Calendars is in Books.

1513 Battle of Flodden

1554 Wyatt's Rebellion Executions

1554 Execution of Lady Jane Grey and her Faction

1587 Execution of Mary Queen of Scots

1718 Battle of Cape Passaro

A summary. Most commonly used for dates but calendars can apply to anything. For example. the Parliamentary Rolls were, over time, translated, edited and summarised into Calendars organised by type and reign.

Calendar of State Papers, Foreign: Elizabeth

Calendar of State Papers, Foreign: Elizabeth Volume 1

Calendar of State Papers Domestic Series of Edward VI, Mary, Elizabeth I 1547-1625

Calendar of State Papers Domestic Series Elizabeth I

Calendar of State Papers Domestic Series Elizabeth I 1596

Calendar of State Papers Domestic Series Elizabeth I 1596 June

28 Jun 1596. Westminster. Grant to Cornelius Cure, of the office of master mason in the Tower, and the Queen's other castles, manors, and residences, void by death of Edward Young; fee, 1 2d. a day, and a yearly livery from the great wardrobe. Interlined with a reversionary grant to Edward Johnson. [Latin, 3 sheets.]

Calendar of State Papers James I

Calendar of State Papers James I Addenda

04 Jun 1614. 61. Will of Sir Nathaniel Bacon (age 68), knt., of Stiffkey, co. Norfolk, noted as published, but not read, 4 June 1614, in presence of Charles le Gros and seven others named. I desire to be buried in Stiffkey church [Map], where my former wife was interred, and where I wish my present wife to be, under or near the tomb I have caused to be provided, which the workmen have now in hand. Being indebted to my son-in-law, Owen Smyth, in regard of my receipts of the profits of his lands during his minority, if I should die without directing how such debt should be answered, I might be subject to just rebuke; so, that my wife and daughters may be the better assured, I devise my lands as follows: -.

I give to my executors all my lands in Stiff key, Langham, Morston, and other towns adjoining, from my death until the Michaelmas twelve month after, they paying to my daughter Lady Ann Townshend (age 41), £350 a year, with remainder to her and her heirs, provided that Roger Townshead (age 18), my grandchild, be not put from her. For default of such issue, the remainder to my second daughter Baroness Knyvet (age 39) and her heirs; remainder to my third daughter Lady Winifred Gawdy (age 36) and her heirs; remainder to my own heirs. The 100 marks a year paid by me to my daughter Townshend (age 41) is to be continued with the £350 a year, and time is to be allowed to my executors to dispose of the cattle and other stock for payment thereof. My daughter Knyvet (age 39) and my daughter Gawdy (age 36), with her husband (age 37), are to perfect the entail of the aforesaid manors and lands to my daughter Townshend (age 41), by giving up such right as is by law cast upon them. I give to my wife (age 44) for life the manor of Hemesby, with the impropriations, &c.; remainder to my heirs male, and for default thereof, to my daughter Lady Elizabeth Knyvet (age 39) and her heirs, with further remainders in a conveyance already made by me.

I give my manor of Stanford, with my lease of the impropriation, to my daughters Ladies Knyvet (age 39) and Winifred Gawdy (age 36), for their better maintenance during the life of my wife (age 44), - they yielding 201. a year of the profits of the manor to Nathaniel Knyvet, my grandchild; 101. a year to Martin Man, and £5 a year to William Sanders for life; - and after my wife's death, when Hemesby manor comes to my daughter Knyvet (age 39), then to my daughter Lady Gawdy (age 36) and Sir Robert  Gawdy (age 37), and her heirs, with the remainders mentioned in the conveyance aforesaid. The aforesaid annuities, with £5 more which I purpose to give to other servants, to be paid by my said two daughters out of Stanford manor, during the life of my wife; and after her death, one half by my daughter Knyvet, out of Hemesby manor. I give my manor of Eccles, with all the lands occupied therewith, to my wife for life, in augmentation of her jointure; remainder to my own heirs.

To my grandchild Roger Townshend (age 18) and his heirs, my house in Norwich, which I am to have after my sister Mansfield's (age 79) death, with the copyhold woods, meadow, &c.

To my wife for life the manor of Irmingland, with reversion to my daughter Knyvet for life, remainder to my grandson Thomas Knyvet, on condition that my said daughter pays, within two years after my wife's death, 2,000^. to my daughters Townshend and Gawdy; if not paid, the reversion of the said manor to go to my heirs. I know my house and lands in Irmingland, &c. are assured to my wife if she survives me, yet I direct as I have done, hoping that she will be either moved or compelled to make good my will, as it was never intended that the house and land should go otherwise than to my wife, and after her death to her eldest son, for satisfying such money as I was to pay him, for the profits of his lands received by me, and I trusted my wife with that and more, to give her eldest son content if he had outlived me.

Besides, I have given my wife £400 a year more than I assured her before marriage, to content her and not to deprive me in disposing of the inheritance. I have also conveyed to her son Owen Smyth, 100 naarks a yeajc in Eccles, which is to come to him if I do not otherwise dispose of it, although he has unkindly provoked me, and they wronged him who advised him thereto, but I hope that God may turn the heart of my wife not to wrong me. I desire the husbands of my daughters to make good these assurances; if they are contentious, a quarrel may be picked, but I hope that God will bless them with better spirits, and that they will be contented seeing the portion they have had in my lifetime, and will receive by my death is great to every one of them, though not in a like greatness; God will bless them best who most desire peace.

The lease of my manor of Mithwould is to be sold for payment of debts. I give to Mr. Percival, minister of Stiffkey £5, with the right of enjoying his pasture close at 20s. a year, so long as he resides in Stiff key. To the poor of StifFkey £10, to be distributed by my executors at their discretion. To my daughter. Lady Townshend, the piece of plate called the heirloom, to go with Stiffkey House, according to my father's gift, if I have no son. To my godson Nathaniel Bacon (age 20), son of my brother Edward (age 65), £10 To my wife the coach which my son Owen Smyth gave her, and two of my best coach horses at her choice; also the bedstead, with the furniture of tester, curtains, covering and chair, in my best chamber, but not the hangings; and two pillow beers given to me and hereby my mother Hopton.

I appoint my three daughters executors, and my brother Edward (age 65) supervisor, or failing him, Mr. Jermy and Gwyn, lawyers. My wife's great pearl chain, which cost me £200, is to be sold for payment of debts, as also the border of diamonds and rubies; if she will give for the pearl and border what they cost me, she is to have them. I give the jewel of diamonds which was my first wife's to my present one for life, with remainder to my daughter Townshend. I give to all my three daughters the jewel of unicorn's horn, according to their mother's direction, that each one may challenge the use thereof when needs require, and my wife may have the use thereof when she needs, but my daughter Townshend is to have the custody thereof for life.

To my supervisor a ring, valued at 20 marks, upon which the following is to be engraved: "Vindicta Domino." To Mr. Gwyn and Mr. Jermy 40s. each. To John Norsforth, for diligent service in my sickness, 10s. a year for life, payable out of Stanford manor during my wife's life, and afterwards out of Stanford and Hemesby; a like annuity to old John Harrison. To my son-in-law. Sir Robert Gawdy, one of my best geldings. To Barnaby Banyard, 20s. a year, payable out of Stanford and Henesby. I desire that my brother and supervisor see my evidences sorted and distributed between my wife and daughters, as appertains; and where two have interest, the originals to remain with tliat person to whom the present interest and possession is due. I advise my executors to retain the services of Martin Man for a time, as he knows my debts and estates.

To the poor of Langham 40s.; the poor of Morston 40s.; and to the poor of Wells, Blakeney, Wiveton, Warham, and Cley, 20s.; to be distributed by my executors within a year.

I leave my funeral solemnities to the discretion of my executors, &c., but the charge is to be small, and my debts considered.

To Ann Townshend, Elizabeth Knyvet and Dorothy Gawdy a piece of gilt plate each, value £10, with the following sentence engraved upon it, "Vindicta Domino," as a gift in remembrance of their grandfather. The household to be retained together for one month after my decease, at the charge of my executors. To each of my servants who have served two years, half a year's wages. To my wife and three daughters all my English printed and written books; the French law books to my grandson Roger Townshend, and the Latin to my grandson Henry Gawdy; but no books to be given to my grandson Thomas Knyvet, as he is like to be stored otherwise.

To Jane Morton a piece of gilt plate, value £5, with the inscription before mentioned, and rings, value 20s. a piece, with the same inscription, to my eldest brother and his wife; my brother Edward Bacon and his wife; my sisters Periam and Mansell (age 79); my brother Sir Francis Bacon; my mother and brother Hopton; Sir Henry Gawdy; my nephew Sir Edmund Bacon, and his brother Nathaniel; my brother Sir Thomas Knyvet and his wife; Sir Christopher Heydon; my brother Mansell (age 41); Mr. Bedingfield of Wighton; Mr. Fotherby; Capt. Russell; my cousin Thomas Gurney; Mr. Peapes; Mr. Clarke of Lynn; my son Owen Smyth and Lady Sydney; Sir Charles Cornwallis, and my nephew Grey. My debts to my son Owen Smyth being such, my children, and others, must hold me excused, though I give no greater legacies. 1 give also to my wife all the goods which were hers before I married her, and also all her jewels, except those directed to be sold; the remainder of my effects and stock to be sold, and the proceeds applied in liquidating my debts and legacies; the balance, if any, between my executors.

Calendar of Treasury Warrants

Calendar of Treasury Warrants 1718

Calendar of Treasury Warrants 1718 Sep

01 Sep 1718. Money warrant for 1,955l. 16s. 5d. to James Craggs, Samuel Edwards and Charles Hodges, Esqrs., in whom the legal interest of the office of Ranger and Keeper of Windsor Great Park is vested; for so much due from 1 Aug. 1714 to 1718 June 24 on the fee, salary or allowance of 500l. per an. payable to them by the privy seal of the late Queen Anne:

Together with: a dormant clause for the payment of said fee in future to them in consideration of said office and of the charge of supplying hay for the deer in said Great Park and paying underkeepers, gate keepers and other subordinate officers there. (Money order dated Sept. 5 for 1,955l. 16s. 5d.) (Letter of direction dated Sept. 18 hereon.) Money Book XXVII, p. 13. Order Book X, p. 162. Disposition Book XXIV, p. 149.

Treasury fiat for royal letters patent to appoint John Huggins, junr., to be Searcher of Plymouth port loco Robert Healey, lately deceased: during pleasure. Out Letters (Customs) XVII, p. 114.

Treasury warrant to the Clerk of the Pipe to prepare a lease to pass the Exchequer seal to William Clayton of a piece of ground in or near St. James's Stable Yard in the parish of St. James's and parcel of the Bailiwick or reputed Bailiwick of St. James's, whereon a small ruinous messuage or tenement is now standing, and also a little passage thereunto adjoining: the said premises abutting east on the Stable Yard, south on the Grooms' lodgings belonging to his Majesty, west on St. James's Park and north on a house and yard in the possession of and belonging to the Right Honble. William Clayton, Esq., and are in length 24 feet east to west and 21 feet north to south: all for 50 years at a rent of 20s. per an.

Prefixing: constat and ratal of the premises by H. Cholmley, Surveyor General of Crown Lands [see infra, Calendar of Treasury Books, Vol. XXXIII], under date 1719 July 15 for what appears to be a different lease]. Warrants not Relating to Money XXV, pp. 135–6.

Royal warrant dated Hampton Court to Charles, Duke of Bolton, Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, to place on the present and all future Establishments of Ireland Peter de Cosne for an allowance of Half Pay as a Lieutenant of Foot: he having been late in Brigadier Moryson's Regiment of Foot: same is to commence from 1718 June 24 and not from 24 Feb. 1715 as desired by the said Lord Lieutenant. Out Letters (Ireland) X, p. 219.

02 Sep 1718. Royal sign manual for 1,000l. to Paty Byng, Esq.: without account: as a mark of royal favour in consideration of his service in bringing letters from our Admiral Sir George Byng (age 55) with a particular account of the engagement [1718 Battle of Cape Passaro] with the Spanish Fleet off Cape Passaro the 31st July last. (Money warrant dated Sept. 3 hereon.) (Money order dated Sept. 3 hereon.) (Letter of direction dated Sept. 5 hereon.) King's Warrant Book XXIX, p. 104. Order Book X, p. 157. Disposition Book XXIV, p. 147.

03 Sep 1718. Money order for 50l. to Daniel Smith, Lieutenant Governor of Nevis, for a quarter due Sept. 2 inst. on his allowance of 200l. per an. for his support and maintenance in that employment and in lieu of all presents from the Assemblies of said island. Order Book X. p. 177.

04 Sep 1718. Letter of direction for 13,727l. 1s. 6d. to Walter Chetwynd (age 40) on the unsatisfied order in his name as Paymaster of the King's private annuities and bounties: and is to be applied by him to clear the sums due and in arrear on the said annual bounties at or at any time before Lady day 1718. Disposition Book XXIV, p. 146.

Christopher Tilson (in the absence of the Treasury Secretaries) to the Customs Commissioners. My Lords direct that Benjamin Bucknall be permitted to attend as a tidesurveyor and that his suspension be immediately taken off. Out Letters (General) XXII, p. 347.

04 Sep 1718, 05 Sep 1718, 13 Sep 1718, 17 Sep 1718 and 30 Sep 1718. Treasury warrant to same to appoint Christo[pher] Keon as Surveyor in London port loco William Pollard, superseded (Sept. 4).

William Mills as a landwaiter in London port loco William Smith, deceased (Sept. 13). In the margin: "this Mills was made a tidesman in the Inferior List, London port, by the name of Miles" [28 June last, supra, p. 377].

Richard Smith, at present one of the tidesman in Barnstaple port, to be a landwaiter in that port loco — Wills, lately deceased (Sept. 17).

Thomas Briggs, John Addison, Michael Westbuch to be boatmen at Deal loco John Hawkes, John Harris, Richard Stewart (Sept. 5).

William Wilson to be a landwaiter in Scarborough port loco Edward Robinson, deceased (Sept. 17).

Richard Smith to be a landwaiter in Barnstaple port loco Joseph Wild, lately deceased (Sept. 17).

Francis Andrews, at present one of the boatmen at Cockbush in Chichester port (who hath not his health in that place and desires to change) and John Weston, at present one of the boatmen at Poole (and who was formerly a sailor and understands a boat) to exchange places. Prefixing report dated Sept. 18 from the Customs Commissioners on the proposed change (Sept. 30). Out Letters (Customs) XVII, pp. 114, 115, 116, 117.

04 Sep 1718. Christopher Tilson (in the absence of the Treasury Secretaries) to the Customs Commissioners in Scotland. My Lords have read your memorial of the 28th ult. about allowing fire and candle to the Guards quartered in places for the security of the revenue. My Lords direct you to let them know where the said Guards are quartered, and their number; with an estimate of the probable charge of the fire and candle in each place. Out Letters (North Britain) IV, p. 416.

05 Sep 1718. Letter of direction for 7,784l. 12s. 8¼d. to Charles Dartiquenave on the unsatisfied order in his name as Paymaster of the Works: and is to be applied to discharge the debt in the Office of Works for 1717 Xmas quarter.

Prefixing: a state of the Debt in the Office of Works for the said quarter:

for works in the Tower of London 204 16 7

for works in Whitehall £944 2s 5d

for works in St. James' £1,693 10s 3d

for works in Westminster £355 11s 2d

for works at Denmark House £275 9s 0¼d

for works in Winchester £53 17s 9d

for works in Newmarket £233 9s 9d

for allowances £718 7s 5d

for works in Hampton Court House [Palace] £1,196 4s 3¼d

for works in Hampton Court Gardens £266 0s 5½d

for works in Kensington House £510 15s 6d

for works in Kensington Gardens £410 10s 3¾d

for works in Windsor Castle £463 14s 9¾d

for works in the Mews at Charing ross £400 11s 6¼d

for works in Savoy Barracks £57 11s 5d

Total. £7,784 12s 8¼d

Disposition Book XXIV, p. 147.

06 Sep 1718.Christopher Tilson (in the absence of the Treasury Secretaries) to the Excise Commissioners. The Treasury Lords are pleased to agree that the persons at present possessing the offices hereunder named with respect to the Duties under your management be the officers in their respective stations and qualities for the Duties on hides &c. that have been now lately added to [the Duties under your management or] commission: that is to say the present Cashiers, Comptrollers, Solicitor, Secretary, Register. My Lords therefore desire you to give them such authorities as are usual for their acting in their several stations. Out Letters (General) XXII, p. 349.

Treasury reference to the Customs Commissioners of the petition of Sir Justus Beck shewing that he has imported from Holland on board the London galley, William Ivor master, 504 Norway deals for his private use, but same are seized by Mr. Elmsall as imported contrary to law; and praying a noli prosequi as he was ignorant of the law. Reference Book IX, p. 406.

07 Sep 1718. Royal warrant dated Hampton Court to the Attorney or Solicitor General for a great seal for a grant of a salary of 2,000l. a year to Jane, Countess Dowager of Portland (age 46), whom we have thought fit to appoint to be Governess to our dearly beloved grandchildren, the Lady Ann (age 8), the Lady Amelia (age 7) and the Lady Carolina (age 5), daughters of our most dearly beloved son George Augustus, Prince of Wales (age 34): during pleasure: as from March 25 last. King's Warrant Book XXIX, p. 284.

Calendar of the State Papers of William and Mary

Calendar of the State Papers of William and Mary 1693

Calendar Of State Paper's, Domestic Series, Of The Reign Of William And Mary, 1693. Public Record Office.

Edited By William John Hardy, F.S.A. Under The Direction Of The Master Of The Rolls, And With The Sanction His Majesty's Secretary of State For The Home Department.

London: Printed For His Majesty's Stationery Office, By Mackie And Co. Ld.

And To Be Purchased, Either Directly Or Through Any Bookseller, From Eyre and Spottiswoode, East Hardine Sreeet, Fleet Srreet, E.C.; Or Oliver Ann Boyd, Edinburgh; Or E. Ponsonby, 116, Grafton Srreet, Dublin. 1903.

Calendar of State Papers of Milan

Calendar of State Papers of Milan 1513

22 Sep 1513. Potenze Estere. Inghilterra. Milan Archives. 660. Brian Tuke, Clerk of the Signet, to Richard Pace, Secretary of the Cardinal of England.1

A few days ago saw letters both from him and the cardinal, implying doubts of the king's success. Attribute this in part to the mere lies which he may have heard from the French and their partisans, and partly to the English Cabinet, which omitted to write to the cardinal, though he is of opinion that if he owed so much to any mortal, as our Most Christian king did to God, he should consider that his shoulders were heavily burdened, as all their undertakings had succeeded more prosperously than he could have imagined.

Note 1. Ibid, no. 316.

22 Sep 1513. First of all, on quitting England they found the weather very mild. Secondly, the army, although composed of heterogeneous nations, was so well agreed, and unanimous and so utterly free from dissensions as to defy exaggeration. Thirdly, no epidemic of any sort assailed so numerous an army. Fourthly, such was the plenty of provisions, that 20,000 men were living in the camp in time of war, far more cheaply than they lived at home in time of peace. Fifthly, they had many friends who were of the greatest help to them, the chief of these being the emperor, who, with many princes and other great lords, remained there constantly. Sixthly, in every direction they gained victories hitherto unparalleled, being always against many and always coming off victorious, a proof of the divine assistance.

22 Sep 1513. In order to give him a fuller account of their proceedings than was contained in the letters of the king, who wished rather to diminish than exaggerate, informs him that the king gave Terouenne to the Emperor, whose commanders burned the whole city after the departure of the English troops, with the exception of the cathedral. The population, warned by the king, carried off all their effects to the neighbouring towns. Such was the end of Terouenne, of late so impregnable a stronghold.

22 Sep 1513. This done, the king went to Lille on a visit to the Lady Margaret, to which very great spectacle all the noble lords and ladies and the merchants of Flanders, Holland and Brabant crowded, and received his Majesty in very great triumph. On the following Tuesday the king returned to the army, then on its march to besiege Tournai intending to begin on the 15th, where they found the suburbs burned, but the neighbouring towns and villages so well supplied with wheat and barley and other daily necessaries, that each of the king's soldiers would have enough for himself and his horse for the next eighteen weeks. The city was then blockaded on every side, and the army built winter dwellings for themselves, of which a great part have chimneys. Tournai is large and beautiful, the largest city in all Flanders, and the most populous of any on that side of Paris. Have stormed one gate, inside of which the king's troops have established themselves. The castle has been battered down by the artillery. Within the city there are no soldiers, but a great amount of peasantry and butchers, without any commander-in-chief. The besieged think themselves strong enough to resist the whole world, because they have a very great amount of cannon; but they suffer from a scarcity of provisions, and he believes, lack powder. The besiegers walk close to the walls daily, and the king himself does so occasionally, for three hours and a half at a time. The English ordnance was planted in the trenches, and the enemy having twice sought a parley, it was granted for two days. During this time the besiegers did not abstain from visiting the trenches, and the enemy pointed a gun to intimidate them. Thereupon the king ordered all the ordnance to play upon the city, and this was done so incessantly that the walls were well nigh levelled with the ground. The besieged then again demanded a parley, though the cannon continued to play, as the king will not lose a moment of time. At any rate, the place is gained. It manufactures excellent carpets and table covers, and will prove very useful for the king, as Burgundian and Rhenish wines can conveniently be brought thence to England. On this account the dwellings now built as already described and which occupy an area more than thrice the size of Tournai itself, will be left standing.

22 Sep 1513. The French army is at so great a distance from the English that no breeze can bring them any news of it.

22 Sep 1513. Have sent a message full of comfort to the schismatic king, thus:

The King of Scots, of all men the most perfidious, has been killed in fair fight by the Earl of Surrey, who attacked the king's own camp in a certain forest called Bermuiwood in England, all the nobility of Scotland being slain with the king. In the conflict 10,000 Scots were slain, and as many more in the flight. The battle was fought on the 9th of this month. All the ordnance of the Scots, their tents and the rest of their baggage were taken, the course of the whole business being as follows:

On the eve of St. Bartholomew the false and perjured King of Scots invaded England, and took the castle of Norham, not without shame to certain persons, razing it to the ground. He then led his army towards Berwick, burning the villages in every direction. The Earl of Surrey, Lord Dacres, Earl Latimer (Comes Latavier), Scrope (Scopre), and other great personages of those parts had not yet mustered, but each made such haste that on the 7th of September the Earl of Surrey summoned and challenged the aforesaid perjured King of Scots to give battle on the following Friday. Such was the reliance placed by that king on his French and Scottish commanders, that he thought all England together would not dare to oppose him; but the Earl of Surrey kept his engagement and promise. Lord Howard, the admiral, having heard that the King of Scots most boastfully proclaimed that he had long sought him by land and sea, as one who from fear always fled and avoided battle, quitted the royal fleet, left a deputy in command, forthwith landed and sent a message to the perjured King of Scots that he would lead the van of the army, not on horseback, but on foot, lest he should be supposed a craven and a runaway. He moreover warned the King of Scots not to take him alive, as he had determined not to capture any Scot, however noble he might be, even were it the king himself, but to kill him; promises which were fulfilled.

Accordingly on the appointed day the army attacked the Scots, whose forces were assembled on the summit of an hill, at the distance of a mile from its base, the hill being so strengthened and defended by ordnance that the assailants were obliged to wade through a certain marshy pass, leaving the guns in the rear.

The army of the Scots formed five lines in square battalions, representing the figure of a spear head; all being equidistant from the English army, which was divided into two lines with two wings. In spite of the Scottish artillery, which inflicted little or no damage, Lord Howard marched to the foot of the hill where he halted a short time, until the other wing of the rearguard had joined the last of his lines.

Thereupon the Scots came down the hill in very good order after the German fashion, with iron spears in masses. The Earl of Huntly, the Earl of Airlie and the Earl of Crauford broke upon Lord Howard. This force all perished, including the earls.

The perjured King of Scots attacked the Earl of Surrey, at whose side Lord Darcy's son was following; near him Lord Maxwell, a Scot, with Lord Herries, his brother, were killed, and practically all the rest of the Scottish nobles, the list of whose names had not yet been received. In these two engagements no prisoners were made, no quarter given. The Earl of Hauewes and the Earl of Argyle, with a very great force attacked Sir Edward Stanley, who slew the greater part of them. Lord Edmund Howard, who led his brother's right wing, was assailed by the Chamberlain of Scotland. He was thrice felled by the Chamberlain to the disgrace of his soldiers, who were cowards, but Lord Dacres succoured him with fifty horse. The Chamberlain of Scotland alone got home alive, although like the rest he lost all his men.

After the performance of these feats the entire army of the Scots took to flight. The rout began at noon and lasted until night. The English halbardiers decided the whole affair, so that in this battle the bows and ordnance were of little use. Only one English gentleman, an obscure knight, fell; the rest of the killed did not amount to four hundred.

Of the Scots upwards of 10,000 men were captured and slain in flight, and as many were killed on the battle field.

At the time of this engagement Lord Lovel was at Nottingham with 15,000 men, on his march towards Scotland, the queen being already forty miles beyond London with 40,000.

The Scots numbered in reality 60,000 men, though there were said to be 80,000. The English were 40,000, though reported to be only 30,000; and this is the end of James, late King of Scots, of all mankind the falsest.

At the time of this engagement Lord Lovel was at Nottingham with 15,000 men, on his march towards Scotland, the queen being already forty miles beyond London with 40,000.

Calendars of Parliamentary Rolls

Calendar of State Papers of Spain

Calendar of State Papers of Spain Volume 4

Calendar of State Papers of Spain Volume 4 1587 1603

28 Feb 1587. Paris [Map]. Bernardino De Mendoza (age 47) to the King (age 59). Note. Assumed to be the Spanish King Philip II.

The English ambassador sent the confidant (i.e., Charles Arundel (age 54)) to me this morning to say that as it was so important that your Majesty (age 59) should be informed instantly of the news he had received last night from England, that he sent to tell me of it, and openly to confess me his anxiety to serve your Majesty (age 59). He offered himself entirely through me, in the assurance that your Majesty (age 59) would not order him to do anything against the interest of his mistress the Queen (age 53), who however, he could plainly see, had not long to live now that she had allowed the execution of the Queen of Scotland (deceased). It happened in this way. The Lord Treasurer (age 66) being absent through illness, the earl of Leicester (age 54), Lord Hunsdon (age 60), Lord Admiral Howard (age 51) and Walsingham (age 55), had represented to the Queen (age 53) that the Parliament would resolutely refuse to vote any money to maintain the war in Holland, or to fit out a naval force to help Don Antonio, unless she executed the Queen of Scotland (deceased). Under this pressure she consented to sign a warrant, as they called it, that the Parliament might see, but which was not to be executed, unless it were proved that the Queen of Scotland (deceased) conspired again against her life. As Secretary Walsingham (age 55) was ill this warrant was taken to the Queen (age 53) for her signature by Davison (age 46), and after she had signed it she ordered him not to give it to anyone unless she gave him personally her authority to do so. Davison (age 46), who is a terrible heretic and an enemy of the Queen of Scotland (deceased), like the rest of the above-mentioned, delivered the warrant to them. They took a London executioner and sent him with the warrant to the justice of the county where the Queen of Scotland (deceased) was. The moment the justice received it, on the 8th [NOTE. Appears to be a typo; original says 18th], he entered the Queen of Scotland's (deceased) chamber with Paulet (age 54) and Lord Grey (age 46), who had charge of her, and there they had her head cut off with a hatchet in the presence of the four persons only. The Queen (age 53) orders her ambassador to inform this King (age 59) of it, and assure him, as she will more fully by a special envoy, that the deed was done against her will, and although she had signed the warrant she had no intention of having it carried out. She cannot avoid blaming herself for having trusted anyone but herself in such a matter. The ambassador is begging earnestly for an audience and is keeping the matter secret until he tells the King. In order that no time may be lost in informing your Majesty, I send this special courier in the name of merchants, by way of Bordeaux, whence he will go post to Irun; and as God has so willed that these accursed people, for His ends, should fall into "reprobrium sensum," and against all reason commit such an act as this, it is evidently His design to deliver those two kingdoms into your Majesty's hands. I thanked the ambassador in general terms for his offer, saying that I would give an account thereof to your Majesty. As I have formerly said, it will be most advisable to accept it, and pledge him to give us notice of any machinations here and in England against us. He reports that the fitting out of ships continues but in no greater number than he previously advised, although the rumour is current here that there would be 60 English, besides the Hollanders, but that the crews, etc. were not raised and no time fixed for the departure. The ambassador says he will have full information on the point when a gentleman of his has arrived whom he had sent to England to gain intelligence, as Cecil only writes now to say that the execution of the Queen of Scotland has been against his will, as he, the ambassador knew; and that the King, her son, was in great danger of suffering a similar fate. The execution was known in London on the 20th when the executioner returned, and great bonfires had been lit for joy all over the countryside. They did not even give her time to commend her soul to God. .

Calendar of State Papers of Spain Volume 5

Calendar of State Papers of Spain Volume 12 1554

Calendar of State Papers of Spain Volume 12 19 Feb 1554

19 Feb 1554. Simon Renard to Prince Philip.

My Lord: Since I last wrote to your Highness French plots have been discovered to show that Courtenay and the Lady Elizabeth, by means of intermediaries called Peter Carew, Wyatt (age 33), Crofts (age 36) and my Lord Thomas (Grey), conspired to throw the Queen of England into the Tower and put her to death, in order to seize the crown for themselves. The King of France had promised help in troops and money, and had already distributed some 10,000 to 12,000 crowns to private individuals. In the meantime 200 or 300 gentlemen, all of them heretics, were meeting together: the Duke of Suffolk (age 37) and his two brothers [Note. Thomas Grey and John Grey (age 30)], Cobham (age 57) and his three sons [Note. William Brooke 10th Baron Cobham (age 26), George Brooke (age 21), Thomas Brooke (age 21)], Pelham, Pickering, Carew and many more, and agreed to put their plans into execution in the spring. However, as God means to protect this good lady, the conspirators were forced to take up arms sooner than they had intended because Courtenay did not keep the secret and letters from the French ambassador, seized and enclosed herewith, were deciphered and revealed part of the plot. Moreover, Courtenay had a servant of his in France, and six weeks ago he and one Valbic (Welby?) were intriguing for the conspirators. To start with, Peter Carew made a violent effort to rouse the people on account of your Highness's marriage with the Queen, but as the people refused to rise, he had to fly to France, where trustworthy accounts tell he had a nocturnal conversation with the King-a sign of their malignity. His adherents were taken prisoners at Coventry (Compierre) where a similar attempt was made; and on the first day of Lent the rebels were defeated as your Highness will see by the copies of letters I wrote from time to time to the Emperor.

19 Feb 1554. Simon Renard to Prince Philip. Thus God performed a miracle. At present there is no other occupation than the cutting off of heads and inflicting exemplary punishments Jane of Suffolk (deceased), who made herself Queen, and her husband (deceased), have been executed; Courtenay (age 27) is in the Tower; and this very day we expect the Lady Elizabeth (age 20) to arrive here, who they say has lived loosely like her mother and is now with child.

19 Feb 1554. So when all these heads are off no one will be left in the realm able to resist the Queen, and throughout the country there is no sign of discontent, for on the contrary the gentry have met together in many places to swear fidelity to your Highness and the Queen and die in defense of the alliance. I thought it my duty to report this at once so that your Highness might consider it in coming to a decision. All your good servants think you might proceed to Flanders and form your household there before coming to England, for without counting the marriage your speedy journey to these parts is necessary in order to assist his Majesty in the press of business that becomes heavier each day. German affairs are especially menacing, there is much in Italy that needs a remedy, and future plans must be formed. In the meantime your Highness may carefully reflect on the English question. The rising caused us to refrain from effecting any marriage per verba de prœsenti or giving any binding obligation until we should see how it was all to end; but I cannot omit to assure you that the Queen, in the midst of great trials, displayed a fortitude incomparably greater than any history relates in analagous circumstances, and overcame her enemies moved by an affection for your Highness that could not possibly be more constant.

His Majesty is fitting out a great fleet, and it is hoped you are doing the same, for the French have been planning to send one to Scotland, and if they did so, leaving their Norman and Breton ports unprotected, they might be attacked in that quarter.

His Majesty is fitting out a great fleet, and it is hoped you are doing the same, for the French have been planning to send one to Scotland, and if they did so, leaving their Norman and Breton ports unprotected, they might be attacked in that quarter.

News have reached me that on January 26th the Marquis of Marignano captured one of the main gates of Siena and a fort guarded by two companies of Frenchmen whom he killed. He hoped to have the whole town in his hands in three days' time, for it was nearly conquered and Peter Strozzi besieged in a small fort.

The death of the Prince of Portugal (deceased), brother (-in-law) to your Highness, has been reported here.

The powers sent by way of France have come, and the Pope has granted a dispensation.

The French, confident in the success of Courtenay's plot, have said no more about mediation.

Spanish translation from a lost French original.

Printed in Documentos Inéditos, Vol. III.

19 Feb 1554. Gaspard Schetz to the Queen Dowager.

Madam: Although I believe your Majesty to be informed of occurrences in England, I am unwilling not to send you the news that have reached us this morning in a letter of the 15th instant. It relates that the Queen has caused the rebels to be punished: the Lady Jane (deceased) and her husband (deceased), the Duke of Suffolk's (age 37) son, have been decapitated; the White Rose (age 27) has been sent back to the Tower [Map], where are also the Duke of Suffolk (age 37) with two of his brothers [Note. Thomas Grey and John Grey (age 30)] and guilty lords to the number of 27. They write that, of the soldiers who abandoned the Duke of Norfolk (age 81) on the field and joined the rebels, 40 have been hanged and 200 more condemned to the same penalty. They say that the said Duke has died in his own country. The Earl of Pembroke (age 53) has been sent down to Kent with 300 light horse to discover who took part in the rebellion and execute justice. This, Madam, is the substance of what I have heard, together with a report that it is being said in England that my Lord our Prince is to come with 8,000 Spanish soldiers, about which the English are not best pleased.

They say the Queen is sending hither an ambassador, the Viscount Fitzwalter (age 47) (Fewaters), who will be able to give your Majesty more trustworthy information.

Antwerp, 19 February, 1554.

Copy. French. Printed by Gachard, Voyages des Souverains des Pays-Bas, Appendix to Vol. IV.