Chronicle of Gregory 1461

Chronicle of Gregory 1461 is in Chronicle of Gregory 1461-1469.

1460 Battle of Wakefield

1461 Battle of Mortimer's Cross

1461 Second Battle of St Albans

1461 Proclamation of Edward IV as King

1461 Battles of Ferrybridge

1461 Battle of Towton

1461 Coronation of Edward IV

Battle of Mortimer's Cross

02 Feb 1461. Alle so Edwarde Erle of Marche (age 18), the Duke of Yorke ys sone and heyre, hadde a gre jornaye at Mortymer ys Crosse in Walys the secunde day of Februar nexte soo folowynge, and there he put to flyght the Erle of Penbroke (age 29), the Erle of Wylteschyre (age 40). And there he toke and slowe of knyghtys and squyers, and of the,a to the nomber of iij M1 [3000] ., &c.

Ande in that jornay was Owyn Tetyr (age 61) take and brought unto Herforde este, an he was be heddyde at the market place [Map], and hys hedde sette a-pone the hygheyste gryce of the market crosse, and a madde woman kembyd hys here and wysche a way the blode of hys face, and she gate candellys and sette a-boute hym brennynge, moo then a C [Note. One hundred]. Thys Owyne Tytyr (age 61) was fadyr unto the Erle of Penbroke (age 29), and hadde weddyd Quene Kateryn, Kyng Harry the VI (age 39). ys modyr, wenyng and trustyng all eway that he shulde not be hedyd tylle he sawe the axe and the blocke, and whenn that he was in hys dobelet he trustyd on pardon and grace tylle the coler of hys redde vellvet dobbelet was ryppyd of. Then he sayde, "That hede shalle ly on the stocke that was wonte to ly on Quene Kateryns lappe," and put hys herte and mynde holy unto God, and fulle mekely toke hys dethe.

Alle soo the same day that the Erle of Marche (age 18) shulde take hys jornaye towarde Mortymer ys Crosse fro Herforde este [Map]b, he mousterd hys many with owte the towne wallys in a mersche that ys callyd Wyg mersche. And ovyr hym men sayc iij [3] sonnys schynyng.[And over him men say three suns shining. This a reference to the Parhelion which occurred on the morning of the Battle of Mortimer's Cross.]

Note a. So in MS.

Note b. Haverfordwest. [Note. While the note suggests Haverfordwest we believe this is a reference to Hereford?]

Note c. saw.

Second Battle of St Albans

Ande the xvij day nexte folowynge Kyng Harry (age 39) roode to Synt Albonys [Map], and the Duke of Northefolke (age 45) with hym, the Erle of Warwycke (age 32), the Erle of Arundelle (age 43), the Lorde Bouser (age 30), the Lorde Bonvyle (age 68), with many grete lordys, knyghtys, and squyers, and commyns of an C [Hundred] Ml men. And there they hadde a grete batayle whythe the Quene (age 30), for she come ever on fro the jornaye of Wackefylde tylle sche come to Synt Albonys, with alle the lordys a fore sayde; and hyr mayny and every lorde ys men bare hyr lordys leverey, that every man myghte knowe hys owne feleschippe by hys lyverey. And be-syde alle that, every man and lorde bare the Pryncys (age 7) levery, that was a bende of crymesyn and blacke with esteryge ys fetherys. The substance that gate that fylde were howseholde men and feyd men. I wene there were not v Mlmen that fought in the Quenys party, for [t]emoste parte of Northeryn men fledde a-way, and sum were take and spoylyd owte of hyr harnysse by the way as they fledde. And sum of them robbyd evyr as they yede, a petyffulle thynge hit ys to hyre hit. But the day before that batayle there was a jornay at Dunstapyl [Map]; but the kyngys mayny lackyd good gydyng, for sum were but newe men of warre, for the chevyste captayne was a boucher of the same towne; and there were the kyngys mayny ovyr throughe only by the Northeryn men. And sone aftyr the bocher, for schame of hys sympylle gydynge and loste of the men, the nombyr of viij C, for very sorowe as hyt ys sayde, hynge hym selfe; and sum men sayde that hyt was for loste of hys goode, but dede he ys-God knowythe the trought.

And in the myddys of the batayle Kynge Harry (age 39) wente unto hys Quene (age 30) and for-soke alle hys lordys, ande truste better to hyr party thenne unto hys owne lordys. And thenn thoroughe grete labur the Duke of Northefolke (age 45) and the Erle of Warwycke (age 32) a schapyd a-waye; the Byschoppe of Exceter (age 29), that tyme Chaunceler of Ingelond, and brother unto the Erle of Warwycke, the Lorde Bouser (age 30), whythe many othyr knyghtys, squyers, and comyns fledde, and many men slayne in bothe partys. And the Lorde Bonevyle (age 68) was be-heddyd, the comyn sayynge that hys longage causyd hym to dye. The Prynce (age 7) was jugge ys owne sylfe. Ande ther was slayne that manly knyght Syr Thomas Keryel (age 65). The nomber of ded men was xxxv C an moo [t]at were slayne. The lordys in Kyng Harrys (age 39) party pycchyd a fylde and fortefyd hyt fulle stronge, and lyke unwyse men brake hyr raye and fyld and toke a-nothyr, and or that they were alle sette a buskyd to batayle, the Quenys parte was at hond whythe hem in towne of Synt Albonys [Map], and then alle [t]yng was to seke and owte of ordyr, for hyr pryckyers come not home to bryng no tydyng howe ny that the Quene (age 30) was, save one come and sayd that she was ix myle of. And ar the goners and borgeners couthe levylle hyr gonnys they were besely fyghtyng, and many a gynne of wer was ordaynyd that stode in lytylle a-vayle or nought; for the burgeners hadde suche instrumentys that wolde schute bothe pellettys of ledde and arowys of an elle of lenghthe with vj fetherys, iij in myddys and iij at the othyr ende, with a grete myghty hedde of yryn at the othyr ende, and wylde fyre with alle. Alle thes iij thyngys they myght schute welle and esely at onys, but in tyme of nede they couthe not schut not one of thes, but the fyre turnyd backe a-pon them that wold schute thys iij thyngys. Also they hadde nettys made of grete cordys of iiij fethem of lengthe and of iiij fote brode, lyke unto an haye, and at every ij knott there was an nayl stondyng uppe ryght, that there couthe no man passe ovyr hyt by lyckely hode but he shulde be hurte. Alle so they hadde pavysse bore as a dore i-made with a staffe foldynge uppe and downe to sette the pavys where the lykyd, and loupys with schyttyng wyndowys to schute owte at, they stondyng by hynde [t]e pavys, and the pavys as fulle of iijdnayle aftyr ordyr as they myght stonde. And whenn hyr schotte was spende and done they caste the pavysse by-fore hem, thenn there myght noo man come unto them ovyr the pavysse for the naylys that stode up-ryghte, but yf he wolde myschyffe hym sylfe. Alle so they hadde a thynge made lyke unto a latysse fulle of naylys as the net was, but hit wolde be mevyd as a man wolde; a man myght bryse hyt to-gedyr that the lengythe wolde be more then ij yerdys long, and yf he wolde he myght hale hyt a brode, thenn hit wolde be iiij square. And that servyd to lye at gappys there at horsemen wolde entyr yn, and many a caltrappe. And as the substaunce of men of worschyppe that wylle not glose nor cory favyl for no parcyallyte, they cowthe not undyrstond that alle thys ordenaunce dyd any goode or harme but yf hyt were a mong us in owre parte with Kyng Harry (age 39). There fore hyt ys moche lefte, and men take hem to mallys of ledde, bowys, swyrdys, gleyvys, and axys. As for speremen they ben good to ryde be-fore the foote men and ete and drynke uppe hyr vetayle, and many moo suche prety thyngys they doo, holde me excusyd thoughe I say the beste, for in the fote men ys alle the tryste.

17 Feb 1461. Ande at the nyght aftyr the batayle the kynge (age 39) blessyd hys sone the Prynce (age 7), and Doctor Morton (age 41) brought forthe a boke that was fulle of orysons, and there the boke was oppenyd, and blessyd that yong chylde cum pinguedine terre et cum rore celi1, and made hym knyght. And the yong knyght weryd a payre of bregant yerys i-coveryd with purpylle velvyt i-bete with golde-smythe ys worke. And the Prynce (age 7) made many knyghtys. The fryste that he made was Androwe Trolloppe, for he was hurte and myght not goo for a calletrappe in hys fote; and he sayde, "My lorde, I have not deservyd hit for I slowe but xv men, for I stode stylle in oo place and they come unto me, but they bode stylle with me." And then come Whytyngam (age 32), Tresham (age 41), and many moo othyr, and were made knyghtys that same tyme.

Note 1. "with the richness of the earth and with the dew of heaven".

Ande the Kynge and the Quene toke hyr jornay unto Yorke wardys, for they demyde that the Northeryn men wolde have ben to creuelle in robbyng yf they hadde come to London. But by the a-vyse of Docter Morton they sende certayne knyghtys and men unto London and to Westemyster, but they myght not be sufferde to entery in to the towne. Ande sum of hyr mayny were slayne for hyr cursyd longege. Ande the mayre ordaynyd bothe brede and vytayle to be sende unto the quene, and a certayne sum of money with alle. But whenn men of London and comyns wyste that the cartysse shulde goo to the Quene, they toke the cartys and departyde þe brede and vytayle a-monge the comyns. And on John Byschoppe was a grete doer of thys mater, for he was chyffe coke to the knyght Syr John Wenlocke. But as for the mony, I wot not howe hit was departyd; I trowe the pursse stale the mony.

Then come tydyngys of the comynge of þea Erle of Marche (age 18) unto London; thenn alle the cytte were fayne, and thonkyd God, and sayde that

He that had Londyn for sake

Wolde no more to hem take,

and sayde, "Lette us walke in a newe wyne yerde, and lette us make us a gay gardon in the monythe of Marche with thys fayre whyte ros and herbe, the Erle of Marche (age 18)." And the Erle of Warwycke (age 32) mette with the Erle of Marche by-syde Oxforde, x myle owte of hit, at a towne of hys owne i-namyd Burford a-pon the Wolde [Map]; for the Erle of Marche come fro Walys, and was fulle sore a-ferde of the loste of the ij fyldys that were loste by-fore, Wakefylde that one, and Synt Albonys that othyr, and he sorowde sore for hys fadyr the Duke of Yorke (age 49), and for hys good brother the Erle of Rutlond (age 17), and for alle othyr lordys and comyns, &c.

Note a. the repeated in MS.

Before 25 Feb 1461. There the Erle of Warwycke (age 32) informyd hym of the gydynge and dysposyscyon of Kyng Harry (age 39), and of the Quene (age 30), and of the love and favyr that the comyns hadde unto hym, and by ryght to occupy the crowne of Inglonde, and soo hys hert was sum what made gladde and comfortyd. But he was sory that he was soo pore, for he hadde no mony, but the substance of hys mayny come at hyr owne coste.

Proclamation of Edward IV as King

Alle soo the xxvj [26] day of Februer nexte folowyng Edwarde Erle of Marche (age 18) com to London owt of Walys and the Erle of Warwycke (age 32) with hym, and xl M1 [40,000] men with hem bothe, and they enteryd unto the cytte of London, and there he toke uppon hym the crowne of Inglond by the avysse of the lordys spyrytual and temporalle, and by the elexyon of the comyns. And so he began hys rayne the iiij day of Marche, in the yere of oure Lorde God M1CCCC lxj [1461], the Sondy letter D as for that yere.

Thys ys the fyrste of hys rayne of Kynge Edwarde the iiijthe.

Nowe gon messyngers by twyne contraye and contraye, and harowdys were fulle schante, for they ne wyste what was beste to done, but sufferens and fayr speche dyd them moche ese. And bothe þe newe kynge and the olde were fulle besyd to make hyr party stronge, &c.

The xiij day of Marche the kynge, owre newe Kynge Edwarde (age 18), toke hys jornaye unto the Northe, and the Duke of Northefolke (age 45) with hym. The Erle of Warwycke (age 32) and the Lorde Fauconbrygge (age 32), with many knyghtes, squyers, and comyns, to the nombyr of iic Mlmen.

Battles of Ferrybridge

And the xxviij day of Marche, that was Palme Sunday evyn, the Lorde Fewater (age 35) was slayne at Ferybryge, and many with hym was slayne and drownyd. And the Erle of Warwycke (age 32) was hurte yn hys legge with an arowe at the same jornaye.

Battle of Towton

Ande the xxix [29] day of the same monythe of Marche, that was þe Palme Sunday, the kyng (age 18) mette with the lordys of the Northe at Schyrborne. And there was on Harrys party that was kynge-

Prynce Edwarde (age 7), Kyng Harrys son.

The Duke of Exceter (age 30).

The Duke of Somersett (age 25).

The Erle of Northehumberlond (age 39).

The Erle of Devynschyre (age 29).

The Lorde Roos.

The Lorde Bemound (age 33).

The Lorde Clyfforde (deceased).

The Lorde Nevyle.

The Lorde Wellys (age 51).

The Lorde Wylby (age 40).

The Lorde Harry of Bokyngham.

The Lorde Ryvers (age 56).

The Lorde Schalys.

The Lorde Maule (age 50).

The Lorde Ferys of Groby (age 23).

The Lorde Foschewe. [Possibly John Fortescue (age 67)]

The Lorde Lovelle (age 28).

Syr Thomas Hammys, captayne of alle the fote men.

Syr Androwe Thorlloppe.

Syr Thomas Tressam (age 41).

Syr Robert Whytyngham (age 32).

Syr John Dawne.

And the yonge Lorde of Schrouysbury (age 12), and many moo othyr, bothe lordys, knyghtys, and squyers.

Here ben the namys of the lordys that were slayne in the felde in Kynge Harrys (age 39) party.

The Erle of Northehumberlond (age 39),

The Lorde Clyfforde (deceased),

The Lorde Nevyle (age 51),

The Lorde Wellys (age 51),

The Lorde Maules (age 50),

And many moo then I can reherse; but whythe [t]es and othyr that were slayne in the fylde ys a grete nombyr, by syde xlij [42] knyghtys that were slayne aftyr; the hoole nombyr ys xxxv M1 [35000] of comeners. Jhesu be þou marcyfulle unto hyr soulys. Amen.

And the lordys before wretyn fledde, the substance in to Schotlond with the Kynge Harry (age 39) and Quene Margarete (age 31), and sone the Prynce (age 7) with hym, fulle of sorowe and hevynys, no wondyr. God knowythe, but every man deme the beste tylle the trought be tryde owte. For many a lady lost hyr beste be lovyd in that batayle.

03 Apr 1461. The Erle of Devynschyre (age 29) was seke, and myght not voyde a waye, and was take and be heddyd. And the Erle of Wylte schyre (age 40) was take and brought unto Newe Castell [Map] to the Kynge. And there hys hedde was smete of, and send unto London to be sette uppon London Brygge [Map]. And Docter Morton (age 41), the Prynces chaunceler, was take with hym and put in the Towre, but he schapyd a way longe tyme aftyr, and ys by yonde the see with the Quene, &c.

Coronation of Edward IV

28 Jun 1461. Ande the Kynge (age 19) taryd in the Northe a grette whyle, a made grete inquerens of the rebellyens a-gayne hys fadyr. And toke downe hys fadyrs hedde fro the walle of Yorke [Map]. And made alle the contray to ben sworne unt hym and to hys lawys. And then he returnyd unto Lundon agayne. And there he made xviij [18] knyghtys and many lordys. And then he rode to Westemyster. And there he was crounyd the xxviij day of June, and the yere of oure Lorde M1CCCC lxj [1461], blessyd be God of hys grete grace, etc.

1461. Mayor of London: Hugh Wyche. Sheriffs: Gorge Irlond, John Loke.