Biography of King Oswiu of Northumbria 612-670

Paternal Family Tree: Bernicia

617 Battle of the River Idle

641 Battle of Maserfield

655 Battle of the Winwaed

Before 590 [his father] Æthelfrith King Northumbrians (age 18) and [his mother] Acha Queen Consort Northumbria were married. She by marriage Queen Consort Bernicia. She the daughter of Aella King Deira. He the son of Æthelric King Bernicia.

Around 592 Hussa of Bernicia died. [his father] Æthelfrith King Northumbrians (age 20) succeeded King Bernicia.

Around 604 [his father] Æthelfrith King Northumbrians (age 32) succeeded King Deira. [his mother] Acha Queen Consort Northumbria by marriage Queen Consort Deira.

Around 612 King Oswiu of Northumbria was born to Æthelfrith King Northumbrians (age 40) and Acha Queen Consort Northumbria.

Battle of the River Idle

In 617 Raedwald King East Anglia (age 47) and his son Raegenhere Wuffingas fought the Battle of the River Idle which took place at the River Idle Markham Moor Retford which forms the western border of the Isle of Lindsey [Map].

Raegenhere Wuffingas was killed.

[his father] Æthelfrith King Northumbrians (age 45) was killed. [his uncle] King Edwin of Northumbria (age 31) succeeded King Northumbria.

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 617. This year was [his father] Ethelfrith (age 45), king of the Northumbrians, slain by Redwald (age 47), king of the East-Angles; and [his uncle] Edwin (age 31), the son of Ella, having succeeded to the kingdom, subdued all Britain, except the men of Kent alone, and drove out the Ethelings, the sons of Ethelfrith (age 45), namely, [his brother] Enfrid (age 27), [his brother] Oswald (age 13), Oswy (age 5), [his brother] Oslac, [his brother] Oswood, [his brother] Oslaf, and [his brother] Offa.

In or before 630 King Oswiu of Northumbria (age 18) and Rhiainfellt Rheged Queen Consort Bernicia were married. He the son of Æthelfrith King Northumbrians and Acha Queen Consort Northumbria.

Around 630 [his son] Ealhfrith King Deira was born to King Oswiu of Northumbria (age 18) and [his wife] Rhiainfellt Rheged Queen Consort Bernicia.

Battle of Maserfield

On 05 Aug 641 (or 642 or 644 depending on the source) King Penda of Mercia Mercian and Welsh army defeated the Northumbrian army at the Battle of Maserfield. The battle is believed to have taken place at Oswestry, Shropshire. Northumbria was once again separated into two kingdoms.

[his brother] King Oswald of Northumberland (age 37) was killed. His body was subsequently dismembered with his head and arms mounted on poles. His brother King Oswiu of Northumbria (age 29) succeeded King Bernicia. [his wife] Rhiainfellt Rheged Queen Consort Bernicia by marriage Queen Consort Bernicia.

Osric King Deira was killed. His son King Oswine of Deira succeeded King Deira.

Eowa King Mercia was killed (probably).

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 642. This year [his brother] Oswald, king of the Northumbrians, was slain by Penda, king of the Southumbrians, at Mirfield, on the fifth day of August; and his body was buried at Bardney. His holiness and miracles were afterwards displayed on manifold occasions throughout this island; and his hands remain still uncorrupted at Barnburgh. The same year in which Oswald was slain, Oswy (age 30) his brother succeeded to the government of the Northumbrians, and reigned two less than thirty years.

Around 645 [his son] King Ecgfrith of Northumbria was born to King Oswiu of Northumbria (age 33) and [his wife] Eanflæd Queen Consort Bernicia (age 18). Coefficient of inbreeding 3.12%.

Around 645 King Oswiu of Northumbria (age 33) and Eanflæd Queen Consort Bernicia (age 18) were married. She by marriage Queen Consort Bernicia. She the daughter of King Edwin of Northumbria and Æthelburh Oiscingas Queen Consort Northumbria (age 40). He the son of Æthelfrith King Northumbrians and Acha Queen Consort Northumbria. They were half first cousins.

Gilling Abbey [Map] was founded by King Oswiu of Northumbria (age 39) at the request of his wife [his wife] Eanflæd Queen Consort Bernicia (age 24) at the site where Oswiu (age 39) had killed a rival and kinsman, King Oswine of Deira, Eanflæd's (age 24) second cousin, the cost being compensation for his death.

The abbey's first abbot was a relative of King Oswine: Bishop Trumhere.

The abbey's second abbot was Abbot Cynefrith.

The abbey's third abbot was Trumbert.

Battle of the Winwaed

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 655. This year Penda was slain at Wingfield, and thirty royal personages with him, some of whom were kings. One of them was Ethelhere, brother of Anna, king of the East-Angles. The Mercians after this became Christians. From the beginning of the world had now elapsed five thousand eight hundred and fifty winters, when Peada, the son of Penda, assumed the government of the Mercians. In his time came together himself and Oswy (age 43), brother of King Oswald, and said, that they would rear a minster to the glory of Christ, and the honour of St. Peter. And they did so, and gave it the name of Medhamsted [Map]; because there is a well there, called Meadswell. And they began the groundwall, and wrought thereon; after which they committed the work to a monk, whose name was Saxulf. He was very much the friend of God, and him also loved all people. He was nobly born in the world, and rich: he is now much richer with Christ. But King Peada reigned no while; for he was betrayed by his own [his daughter] queen, in Easter-tide. This year Ithamar, Bishop of Rochester, consecrated Deus-dedit to Canterbury, on the twenty-sixth day of March.

On 15 Nov 655 King Oswiu of Northumbria (age 43) defeated the Mercian army (probably) at Cock Beck during the Battle of the Winwaed ending the period of Mercian dominance. The battle is believed to have ended Anglo-Saxon paganism.

On 15 Nov 655 Æthelwald King Deira (age 13), an ally of King Penda of Mercia, withdrew his forces, one of many Mercian allies to do so, weakening King Penda's army.

King Penda of Mercia and King Æthelhere of East Anglia were killed. Penda's son Paeda King South Mercia succeeded King South Mercia.

King Æthelwold of East Anglia succeeded King East Anglia after the death of his father at the Battle of the Winwaed.

After 655 [his son] King Ecgfrith of Northumbria (age 10) and [his daughter-in-law] Æthelthryth Wuffingas Queen Consort Deira and Northumbria (age 19) were married. She the daughter of King Anna of East Anglia. He the son of King Oswiu of Northumbria (age 43) and Eanflæd Queen Consort Bernicia (age 28).

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 656. This year was Peada slain; and Wulfhere (age 16), son of Penda, succeeded to the kingdom of the Mercians. In his time waxed the abbey of Medhamsted [Map] very rich, which his brother had begun. The king (age 16) loved it much, for the love of his brother Peada, and for the love of his wed-brother Oswy (age 44), and for the love of Saxulf the abbot. He said, therefore, that he would dignify and honour it by the counsel of his brothers, Ethelred and Merwal; and by the counsel of his sisters, Kyneburga and Kyneswitha; and by the counsel of the archbishop, who was called Deus-dedit; and by the counsel of all his peers, learned and lewd, that in his kingdom were. And he so did. Then sent the king after the abbot, that he should immediately come to him. And he so did. Then said the king to the abbot: "Beloved Saxulf, I have sent after thee for the good of my soul; and I will plainly tell thee for why. My brother Peada and my beloved friend Oswy (age 44) began a minster, for the love of Christ and St. Peter: but my brother, as Christ willed, is departed from this life; I will therefore intreat thee, beloved friend, that they earnestly proceed on their work; and I will find thee thereto gold and silver, land and possessions, and all that thereto behoveth." Then went the abbot home, and began to work. So he sped, as Christ permitted him; so that in a few years was that minster ready. Then, when the king (age 16) heard say that, he was very glad; and bade men send through all the nation, after all his thanes; after the archbishop, and after bishops: and after his earls; and after all those that loved God; that they should come to him. And he fixed the day when men should hallow the minster. And when they were hallowing the minster, there was the king, Wulfere (age 16), and his brother Ethelred, and his sisters, Kyneburga and Kyneswitha. And the minster was hallowed by Archbishop Deusdedit of Canterbury; and the Bishop of Rochester, Ithamar; and the Bishop of London, who was called Wina; and the Bishop of the Mercians, whose name was Jeruman; and Bishop Tuda. And there was Wilfrid, priest, that after was bishop; and there were all his thanes that were in his kingdom. When the minster [Map] was hallowed, in the name of St. Peter, and St. Paul, and St. Andrew, then stood up the king before all his thanes, and said with a loud voice: "Thanks be to the high almighty God for this worship that here is done; and I will this day glorify Christ and St. Peter, and I will that you all confirm my words.-I Wulfere give to-day to St. Peter, and the Abbot Saxulf, and the monks of the minster, these lands, and these waters, and meres, and fens, and weirs, and all the lands that thereabout lye, that are of my kingdom, freely, so that no man have there any ingress, but the abbot and the monks. This is the gift. From Medhamsted to Northborough; and so to the place that is called Foleys; and so all the fen, right to Ashdike; and from Ashdike to the place called Fethermouth; and so in a right line ten miles long to Ugdike; and so to Ragwell; and from Ragwell five miles to the main river that goeth to Elm and to Wisbeach; and so about three miles to Trokenholt; and from Trokenholt right through all the fen to Derworth; that is twenty miles long; and so to Great Cross; and from Great Cross through a clear water called Bradney; and thence six miles to Paxlade; and so forth through all the meres and fens that lye toward Huntingdon-port; and the meres and lakes Shelfermere and Wittlesey mere, and all the others that thereabout lye; with land and with houses that are on the east side of Shelfermere; thence all the fens to Medhamsted; from Medhamsted all to Welmsford; from Welmsford to Clive; thence to Easton; from Easton to Stamford [Map]; from Stamford as the water runneth to the aforesaid Northborough." - These are the lands and the fens that the king gave unto St. Peter's minster.-Then quoth the king: "It is little-this gift- but I will that they hold it so royally and so freely, that there be taken there from neither gild nor gable, but for the monks alone. Thus I will free this minster; that it be not subject except to Rome alone; and hither I will that we seek St. Peter, all that to Rome cannot go." During these words the abbot desired that he would gant him his request. And the king granted it. "I have here (said he) some good monks that would lead their life in retirement, if they wist where. Now here is an island, that is called Ankerig; and I will request, that we may there build a minster to the honour of St. Mary; that they may dwell there who will lead their lives in peace and tranquillity." Then answered the king, and quoth thus: "Beloved Saxulf, not that only which thou desirest, but all things that I know thou desirest in our Lord's behalf, so I approve, and grant. And I bid thee, brother Ethelred, and my sisters, Kyneburga and Kyneswitha, for the release of your souls, that you be witnesses, and that you subscribe it with your fingers. And I pray all that come after me, be they my sons, be they my brethren, or kings that come after me, that our gift may stand; as they would be partakers of the life everlasting, and as they would avoid everlasting punishment. Whoso lesseneth our gift, or the gift of other good men, may the heavenly porter lessen him in the kingdom of heaven; and whoso advanceth it, may the heavenly porter advance him in the kingdom of heaven." These are the witnesses that were there, and that subscribed it with their fingers on the cross of Christ, and confirmed it with their tongues. That was, first the king, Wulfere, who confirmed it first with his word, and afterwards wrote with his finger on the cross of Christ, saying thus: "I Wulfere, king, in the presence of kings, and of earls, and of captains, and of thanes, the witnesses of my gift, before the Archbishop Deus-dedit, I confirm it with the cross of Christ." (+)-"And I Oswy, king of the Northumbrians, the friend of this minster, and o[oe] the Abbot Saxulf, commend it with the cross of Christ." (+)-"And I Sighere, king, ratify it with the cross of Christ." (+)-"And I Sibbi, king, subscribe it with the cross of Christ." (+)-"And I Ethelred, the king's brother, granted the same with the cross of Christ." (+)-"And we, the king's sisters, Kyneburga and Kyneswitha, approve it."-"And I Archbishop of Canterbury, Deus-dedit, ratify it."-Then confirmed it all the others that were there with the cross of Christ (+): namely, Ithamar, Bishop of Rochester; Wina, Bishop of London; Jeruman, Bishop of the Mercians; and Tuda, bishop; and Wilfrid, priest, who was afterwards bishop; and Eoppa, priest, whom the king, Wulfere, sent to preach christianity in the Isle of Wight; and Saxulf, abbot; and Immine, alderman, and Edbert, alderman, and Herefrith, alderman, and Wilbert, alderman, and Abo, alderman; Ethelbald, Brord, Wilbert, Elmund, Frethegis. These, and many others that were there, the king's most loyal subjects, confirmed it all. This charter was written after our Lord's Nativity 664-the seventh year of King Wulfere-the ninth year of Archbishop Deus-dedir. Then they laid God's curse, and the curse of all saints, and all christian folks, on whosoever undid anything that there was done. "So be it," saith all. "Amen."-When this thing was done, then sent the king to Rome to the Pope Vitalianus that then was, and desired, that he would ratify with his writ and with his blessing, all this aforesaid thing. And the pope then sent his writ, thus saying: "I Vitalianus, pope, grant thee, King Wulfere, and Deus-dedit, archbishop, and Abbot Saxulf, all the things that you desire. And I forbid, that any king, or any man, have any ingress, but the abbot alone; nor shall he be Subject to any man, except the Pope of Rome and the Archbishop of Canterbury. If any one breaketh anything of this, St. Peter with his sword destroy him. Whosoever holdeth it, St. Peter with heaven's key undo him the kingdom of heaven."-Thus was the minster of Medhamsted begun, that was afterwards called Peter-borough. Afterwards came another archbishop to Canterbury, who was called Theodorus (age 54); a very good man and wise; and held his synod with his bishops and with his clerk. There was Wilfrid, bishop of the Mercians, deprived of his bishopric; and Saxulf, abbot, was there chosen bishop; and Cuthbald, monk of the same minster, was chosen abbot. This synod was holden after our Lord's Nativity six hundred and seventy-three winters.

Bede. 664. DEUSDEDIT, ARCHBISHOP OF CANTERBURY, DYING, WIGHARD WAS SENT TO ROME TO SUCCEED HIM IN THAT DIGNITY; BUT HE DYING THERE, THEODORE WAS ORDAINED ARCHBISHOP, AND SENT INTO BRITAIN WITH THE ABBOT HADRIAN.

In the above-mentioned year of the aforesaid eclipse, which was presently followed by the pestilence, in which also Bishop Colman, being overcome by the unanimous consent of the Catholics, returned home, Deusdedit, the sixth bishop of the church of Canterbury, died on the 14th of July. Erconbert, also, king of Kent, departed this life the same month and day; leaving his kingdom to his son Egbert, which he held nine years. The see then became vacant for some considerable time, until the priest Wighard, a man skilled in ecclesiastical discipline, of the English race, was sent to Rome by the said King Egbert, and Oswy, king of the Northumbrians (age 52), as was briefly mentioned in the foregoing book, with a request that he might be ordained bishop of the church of England; sending at the same time presents to the apostolic pope, and many vessels of gold and silver. Arriving at Rome, where Vitalian presided at that time over the Apostolic See, and having made known to the aforesaid pope the occasion of his journey, he was not long after snatched away, with almost all his companions that went with him, by a pestilence which happened at that time.

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 667. This year Oswy (age 55) and Egbert sent Wighard, a priest, to Rome, that he might be consecrated there Archbishop of Canterbury; but he died as soon as he came thither.

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 670. This year died Oswy (age 58), King of Northumberland, on the fifteenth day before the calends of March; and [his son] Egferth (age 25) his son reigned after him. Lothere, the nephew of Bishop Egelbert (age 45), succeeded to the bishopric over the land of the West-Saxons, and held it seven years. He was consecrated by Archbishop Theodore (age 68). Oswy (age 58) was the son of Ethelfrith, Ethelfrith of Ethelric, Ethelric of Ida, Ida of Eoppa.

Before 15 Feb 670 King Oswiu of Northumbria (age 58) and Fín Cenél Neógain Queen Consort Bernicia were married. She by marriage Queen Consort Bernicia. He the son of Æthelfrith King Northumbrians and Acha Queen Consort Northumbria.

Bede. 15 Feb 670. In the year of the incarnation of Death of our Lord 670, being the second year after Theodore (age 68) arrived in England, Oswy (age 58), king of the Northumbrians, fell sick, and died, in the fifty-eighth year of his age. He at that time bore so great affection to the Roman apostolical institution, that had he recovered of his sickness, he had designed to go to Rome, and there to end his days at the Holy Places, having entreated Bishop Wilfrid, by the promise of a considerable donation in money, to conduct him on his journey. He died on the 15th of February, leaving his son [his son] Egfrid (age 25) his successor in the kingdom. In the third year of his reign, Theodore (age 68) assembled a synod of bishops, and many other teachers of the church, who loved and were acquainted with the canonical statutes of the fathers. When they were met together, he began, as became a prelate, to enjoin the observation of such things as were agreeable to the unity of the peace of the church. The purport of which synodical proceedings is as follows:-

On 15 Feb 670 King Oswiu of Northumbria (age 58) died. In 670 His son [his son] King Ecgfrith of Northumbria (age 25) succeeded King Northumbria. [his daughter-in-law] Æthelthryth Wuffingas Queen Consort Deira and Northumbria (age 34) by marriage Queen Consort Northumbria.

After 685 [his former wife] Eanflæd Queen Consort Bernicia (age 58) died.

Bede. HOW CEADDA, ABOVE-MENTIONED, WAS MADE BISHOP OF THE MERCIANS. OF HIS LIFE, DEATH, AND BURIAL.

At that time, the Mercians were governed by King Wulfhere, who, on the death of Jaruman, desired of Theodore to supply him and his people with a bishop; but Theodore would not obtain a new one for them, but requested of King Oswy that Ceadda might be their bishop. He then lived retired at his monastery, which is at Lestingau, Wilfrid filling the bishopric of York, and of all the Northumbrians, and likewise of the Picts, as far as the dominions of King Oswy extended. And, seeing that it was the custom of that most reverend prelate to go about the work of the Gospel to several places rather on foot than on horseback, Theodore commanded him to ride whenever he had a long journey to undertake, and finding him very unwilling to omit his former pious labour, he himself, with his hands, lifted him on the horse; for he thought him a holy man, and therefore obliged him to ride wherever lie had need to go. Ceadda having received the bishopric of the Mercians and Lindisfarne, took care to administer the same with great rectitude of life, according to the example of the ancients. King Wulfhere also gave him land of fifty families, to build a monastery, at the place called Barvc, or "The Wood," in the province of Lindsey, wherein marks of the regular life instituted by him continue to this day.

[his son] King Aelfwine of Deira was born to King Oswiu of Northumbria.

[his daughter] Osthryth Bernicia Queen Consort Mercia was born to King Oswiu of Northumbria and Eanflæd Queen Consort Bernicia. Coefficient of inbreeding 3.12%.

[his daughter] AelfflAed Bernicia was born to King Oswiu of Northumbria.

[his daughter] EalhflAed Bernicia was born to King Oswiu of Northumbria.

[his son] Aldfrith King Northumbria was born to King Oswiu of Northumbria and Fín Cenél Neógain Queen Consort Bernicia.

King Oswiu of Northumbria 612-670 appears on the following Descendants Family Trees:

Ida King Bernicia 559

Yffe Deira

Royal Ancestors of King Oswiu of Northumbria 612-670

Kings Bernicia: Grand Son of Æthelric King Bernicia

Kings Deira: Grand Son of Aella King Deira

Royal Descendants of King Oswiu of Northumbria 612-670

Osthryth Bernicia Queen Consort Mercia x 1

King Aelfwine of Deira x 1

Aldfrith King Northumbria x 1

Ealhfrith King Deira x 1

King Ecgfrith of Northumbria x 1

Ancestors of King Oswiu of Northumbria 612-670

Great x 1 Grandfather: Ida King Bernicia

GrandFather: Æthelric King Bernicia

Father: Æthelfrith King Northumbrians

King Oswiu of Northumbria

Great x 1 Grandfather: Yffe Deira

GrandFather: Aella King Deira

Mother: Acha Queen Consort Northumbria