Chronicle of Gregory 1451-1460

Chronicle of Gregory 1451-1460 is in Chronicle of Gregory.

1455 First Battle of St Albans

1458 Loveday

1460 June Yorkist Landing at Sandwich

1460 Battle of Northampton

1460 Murder of Lord Scales

1460 Richard of York claims the Kingdom of England

1460 Act of Accord 39 Hen VI

1460 Battle of Wakefield

1451. Mayor of London. Gregory (age 51) Skynner. Sheriffs. Warter and Phylyppe.

1452. That year it was competent welle and pessabylle as for any rysynge a-mong our selfe, for every man was in cheryte, but sumwhat the hertys of the pepyl hyng and sorowyd for that the Duke of Glouceter was dede, and some said that the Duke of Yorke (age 40) hadde grete wronge, but what wronge there was noo man that darste say, but some grounyd and some lowryd and hadde dysdayne of othyr, &c.

1453. Mayor of London John Norman. Sheriffs: John Walden and Thomas Coke.a

Note a. What is recorded under this year, viz. the battle of St. Alban's, really took place in the thirty-third year of Henry VI., but the mayor and sheriffs of that year are omitted, and all the remaining years of this reign are wrong numbered, that which is called the thirty-third year being really the thirty-fourth, and so on,

First Battle of St Albans

22 May 1455. Ande that year there was a batayle at Synt Albonys by-twyne Kyng Harry the VI (age 33). and the Duke of Yorke (age 43), and this batayle was the weke be-fore Whytte Sonday. And Kyng Harry (age 33) was in harnys his owne propyr person, and was hurte with the shotte of an arowe in the necke. And the Duke of Yorke (age 43) brought him unto London as King and not as a presener. The Erle of Wyltschyre (age 34) bare the kyngys baner that day in the batayle, for he was at that tyme namyd but Syr Jamys Urmon;b and this said Jamys (age 34) sette the kyngys baner agayne an howse ende and fought manly with the helys, for he was a feryd of lesynge of beute, for he was namyd the fayryd knyght of this londe. And with yn a lytyl whyle aftyr was made the Erle of Wyltschyre.

The chaptaynys of this fylde undyr the Duke of Yorke was the Erle of Warwyke, the Erle of Saulysbury. And in that batayle wer slayne the Duke of Somersett, the Erle of Northehomerlonde, the Lord Clyfforde, with many moo othyr, bo the of gentylle men and yemen. And the King lete alle this mater be in a dormon a grete and a long tyme aftyr, as ye shalle hyre, for it was noo seson to trete of pesse, for some were welle contente and some evylle plesyd, but at the laste the pepylle said that the Duke of Somersett was worthy to suffer that dethe by so moche that he brought Kyng Harry at Claryngdon be-syde Saulysbury and there he toke his grete sekenys.

Note b. Sir James Butler, Earl of Wiltshire and Ormond. The writer is wrong in saying that he was made Earl of Wiltshire after the battle. He was created Earl of Wiltshire in 1449, and succeeded to the earldom of Ormond in 1452.

1455. Mayor of London: William Marowe. Sheriffs: John Jonge and Holgrave.

1455. Here was the rysynge and wanton reule of þe mayre and the mercers of London a-gayne the Lombardys. The Lombardys were so yntretyd that they were fayne to voyde the Cytte of London, ande many of them come to Sowthe Hampton and unto Wynchester for to be an habyte there. And they toke grete olde mancyons in Wyncherter for terme of lyffe, and some but for yerys, and causyd the londe lordys to do grete coste in reparacyons, and when alle was don they come not there, and that causyd grete loste unto the londe lordys.

Also some of the Lumbardys were take ande put in warde, and the common talKing ande noyse was that they shulde nevyr be delyveryd butt contynue in perpetualle preson.

1455. Also that year a thyffe, one Thomas Whytehorne, was take in the Neweforeste be-syde Beuley and put yn preson at Wynchester. And when the day of delyverans com he appelyd many trewe men, and by that mene he kept his lyffe in preson. And thoo men that he appelyd were take and put yn strong preson and sufferde many grete paynys, and was that they sholde confesse and a-corde unto his fals pelyng; and some were hongyd that hadde noo frende shyppe and goode, and thoo that hadde goode gate her charters of pardon. And that fals and untrewe peler hadde of the King every day j d. ob. And this he contynuyd al moste iij [3] year, and dystryde many men that were some tym in his company. And at the laste he appelyd on that outerly said that he was fals in his appelynge, and said that [he]b wolde preve it with his hondys, and spende his lyfe and blode a-pone his fals body. And this mater was full dyscretely take and hyrde of bo the pelerrys parte, and of the defendente is parte also. And a notabylle man, and the moste petefullyste juge of al this londe in syttyng a-pon lyffe and dethe, toke this sympylle man that offeryd to fyght with the peler, ande full curtesly informyd him of alle the condyscyons of the fyghtyng and duelle of repreffe that shulde be by-twyne a peler of the kyngys, fals or trewe, in that one party, and by-twyne the defendent, trewe or false, in that othyr party. For in cas that the peler prevaylyd in that fyght he shulde be put in preson ayen, but he shulde fare more better than he dyd be fore tyme of fyghtynge, and be i-lowe of the kyng ij d. every [day]a1 as long as hit plesyd the kyng that he shulde lyf. For in prosses the King may by the lawe put him to dethe, as for a man sleer, bycause that his pelyng, fals or trewe, hathe causyd many mannys dethys, for a very trewe man schulde with yn xxiiij ho wry s make opyn to be knowe alle suche fals hyd thyngys of felony or treson, yf he be nott consentynge unto the same felowschyppe, undyr payne of dethe; and this peler is in the same cas, wherefore he moste nedys dy by very reson. Thys is for the pelers party.

The defendaunte is party ys, as that nobylle man, Mayster Myhelle Skyllyng, said ande informyde the defender, that he and the peler moste be clothyd alle in whyte schepys leter, bothe body, hedde, leggys, fete, face, handys, and alle. Ande that they schulde have in her hondys ij stavys of grene hasche, the barke beynge a-pon, of iij [3] fote in lenghthe, and at the ende a bat of the same govyn out as long as the more gevythe any gretenys. And in that othyr ende a home of yryn, i-made lyke unto a rammys home, as scharpe at the smalle ende as hit might be made. And there why]?e they schulde make her foule batayle a-pon e the moste sory and wrecchyd grene that might be founde a-bowte the towne, havyng nothyr mete ne drynke whythe, bot both moste be fastynge. And yf her frowarde wepyn ben i-broke they moste fyght with her hondys, fystys, naylys, tethe, fete, and leggys; it is to schamfulle to reherse alle the condyscyons of this foule conflycte; and yf they nedc any drynke, they moste take her owne pysse. And yf the defendent sle þat pelers, fals or trewe, the defendent shalle be hangyde by-cause of man sleynge, by soo moche that he hathe i-slayne the kyngys prover, for by his meny the King hadde mony of suche as were appelyd, and that mony þat rosse of her stuffe or goodys þat they hadde was put to þe King almys, and his amener dystrybutyd hit unto the pore pepylle. But the kyng may by his grace pardon the defendent yf he wylle, ysa2 the defendent be welle namyd and of competent governaunce in the toune or citte there at his abydyng is ; but this full seldon sene by cause of the vyle and unmanerly fyghtynge. And by reson they shulde not ben beryd in noo holy sepulture of Crystyn mannys beryng, but caste out as a man þat wylfully sleythe him selfe. Nowe remembyr this foule batayle, whethey ye wylle doo it or noo. And bothe party s consentyde to fyght, with alle the condyscyons that long there too. And the fendent desyryd that the juge wolde sende unto Mylbroke there that he dwellyde, to inquire of his gydynge and of conversacyon. And alle the men in that toune said that he was the trewyste laborer in alle that contre, and the moste gentellyste there with, for he was a fyscher and tayler of crafte. And the peler desyryd the same, but he was not a-bydynge in no place passynge a monythe. And in every place there as inquesyscyon was made men said, "Hange uppe Thome Whythorne, for he is to strong to fyght with Jamys Fyscher the trewe man whythe an yryn rammys home." And this causyd the juge to have pytte a-pon the defendent.

The maner of fyughtynge of thes ij poore wrecchys by-syde Wynchester.

The peler in his a-rayment ande parelle whythe his wepyn come out of the Este syde, and the defendent out of the Sowthe-Weste syde in his aparayle, with his wepyn, full sore wepynge, and a payre of bedys in his hond ; and he knelyd downe a-pone the erthe towarde the Este and cryde God marcy and alle the worlde, and prayde every man of forgevenys, and every man there beyng present prayde for hym. And the fals peler callyde and sayd " þou fals trayter! why arte þou soo long in fals bytter be-leve?" And thenne the defendent rosse upe and him and said, "My quarelle is as faythefulle and alle soo trewe as my by-lyve, and in that quarelle I wylle fyght," and with the same worde smote at the peler that his wepyn breke; and thenne the peler smote a stroke to the defendent, but the offycers were redy that he shulde smyte no more, and they toke a-way his wepyn fro hym. And then they fought to gederys with her fystys long tyme arid restyd hem, ande fought agayne, and then restyd agayne; and then they wente togedyr by the neckys. And then they bothe with her tethe, that the lethyr of clothyng and flesche was alle to rente in many placys of her bodys. And then the fals peler caste that meke innocent downe to the grownde and bote him by the membrys, that the sely innocent cryde owt. And by happe more thenne strengythe that innocent recoveryd up on his kneys and toke that fals peler by the nose with his tethe and put his thombe in his yee, that the peler cryde out and prayde him of marcy, for he was fals unto God and unto hym. And then þe juge commaundyd them to cesse and her bothe her talys ; and the peler said that he hadde accusyd him wronge-fully and xviij [18] men, and be-sought God of marcy and of for-gevenys. And then he was confessyd ande hanggyd, of whos soule God have marcy. Amen.

As for the defendent was pardonyd of his lyfe, leme, and goodys, and went home; and he be-come an hermyte and with schorte tyme dyde.

Note b. Omitted in MS.

Note a1. Omitted in MS.

Note a2. ys. So in MS. for "if."

1456. Mayor: Mayster Canyngys. Sheriffs: Raffe Verney, Stewarde.

1456. That same year the Lord Egramounde (age 33) brake owt of Newegate [Map] with many othyr men.

1457. Mayor: Geoffrey Boleyn (age 51). Sheriffs: Reyner, Edwar.


24 Mar 1458. Ande this same year at Covyntre there was made a pesse [Note. peace] by-twyne the Duke of Somersett Harry (age 22), and the Earl of Saulysbury (age 58), and the Erle of Warwycke (age 29), for the dethe of his fadyr Duke of Somersette, that the Duke of Yorke (age 46) put to dethe at Synt Albonys. And this tretys was made at Covyntre, in the holy tyme of Lentyn, by the mene of Kyng Harry the VI. And alle that holy tyme of Lentyn there might noo mane man that shulde preche by-fore the King, but that he shulde shewe his sarmon in wrytyng, were he docter or other, in so moche the lordys woldys A B C wolde assygne what he schulde say, as for any thynge that longyd unto the common wele, and yf he passyd her commaundement he schulde lese his costys, and goo as he come, withowte mete and drynge. But a becheler of holy devynyte come to that cytte, and whenn he come to preche byfore the kyng, as Maystyr Wylliam Saye, Dene of Poulys and Dene of the kyngys chapylle, hadde desyryd and asygnyd, A B C axyd his name, and his name was Mayster Wylliam Ive, at that tyme beyng at Wynchester in Wycham is college. And A B C said that they moste nedys se his sarmon and his purposse, that he was a vysyd to say by-fore the King the Sonday nexte comynge. And he full goodly toke them his papyr; and they seyng and redynge his papyr, commaundyd to leve out and put a way many troughtys. But that same Mayster Wylliam Ive said but lytylle, but whenn he come to pulpyt he sparyd not to sayd the troughthe, and reportyd by-fore the kyng that A B C made the sarmonys that were said fore, and not thoo that prechyd, and that causyd that þe men that prechyd hadde but sympylle sarmons, for her purposse was alle turnyde upsodowne 3 and that they hadde made love days as Judas made whythe a cosseb with Cryste for they cyste ovyr the mane. The grete rewarde that he hadde for his labyr was the rydyng of viij xx myle yn and out for his travayle, and alle his frendys full sory for hym. But qui veritatem dicit caput fractum habebit, &c. And that same year alle thes lordys departyd from the Parlyment, but they come nevyr alle togedyr after that tyme to noo Parlyment nor conselle, but yf it were in fylde with spere and schylde.

Note b. kiss.

1458. Mayor: Thomas Scott. Sheriffs: Raffe Gosselyn, Nedham.

Early Medieval Books, Chronicle of Gregory 1451-1460, Chronicle of Gregory 1460

21 Jun 1460. Alle soo thes for said lordys come agayne unto Sondewyche [Map] the xxj [21] day of June nexte folowyng. And the comyns of Kente and there welle-wyllers brought them to Lundon, and so forthe to Northehampton.

10 Jul 1460 And there they mete with the King and foughte manly with the kyngys lordys and mayny, but there was moche favyr in that fylde unto the Erle of Warwycke (age 31). And there they toke the King (age 38), and made newe offycers of the londe, as the chaunceler and tresyrar and othyr, but they occupy de not fo[r]thewith, but abode a seson of the comyng of Duke of York (age 48) out of Irlonde. And in that fylde was slayne the Duke of Bokyngham (age 57), stondyng stylle at his tente, the Erle of Schrovysbury (age 42), the Lord Bemond (age 50), and the Lord Egremond (age 37), with many othyr men. Ande many men were drownyd by syde the fylde in the revyr at a mylle. And that goode knyght Syr Wylliam Lucy (age 56) that dwellyd besyde Northehampton hyrde the gonne schotte, and come unto the fylde to have holpyn the King, but the fylde was done or that he come; an one of the Staffordys was ware of his comynge, and lovyd that knyght is wyffe (age 21) and hatyd hym, and a-non causyd his dethe.

09 Sep 1460. Ande this same year the Duke of Yorke (age 48) come out of Yrlonde, and londyd at the Redde Clyffe in Loncaschyre, and his lyvery was whyte and brewe in her clothyng, and i-brawderyd a-bove with fetyrlockys. And this he come forthe towarde London; ande then his lady the duchyes (age 45) met with him in a chare i-coveryd with blewe felewette, and iiij pore coursserys theryn. And so he come to Habyngdon, and there he sende for trompeters and claryners to bryng him to London, and there he gave them baners with the hole armys of Inglonde without any dyversyte, and commaundyd his swerde to ben borne uppe ryghte be-fore hym; and soo he rode forthe unto Lundon tylle he come to Westemyster to Kyng Harrys palys ande there he claymyde the crowne of Inglonde.

Oct 1460. Ande he kept King Harry there by fors and strengythe, tylle at the laste the King for fere of dethe grauntyd him the crowne, for a man that hathe by ly tylle wytte wylle son be a feryd of dethe, and yet I truste and bee-leve there was no man that wolde doo him bodely harme. But the lordys entretyd that Kyng Harry shuld rejoyse the crowne durynge his lyffe, and aftyr his lyffe that the crowne sholde returne unto the dukys is a hayrys as it requyrythe by that tytylle, and here uppon they were swore to ben faythefulle and trewe unto Kyng Harry. And alle so that it shulde [be] b graunte treson to them that spake any evyr c by the Duke of Yorke or his wife, or any of his chyldryn. And alle the lordys grauntyd there to, and soo it was proclaymyd in London and in many placys of Inglond. And that the for-said duke shulde have out of the crow[n]e yearly to his expence, for him and his hayrys durynge Kyng Harrys lyffe, xM [Note. 10000] marke in mony. Thys acordement was made the laste day of October.

And that same nyght the King remevyde unto London a-gayne his wylle, to the byschoppe is palys of London, and the Duke of Yorke com unto him that same nyght by the torchelyght and toke a-pon him as kyng, and said in many placys that this is owrys by very ryght. Ande then the quene hyrynge this she voydyde unto Walys, but she was met with be-syde the Castelle of Malepas [Map], and a servand of her owne that she hadde made bothe yeman and gentylman, and aftyr a-poyntyd for to be in offysce with her son the prynce, spoylyde her and robbyde hyr, and put her soo in dowt of her lyffe and sonys lyffe also. And then she com to the Castelle of Hardelowe [Probably Denbigh Castle, Possibly Hawarden, Flintshire] in Walys, and she hadde many grete gyftys and gretely comfortyd, for she hadde nede there of, for she hadde a full esy many a-boute hyr, the nombyr of iiij personnys. And moste comynly she rode by-hynde a yonge poore gentylle-man of xiiij year age, his name was Jon Combe, i-borne at Amysbery [Map] in Wyltschyre. And there hens she remevyd full prevely unto the Lord Jesper, lord and Erle of Penbroke, for she durste not a byde in noo place that [was] a opyn but in pryvatt. The cause was that conter fete tokyns were sende unto her as thoughe that they hadde come from her moste dradde lord the Kyng Harry the VI; but it was not of his sendyng, nothyr of [his] a doynge, but forgyd thyngys, for they that brought the tokyns were of the kyngys howse, and some of the pryncys howse, and some of her owne howse, and bade her beware of the tokyns, that she gave noo credans there too; for at the kyngys departynge fro Covyntre towarde the fylde of Northehampton, he kyste her and blessyd the prynce, and commaundyd her that she shulde not com unto him tylle that [he] a sende a specyalle tokyn unto her that no man knew but the King and she. For the lordys wolde fayne hadde her unto Lundon, for they knew welle that alle the workyngys that were done growe by hyr, for she was more wyttyer then the King, and that apperythe by his dedys, &c.

Then the Quene (age 30) havynge knowelechynge of this praty whyle sche sende unto the Duke of Somersett (age 24), at that tyme beynge in Dorset schyre at the Castelle of Corffe [Map], and for the Erle of Devyschyre (age 28), and for Elysaundyr Hody, and prayde them to com to her as hastely as they might, with her tenantys as strong in her harnys as men of warre, for the Lord Rosse (age 33), the Lord Clyfforde (age 25), the Baron of Grestocke (age 46), the Lord Nevyle (age 50), the Lord Latymer (age 53), were waytyng a-pon the Duke of Excete[r] (age 30) to mete with her at Hulle [Map]. And this mater was not taryd but full prevely i-wrought; and she sende letters unto alle her ehyffe offycers that they wold doo the same, and that they shulde warne alle the servantys that lovyd her or purposyd to kepe and rejoyse her of Yysce, to wayte a-pon her at Hulle by that day as hit a-poyntyd by hyr. Alle thes pepylle were gaderyd and conveyde so prevely that they wer hole in nombyr of xvM [Note. 15000] or any man wolde be-leve it; in so moche yf any man said, or tolde, or talkyd of suche gaderyng, he shulde be schende, and some were in grete donger, for the common pepylle said by thoo that told the, troughthe, "Ye talke ryght ye wolde hit were," and gave noo credens of her sayynge. But the laste the lordys purposyd to knowe the troughthe. And the ix day of December nexte folowyng the Duke of Yorke (age 49), the Erle of Salysbury (age 60), the Erle Rutlond (age 17) (he was the Duke of Yorke is secunde sone, one the beste dysposyd lord in this londe), and Syr Thomas Haryngdon (age 60), whythe many mo knyghtys and quyers and grete pepylle with hem, and soo departyd out of London towarde Yorke, &c.

30 Dec 1460. Ande the same year, the xxx [30] day of December, the Duke of Exceter (age 30), the Duke of Somersett (age 24), the Erle of Northehomberlond (age 39), the Lord Roos (age 33), the Lord Nevyle (age 50), the Lord ClyfForde (age 25), with many mo lordys, knyghtys, squyers, and gentyllys, and the commyns of the Quenys party, met with the Duke of Yorke (age 49) at Wakefylde [Map], and there they made a grete jorney a-pon the lord and Duke of Yorke, and toke him and the Erle of Saulysbury (age 60), the Erle of Rutlond (age 17), and the Lord Haryngdon (age 18), and Syr Thomas Nevyle (age 30), and Syr Thomas Haryngdon (age 60), and many mo knyghtys were take a slayne by syde alle the comyns. But this good Duke of Yorke with his lordys a-fore said loste her heddys; God have marcy on there soulys, for they loste in that jorneys the nombyr of xxvc [2500] men. And in the Quenys party were slay but ii c [200] men, &c.

20 Jul 1460. As for the sege of the Towre, it is com1 and opyn i-knowe, I passe ovyr. But son aftyr the ende of the sege the Lord Schalys (age 63), that notabylle warryoure, was slayne at Synt Mary Overeyes [Map] with water men, and laye there dyspoyly nakyd as a worme. But the lordys were full sory of his dethe.

Note 1. Apparently the writer intended to say "commonly."