewald of Cnebba-, Cnebba of Icel, Icel of Eomer, Eomer of Angelthew, Angelthew of Offa, Offa of Wearmund, Wearmund of Whitley, Whitley of Woden.

On 19 Apr 626 [his daughter] Eanflæd Queen Consort Bernicia was born to King Edwin of Northumbria (age 40) and Æthelburh Oiscingas Queen Consort Northumbria (age 21).

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 627. This year was King Edwin (age 41) baptized at Easter, with all his people, by Paulinus, who also preached baptism in Lindsey [Map], where the first person who believed was a certain rich man, of the name of Bleek, with all his people. At this time Honorius  succeeded Boniface in the papacy, and sent hither to Paulinus the pall; and Archbishop Justus having departed this life on the tenth of November, Honorius was consecrated at Lincoln, Lincolnshire [Map] Archbishop of Canterbury by Paulinus; and Pope Honorius sent him the pall. And he sent an injunction to the Scots, that they should return to the right celebration of Easter.

In 627 King Edwin of Northumbria (age 41) was baptised.

Battle of Hatfield Chase

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 633. This year King Edwin (age 47) was slain by Cadwalla and Penda, on Hatfield moor, on the fourteenth of October [Note. Some sources say 12 Oct 633]. He reigned seventeen years. His son [his son] Osfrid was also slain with him. After this Cadwalla and Penda went and ravaged all the land of the Northumbrians; which when Paulinus saw, he took Ethelburga (age 28), the relict of Edwin, and went by ship to Kent. Eadbald and Honorius received him very honourably, and gave him the bishopric of Rochester, where he continued to his death.

On 12 Oct 633 King Penda's alliance of Gwynedd and Mercia defeated the Northumbrians at the Battle of Hatfield Chase.

[his son] Eadfrith Deira was captured.

King Edwin of Northumbria (age 47) was killed. His first cousin Osric King Deira succeeded King Deira. His nephew Eanfrith King Bernicia (age 43) succeeded King Bernicia.

Edwin's son [his son] Osfrith Deira was killed.

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 634. This year Osric, whom Paulinus baptized, succeeded to the government of King of Deira. He was the son of [his uncle] Elfric, the uncle of Edwin. And to Bernicia succeeded Eanfrith (age 44), son of Ethelfrith. This year also Bishop Birinus first preached baptism to the West-Saxons, under King Cynegils. The said Birinus went thither by the command of Pope Honorius; and he was bishop there to the end of his life. Oswald (age 30) also this year succeeded to the government of the King Northumbrians, and reigned nine winters. The ninth year was assigned to him on account of the heathenism in which those lived who reigned that one year betwixt him and Edwin.

Bede. 634. But soon after, the king of the Britons, Caedwalla285, the unrighteous instrument of rightful vengeance, slew them both. First, in the following summer, he put Osric to death; for, being rashly besieged by him in the municipal town [Map]286, he sallied out on a sudden with all his forces, took him by surprise, and destroyed him and all his army. Then, when he had occupied the provinces of the Northumbrians for a whole year287, not ruling them like a victorious king, but ravaging them like a furious tyrant, he at length put an end to Eanfrid (age 44), in like manner, when he unadvisedly came to him with only twelve chosen soldiers, to sue for peace. To this day, that year is looked upon as ill-omened, and hateful to all good men; as well on account of the apostacy of the English kings, who had renounced the mysteries of the faith, as of the outrageous tyranny of the British king. Hence it has been generally agreed, in reckoning the dates of the kings, to abolish the memory of those faithless monarchs, and to assign that year to the reign of the following king, Oswald (age 30), a man beloved of God. This king, after the death of his brother Eanfrid (age 44)288, advanced with an army, small, indeed, in number, but strengthened with the faith of Christ; and the impious commander of the Britons, in spite of his vast forces, which he boasted nothing could withstand, was slain at a place called in the English tongue Denisesburna, that is, the brook of Denis289.

Note 285. Cf. II, 20, ad init.

Note 286. "In oppido municipio." Commentators are agreed that Bede means York. It was a Roman "Colonia," and is called a "municipium" by Aurelius Victor, though whether Bede attaches any definitely Roman meaning to the term seems doubtful. Ducange explains "municipium" as "castrum," "castellum muris cinctum."

Note 287. From the death of Edwin (October 12th, 633), for Oswald's (age 30) reign is reckoned as lasting nine years, including the "hateful year," and he was killed August 5th, 642. Cf. infra c. 9.

Note 288. i.e., probably before the end of 634.

Note 289. Not identified with any certainty, but probably the Rowley Water or a tributary of it. It cannot be, as has been suggested, the Devil's Water, which is clearly distinguished from it in a charter of the thirteenth century. Caedwalla must have fled southwards for eight or nine miles after the battle (cf. next note).

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 827. This year was the moon eclipsed, on mid-winter's mass-night; and King Egbert (age 54), in the course of the same year, conquered the Mercian kingdom, and all that is south of the Humber, being the eighth king who was sovereign of all the British dominions. Ella, king of the South-Saxons, was the first who possessed so large a territory; the second was Ceawlin, king of the West-Saxons: the third was Ethelbert, King of Kent; the fourth was Redwald, king of the East-Angles; the fifth was Edwin, king of the Northumbrians; the sixth was Oswald, who succeeded him; the seventh was Oswy, the brother of Oswald; the eighth was Egbert, king of the West-Saxons (age 54). This same Egbert (age 54) led an army against the Northumbrians as far as Dore, where they met him, and offered terms of obedience and subjection, on the acceptance of which they returned home.

[his daughter] St Edwen was born to King Edwin of Northumbria and Æthelburh Oiscingas Queen Consort Northumbria. Her parentage is uncertain. Possibly a niece of King Edwin of Northumbria.

[his son] Wuscfrea Deira was born to King Edwin of Northumbria and Æthelburh Oiscingas Queen Consort Northumbria.

[his son] Eadfrith Deira was born to King Edwin of Northumbria and Cwenburg Mercia Queen Consort Bernicia Queen Consort Deira.

[his son] Osfrith Deira was born to King Edwin of Northumbria and Cwenburg Mercia Queen Consort Bernicia Queen Consort Deira.

King Edwin of Northumbria 586-633 appears on the following Descendants Family Trees:

Yffe Deira

Royal Ancestors of King Edwin of Northumbria 586-633

Kings Deira: Son of Aella King Deira

Royal Descendants of King Edwin of Northumbria 586-633

Unknown Name Deira Queen Consort Strathclyde aka Alt Clut x 1

Eanflæd Queen Consort Bernicia x 1

Ancestors of King Edwin of Northumbria 586-633

GrandFather: Yffe Deira

Father: Aella King Deira

King Edwin of Northumbria