Biography of King Penda of Mercia -655

Paternal Family Tree: Iclingas

628 Battle of Cirencester

633 Battle of Hatfield Chase

641 Battle of Maserfield

654 Battle of Bulcamp

655 Battle of the Winwaed

King Penda of Mercia was born to Pybba King Mercia.

After 575 King Penda of Mercia and Queen Cynewise were married. He the son of Pybba King Mercia.

In 593 [his grandfather] Creoda King Mercia (age 23) died. His son [his father] Pybba King Mercia (age 3) succeeded King Mercia.

Around 610 [his father] Pybba King Mercia (age 20) died.

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 626. This year came Eamer from Cwichelm, king of the West-Saxons, with a design to assassinate King Edwin (age 40); but he killed Lilla his thane, and Forthere, and wounded the king (age 40). The same night a daughter was born to Edwin (age 40), whose name was Eanfleda. Then promised the king to Paulinus, that he would devote his daughter to God, if he would procure at the hand of God, that he might destroy his enemy, who had sent the assassin to him. He then advanced against the West-Saxons with an army, felled on the spot five kings, and slew many of their men. This year Eanfleda, the daughter of King Edwin (age 40), was baptized, on the holy eve of Pentecost. And the king within twelve months was baptized, at Easter, with all his people. Easter was then on the twelfth of April. This was done at York [Map], where he had ordered a church to be built of timber, which was hallowed in the name of St. Peter. There the king gave the bishopric to Paulinus; and there he afterwards ordered a larger church to be built of stone. This year Penda began to reign; and reigned thirty winters. He had seen fifty winters when he began to reign. Penda was the son of Wybba, Wybba of Creoda, Creoda of Cynewald, Cynewald of Cnebba, Cnebba of Icel, Icel of Eomer, Eomer of Angelthew, Angelthew of Offa, Offa of Wearmund, Wearmund of Whitley, Whitley of Woden.

Around 626 King Penda of Mercia succeeded King Mercia.

Battle of Cirencester

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 628. This year Cynegils and Cwichelm fought with Penda at Cirencester, Gloucestershire [Map], and afterwards entered into a treaty there.

Battle of Hatfield Chase

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 633. This year King Edwin (age 47) was slain by Cadwalla and Penda, on Hatfield moor, on the fourteenth of October [Note. Some sources say 12 Oct 633]. He reigned seventeen years. His son Osfrid was also slain with him. After this Cadwalla and Penda went and ravaged all the land of the Northumbrians; which when Paulinus saw, he took Ethelburga (age 28), the relict of Edwin, and went by ship to Kent. Eadbald and Honorius received him very honourably, and gave him the bishopric of Rochester, where he continued to his death.

On 12 Oct 633 King Penda's alliance of Gwynedd and Mercia defeated the Northumbrians at the Battle of Hatfield Chase.

Eadfrith Deira was captured.

King Edwin of Northumbria (age 47) was killed. He was buried at Whitby Abbey [Map] - see Bede. His first cousin Osric King Deira succeeded King Deira. His nephew Eanfrith King Bernicia (age 43) succeeded King Bernicia.

Edwin's son Osfrith Deira was killed.

Around 640 [his son] King Wulfhere of Mercia was born to King Penda of Mercia.

Battle of Maserfield

On 05 Aug 641 (or 642 or 644 depending on the source) King Penda of Mercia Mercian and Welsh army defeated the Northumbrian army at the Battle of Maserfield. The battle is believed to have taken place at Oswestry, Shropshire. Northumbria was once again separated into two kingdoms.

King Oswald of Northumberland (age 37) was killed. His body was subsequently dismembered with his head and arms mounted on poles. His brother King Oswiu of Northumbria (age 29) succeeded King Bernicia. Rhiainfellt Rheged Queen Consort Bernicia by marriage Queen Consort Bernicia.

Osric King Deira was killed. His son King Oswine of Deira succeeded King Deira.

[his brother] Eowa King Mercia was killed (probably).

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 642. This year Oswald, king of the Northumbrians, was slain by Penda, king of the Southumbrians, at Mirfield, on the fifth day of August; and his body was buried at Bardney. His holiness and miracles were afterwards displayed on manifold occasions throughout this island; and his hands remain still uncorrupted at Barnburgh. The same year in which Oswald was slain, Oswy (age 30) his brother succeeded to the government of the Northumbrians, and reigned two less than thirty years.

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 645. This year King Kenwal was driven from his dominion by King Penda.

Battle of Bulcamp

In 654 King Penda of Mercia defeated the East Anglian army at the Battle of Bulcamp at Bulcamp, Blythburgh. King Anna of East Anglia and his son Jurmin Wuffingas were killed. Anna's son His uncle King Æthelhere of East Anglia succeeded King East Anglia.

Bede. 655. AD. How when King Penda was slain, the province of the Mercians received the faith of Christ, and Oswy (age 43) gave possessions and territories to God, for building monasteries, as a thank offering for the victory obtained.

At this time, King Oswy (age 43) was exposed to the cruel and intolerable invasions of Penda, king of the Mercians, whom we have so often mentioned, and who had slain his brother;431 at length, compelled by his necessity, he promised to give him countless gifts and royal marks of honour greater than can be believed, to purchase peace; provided that he would return home, and cease to waste and utterly destroy the provinces of his kingdom. The pagan king refused to grant his request, for he had resolved to blot out and extirpate all his nation, from the highest to the lowest; whereupon King Oswy (age 43) had recourse to the protection of the Divine pity for deliverance from his barbarous and pitiless foe, and binding himself by a vow, said, "If the pagan will not accept our gifts, let us offer them to Him that will, the Lord our God."

Battle of the Winwaed

On 15 Nov 655 King Oswiu of Northumbria (age 43) defeated the Mercian army (probably) at Cock Beck during the Battle of the Winwaed ending the period of Mercian dominance. The battle is believed to have ended Anglo-Saxon paganism.

On 15 Nov 655 Æthelwald King Deira (age 13), an ally of King Penda of Mercia, withdrew his forces, one of many Mercian allies to do so, weakening King Penda's army.

King Penda of Mercia and King Æthelhere of East Anglia were killed. Penda's son [his son] Paeda King South Mercia succeeded King South Mercia.

King Æthelwold of East Anglia succeeded King East Anglia after the death of his father at the Battle of the Winwaed.

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 15 Nov 1655. This year Penda was slain at Wingfield, and thirty royal personages with him, some of whom were kings. One of them was Ethelhere, brother of Anna, king of the East-Angles. The Mercians after this became Christians. From the beginning of the world had now elapsed five thousand eight hundred and fifty winters, when [his son] Peada, the son of Penda, assumed the government of the Mercians. In his time came together himself and Oswy, brother of King Oswald, and said, that they would rear a minster to the glory of Christ, and the honour of St. Peter. And they did so, and gave it the name of Medhamsted [Map]; because there is a well there, called Meadswell. And they began the groundwall, and wrought thereon; after which they committed the work to a monk, whose name was Saxulf. He was very much the friend of God, and him also loved all people. He was nobly born in the world, and rich: he is now much richer with Christ. But King Peada reigned no while; for he was betrayed by his own queen, in Easter-tide.

[his son] Cyneburh Iclingas was born to King Penda of Mercia.

[his son] Merewalh Iclingas was born to King Penda of Mercia.

[his son] Paeda King South Mercia was born to King Penda of Mercia.

[his son] Cyneswith Iclingas was born to King Penda of Mercia.

[his son] King Æthelred of Mercia was born to King Penda of Mercia.

King Penda of Mercia -655 appears on the following Descendants Family Trees:

Creoda King Mercia 570-593

Royal Descendants of King Penda of Mercia -655

Paeda King South Mercia x 1

King Æthelred of Mercia x 1

King Wulfhere of Mercia x 1

Ancestors of King Penda of Mercia -655

Great x 2 Grandfather: Cnebba

Great x 1 Grandfather: Cynewald

GrandFather: Creoda King Mercia

Father: Pybba King Mercia

King Penda of Mercia