Gloucestershire is in Section 2 Long Barrows.

Books, Prehistory, Long Barrows of the Cotswolds, Section 2 Long Barrows, Gloucestershire, 12 Belas Knapp

Gloucestershire 20 S.W. Parish of Charlton Abbots. 12*.

Latitude 51' 53' 13". Longitude 1"34' 04". Height above O.D., about 980 feet.

Belas Knap is in many respects one of the most instructive (and perfect) chambered Long Barrows in Gloucestershire. In plan it resembles Windmill Tump, Rodmarton (No. 56), but it possesses two features peculiar to itself ; it is oriented to a point 23 degrees west of true north, and the main portal, or horned end, is at the northern end of the barrow. It was excavated in 1863, 1864 and 1865. The following account is based upon the published accounts of these excavations, supplemented by a careful examination made by the writer and Mr. D. W. Herdman of the Cheltenham Municipal Museum, on October 14th, 1922.

The barrow consists of the following parts:-

(1) A portal (A) at the north end, where the surrounding wall curves gracefully inwards.

(2) A chamber (D) on the west side, approached from outside.

(3) A similar chamber (C) on the east side.

(4) Remains of a passage (B) with corbelled roofing, on the east side.

(5) A passage (E) running N, and S. at the south end of the barrow.

(6) A circle of stones (F) with remains of burning.

i) The Portal. This consists at present of two uprights between which is set a vertical slab. The lintel which the uprights originally supported has fallen and lies on the ground nearly touching the western upright. The eastern upright is 5 ft. 5 ins. high, and its top (which seems to have been artificially levelled) is 2 ft. above the top of the central slab. The western upright is 5 ft. 10 ins. high ; at a point 4 ft. 6 ins. above the ground (1 ft. 4ins. below the top of the upright) a sill or small shelf has been cut on the inner (eastern) side of the stone ; this appears to have been done to make a resting place for the lintel ; the distance from the artificially leveled led top of the eastern upright to the inner corner of the shelf - which is 4 ft. 7 ins. - is exactly the same as the length of the fallen lintel. It should, however, be noted that the height of the shelf above the ground (4 ft. 6 ins.) is nearly a foot less than the height of the top of the eastern upright. When originally discovered the lintel "rested on two massive pillars or supports but it is not clear from this account whether it rested on the shelf or on the top I of the eastern upright. The accompanying woodcut does not show the shelf. A comparison with the photograph (opp. p. 70) taken at the time of the excavations shows that it is not very accurate.

The distance between the inner faces of the two uprights - which is also the width of the central slab - is 3 ft. 10 ins.; the central slab itself is 11 ins. thick and 3 ft. 7ins. high. It is difficult to say now whether it has been artificially shaped, but that is by no means unlikely. It is set in the middle uprights which project north and south beyond it. The plan (without the lintel) is therefore of the shape of a capital H. This is also the plan of the "dolmen" called Kit's Coty House [Map] in Kent, which is nothing else than the portal of a Long Barrow, whose burial chambers (if such existed) have been destroyed.

The lintel is 4 ft. 7 ins. long and 3 ft. 9 ins. wide, and 9 ins. thick. It lies on the ground, but not, probably, on the original surface which appears now to be covered with the debris of excavation to a depth of nearly 3 feet.

The following is an account of the excavations made at this part of the barrow in the autumn of 1863 (Mr. L. Winterbotham in Proc. Soc. Ant. 3 S. in. 1866, 377). "In clearing this portion a piece of Belas Knap. pottery, bearing the marks of the lathe [sic], and certainly of Roman origin, was found .... On the stone [presumably the lintel] was a massive lower jaw ['evidently that of an ancient Briton of about 30 years of age, with every tooth complete' says Thurnam, Mem. Anthr. Soc. i., 474] with no other bone of any kind about it. Immediately under the stone, about 8 feet above the level of the ground, were the remains of five children, from under one year to about seven years of age ; all the bones requisite for building up the skeletons were present, more or less warped and flattened ; and the position and preservation of such minute and delicate bones, under a stone of such magnitude, preclude the idea of this being anything but a primary interment, and seem to show that the combination of stones at the north end was not merely an entrance to a chamber. This view is further supported by the fact that, in the subse quent explorations, no sign of any chamber was found in connection with what appears to be an entrance." Thumam's account (quoted above) differs slightly and runs as follows:- "On raising the [lintel] stone, there were found among the rubble the skeletons of a young man of less than twenty, and of five children from six months to eight years of age. The jaws of the adult were broken but the teeth were seen to be slightly eroded and the third molars to have not yet protruded. The femur measured seventeen inches. This skull closely approaches the brachycephalous type, with a relative breadth of .79 ; its measurements are given in the Table [II, at the end of the volume] under the letter D.1 There is some parieto-occipital flatness, and at the coronal end of the sagittal suture is a small Wormian bone. The children's skulls are too fragmentary to permit the type, whether long or short, to be determined. In that of about eight years of age, the frontal suture is persistent. With these skeletons were many bones, tusks and teeth of pig and horse, with several flakes of flint, one fine one with a delicately serrated edge, and two or three fragments of coarse British pottery.

"Were the human skeletons found in this part of the tumulus those of victims sacrificed in honour of the dead who were interred in the principal chambers ; and if so, is it not probable that they were those of a different tribe, and perhaps entirely different race ? The obvious difference of type is in favour of this view." It seems highly probable that the answer to Thurnam's questions is in the affirmative, and further, that the secondary interments were of people belonging to the beaker-folk, whose territory lay both to the south and east of the Cotswolds.

Note 1. The following figures are given in Table 11 Page 18 ; cubic capacity ro6 ; circumference, 20.6 ; length, 7.2 ; breadth 5.7 p ; height. 5.5 ; breadth-length, .79 ; height- length, ,76. This skull is now exhibited in the Cheltenham Municipal Museum, where it has been placed on loan by the Cheltenham College Museum authorities. A skull (broken and mended) marked A2, is in the Cheltenham College Museum.

The subject of "dummy portals" has already been dealt with in the Introduction to Ordnance Survey Professional Paper No, 6, and we can safely agree with the first writer quoted above that no burial chamber existed at the north end. The burials suggest some kind of sacrifice.

Similar "dummy portals'' existed at Rodmarton (No. 56 ; width between the uprights "about five feet"); at West Tump (No. 52; width 3 ft. 8 ins. at bottom of uprights) ; at Gatcombe Lodge (No. 27 ; no measurements given) ; and probably at Lamborough Banks (No. 34) where the width of what appears to have been the central slab is given as 5 feet. The last mentioned barrow, however, seems to have had no uprights or lintel and presents other peculiarities.

(2) The Western Chamber (D). This chamber is formed of five upright slabs, two on each side and one at the (east) end ; it is approached from outside the barrow by a passage, 2 ft. 10 ins. wide, whose sides are formed of the usual dry walling of oolitic slate. The length of this passage, z.e., the distance from stone i at the entrance of the chamber to the surrounding wall of the barrow is 7 feet, measured on the south side of the passage where the walling is still preserved. The walling on the north side has been damaged ; and a fall of rubble has covered the western (5) of the two upright slabs on the N. side of the chamber. There does not appear ever to have been a capstone covering this chamber or C on the other side ; the roofing of both seems to have consisted of overlapping slates. The chamber is about 5 ft. 4 ins. in diameter in the middle (N. and S.) by 7 ft. o ins. (E. and W.) Stone i is half covered under a heap of rubble, the pressure of which seems to have disintegrated it; it is 3 ft. 3 ins. long. Stone 3 is 4 ft. long; Stone 3 is 4 ft. 9 ins. ; Stone 4 is 3 ft. 9 ins. ; Stone 5 (dotted on plan) could not be measured or seen, but could be felt by prodding with a walking-stick.

The only information vouchsafed (Mr. L. Winterbotham, Proc. Soc. Ant. 2 S. iii. 1866, 278) about the results of its excavation is that it was nearly identical with the eastern chamber (C), and that "it contained fourteen bodies, differing from those found in the east chamber in this respect that those in D were of all ages, whereas those in the east chamber were all middle-aged."

Thurnam, writing in February, 1865, that at that date the western chamber (D) had only been partially cleared (M.A.S. i. 476) ; and the remains of five skeletons only had been found then. "Four appeared to be those of young men of from twenty to thirty years, the fifth, that of a girl about seven. One humerus, out of about three or four from this chamber which have been preserved, presents the perforation of the olecranal fossa .... Of about nine femora, three from the eastern and six from the western chamber, one measures 15.7 ; two, 16 - 16.3 ; four 17.3 to 17.7 ; and two, 18 to 18.5 inches. Two lower cervical vertebrae were anchylosed, as before found in several of the Long Barrows. No implements or other objects, except six horses' teeth, seem to have been found in either chamber."

The following measurements are extracted from Table II. (all referring to skulls found in the western chamber D):-

Of the above D.1, which consists of the left half of the skull only, is exhibited in the Cheltenham Municipal Museum, having been placed there on loan by the Cheltenham College Museum authorities. D.z is in the Cheltenham College Museum. On the top in the left parietal bone is a hole, ⅞ in. by ⅜ in., produced during life by a blow which has depressed but not dislodged a portion of bone. In the College Museum are two skulls both marked D. 4. One of these is very thin and presumably that of a young person. There are cracks in the left parietal and frontal bones caused by a blow administered during life, or at any rate while the bone was fresh and covered with flesh. The other is also perfect (without the mandible) and appears to be brachycephalic. The posterior part of the left parietal is cracked and warped by blows. There are also in the Cheltenham College Museum two skulls marked D.5 and D.6. D.5 consists of the right part only; in D.6 the sutures are almost obliterated.

(3) The Eastern Chamber (C). This chamber does not correspond exactly with D ; and where it differs, it does so in a very interesting way. It is nearly the same size, and is terminated, like the other, by a single upright. But the sides are each formed by a single stone, and the entrance by two more. These two latter (Nos. 2 and 6 on the plan) have their inner sides hollowed out in a semi-circular fashion to form a kind of porthole 2 ft. 4 ins. in diameter. This important feature, which has hitherto escaped notice at Belas Knap, occurs also at Rodmarton, Avening, and probably Notgrove, and has been dealt with in the Professional Paper already referred to (p. 5).1 Here, however, the upper and lower parts of the stones do not appear to have been so close together as (to judge from the drawings given) was the case elsewhere. The chamber is approached by a passage flanked by walls of oolitic slates; at the entrance this passage is 3 ft. 8 ins. wide, but it narrows gradually to a width of 3 ft. 3 ins. On the south side the wall runs right up to Stone 6, but on the other side, dry walling is replaced by a single stone (No. i), 2 ft. 5 ins. long, terminating against Stone 2. This combination of orthostatic and "dry" masonry is very suggestive, since we believe that the order of evolution was from the former to the latter. It points to a late date for the construction of the barrow, and is in keeping with the dummy portal, the external approach to the chambers and the corbelled roofing (instead of capstones) with which they were covered.

Note 1. Further information about holed stones will be found in an article by Professor Montelius, Prshistorische Zeitschrift (Berlin) Vol. ii., Part 4, pp 258, 9, where is a map showing the distribution in Sweden of megalithic graves with artificially hollowed semi-circles. Similar stones (consisting sometimes of a single flat stone with a circular perforation) occur in Brittany and North France; Monsieur Leon Coutil has given an excellent account of these in Mem. Soc. préh. française, Vol. iv, (1915-19), 21, "Note sur les cloisons perforees," following an account of an alleé couverte with a perforated stone at Vaudancourt, Oise. To his list of English examples may now be added the Devil's Ring and Finger near Market Drayton, Staffordshire ; the perforated stone at Billingsley, Shropshire, if it is a genuine antiquity (see p. - ) ; and the opposed semi-circles at Belas Knap. Monsieur Coutil says (p. 23):- "Les cloisons d'Avening et de Rodmarton formees de deux pierres echancrees et reunies, comme aux allées couvertes de Champigneulles (Oise), Aubergenville (Seine-et-Oise) et La Sauvagere (Ome). Il existe dans le Caucase, la Palestine et aux Indes des dolmens avec cloison portant une perforation circulaire (Figs. 10, 12 et 13)." These facts of distribution have, of course, been known for long.

At the entrance to the passage the surrounding wall of the barrow is exposed and perfect for 10 ft. in each direction. An interesting feature is that at the top of this wall the usual flat slates are replaced by a row of much larger blocks. (See illustration opp. p. 89.)

The chamber was excavated in 1864 ; the following is the account given by Mr. L. Winterbotham, Proc. Soc. Ant. 2 S. Hi., 1866, 278:- "In this chamber, squatting on flat stones round the walls, must have originally been placed twelve corpses ; the falling in of the roof had crushed them flat, and broken many of the bones and pressed them partially into the surface of the ground, rendering their extrication no easy task. I was fortunate enough to be present just as the work was finishing [!], in time to dig out a perfect skull, and to determine the position in which the body was laid. On a flat stone, underneath the upright one forming the south wall of the chamber, were the pelvic bones of this skeleton ; the two thigh and leg bones were sticking out straight across the chamber, imbedded in clay ; the vertebrae and ribs were in a mass around the pelvic bones. A little to the left lay the head, fallen over on its face, which was two-thirds buried in clay ; and across the condyles of the femora lay the arm bones. In each nostril were found two phalanges of a forefinger ; the top phalanx of one having been driven through the orbit into the cavity of the cranium, as if the body had been placed in the sitting posture, and the head kept erect by thrusting the fingers into the nose. Immediately over these remains lay the thin flat slabs which originally formed the roof."

Thurnam's account (Mem. Anthr. Soc. i. 476) of the skulls from the eastern chamber (C) is as follows:- "With one exception (C.2) all are of the long or narrow-oval type, and with the exception of two others (C.4 and C.8) are extremely dolichocephalous. The two skulls, C.1 and C.2 are very perfect and well preserved ; they present considerable difference in form. C.1 is massive and heavy, and is obviously that of a powerful man. It is of narrow and elongate form, having a relative breadth (.68) as low as that of any skull in this very dolichocephalous series. The sides are much flattened, so that it approaches the scaphoid form. The frontal is narrow and receding ; the supraciliaries remarkably prominent and overhanging ; the face short and narrow ; the upper maxillse deeply hollowed ; the teeth much eroded and obliquely jagged. The squamous and sphenoid sutures are open ; the sagittal extensively obliterated, the coronal less so, and the lambdoid less so still. The left parietal foramen is alone present ; it is of large size with gaping rounded edges.

"The skull C.2 departs more than any other from the general type observed in these crania. It is sub-brachycephalous with a relative breadth of .77. The sex may be doubtful ; but on the whole I believe it to be the skull of a woman. (The crowns of the upper incisors are worn down to the very fangs). Whether this implies a variation in the type of the dolichocephalous race to whom I refer this class of barrows, or whether, in this instance, and in that of the skull from near the trilith A [the portal], we have a case of admixture of the other race with prevailing brachycephalous type of the skull, can only be conjectured. The general rule is, at least, not invalidated by two apparent exceptions. . It is unnecessary to describe the rest of the skulls separately. On the whole, those of the men correspond with C.i ; and those of the women have likewise an aspect in common, which in several instances approaches to a family character. This is likewise the case with the skulls of the young men from Chamber D ; in which the parietal tubers are more prominent than in those from the opposite chamber. In the majority of all the crania, the sagittal and coronal sutures, especially the former, are considerably effaced and ossified ; and in a very considerable proportion the ossified sagittal present a rugose and thickened appearance in the posterior third of its extent, around the seat of the parietal foramina. In scarcely any instance is there more than one of these foramina, which are remarkable for their large size, and patulous and rounded edges. The single foramen is sometimes in the edge of the right, sometimes in that of the left parietal bone." Dr. Thurnam adds that the skulls "are in the possession of L. Winterbotham, Esq., of Amberley House, Cheltenham." They are now fortunately in the safe keeping of the Museums of Cheltenham Municipality and College.

The measurements, given in table on next page, all referring to skulls found in the eastern chamber (C), are extracted from Table II.

Of these skulls C.2 and C.4 are both exhibited in the Cheltenham Municipal Museum, having been placed there on loan by the Cheltenham College Museum authorities. C.i, C.3, C.5, C.6, and C.7 are in the Cheltenham College Museum. The present abode of C.8 - C.ii, is not known. C.3 seems to have been broken during life by (two ?) heavy blows delivered from behind upon the back and side of the head. C.5 has a curious hole exactly at the junction of the parietal and lambdoid sutures. It is if ins. by ins., and seems to have been made either during life or soon after death while the bone was fresh. Its symmetrical position is remarkable. There are also cracks on the vault which appear to have been made during life. C.6 is perfect and unbroken but lacks the mandible. C.7 is unbroken.

(4) Remains of a Passage (B) on E. Side, with corbelled roofing. The exact nature of this passage is obscure. At present there are visible two dry walls only. The roofing (corbelled) is still partly preserved at the E. end of the passage but seems to have collapsed recently. The only upright stone is one in the north wall ; it is set at right angles to the direction of the passage.

The following is the rather confused account of its excavation (written by Mr. L. Winterbotham, in a report presented to Mr. W. L. Lawrence, F.S.A. and published in Proc. Soc. Ant. 2 iS. in. 1866, 276-7)

"In the spring of 1863 a large flat stone, lying exposed on the surface of the barrow, at its south end, was removed, and proved to be the cover of a cell 6 ft. long by about 2½ ft. broad, and 3 or 4 feet from the surface of the mound. Its sides and one end were composed of large, rough flat stones, the other end being formed by a semi-circle of rough dry walling. This cell (B in ground plan) bore no relation to the general position of the tumulus, being placed S.S.E. and N.N.W. It was filled with rubble, amongst which were found the remains of four human bodies, two male and two female. The bones were much broken and decayed. There were also discovered the bones and tusks of boars, a bone scoop, four pieces of rough, sun-baked pottery, and a few flints."

It is evident that the writer of the above description was not speaking from first-hand knowledge. His description does not agree with the published plan ; and both are very incorrect. No "large, rough, flat stones" are visible, with the exception of the one mentioned above ; and the present orientation of the passage is approximately east and west. No remains of any semi-circular dry walling are now visible. The present whereabouts of the bone scoop, flints, pottery and other remains found here is unknown; but Dr. Bird (p. lxx) says that some boars' tusks and human bones were preserved at Sudeley Castle.

Thurnam's account (Mem. Anthr. Soc. i. 475) supplements the above in one or two particulars ; "At the narrow or south end of the mound, a small cist or grave, built up of flat stones (B), was uncovered. It contained four or five skeletons. The dimensions of one male and one female calvarium, obtained in a tolerably perfect condition, are given in the Table under the letter B. They are both quite dolichocephalous, that of the woman extremely so. In both the sagittal suture is extensively obliterated ; and there is only one parietal foramen, which is of large size, patulous, and with rounded edges. One femur measures 18.5 inches, two tibiae, 14.5 inches. There were a few flint flakes, bits of pottery, boars' tusks, two tibiae of a roe buck, and a rudely finished implement of bone, with three perforations at one end. Thus far the tumulus was explored in 1863."

The following measurements referring to the skulls from chamber B, are extracted from Table II.:-

The mandible only of B.2 is exhibited in the Cheltenham Municipal Museum, where it has been placed on loan by the Cheltenham College Museum authorities. The remains of B.i (broken and mended) are preserved in the Cheltenham College Museum ; but the mandible is not with it. There are, however, in the same Museum twelve loose mandibles, which is also the number of the skulls preserved there. But of these mandibles, five appear to have belonged to young persons ; if so, they cannot all have belonged to the skulls exhibited.

(5) A Passage (E), running N. and S. at the south end of the Barrow.

The sides of this passage are formed of dry walling without any large upright stones. The width is 3 ft. 3 ins. throughout, and the length 17 ft. The north end is closed by a vertical upright slab. The published account is again very inadequate ; and the published plan does not agree with the visible remains. There are no signs of any "cist"; the square chamber, whose sides according to the plan are about 8 feet in length, cannot be seen ; and the perfect condition of the passage and the blocking end-stone make it unlikely that any such ever existed. Moreover the total length from the north end of the chamber to the surrounding wall of the barrow on the south is only (according to the plan) about 12 feet at the most, which is 5 feet less than the present length of the passage.

The account (Proc. Soc. Ant. 2 S. Hi. 1866, 279, describing Mr. J. C. Chamberlayne's excavations in June, 1865) is as follows:- "Other and considerable openings were subsequently made to the south and west of this [the circle of stones, F], but without any result except at the centre of the exterior southern wall. In following the course of this, an opening was found, leading to a small cist (E). It was apparently perfect and untouched. Portions of a human skull, and some teeth, and a deposit of animal bones, probably a wild boar, were met with in working down to it. It was walled all round, covered with three large horizontal stones, each about three feet square, but only contained pieces of broken stones. Mr. Winterbotham adds:- 'The very fragmentary skull and the boar's bones found at the south end are said to present marks of cremation. If this is the case they show the only signs of fire anywhere about the tumulus, except in the neighbourhood of the stone circle between the two cells.' [These are the chambers C and D.] Excavation immediately to the north of the closing end-stone might help to elucidate this part of the mound ; and if undertaken should be carried on to a point west of B, where the remains of another chamber may still survive under the rubble which now lies there.

That the square expansion of the passage E, shown on the plan, had no basis in fact is made still more probable by measurements on the plan. These show that the northern wall of this imaginary square chamber E, was the same distance from chamber D, and the Portal (A) as is the existing flat upright stone which closes the end of the passage (E on my plan).

(6) A Circle of Stones (F) with remains of burning.

The space between the chambers C and D is now occupied by a passage between two built-up dry walls, which appear to have been made at the time of the excavation. They are in any case quite evidently modern, and consist of much larger and rougher stones than the neolithic walls. The stones are not so carefully selected, and the wall is not, in fact, nearly so well made. Here, according to the account (Proc. Soc. Ant. 2 S. in. 1866, 279) was a circle of stones. From a drawing made of them (now exhibited in the Cheltenham Municipal Museum) they appear to have lain flat. Nearly in the centre, and at the back (i.e. west) of cell C, a broken circle of stones (F in plan) was discovered. The soil all round them was deeply impregnated with wood ashes. The diameter of this circle of stones is about 7 feet. No remains of any sort were found near it," In the absence of further evidence (including now the circle itself) it is impossible to comment upon this discovery.

The whole barrow is surrounded by a dry wall of oolitic slates, which was constructed with great care and precision. This wall is still preserved intact where it curves inwards at the north end towards the portal ; and in the vicinity of the chambers C and D. It is made in the same way as the modern field walls, but with smaller and more carefully selected stones. (In passing we may note the great antiquity of the craft of the dry-waller, one of our oldest industries). Unfortunately, the wall on the east side of the portal is rapidly disintegrating. When I first visited it in 1920 a large bulge was visible ; this was clearly doomed to break very soon ; and when I returned in 1922 it had actually broken. The corners of this wall are most excellently fashioned where the wall is discontinued at the entrance to the chambers (see view opposite p. 89). A peculiar and very suggestive feature is the presence of much larger blocks at the top of the wall by the entrance to chamber C. Elsewhere the wall is covered by debris.

W. 3.

Annals of Winchcombe and Sudeley, by Emma Dent, London, 1877, pp. 4-9 (plan very inaccurate, p. 6).

Proc. Soc. Ant. 2 S., in., 1866, 275-282 (plan, inaccurate, "adapted" from Thurnam's). Thi-s is the best account of the barrow and its excavation, and is the one most quoted above.

hurnam ; Mem. Anthr. Soc.y i, 1863, 474-7 (plan, inaccurate, p, 474).

Proc. C.N.F.C.i VI., 1876, 337 (summary only).

Trans. B. and G.A.S., v. (1880-81), 100-103 (summary and in part verbatim quotation of Proc. Soc. Ant. account).

Journal of the Anthropological Society of London, Vol. iii., 1865, pp. Lxx to lxxiv. (A detailed account of the bones, with measurements, by Dr. Bird).

Arch. XLII.

Books, Prehistory, Long Barrows of the Cotswolds, Section 2 Long Barrows, Gloucestershire, 13 Bisley Long Barrow

(See also 105 "Twmie Stone")

Gloucestershire, 50 N.W. Parish of Bisley-with-Lypiatt. 13 *.

Latitude 51° 44' 37" Longitude 2° 7' 28" Height above O.D. about 740 feet.

Witts says:- "A Long Barrow was opened in 1863 a little to the south of Bisley. A short account of it appeared in the local papers at the time, but I have been unable to find it. The barrow has since been entirely destroyed." Mr. A. E. W. Paine has a trephined skull (see plate opposite) from this Long Barrow, an account of which was published in the Proc. of the R. Soc. of Medicine. Mr. Paine and the Rev. R. Jowett Burton have succeeded in locating the site of a Long Barrow, which seems to be the one here described. It lies in a small spinney on the N.E. side of Limekiln Lane, immediately N.E. of the "n" in Limekiln on Glouc. 50 N.W. (ed. of 1903). The fields due west of this point are called Twizzle Stone on the Tithe Map of 1873. A summary of all that is known of this barrow appears in Mr. Paine's note in Proc. C.N.F.C. xvii. Lysons tells us that it was called "Solomon's Court."

A possible reference to this barrow was made by Mr. Lowder:- "There is a Long Barrow, almost intact, in Througham field, another very large one at Avenis, sometimes written Avonedge, a property belonging to Dr. Paine, opened some years ago, and found to contain very interesting remains; and what are believed to be the relics of a third, a little to the north-east, on the property of C. H. Stanton, Esq."

In addition to the trephined skull, Mr. Paine has in his collection from this barrow part of a child's mandible, part of the mandible of an old man, and many cranial and other fragments of human bones.

W. 4.

Arch. XLII., 201.

Proc. C.N.F.C., XVII. (1912), 341-3. Plate 41.

Proc. R. Soc. Med., Vol. XIV. (No. 10), August, 1921 (86 pp.) "The Prehistoric trephined skulls of Great Britain," by T. Wilson Parry, M.A., M.D., etc.

Trans. B. and G.A.S., Vol. v. 38. Mr. Lowder.

Lysons, "Our British Ancestors," p, 116.

Books, Prehistory, Long Barrows of the Cotswolds, Section 2 Long Barrows, Gloucestershire, 14 Blackquarries Hill Long Barrow

Gloucestershire 56 S.E. Parish of Wotton-under-Edge. 14 *.

Latitude 51° 38' 14". Longitude 2° 19' 29". Height above O.D. about 750 feet.

This barrow is mentioned only by Witts and is included by him in his list of Round Barrows [W. 94 Round]. There can however, be no doubt that it is a Long Barrow. It is surrounded by a wall and is planted thinly with firs, the whole being called "The Clump." A young farmer who accosted me knew little about it except that there was a tradition of "soldiers" being buried here. That alone is, I think, sufficient to put out of court the suggestion of an old quarry dump which occurred to me when I first looked at it. It is 114 feet long. It is oriented N.E. - S.W. and has been very roughly dug over. There are no loose stones lying about. The plantation on the S.E. covers a maze of old quarries and is known as Tile Plantation, from the fact that roof-tiles were quarried here. W. 95 (Round) lies 1000 feet due south, in a field where I found several flints, all worked.

Visited, December 8, 1920.

W.94. (Round).

Books, Prehistory, Long Barrows of the Cotswolds, Section 2 Long Barrows, Gloucestershire, 15 Bown Hill Long Barrow

Gloucestershire, 49 S.W. Parish of Wood Chester. 15 *.

Latitude 51° 42' 51'. Longitude2° i5'23''. Height above O.D. about 750 feet.

The following account is quoted in full from the Proceedings of the Cotteswold Field Club, because, with the exception of a summary of 16 lines by Witts (p. 75), it is the only record of the "excavation" and is very inaccessible:-

" Wednesday, May 20th, 1863, The Club met at Stroud. The principal work of the day was the opening of a 'barrow' on Sown Hill, near Woodchester, which had formed a subject of discussion towards the end of the previous season, when, the period of the year being too far advanced, the work of exploration was deferred. Workmen had been employed under Dr. Paine and Mr. Witchell on the two previous days ; but beyond the discovery of the entrance to the sepulchral chambers no great progress had been made in the excavation of the mound, which, from its size and solidity, proved to be a very laborious operation. In order, therefore, to expedite matters, a strong force of labourers, 22 in number, had been employed from an early hour on the day of the meeting. The mound, which measured about 60 yards in length by 17 in extreme width, was seen to be constructed of angular masses of stone, heaped together without any order or regularity, amongst which were scattered blocks of considerable size and weight.

"The excavators had opened a trench about 100 feet in length, in a direction due east and west by compass. The western extremity was the broadest, the mound gradually diminishing in width to the opposite end. The workmen had struck upon the entrance, which, when exposed, showed a chamber formed of five large, unhewn stones, two on each side, and one placed transversely, the dimensions of which were 4 feet in width by 8 feet 6 inches in length. There was no covering stone, but the entrance was flanked on either side by a wall of dry masonry, very neatly fitted, forming a segment of a circle, which, if completed, would have enclosed a well-like chamber in front of the entrance to the tumulus. This wall had been abruptly broken off ; but there were amongst those present some who thought they detected signs of its having been at one time continuous. It was evident that the whole structure had been thoroughly ransacked and broken up by former explorers ; and so completely had the work of devastation been accomplished that hardly one stone was left upon another. The chambers, with the one exception already noted, had been entirely demolished, and but a few bones scattered throughout the tumulus remained, all more or less in a fragmentary condition. These fragments comprised one fully developed frontal bone, male ; portions of two male lower jaws, and portions of two female skulls ; several thigh bones, and bones of the leg and foot, including the remains of children, but all much broken. There were found the remains of six individuals at the least, viz., two men, two women and two children, the latter between six and eight years of age. There w'ere several bones of cattle and calves ; teeth of horse and ox ; a portion of the bones of the foreleg of a dog ; several boars' teeth, tusks and grinders, and parts of jaw bones ; a bone 'scoop,' formed of a shank bone of a horse ; and a large quantity of a black, unctuous substance, having the appearance of w'ood or animal charcoal ; but no burnt bones. A small portion of a flint flake was detected in the black paste. Besides the organic remains above enumerated, some pieces of rude pottery" were found, which, with a Roman brass coin of the Emperor Germanicus, complete the list of objects yielded by the exploration of this large sepulchral mound, w"hich, in consequence of the violence it had undergone at the hands of former explorers, afforded but little to compensate the Club for the trouble and expense of opening it." Visited December 1st, 1920.

The present height (greatest as usual at the east end) is about 10 feet. The extreme eastern end has been destroyed by quarrying, now discontinued. Signs of excavations are visible at the east end (where presumably the entrance referred to above was found) and a trench has been dug across the barrow from north to south at a point a little east of its middle. A shallow depression is visible on the north side near the west end, but otherwise the whole of the barrow to the west of the cross trench appears to be undisturbed. The general state of preservation would be regarded as good, if w"e did not know that it had been excavated in the middle of the 19th century. There are no signs of ditches or of any surrounding wall. The barrow lies in a patch of rough pasture and is in no apparent danger of destruction. It stands near the highest point (763 feet) of the hill, and commands a magnificent view. South eastwards can be seen the Berkshire Downs (probably the White Horse Hill and Wayland's Smithy [Map]) ; northwards May Hill and the Malvern Hills are visible ; in the western distance are the Brecknock Beacons and the Black Mountains, and in the foreground the Severn Estuary and the Forest of Dean.

A Round Barrow lies about 70 yards away in a ploughed field to the north-west.

In the Cheltenham College Museum are four certainly Romano-British potsherds from this barrow, and some bones and fragments. Mr. A. E. W. Paine, of Cheltenham, has in his collection from this barrow the following objects:- Parts of two human mandibles and of two or three skulls ; some detached human teeth ; two boars' tusks ; eight fragments of pottery and two rim-pieces ; one of the body fragments is neolithic and finger-marked, and one is certainly Romano-British ; a Roman coin (presumably that of Germanicus referred to above) ; a bone scoop made from the leg bone of a horse (figured on the next page) ; a sandstone hammer or pounder ; and two teeth of Bos primigenim (identified by Dr. C. W. Andrews, of the British Museum).

NOTE. - Since the above account was written Mr. Paine has sent me the following account condensed from notes written by his father who took part in the original excavation in 1863. As it contains the record of facts not elsewhere published I quote it here in full:-

"Bown Hill Long Barrow is situated on the summit of the ridge on the northern side of Woodchester Park, at an elevation of 760 feet, some three miles from Stroud, and is about 600 yards to the S. of the road leading from Stroud to Dursley.

"It was examined by 'the Cotteswold Naturalists' Field Club' on May 20th, 1863, workmen having been employed in opening it on their behalf on the two preceding days, under the direction of Dr. W. H. Paine and Mr. Edwin Witchell of Stroud.

"The Barrow, which was constructed of angular masses of stone, heaped together without any order, was 180 feet in length, 60 feet in width at its eastern end, gradually decreasing to less than 40 feet at its western extremity, and 14 feet in height at the highest part. Its direction was East-North-East and West-South-West, the eastern end being the higher. The entrance was found at the eastern end and was formed of beautifully constructed semi-circular dry walling well supported and strengthened by stone backing of considerable depth. The single chamber which existed within this entrance was 8 feet 6 ins. in length, by 4 feet in width, and was formed of five large stones set on edge, two on each side and one placed transversely. The covering stones had been removed, and the chamber had evidently been examined and its contents greatly disturbed at some previous time.

"In the chamber were fragments of the skulls of three or four adults, many vertebrae and limb bones, the clavicle of an infant and the rib of a young child. Of these fragments it was found possible to construct nearly an entire skull, which proved to be that of a man of a long headed race. Many human teeth were scattered about and these as well as those fixed in the jaws were all much worn.

"Besides the human remains were bones and teeth of horse, ox, wild boar and dog, a bone implement described by Dr. Thurnam as 'a scoop or gouge-shaped chisel made out of the shank bone of a horse,' a broken whetstone, and a portion of a rubbing stone, both of quartzite, several flint flakes, one or two of which have secondary working, a quartzite pebble, a fragment of ironstone and eight small pieces of pottery, one of which has a pattern made by the impression of a finger nail.

"High up near the surface of the Barrow, a Roman coin was turned up.

"There were no signs of cremation having been practised within the Barrow, the bones were untouched by fire, though the surface of the mound showed indications of its action and much burnt material had been washed by the rains among the loose stones of the upper part. This was believed to be due to beacon fires having at various times been kindled on the mound, as it is situated in a commanding position and the view from it is very extensive."

W. 5.

Proc. C.N.F.C., III., 1865, 199, 200

Books, Prehistory, Long Barrows of the Cotswolds, Section 2 Long Barrows, Gloucestershire, 16 Camp Barrow North

Gloucestershire, 42 N.W. Parish of Miserden. 16*.

Latitude 51° 46' 48". Longitude 2° 07' 30''. Height above O.D., 864 feet.

"There are two interesting Long Barrows (Camp Barrow [south] is the other) a little to the south of the village of Camp, two miles north of Bisley ; they have been previously described as Round Barrows, but such is not the case. They are situated close together, the 'horned' ends being only 15 feet apart ; they extend in contrary directions, one towards the north, the other [this one] towards the south. . The northern barrow measures 150 feet by 74 feet, the 'horned' ends being towards the south. There are four large stones visible in this barrow, forming a chamber. A great number of human skeletons have at various times been dug up near the village of Camp."

Visited December 12th, 1920.

This barrow, the northern one, stands in two fields ; a wall crosses the barrow at right angles (from E. to W.). The four stones stand at the southern end of the barrow, in the same field as W. 7. Two of them have fallen ; they evidently once formed part of a megalithic structure. The whole of the mound has been dug over, and there are two large heaps of spoil, E. and W. of the apparent site of the chamber, where also many loose stones lie about. A sycamore grows on the S.E. side and a single pine at the N.W. corner of the field, which is used for keeping pigs in.

In the Cheltenham College Museum are exhibited the following bones:- i. Part of a child's mandible, labelled "Camp's tumulus, under eet. 18; several small skeletons, knees up to chin, i860." 2. Part of occipital and parietal bones (one unbroken fragment) labelled "Camp's tumulus, i860, with bones of . . ." [left blank].

W, 6. (Quoted above).

Books, Prehistory, Long Barrows of the Cotswolds, Section 2 Long Barrows, Gloucestershire, Charlton Abbots

Books, Prehistory, Long Barrows of the Cotswolds, Section 2 Long Barrows, Gloucestershire, 17 Coberley Barrow

Gloucestershire, 34 N.E. Parish of Coberley. 17*.

Latitude 51° 50' 20". Longitude 2° 03' 53". Height above O.D. about 750 feet.

This barrow is undoubtedly a Long Barrow. It is almost certainly to be identified with Witts' No. 22 (Round). Witts copied his description from that of Dr. Bird in the Proc. of the Cotteswold Field Club for ^^77> which was as follows in the original paper:- "A tumulus of this description (round) was discovered at Cubberley, to the north of the

residence of the late Mr. Hutchinson ; the skull, and some of the bones with the balls of clay, and flints were taken to the house, and the skull was afterwards sent to the Ethnological Society. It was a small skull, long and narrow, and was slightly twisted from the pressure of the clay. The thigh and arm bones were short ; and the stature of the individual vras not more than five feet. A flint flake from this tumulus is preserved in the Museum of Cheltenham College." [Dr. Bird, whose general ideas were hopelessly confused, divided tumuli into three classes, (i) Round Earth Tumuli ; (2) Round Stone Tumuli ; (3) Long Barrows ; he rather implies that that is also their chronological order ; but he does not explain the difference between (i) and (2), nor why he classes this barrow, most clearly a Long one, amongst the first].

Witts' account is merely a summary of the above except that he says that the barrow lay "in the parish of Cubberley, to the north of Cowley Manor." That describes the actual position of this Long Barrow ; on his map however, he places it nearly a mile further south, and in the parish of Cowley. It is, I think, practically certain that he did not visit the site himself, and entered the position on his map from Dr. Bird's account. Parish boundaries were not marked on the i in. Ordnance Maps of his day.

The barrow in question lies on the top of a narrow ridge separating the valley of the Churn (west of Coberley) and Coldwell Bottom, in a field of rough pasturage. The field, which has probably never been ploughed, is called "Quarry Ground," from an old quarry lying a little to the west of the barrow. An old track follows the ridge from Crickley Hill crossing the Churn at Coberley Mill, just above its confluence with the Coldwell stream. It passes close by the north side of the barrow. I visited it on December 20th, 1920. A man who was mending a gap in the wall immediately to the north of the barrow told me that "the squire" had excavated it a long time ago, certainly 40 years ago, but found nothing. His excavation took the form of a deep trench which divides the barrow into two parts a little to the east of the middle. (This is accurately shown by the hachures on the map.) The barrow is about 140 feet long, and about 8 feet high. It is now highest at the west end ; but it has been dug over in many other places and its original form thereby destroyed. There are no signs of walling or big stones visible or lying about ; nor are there any signs of side-ditches. As the Down has probably never been disturbed their absence is still another proof that the Gloucestershire Long Barrows did not have side-ditches. No trees grow on There is not much left to preserve nor does it appear to be mediate danger of molestation.

W. 22. (Round).

Proc. C.N.F.C. VI, p. 332, (referred to above).

Books, Prehistory, Long Barrows of the Cotswolds, Section 2 Long Barrows, Gloucestershire, 18 Cold Aston Long Barrow

Gloucestershire, 28 S.E. Parish of Cold Aston (Aston Blank). 18 *.

Latitude 51° 53' 02". Longitude 1° 47' 30". Height above O.D. about 600 feet.

Length 120 feet, width 48 feet, height about 7 feet. Oriented S.S.E.- N.N.W. Witts says:- "A great number of flint arrow-heads have been found at various times in the immediate vicinity."

It stands on the edge of a ploughed field, but is protected from encroachment by a wall which surrounds it on all sides. The wall however, is built close up to the two ends, and, at any rate at the west end, part of the barrow is continued into the field beyond the wall. The barrow itself stands high and appears perfect and unopened. There are no signs anywhere of attempted mutilation. It is thinly planted with trees ; it would be worth while taking immediate steps to preserve it, as these unmutilated Long Barrows are exceedingly rare. The surrounding wall needs repair in many places. There are no signs of the original surrounding wall or of any ditches.

Visited November 20th, 1020.

W. 39.

Books, Prehistory, Long Barrows of the Cotswolds, Section 2 Long Barrows, Gloucestershire, 19 College Plantation Barrow

Gloucestershire, 42 S.E. Parish of Duntisbourne Rouse. 19 *.

Latitude 51° 45' 08". Longitude 2° 03' 31". Height above O.D. about 690 feet.

Excavated in 1882 by Witts with the permission of Lord Bathurst. "The two mounds formed the ends of a huge Long Barrow, having a total length of 210 feet. The central portion of the tumulus must have been removed ages back. The circumscribing wall is in a good state of preservation on the south side. The direction of the barrow is nearly east and west. Further examination will, I hope, enable me to give a fuller description of this very interesting prehistoric monument at a future time. During the late excavation one verj'' perfectly formed flint scraper was found, and several small bones. Part of the outside wall at the west end was removed a few years back, but no interments have yet been found. There are several round barrows in the immediate neighbourhood, and Pinbury Camp is only one mile distant on the south."

Visited December 13th, 1920. It now stands in a beech plantation called College Plantation. There is a deep excavation (evidently left open by Witts) in the western of the two mounds, and another in the eastern. There is no sign of any chamber, walling, large stones, or other indications of chambers. It seems that Witts' excavations were not resumed. Some correspondence relating to this barrow' is preserved amongst Witts' papers at the Cheltenham Town Museum; but, though quite entertaining, it contains very few' details of archaeological interest. The "excavations" appear to have been begun to obtain road-making material ; and it seems to have been due to Witts that they were stopped. A communication to the B. and G. Society, promised on Witts' behalf by Sir Wm. Guise, does not appear to have been printed.

W. 12.

Glouc. N. and Q., 11., 1884, 169.

Books, Prehistory, Long Barrows of the Cotswolds, Section 2 Long Barrows, Gloucestershire, 20 Coldnpen Barrow

Gloucestershire, 43 S.E. Parish of Coin Rogers. 20*.

Latitude 51° 46' 25". Longitude 1° 54' 06". Height above O.D. about 520 feet.

This barrow is marked on the Ordnance Survey Map, but is not mentioned by Witts. It is a fine specimen, but the ends have, as usual, been tampered with, especially the east end. It is, however, so long (300 feet) that it is practically certain to contain chambers in the central portion; and as a matter of fact, the digging appears less extensive than is usually the case. A trench seems to have been dug along the centre at the west end. It stands in a ploughed field, but is not under plough, the mound being covered wdth grass ; there are four thorn bushes. Close by the east end is a Round Barrow, and less than 300 yards to the north, on the edge of the valley, are three unopened Round Barrows in a row.

None of the four were marked on the map. There appears to be a spring about a quarter of a mile to the S.W. where two valleys meet, that of Calmsden and the one above which the barrows stand. It is oriented E. and W. (slightly north of east).

Visited December 22nd, 1920.

Books, Prehistory, Long Barrows of the Cotswolds, Section 2 Long Barrows, Gloucestershire, 21 Cow Common

Cow Common Long Barrow [Map].

Gloucestershire, 21 S.E. Parish of Lower Swell. 21 *.

Latitude 51° 56' 04*. Longitude 1° 48' 12". Height above O.D. about 620 feet.

This is WittsVNo. 29, Rolleston's "Swell," and Greenwell's 229. Witts' measurements are, length, 150 feet; greatest width, 77 feet; greatest height, 5 feet. It is oriented E.S.E. and W.N.W. He says: "It is entirely composed of slabs and rubble, and is surrounded by a carefully constructed wall of Stonesfield slate ; this wall was 2 ft. 3 ins. high on the south side. The chief chamber was on the north side, 55 feet from the east end, and was discovered by the Rev. David Royce in 1867. The sides of the chamber were constructed of large upright stones, one being 3 ft. 6 ins. by 2 ft. 4 ins., the chamber itself being 3 ft. square. It contained three skeletons, and to the S.W. of it five other skeletons were found. The chamber had a passage leading to it from the surrounding wall. Another chamber was found 30 ft. from the east end, measuring 6 ft. by 4 ft. 8 ins., of an oval form ; it contained bones of two adults and one infant, two flint flakes, several fragments of pottery, etc. This barrow assumed the 'homed' shape at the east end."

The following is a summary of the description of the bones found, taken from Rolleston's account (i) a woman, past the middle period of life, stature 4 ft. 9 ins. ; cephalic index ("approximately, but the skull is broader as restored than it was in nature ") 78. (2) a man, past the middle period of life ; cephalic index ("approximately ") 70. (3) strong man, past middle period of life, stature 5 ft. 6 ins ; cephalic index 64. (4) part of frontal and right molar and maxillaries of a strong young man, at. 20 to 24. (5) old woman, stature 4 ft. 10 ins. "It contrasts very markedly as regards size, with the other female skull procured from this barrow (No. i) into the inside of which it could be put. . might be taken as a fair specimen of the River Bed type of Professor Huxley." Cephalic index 70. Professor Rolleston remarks on the fact that most of the bones from this barrow were deeply stained with manganese.

Visited November 17th, 1920. It lies in a grass field recently under plough, and was once surrounded by a rectangular fence. The wire, however, is gone, and only the wooden posts remain. The barrow itself is in a deplorable condition. It is impossible to make out any kind of plan, and no attempt seems to have been made by Mr. Royce to fill in his "excavations." All that can be seen now is a shapeless hummocky mess.

Witts says that there are eight round barrows in the same field (his Nos. 39-46). As a matter of fact there are nine round barrows in it ; four in a row N. and S. at the west end of the field (Greenwell's Nos. 216-219, numbering from south to north) ; another immediately adjacent at the north end of the row, but out of the line at its N.E. terminus (Greenwell's No. 220) ; two close to the Long Barrow, one of them at the S.W. end and the other 40 yards east of the east end ; and two between the Long Barrow and the first group of four.

W. 29.

Journ. Anat. and Phys. (precise reference unobtainable).

J.A.I. V. 1876, 139-153. Plan, Plate iv. (Rolleston's "Swell I.")

British Barrows, 513. (Greenwell's 229).

Books, Prehistory, Long Barrows of the Cotswolds, Section 2 Long Barrows, Gloucestershire, 22 Crickley Barrow

Gloucestershire, 44 N.W. Parish of Coin St. Dennis. 22*.

Latitude 51° 48' 15". Longitude 1° 51' 10". Height above O.D. 576 feet.

Referring to this and to the other Crickley Barrow (W. 10), Witts says: "There are two Long Barrows at Crickley Barrow, two miles south of Northleach, adjoining the ancient Salt Way, but as far as I know they have never been examined or described, and without a thorough exploration with pickaxe and shovel, it would be impossible to say anything definite about them."

There is an unconscious irony in the above description. Evidently Witts had never seen either barrow, for this one has been so thoroughly dug over that it is hardly to be recognised as a barrow at all ! The grass, too, grows thick and close all over its pitted surface, showing that the digging took place a very long time ago, probably over a hundred years ago, when the road which runs past it was first metalled. Its mangled remains now lie on a piece of waste land at the meeting-place of four roads, one of which - the Salt Way - is followed by a parish boundary As far as I could judge when I visited it (December 22nd, 1920), it was originally between 250 and 280 feet long. Its original shape, and even its outline as a barrow, is entirely lost, so that it is not possible '1 to say which end was highest. It is oriented N.N.W. and S.S.E. The Salt Way crosses the southern end, as is shown by a hump in the road. A sign-post stands on the northern end.

W. 9.

Books, Prehistory, Long Barrows of the Cotswolds, Section 2 Long Barrows, Gloucestershire, 23 Crippets Barrow

(often described as "The Shurdington Barrow")

Gloucestershire, 34 N.E. Parish of Coberley. 23*.

Latitude 51° 51' 17". Longitude 2° 05' 43". Height above O.D. about 850 feet.

Lies in Barrow Piece Plantation. Length, 189 feet ; maximum width, 100 feet ; height, 12 to 20 feet. Oriented east and west. Witts says: "Many years ago the tenant of the land began to move away part of the earth at the southern extremity, and in doing so uncovered a cromlech, in which was found a skeleton and several articles of which no satisfactory account can now be obtained. . It has never been thoroughly examined though it has been carefully protected by placing a fence round it .... There are two Round Barrows in the same field." Said f (J.B.A.A. I. 153), to have been "opened formerly by Lysons, in which he found under a kistvaen a skeleton in a stone coffin." Witts' account is quoted from J.B.A.A. nr, 64. (March 19th, 1847. Mr. Wright).

Visited December 20th, 1920. The field in which it stands has since been planted with firs, and a clump of dark pines on and round the barrow itself, make it conspicuous as one approaches from the east. The whole of the east (highest) end has been dug out, leaving a huge crater in which lies one large, flat stone. This appears to have been part of a chamber or portal, and there are suggestions of walling which a little excavation might reveal. Otherwise the barrow is unmutilated. The signs of walling now visible round the edge are probably modern. The fence has disappeared.

W. II.

J.B.A.A., I., 153., III., 64.

T. Wright, Celt, Roman and Saxon, 1875, pp. 53, 74.

Anthropological Review, in. pp. LXVI, Lxxi.

Arch. XLII., 201.

Books, Prehistory, Long Barrows of the Cotswolds, Section 2 Long Barrows, Gloucestershire, Edgworth Barrow

Books, Prehistory, Long Barrows of the Cotswolds, Section 2 Long Barrows, Gloucestershire, 24 Eyford Barrow

Gloucestershire, 21 S.E. Parish of Eyford. 24*.

Latitude 51° 55' 50". Longitude 1° 47' 44". Height above O.D. about 620 feet.

Visited November 17th, 1920, and again October 21st, 1922. It stands in a ploughed field, and at present is in much the same dilapidated condition as the other "excavated" barrows in the district. It is covered with rough grass and a few bushes, and a single thorn stands a few yards to the N.W. of it.

The following is summary of Rolleston's lengthy account of it, printed in J.A.I.:- It was examined in September, 1874 by Professor Rolleston, the Rev. David Royce and Canon Greenwell, and a plan made by Sir H. Dryden. The distance from the west end "as restored to the centre point of the eastward end was 108 feet. The distance between the tips of the two horns was 44 feet ; the barrow tapered gradually from this, its extreme width, to a width of 24 feet at its westward end." The height was about 4 feet. The two horns were not symmetrical. The limiting wall was made of the local Stonesfield slate "arranged in about 14 horizontal rows, and forming a boundary about 2 feet wide and i foot 9 inches high. The body of the barrow was formed of stones, with a general inclination inwards towards the middle line from either side." Three cists and one chamber were found.

(1) Chamber marked C on the plan, more or less ruined before excavations were begun. Fragmentary remains of two bodies were found. One of these had been an adult, one a child, with the milk dentition only in place. The bones of the adult were discoloured with manganic oxide, as were those of an ox and horse found with them ; those of the child were not."

(2) Cist, marked D on the plan. "It was 80 feet from the re-entering angle at the eastward end, and being about 5 feet 6 inches by 4 feet, had its long axis at right angles to, and in the middle line of the barrow." In this cist w'ere found parts of tw'o adult human skeletons, of the skeletons of three children, of one child and of a dog. The femur of a sheep and the bone of a pig were also found. One of the adults was a man of moderate strength, past the middle period of life; the other was a woman, 4 feet 10 inches in height. The woman's femur w^as 16 inches long, and both it and the other bones found in this cist give the idea "of their owners having had hard work and poor food." Three of the children were between the ages of seven and eight; the child was two years old.

(3) Cist, marked E on the plan. "It was 4 feet 6 inches wide at its widest part, 3 feet at its narrower. ... Its narrower end was within a couple of feet of the north w'all of the barrow ; its south-east angle was 82 feet from the re-entering angle of the east end." Parts of ten skeletons were found. The following is a summary of their chief features:- (a) Skull with part of lower jaw of a strong man in the middle period of life ; cephalic index, 72. (b) Skull, with part of lower jaw of a woman past middle life. (The bead of Kimmeridge shale was found in association with this skull or the preceding) ; cephalic index, 77. (c) "Portion of calvaria of, probably, woman in or past middle period of life, (d) Skull of woman in middle period of life ; cephalic index, 72. (e) Skull, complete, of a man in middle period of life ; cephalic index (approx.) 74. (/) Mandible of strong man about 30. (g) Mandible of old man or woman. (A) Remains of a child of 11-12 years, (f) Skull of an old woman (?) cephalic index (approx.) 75 ; but it seems to have been mixed up with other bones belonging to a strong man (7) whose height was 5 feet 6 inches.

(4) Cist, marked F on the plan. "In it were found the bones of but a single individual, a young person between the age of 12 and 16 ... and an urn1 of black, coarse ware of quite different character from the one already spoken of as found placed superficially to the second 'cist' [and which he calls a 'drinking-cup'] . This cist was about 4 feet square ; it was close upon the southern wall of the barrow, and about 85 feet from the re-entering angle of its eastern end." Lastly, outside the cists altogether "at about 17 or 18 feet westwards from the centre point of the eastward end were found some bones of a child with the milk dentition in place, about 2 feet or halfway down in the barrow. Parts also, of an ulna, of a tibia, of the phalanges and of both temporals of an adult, were found at about the same distance from the east end, and at a point a little south by west of the middle line."

Note 1. Canon Greenwell adds the following description (Brit. Bars., p. 520):- "In front of the knees was part of a vessel of pottery, including a considerable portion of the rim, which had not been less than 9 inches in diameter. It is dark coloured and quite plain, having some broken stone mixed with the clay ; the bottom has been rounded and the rim has a recurved lip. It differs entirely from the ordinary sepulchral ware of the round barrows, but corresponds with pottery I have found in the condition of pieces of broken vessels on several occasions in the barrows of the Yorkshire Wolds. It has been in general shape not unlike Fig. 91, though not so flat on the bottom and somewhat deeper." A drawing of the pot is given here. It is now in the British Museum, and I am indebted to Mr. E. Thurlow Leeds, for drawing my attention to it, and to Mr. Kendrick for having the drawing made.

The shale bead found in Cist E is slightly oval in outline and much flattened ; the perforation has been made from both ends and is very wide. It closely resembles the bead found at Notgrove, No. 41. (see p. 117).

The present locality of some of the objects found above is not known, but the bead and fragment of pot are with the rest of Dr. Greenwell's collection in the British Museum in Case lo in the Bronze Age Room; and most of Rolieston's things are packed up in the Oxford University Museum.

W. 14.

Brit. Bar., p. 514, Fig. 162 (bead), (Greenwell's 230).

V., 1876, pp. 153-165, plate 5. (Rolleston's "Swell vi.")

Books, Prehistory, Long Barrows of the Cotswolds, Section 2 Long Barrows, Gloucestershire, 25 Farmington Long Barrow

Gloucestershire, 36 N.E. Parish of Eastington. 25*.

Latitude 51" 50' 15". Longitude 1° 49' 14". Height above O.D. about 620 feet.

"This lies inside the entrenchments of Norbury Camp, in the parish of Farmington [sic, for Eastington]. ... It is 200 feet in length 100 feet wide and 5 feet high, its direction being S.E. and N.W. There is a large stone lying flat on the surface which may probably belong to one of the chambers. The barrow has never been examined."

Visited November 20th, 1920. It stands in the S.W. corner of Norbury Camp, in a ploughed field, and is ploughed all over. It is therefore in danger of eventual destruction. The large flat stone mentioned by Witts is no longer visible. The barrow appears perfect and unmutilated. It is broader at the S.E. end.

W. 40. (Quoted above).

Books, Prehistory, Long Barrows of the Cotswolds, Section 2 Long Barrows, Gloucestershire, 26 Ganborough

Gloucestershire, 22 N.W. Parish of Longborough. 26*.

Latitude 51° 57' 31". Longitude 1° 44' 50'. Height above O.D. about 730 feet.

Situated immediately west of the Stow-Evesham main road, about too yards north of the entrance to Banks Fee House. It was marked as a tumulus on the Ordnance Map (edition of 1903) and is mentioned by Witts as a round barrow (W. 52 Round). It is however, undoubtedly a Long Barrow. It is about 160 feet long, and is higher and broader at the S.E. end, which is slightly truncated by the wall separating the field from the main road. At this point in the wall, and on the highest point of the barrow, stands an ash tree. There is a depression at the east end, which doubtless represents some unrecorded excavation. The whole barrow is ploughed over and stands in an arable field without any protection. Visited November i8th, 1920.

Books, Prehistory, Long Barrows of the Cotswolds, Section 2 Long Barrows, Gloucestershire, 27 Gatcombe Lodge Barrow

Gloucestershire, 50 S W. Parish of Minchinhampton. 27*.

Latitude 51° 41' 45". Longitude 2° 10' 05". Height above O.D. about 580 feet.

This barrow is unaccountably omitted by Witts, though marked on the Ordnance Map. The following is the only published account of it:-

"The belief that these tumuli contained treasure led to the dis- turbance of the remarkably fine barrow (No. 4), which occupies the ridge immediately above the northern entrance to Gatcombe Park. About 60 years ago [this would be in 1810] a poor woman, who, from the faith she placed in her dreams of hidden treasure, gained the sobriquet of 'Molly Dreamer,' spent much time in digging into this and other barrows of the neighbourhood. Within the present year [1870] this tumulus has been opened by our associate. Canon Lysons, and at the eastern end two very large stones occupying the centre of the mound, were uncovered. Dwarf walls neatly constructed of Stonesfield slate curve in from the east and terminate at these stones, and by openings made in the sides of the tumulus indications were obtained that this dwarf wall extends round the whole mound."

The following footnote is added:- "April, 1871., At the time the above mentioned examinations were made no chamber was met with, but since then a fine stone chamber has been accidentally discovered by a workman in Mr. Ricardo's employ. It occupies a spot on the northern side, nearly at the widest part of the tumulus, and is 8 feet long, 4 feet wide, 5 feet 6 inches high, and has an entrance porch 3 feet square ; this porch was faced by two stones so placed as to give access by a small opening between them. This structure is formed by seven stones placed on edge, and the sepulchral chamber is covered with a massive stone, 9 feet 6 inches long and 5 feet 6 inches wide. The spaces between the upright stones are filled in by walls of Stonesfield slate very neatly arranged, and in some parts these are brought over towards the top so as to meet the covering stone. One skeleton was found ; the corpse had apparently been placed in a sitting position at the farthest end of the chamber. The skull measured 8 inches in length and 5 inches in breadth."

Visited November 30th, 1920. The barrow stands in a wood, and is thinly planted with beeches. The chamber on the north side is in a perfect state of preservation, the stones looking as clean and fresh as if they had been placed in position yesterday. In the method of its construction it resembles Hetty Pegler's Tump at Uley. The large cap-stone covering the chamber rests on five uprights, and the entrance is flanked by two more. Between these and the interior of the chamber are two of the five uprights which are placed at right angles to the rest in an east-west direction) recalling those similarly placed at the entrance to the chamber at Wayland's Smithy. The spaces between the uprights are filled in with dry masonry, the larger slabs being near the top and overlapping successively so as to narrow the roof space to be covered. Some of these stones have been broken by the weight of the capstone. In the S.E. corner of the chamber is a raised niche, consisting of a "shelf" with a large flat stone lying on smaller stones built up in layers. The two very large stones- those described above as "occupying the centre of the mound" - are evidently remains of a portal. It is difficult to make out the plan, but would not be impossible with a little excavation. There are no visible signs of the surrounding wall, which seems to have curved inwards exactly as at Uley, Belas Knap and elsewhere.

Since the above account was written, I have come across, by a happy accident, a letter from Lysons giving a fuller account of his activities. It is pasted into Vol. XLii of ArchcBologia, in the copy at Devizes belonging to the Wiltshire Archeological Society. It occurs at p. 217 where Thurnam is describing the chambers of some of the Gloucestershire Long Barrows. I quote it in full:-

Hempsted Court,

July, 25th, 1870.

My dear Dr. Thurnam,

I am very glad, as it turned out, that you did not come to Minchinhampton, as the result of my investigation was not as satisfactory as I could have wished. I was aware that the tumulus had been opened before, but as the two shoulders were intact I had hoped from the shape that we might have found some chambers similar to those at Rodmarton, and those which were in the tumulus at Avening in the immediate vicinity. In this I was quite disappointed. I opened a considerable trench on both sides without any result. The barrow is constructed for the most part like others on the Cotteswold Hills with less art. I opened the altar at the east end where there are two large stones about 9 feet in diameter. From there being only two, I conjecture that the third is that in the adjoining field called the Long Stone (see p. 113); and that an attempt must have been made in former times to carry it away ; but becoming tired with the trouble and expense, the spoilers tilted it up where it stands now. [This absurd conjecture may be entirely disregarded]. The approach to the altar was walled in very neatly after the fashion of that at Rodmarton and elsewhere with many thin tile-stones. Beneath the altar I found one skull complete, except the jaws, of a youth or young woman, many bones of animals, mostly calves, and several pieces of very early pottery, considerable evidences of cremation, but the whole had been disturbed soon after the time of the introduction of tobacco into this country ; for three feet below the surface we found the bowl of one of those very small tobacco pipes then in vogue. No metal of any sort, no flints ; the pottery was very imperfectly burnt, and yet on some of it there was an appearance of glaze, and some few bits were slightly figured. The pottery was very thick. I shall place the skull, together with the Rodmarton Britons, in my case ready for your inspection when you come this way,

I remain, my dear Sir,

Yours very truly,

Proc, v., 1872, p, 379. (Quoted above, second and third paragraphs.)

Books, Prehistory, Long Barrows of the Cotswolds, Section 2 Long Barrows, Gloucestershire, 28 Giants Stone Barrow

Gloucestershire, 42 S.W. Parish of Bisley-with-Lypiatt. 28*.

Latitude 51° 45' 12". Longitude 2° 07' 09". Height above O.D. 679 feet.

"The barrow has been removed, or nearly so, leaving some of the stones which formed the chambers, especially a large one locally known as 'The Giant's Stone.'"

isited December 6th, 1920. The remains of this barrow lie in the S.W. corner of a triangular piece of rough pasture, covered all over with the remains of old quarryings. It is on the north side of the road, immediately opposite Battlescombe Farm. The remains consist of two vertical moss grown slabs, about 6 inches apart, placed parallel to each other, the tops about 2 feet above the ground. The long axes are due east and west. There are slight indications of the presence of a mound. Quarrying is now in progress only 20 yards to the N.E. and is advancing in the direction of the stones. There is little left to preserve except the stones, but they are worth preservation.

The "many hundred suspicious-looking depressions adjoining the barrow" mentioned by Witts, are merely old quarry pits.

The field on the N.W. is called "Giant's Ground" on the Tithe Map of Bisley (1873). This fact confirms the identification of the stones described by Witts.

W, 15. (Quoted above).

Books, Prehistory, Long Barrows of the Cotswolds, Section 2 Long Barrows, Gloucestershire, 29 Hazleton South

Gloucestershire, 28 S.W. Parish of Hazleton. 29*.

Latitude 51° 52' 03". Longitude 1° 53' 43". Height above O.D. about 820 feet.

"Lies in a field known as the Barrow Ground. . Its length is 150 feet, greatest width, 70 feet, present height about 5 feet, but originally it must have been more than double this height. Its direction is N.W. to S.E., the highest part being towards the S.E. The top of two upright stones, evidently forming the sides of a chamber, are visible on the surface of the ground, near the S.E. end ; they lie parallel to each other and 10 feet apart. One stone measures on the top i foot 6 inches by 5 inches ; the other 2 feet by 5 inches ; but it is impossible to say what height they are without excavation. I found several worked flakes on the surface of the barrow, and I have heard of others being found since. The barrow has evidently been much damaged by the plough, but has not, I think, ever been examined. The interior is composed of oolitic slabs and Stonesfield slate."

Visited November 20th, 1920. It is in a fallow field and is being ploughed over, and therefore in danger of eventual destruction. There are no signs of the stones mentioned by Witts. There are some suggestions of disturbance at the S.E. end.

This barrow lies 80 yards to the S.W. of the next to be described (W. 17).

W. 16, (Quoted above).

Books, Prehistory, Long Barrows of the Cotswolds, Section 2 Long Barrows, Gloucestershire, 30 Hazleton North

Gloucestershire, 28 S.W. Parish of Hazleton. 30*.

Latitude 51° 52' 06". Longitude 1° 53' 40". Height above O.D. about 820 feet.

"The original length. . must have been about 174 feet ; greatest width, 78 feet ; its present height being 9 feet. Its direction is east and west, the highest part being towards the east. The interior is composed of stone similar to the last (W. 16). I found a well-worked flint flake on the surface. This barrow has never been thoroughly examined, though many stones have been removed for road-making and wall building."

Visited November 20th, 1920. It is in a fallow field and is being ploughed over, and therefore in danger of eventual destruction. The highest part now is to the W.S.W. which would appear to be about 9 feet high. The rest of the barrow is very much lower. It stands 80 yards N.E. of W. 16. There are otherwise no signs of disturbance.

W. 17. (Quoted above).

17 Hasleton Barrow. Hasleton Barrow

In the same field as the last, and only eighty yards from it, is another long barrow, the original length of which must have been about 174 feet; greatest width, 78 feet; its present height being 9 feet. Its direction is east and west, the highest part being towards the east. The interior is composed of stone similar to the last. I found a well-worked flint flake on the surface. This barrow has never been thoroughly examined, though many stones have been removed for road making and wall building.

Books, Prehistory, Long Barrows of the Cotswolds, Section 2 Long Barrows, Gloucestershire, 31 Hetty Pegler's Tump

(often described as "The Uley Barrow.")

Gloucestershire, 49 S.W. Parish of Uley. 31 *.

Latitude 51° 41' 53". Longitude 2° 18' 16". Height above O.D. 826 feet.

This Long Barrow was dug into in 1821 by Dr. Fry, and again by Dr. Thurnam and Professor E. A. Freeman in 1854. A full account of it is given in Crania Britannica as follows:- The tumulus is about 120 feet in length, 85 feet in greatest breadth, and 10 feet in height, being both higher and broader at the east end than elsewhere. At this end and about 25 feet within the limits of the cairn, is the entrance to a chamber, formed by a large flat stone upwards of 8 feet in length and 4½ feet in depth, which rests on an upright stone on each side, so as to leave an opening of nearly 3 feet in height which was closed by a large flat stone. From this entrance a central gallery extends to the west, about 22 feet in length, 4½ feet in average width, and 5 feet in height. Two pairs of upright stones project at right angles with the interior of this gallery, in such a way as to divide it in three unequal portions. Communicating with the central gallery, on each side, have been two chambers, each about 4I feet in diameter. Those on the north side no longer exist, being in a ruinous condition when first discovered. The sides of this gallery and chambers are formed of large slabs of a rough unhewn oolitic stone, planted on their edges, and with the space between them filled up with dry walling of small stones, the corn-brash of the district, such as forms the body of the cairn. The roof is now formed of other large slabs of stone, laid across and resting on the uprights. When opened in 1821 the roof of the [western] side chamber was found to consist of a ' hori- zontal arch,' formed by the courses of stone near the top of the walls overhanging each other and gradually contracting the aperture, which was closed in by a single flat stone [capstone] . There is reason to con- jecture that the whole roof, like those of the chambered tumuli at Stoney Littleton [Map] and Nempnett [Fairy Tout] [Map] in Somersetshire [at Gatcombe Lodge, Gloucestershire] and at New Grange and Dowth in Ireland, had been originally of this character ; as there was distinct evidence of the whole having been more or less disturbed at a very early period, and the chambers entered from above. The cairn of stones heaped over the chambers had been neatly finished round its outer border with a dry walling, carried to the height of from 2 to 3 feet, which communicated by an internal sweep, with similar walling extending from the entrance to the chambers. At the west end, these walls are intersected by others at right angles. ... the object of which it is difiicult to understand .... [Similar walling was observed in the chambered cairn at St. Nicholas, Glamorgan, by Mr. John Ward, F.S.A. Arch. Camb., 6. S. XV., 253-320; XVI., 1916, 239-294].

"Among the stones external to the entrance, about 2|- feet above the level of the chambers, were two human skeletons ; and near these, and close to the large stone closing the entrance, the lower jaws, with the teeth of several wild boars, but no other bones, not even the skulls of these animals. Some of the tusks measure as much as from 6 to 7 inches on the outer curve. In the interior were the remains of thirteen human skeletons, six of which were in the central gallery. Most of them had been much disturbed, but one, about 3 feet within the entrance, retained very much its original posture - the sitting, or rather, squatting - the head having fallen forward in decay. Another, near the further end of the gallery, had been deposited on the back ; near this were some bones and teeth of a graminivorous animal. In the [eastern] side- chamber were four skeletons, one of which was that of a woman. Above these, mixed with the stones and rubbish with which the chamber was filled, were some pieces of coarse earthenware and charcoal, a few scattered human bones, and a small vessel described as 'resembling a Roman lachrymatory,' but which cannot now be found. In [the western] chamber were some pieces of pottery and charcoal and parts of one human skeleton. In the ruinous [eastern] chamber [on the north side] were two skeletons. Over this last chamber, and near the highest part of the cairn, within about 6 inches of the surface, was a skeleton lying about N.E. and S.W., with which were three Roman third brass coins of the lower Empire, and described as of the three sons of Constantine. This was doubtless a secondary interment of the late Roman period, at which time it is possible the interior was first rifled, from the roof of the chamber having been discovered in making this very interment.

" When the cairn was reopened [in 1854 t>y Dr. Thurnam] a heap of human bones, most of them much broken, was found at the west end of the gallery ; there were no burnt bones. Altogether there were frag- ments of eight or nine skulls. Among the other bones there were two upper dorsal vertebras united by anchylosis, and it is to be remarked that two others in the same condition, taken from the same spot in 1821 are preserved in the Museum at Guy's Hospital. There were also a few bones of ruminant animals, and portions of the jaws of boars, with teeth and fragments of tusks. One of the latter had been cut and perforated as if for suspension, as an amulet or trophy. There were two or three oyster shells, much decayed, a few fragments of red pottery of the coarsest kind, well burnt, but whether of the Romano-British or Mediaeval period could not be ascertained, as no part of any rim or moulding remained. At the base of the cairn, in the approach to the entrance, two flint flakes were found, one of them darkly stained. As flint does not occur in the strata of the district, these must be regarded, almost with certainty, as fragments of arrowheads or other implements of the period when the tumulus was erected. This is an inference still further confirmed by the discovery of two stone axeheads in the immediate neighbourhood of the cairn. One of these axeheads, now in the Museum at Guy's Hospital, is of flint, the other of hard greenstone ; they measure each 4 inches in length by 2 inches in breadth. . Two crania only from the Uley tumulus have been preserved and these were presented to the Museum of Guy's Hospital (See Nos. 3200 and 3201), by the late Dr. Fry, who had himself taken them from the chambers."

Dr. Thurnam then proceeds to give an account of each of these skulls. They are still in the Museum of Guy's Hospital, and are des- cribed in the catalogue of 1829 (by Thomas Hodgkin, M.D.). There are now three skulls and one cast and one mandible and one cast, all said to have come from this barrow. The greenstone axe has disappeared ; at any rate its present locality cannot be discovered. The other is in Guy's Hospital Museum and is described in the catalogue of 1829 as follows:- " 3205. Two flint (sic) axe-heads found in the vicinity of the tumulus from which the preceding specimens were taken."

I have visited the barrow twice. The entrance and eastern end of the barrow is enclosed by a railing and is under the protection of the Ancient Monuments Board. The keys are kept in a cottage at Nympsfield. The western end of the barrow is open and under grass ; but standing as it does, in a ploughed field there is danger of gradual encroachment which may eventually destroy the surrounding wall of the cairn. The walling of the entrance appears modern. Thurnam's plan is partly a restoration. He nowhere states whether the chambers on the northern side ("in a ruinous condition ") were sufficiently perfect for any measure- ments to be taken; or whether the dotted outlines on his plan (Cran. Brit., Uley, p. 2), are purely conjectural. This is unfortunate, for the plan has frequently been reproduced (as here, on p. 105) with both chambers shown in firm lines as if the evidence were equally good for both, which is certainly untrue, and was not intended by Thurnam. A further criticism of Thurnam's plan is that the surrounding wall is more likely to have been rectangular than oval. This is certainly so at Stoney Littleton [Map] in Somersetshire and in the case of most of those Long Barrows whose surrounding walls have been carefully excavated. The corners naturally tend to disappear and thus the whole comes to present a rounded outline very deceptive to the observer. The electro of Thurnam's plan reproduced here differs in some respects from the original plan in Archaologia where a distinction is made between the chambers on the north and south sides.

The following extract from an ancient deed, printed in Glouc. Notes & Queries, is a sufficient explanation of the name of the barrow:-

" Indenture dated 20th July, 29 Charles 11 . , 1677, between Henry Pegler of Uley, gent., and Hester his wife (i) and William Heart of Uley, clerk (2). Sale for of one acre of arable land, called the Headland, Uley, in the west field near to the messuage there. . called Wresden, alias The Cold Harbour. . abutting on the hedge westward." I do not know the exact site of the land in question.


A.J. XI., 1854, p. 313.

Arch, XLII., 201 (Plan, p. 209)

Cran, Brit, VoL n., 1865. (Plan of barrow 1/360 and chamber 1/60)

Trans. B, and G.A.S. v. 86.

T. Rice Holmes, Ancient Britain, 1907, p. 104, Fig. 16 (plan).

Glouc, N, and Q, Vol. v., 1894, 185.

Books, Prehistory, Long Barrows of the Cotswolds, Section 2 Long Barrows, Gloucestershire, 32 Hoar Stone Barrow

Gloucestershire, 42 S.E. Parish of Duntisbourne Abbots. 32*.

Latitude 51° 45' 27". Longitude 2° 03' 03". Height above O.D. about 690 feet.

Length 120 feet ; width 90 feet. " The largest stone at the east end has been long known by the name of the ' Hoar Stone it is of the calcareous kind, 12 feet high, 13 feet in circumference and weighs between five and six tons ; it was half above and half underground. Another stone about 9 feet square and one foot thick lay on the ground ; this covered a chamber in which the remains of eight or nine human bodies were discovered. The chamber was divided into two cells about four feet square and six feet deep."

Visited December 13th, 1920. The mound appears almost as broad as it is long, but is evidently the remains of a Long Barrow. The two stones stand, one at the east end, and the other near the middle of the mound. The eastern one is not more than four feet above the surface of the mound (which is low and much spread). Close to it is a smaller stone. The western stone has collapsed and another smaller stone is partly covered by it. This (larger) stone is probably a capstone, the other an upright. Both appear to be in situ. The orientation of the mound is E.S.E.-W.N.W. It lies in a ploughed field and has been under plough until quite recently, but not last season, as the remains of a clover crop stop short all round the edge.

F. 18. (Quoted above).

Arch, XVI., 362. Report (of fourteen lines only) communicated to the Society of Antiquaries by the Rev. Anthony Preston, Rector of Edgeworth. Two Plates give views of the barrow and chambers before and after excavation.

Gent. Mag., LXXVI., 1806. Plates 55 and 56, 871.

Books, Prehistory, Long Barrows of the Cotswolds, Section 2 Long Barrows, Gloucestershire, 33 Juniper Hill Barrow

Gloucestershire, 42 S.E. Parish of Edgeworth. 33*.

Latitude 51° 45' 20". Longitude 2° 05' 58". Height above O.D. about 720 feet.

No excavation known. Visited December 6th, 1920. This is one of the most perfect and interesting Long Barrows I have seen any- where. It is also one of the longest. It appears to be perfect except for a break near the middle, which does not however, look quite like the usual damage done by plunderers. The most striking peculiarity is a kind of " tail " at each end, consisting of a narrow prolongation of the mound itself. Otherwise the barrow is perfect and undisturbed. It is very narrow and steep for its size. There are no signs of any sur- rounding wall, or large stones anywhere. It stands in a wood and is thinly planted with firs. A large sycamore stands at the S.W . end, where also a fox (?) has recently made an excavation in the " tail," on the S.E. side. It is about 210 feet long, oriented N.N.E.-S.S.W. It is in no apparent danger.

It is just possible that this may be two Long Barrows placed end to end as (according to Witts) at Camp. The fact that the greatest height occurs at the south end of what would be the northern barrow supports this conjecture.

W. 13. (Called " Edgworth Barrow.").

Books, Prehistory, Long Barrows of the Cotswolds, Section 2 Long Barrows, Gloucestershire, 34 Lamborough Banks

(often described as "The Ablington Barrow.")

Gloucestershire, 44 N.W. Parish of Bibury. 34*.

Latitude 51° 46' 59". Longitude 1° 50' 38". Height above O.D. 500 feet.

This is the one described by Witts as Ablington Barrow. It is wrongly marked on his map immediately east of Deadman's Acre Copse. Really it lies along the S.W. side of " Lamborough Banks Covert " (which an old man on the spot described to me as " Fox Covert "). Witts says: " This is situated in the parish of Ablington, about 3I miles south of Northleach. It was opened in the year 1854 [by Lysons]. Direction, north and south ; its length is about 270 feet, and greatest width 100 feet ; its height at the northern end being 12 feet. It is com- posed of the common oolitic stone of the county. Unlike other barrows in the county, it is surrounded by a double wall of masonry, each having a face outwards and filled with rubble. Towards the north, these walls make a double curve inwards, and in the centre of this curve, between the two walls, stands a large stone, 6 feet high and 5 feet wide. An interment was found near the north end of the tumulus in a grave made of rough stones ; a few worked flints were also found, but the barrow has never been thoroughly examined. Adjoining the barrow are the remains of a round hut built underground, formed of dry walling similar in char- acter to that found in the tumulus."

I visited this barrow on December 22nd, 1920. The barrow is an example of a fine and, until recently, intact Long Barrow ruined by " excavation " and subsequent neglect. There are the remains of dry stone walling visible in two or three places and at the south end is an upright slab 4 feet 6 inches high and 5 feet wide, with a maximum thickness of 6 inches, set at right angles to the axis of the barrow, which is oriented S.S.E. and N.N.W. Elsewhere the mound is a maze of craters and any walling that once existed is probably now destroyed. The N. end is less dug over than the S., but there is a pit at the extremity. The whole mound is planted with trees, and the north end is overgrown with bramble and elder. Young ashes have taken root in the stony places where digging took place.

The site was revisited on October 25th, 1922. The length of the barrow by tape was found to be 279 feet. Dry walling, with an outer facing in each instance, was observed in two places, the width between the walling (measured at right angles to the axis of the barrow) being 27 feet at a point 55 feet N.W. of the upright stone. It is possible that these remains are those of the inner of the " double wall of masonry, each having a face outwards " mentioned above. The stone itself has had pieces knocked off it quite recently - since my first visit, I believe. A shepherd, whom I spoke to in an adjacent field, told me that the owner was much annoyed at this having been done. I asked him about the underground dwelling, but he could tell me little except that a tunnel was supposed to start in the copse (Fox Covert) in which the barrow stands. On the N.E. side of this copse are old diggings. Whether the "round hut built underground " was found during the work at these old diggings, or whether it originated from the story of the tunnel, I cannot say. But it is more likely that the discovery of a hut built underground gave rise to the tunnel story than vice versa. A similar tale is told of the Lodge Park Barrow. The discovery of an underground hut connected with a Long Barrow would be an event of the greatest importance. It is prob- able that Witts derived his information about the underground hut from Dr. Bird (unless both copied from Lysons). Dr. Bird's views were liable to rest upon imperfect or second-hand observation, and his statement must be accepted with caution. I give his account for what it may be worth. Speaking of the builders of Long Barrows, he says:- " Great skill is also shown in the construction of their dwellings. A circle about twelve feet in diameter, is sunk in the ground, three feet or so deep ; the bottom is covered with flat stones, and a wall, except at the entrance, is raised about two feet high, around the circle, and covered with flat stones to form a seat ; from the outside of the seat, dry walling, except at the entrance, is carried up four feet or more, with all the stones sloping outwards, square recesses for cupboards are formed ; the stones are then gradually drawn inwards, to meet at the top, and receive a large stone, and form a beehive-shaped cot. The entrance is formed of three large stones, one on each side, and the other resting upon them to receive the walling ; and lastly the whole is covered with earth. When the Long Barrow at Bibury [the one I have called Lam- borough Bank] was examined, there was a cot of such a character not far from the barrow. These cots are called ' Shepherds' Cots.' " How far is the Doctor describing what he has actually seen, and how far is he reconstructing the house of the living from that of the dead ? Lysons was the first to describe the barrow, and he may have been the common source from which Bird and Witts copied. Lysons' actual description of the hut is as follows:- " In the immediate vicinity of the tumulus there exists a round hut underground, formed of dry walling similar to that employed in the construction of this tumulus. There were formerly more of them close at hand. They are called in the vernacular Shepherds' huts." He compares them with the Scottish Picts'-houses, saying, " the same little recesses and seats are found in both."

On page 318 Lysons gives a minute plan of the barrow and of a chamber at the north end formed of four upright slabs on each side and closed by another at each end. It seems to have had the same orientation as the barrow itself and contained the skeleton referred to above.

W. I. (quoted above).

S. Lysons, Our British Ancestors, 1865, pp. 318-20 (figs, and small plan).

Stevens, Flint Chips, p. 494.

Anthropological Review, Vol. III., 1863, p. LXXI (referred to only by Dr. Bird).

Trans. B. and G.A.S., Vol. v., 1880-81, 30. (Dr. Bird).

XLii., 219, Figs. 13 and 14.

Books, Prehistory, Long Barrows of the Cotswolds, Section 2 Long Barrows, Gloucestershire, 35 Lechmore Barrow

Gloucestershire, 57 N.E. (marked as Round Barrow on 1903 ed.) Parish of Horsley. 35 *.

Latitude 51° 40' 44". Longitude 2° 12' 07". Height above O.D. about 580 feet.

Length 120 feet; width, 65 feet ; height, 6 feet; oriented E. and W., highest end to east. Much disturbed. "In 18x2 one chamber still remained, but the stones of which it was constructed have since been removed for building material, and the mound itself is now reduced in size year by year by the operation of the plough. (Witts, p. 81, quoting verbatim from Mr. G. F. Playne's paper below).

Visited December 4th, 1920. The process of gradual demolition recorded in 1870 is proceeding annually. Both ends are under plough. The orientation is approximately E.S.E. by W.N.W. A small pile of stones, doubtless collected from the ploughed ends (where there are many) is heaped upon the unploughed, grass-grown central mound. Some of these slabs are quite large. There is no sign of a surrounding wall or of ditches. It stands near the head of a steep coombe. I found numerous flint fragments near it. About 100 yards to the south in the same field is a stony depression which may be the remains of a quarry. It contains several large slabs and has the appearance of great antiquity. It is not under plough. On the old one-inch Ordnance Map the barrow is called "Peaked Stone," in reference doubtless, to the remains of a portal or chamber now vanished. See also "Picked Stone" [No. 35 b].

W. 20.

Proc. C.N.F.C., v., 1870, 280. (Mr. G. F. Playne).

Books, Prehistory, Long Barrows of the Cotswolds, Section 2 Long Barrows, Gloucestershire, Leighterton

See West Barrow, p. 136.

Books, Prehistory, Long Barrows of the Cotswolds, Section 2 Long Barrows, Gloucestershire, 36 Lineover Barrow

Gloucestershire, 27 S.W. Parish of Dowdeswell. 36*.

Latitude 51° 51' 55". Longitude 2° 00' 41". Height above O.D. about 910 feet.

This is certainly the remains of a Long Barrow. It is included by Witts under Round Barrows, but as he merely mentions it without describing its appearance, it is probable that he never examined it closely. From a distance it is a conspicuous object, and from the main road (Stow-on-the-Wold to Gloucester) which passes a few yards to the south of it, it has all the appearance of a Round Barrow. But from the top of the mound (and also from below it on the north) the faint stony remains of a prolongation westwards can be detected. In its present condition, therefore, it recalls Norn's Tump (No. 11) but on a smaller scale scale. The existing mound is probably the eastern (and presum- ably highest) end, which has escaped the plough by its greater height. It now stands in a ploughed field but is not itself ploughed over, being grass-grown. The annual encroachments of the plough will however, eventually destroy it. The surviving mound has been dug into from the north side probably by someone who mistook it for a Round Barrow. Like the Withington Barrow (No. 57), it stands on the edge of the hill, but not on the highest point. I estimated its original length at 140- 150 feet. The present height of the grass mound is about 5 to 6 feet. Visited December 21st, 1920.

W. 73. (Round).

Books, Prehistory, Long Barrows of the Cotswolds, Section 2 Long Barrows, Gloucestershire, 37 Lodge Park Barrow

Gloucestershire, 36 S.E. Parish of Farmington. 37 *.

Latitude 51° 48' 40". Longitude 1° 47' 35". Height above O.D. about 520 feet.

" There is a fine Long Barrow in Sherborne Lodge Park. ... Its length is about 150 feet, and greatest width 70 feet. Some of the stones forming the chambers are visible on the surface. Its direction is S.E. and N.W., the highest portion lying towards the S.E. No examination has ever been made of the mound."

Marked by hachures as a long mound on the Ordnance Survey Map, but without any descriptive name on the 1903 edition.

Visited December 22nd, 1920. This is the finest Long Barrow I have ever seen ; it is certainly the most perfect specimen in Gloucester- shire, and should be left exactly as it is and never excavated, in order that posterity may be able to see at least one unmutilated Long Barrow. It stands on flat ground in a beautiful deer-park, near the edge of the Leach Valley, the water of which is only a quarter of a mile to the west. There are no trees growing on or near it, those marked near it on the 1903 edition having not long ago been cut down. The outline of the barrow is exactly that of the typical Long Barrow, given in Colt Hoare's "Ancient Wiltshire." At the east end the tops of two uprights protrude, covered by a lintel which has tilted backwards slightly. Immediately north are just the tops of other large stones flush with the surface. On the north the ground is suggestive of a ditch, being soft and inhabited by rabbits. There are no signs of digging anywhere, and I can vouch for the correctness of Witts' statement to-day.

The site was re-visited on February 23rd, 1921 and measurements taken. Its length is 180 feet, and the breadth at the east end 120 feet. The orientation is N.W.-S.E. (magnetic). The lintel is 3 feet above the level of the ground on the east side, 8 feet wide and i foot 10 inches thick.

W. 23. (Quoted above).

Books, Prehistory, Long Barrows of the Cotswolds, Section 2 Long Barrows, Gloucestershire, 38 Long Stone

Gloucestershire, 50 S.W. Parish of Minchinhampton. 38*.

Latitude 51° 41' 51". Longitude 2° 10' 07'. Height above O.D. 600 feet.

The Long Stone is a slab of oolite (locally known as "holey" stone) about 18 inches thick and 7 ft. 9 in. high, set on edge, the axis being approximately N.W.-S.E. It is perforated by two large and many small holes, all probably caused by weathering. The N.W. face of the stone is much more pitted and weathered than the other. There are a few slight irregularities in the surface of the ground around it, but nothing that could be called a barrow. Nevertheless I think that this stone is undoubtedly the last surviving fragment of the chamber of a Long Barrow. Rudge and Rudder (quoted by Thurnam) both support this view. Rudder says that the Long Stone, like the Tingle Stone, stood on the top of a tumulus or barrow. When Thurnam visited the spot in i860, the barrow was scarcely visible, and the second " short stone" was found built into a stone wall which ran over the site of the mound, where it answered the purpose of a stile. Playne says that " superstitious mothers were in the habit of passing ricketty children through a hole in this [bigger] stone with the idea that they would by such means become strong." The smaller stone (height, 3 feet 2 inches; width, 4 feet 5 inches; thickness, i foot) stands in a wall 34 feet away, and a third is said to have been removed during the last century. Mr. A. D. Passmore, of Swindon, was told on the spot that "when it heard the clock strike twelve the stone ran round the field." I am also indebted to Mr. Passmore for the information that the largest of the holes is twelve inches long by five wide.

Rudder's Gloucestershire, 1779, p. 244.

Thos. Rudge, History of Gloucestershire (1802) vol 1. 332.

Arch. XLII., 243. (Thurnam).

Proc. C.N.F.C., V. 1872. 280. (Plate 2, reproduced here, is a photograph of the stone from the N.W.)

Wood-Martin, Journal of the Royal Historical and Archceological Assoc, of Ireland. 4 S. (April, 1887) (Reference only to superstition).

County Folklore, No. i. Gloucestershire ; by E. S. Hartland (Folklore Society, 1892. p. 39). Reference only.

A. T. Playne, Minchinhampton and Avening, 1915, p. 4.

Books, Prehistory, Long Barrows of the Cotswolds, Section 2 Long Barrows, Gloucestershire, 39 Lower Swell Barrow

Gloucestershire, 22 S.W. Parish of Lower Swell. 39 *.

Latitude 51° 55' 48". Longitude 1° 45' 09". Height above O.D. about 560 feet.

Situated a quarter of a mile W.N.W. of Swell Church. It is not marked on the Ordnance Map or mentioned by Witts. It is covered by a thin growth of firs with elders round the lower edge. It is about 135 feet long. A narrow trench has been cut across it near the eastern end, but no chamber appears to have been found (to judge by its present appearance), and otherwise it appears to be unmutilated. There are no signs of a surrounding wall. It is in danger of being eventually destroyed, as it is unprotected by any fence in a ploughed field ; and ploughing appears to encroach yearly upon it. It is oriented W.N.W. and E.S.E. On the south side the scarp of the hillside is cut into, probably by the makers of the barrow, thus giving the appearance of a ditch on the north side. It is much higher at the east end. There are rabbit burrows (mostly abandoned) on the north side. Discovered and visited Novem- ber i8th, 1920; and revisited October 21st, 1922.

Books, Prehistory, Long Barrows of the Cotswolds, Section 2 Long Barrows, Gloucestershire, 40 Newclose Barrow

Gloucestershire, 2i S.E. Parish of Eyford. 40 *.

Latitude 51° 55' 44". Longitude 1° 47' 29'. Height above O.D. about 620 feet.

Situated about 200 yards S.E. of the Eyford Barrow (W. 14). It is about 150 feet long and very much higher at the N.E. end. It stands in a ploughed field and is ploughed over annually and consequently in great danger of total destruction. It appears to be perfect and never excavated. There are no depressions anywhere upon it. There are no signs of a ditch. Close to it on the south is a large Round Barrow.

Discovered and visited November 16th, 1920.

Books, Prehistory, Long Barrows of the Cotswolds, Section 2 Long Barrows, Gloucestershire, 11 Norn's Tump

generally described as "The Avening Barrow.")

Gloucestershire, 58 N.W. Parish of Avening. 11*.

Latitude 51° 41' 03". Longitude 2° 09' 36". Height above O.D. about 520 feet.

This Long Barrow, illustrated by Thurnam in his classic paper and described in many text books, had been completely lost sight of and its present position was unknown. The mound is still recognisable as such, though both of its ends are under plough. The centre of the barrow is not however, cultivated, though being gradually encroached on, and is overgrown with long grass and brambles. Three pines stand on the highest point. The orientation is N.W.-S.E. It was excavated in 1806 by the Rev. W. H. Thornbury, Rector of Avening, when " three stone chambers were taken out and removed to a grove in the rectory garden where they are carefully preserved." In Arch, xvi is an account by Mr. Thornbury communicated to the Society of Antiquaries, November 20th, 1806. From this there appear to have been "two small chambers in one of which were found eight, and in the other three, skeletons." Plate 57 gives a view of the barrow from the S.W. before and after excavation ; two chambers only are shown, and they are still preserved in the garden of the rec- tory, on a steep bank below the road from the old rectory to Woodhouse Farm (Sheet 57 N.E.) They are in no danger of destruction and are being carefully looked after by the present rector, the Rev. O. E. Hayden, who has given much assistance in rediscovering the site of the barrow. The length of the barrow is said to be 165 feet, greatest width 60 feet, and greatest height (at E. end), 6 feet.

Visited November 30th, 1920.

Thurnam puts the Avening barrow in his " Type ii," those with chambers along the sides opening externally ; and from his woodcut (reproduced above), it is seen that two of the uprights closing the entrance to the chamber were hollowed out so as to form a kind of port-hole to allow of entrance after the chamber was made and thus partially closed.

The name " Norn's Tump " was re-discovered locally by the Rev. R. Jowett Burton, of Chalford, to whom I am indebted for the information.

W. 2.

Arch. XVI., 362, Plate 57 ; XLii, 216, Fig. ii (reproduced also in Arch. Celt, et Gauloise, by A. Bertrand, 2nd ed., 1889, Fig. 36).

Fosbroke, Encyclop. Antiq., 1843, pp. 544, 547 (etching by T. Burden).

Books, Prehistory, Long Barrows of the Cotswolds, Section 2 Long Barrows, Gloucestershire, 41 Notgrove Barrow

Gloucestershire, 28 S.W. Parish of Notgrove. 41*.

Latitude 51° 53' 20". Longitude t° 51' 40". Height above O.D. about 800 feet.

The following account is given by Witts, who excavated it:- " I examined it in April, 1881, previous to a visit of the Cotteswold Field Club. I found the barrow was 140 feet long, and that its greatest width was 78 feet. The entire crown of the tumulus had at some time been removed, exposing to view twenty large stones ; these formed a series of chambers of the double-cruciform type, similar to those at Uley and Nympsfield. . The passage is five feet wide towards the south-east end, and four feet three inches wide towards the north-west, its entire length being twenty-seven feet. The first chamber on the west (A) measures eight feet four inches by six feet ; the second (B) measures six feet four inches by six feet ; chamber No. 3, (C on the plan) somewhat different in shape, measured six feet across in each direction; and chamber No. 4 (D on the plan) nine feet six inches by seven feet. The largest stone (i) stands five feet above the original surface of the ground, being three feet long and sixteen inches wide. Chamber No. 4 (D) had never been disturbed, though the other three had been cleared of their contents in past ages. Under a large flat stone I discovered portions of two human skeletons, lying in a contracted position ; the skulls which were lying towards the west, were broken into very small pieces. With these human remains were found two teeth and the pelvis of some kind of ox (probably bos longifrons), a dog's tooth, a very perfect leaf-shaped arrowhead of flint, a black oval bead or amulet, one and a half inches long, composed of Kimmeridge shale, having a hole pierced through the centre by a flint borer (this bead, though larger, resembles the one found in the Eyford Long Barrow, described in British Barrows, p. 519 [Fig. 162]); lastly, thirty pieces of rough British pottery, half baked and belonging to the same vessel, one piece only showing the form of the rim. The spaces between the upright stones in chamber No. 4 were filled up with well built dry walls of Stonesfield late; the bottom of the chamber was paved with small flat stones well fitted together and forming a level surface." A bead similar to that found here, but larger, was found in a barrow of Maiden's Grave Farm, Barton Fleming, Bridlington, Yorks., (E.R.) and was given to the British Museum by Canon Greenwell and Mr. Boynton in 1902.

Visited November 22nd, 1920. The barrow formerly extended into a ploughed field on the N.W. where signs of the mound can still be traced. The large stones are still visible but the walling has completely vanished, owing doubtless to the fatal practice of leaving the excavations open and unprotected after they were concluded. The barrow stands in a piece of rough pasture, now waste land, and is overgrown with rank grass, but no trees. It would be well worth while to put it in order and place it under adequate protection. Some of the uprights are now leaning and will fall if not attended to, and some have already fallen or disappeared since the excavations were made. The general plan is easy to follow. The site is very accessible, being close to a good road (the main road from Bourton-on-the-Water to Cheltenham), and only a quarter of a mile from Notgrove station, G.W.R. (Kingham to Cheltenham line).

Revisited October 16th, 1922. A special plan, made since my first visit, was checked and added to; the result, which is not very satisfactory, is reproduced on next page, and is an attempt to combine a fresh survey with the data on Witts' plan. The stones of the northernmost chamber (C) appear to have been slightly displaced, or made to lean, since Witts' plan was made. One additional stone (18), continuing the S.W. "wall" of the central passage was discovered and has been added to the plan. The orientation of this "wall" of uprights is 304° M. The following heights were registered: Stone (i) 5 feet; (2) 4 feet; (3) 3 feet 8 inches; (16) 3 feet 6 inches ; (17) i foot 6 inches. The S.E. edge of stone 16 is hollowed like those at Rodmarton and Belas Knap, whether naturally or artificially is uncertain ; but in either case the setting of such a stone where it stands at the entrance to chamber (A) is probably intentional. In the space between stones 3, II and 16 is a large flat stone with three perforations, and two smaller stones. These are probably the stones shown on Witts' plan, which are now missing in their proper places. Stone 12 is formed of a slightly different material from the others - a more stratified, slaty rock.

W . 24.

Books, Prehistory, Long Barrows of the Cotswolds, Section 2 Long Barrows, Gloucestershire, 42 Nympsfield Barrow

Gloucestershire, 49 S.W. Parish of Frocester. 42*.

Latitude 51° 42' 35". Longitude 2° 17' 54". Height above O.D. about 750 feet.

The following account is given by Professor James Buckman in the Proceedings of the Cotteswold Naturalists' Field Club (Vol. ill., 1865, pp. 184-8):- ^After describing its position on Crawley Hill about half a mile north of Hetty Pegler's Tump, which it closely resembles in plan, he proceeds: " The tumulus in both is of an ovoid form, and in each the broad end, where the chamber was situated, is to the east, and the small one to the west. . On exposing the chambers in the Nympsfield tumulus, it was at once seen that the upright stones marked more or less perfectly a central passage with one or perhaps a double set of cruciform or lateral chambers on either side; in the first of which, on the north side, was partitioned off a smaller chamber or cist, probably to receive some infantile re- mains, as such were found therein. In certain parts, the spaces between the up- rights and the walls of the entrance were made up of dry walling, as shown on the plan." No traces of capstones were found. The stones used were the " lower freestones of the Great Oolite, which, in all probability were quarried for the pur- pose at a distance of about half-a-mile to the N.E. of the Nympsfield tumulus, at a place called Stone Hill. It would appear, that when the chambers were completed, and the bodies placed in them, a stone roof was placed over the whole, and then that the loose stones, earth, etc., were piled upon and over the whole, so as to form the tumulus ; this method necessitating the con- struction of a slight fosse, which is observable surrounding the tumulus, especially in that of Uley. In the Nympsfield one this fosse is not so observable, probably from the field having been for so long under the plough. Here, too, there was a deep depression in the top of the mound, most likely left after the former opening. The contents of the Nymps- field chambers comprise (i) human bones, a few of which had been burnt ; (z) bones of inferior or domestic animals ; (3) a small fragment or two of pottery ; (4) a few flakes of flint.

(1) "As regards the human remains, it was deduced from 32 femora, which were counted by Dr. Bird, that the chambers, in the state in which the Club examined them, presented evidences of the remains of at least sixteen human bodies. These varied in size and in age from very old to young men and women, with a few remnants of the bones of children.

(2) "The bones and teeth of inferior animals comprised not a few remnants of the ox, hog, dog and birds ....

(3) "The small fragment of pottery is of the usual brownish or black unbaked clay of the period. This fragment is scored with the peculiar impressed marks so common in ancient British fictilia" . . A very bad drawing is given of this fragment on p. 187, from which it appears possible that it was part of the upper part of a bowl ornamented with impressed thongmarks - the so-called " maggot " decoration.

(4) Professor Buckman's remarks on the flints are not worth quoting. From the illustrations on p. 188 they appear to have been simply flakes.

The following is Dr. Thurnam's report on the human bones, which (in Mem. Anthr. Soc., Vol. i., 1863-4, P- 131, note) he says " have kindly been contributed to my collection." " The osseous remains from the chambered tumulus at Nympsfield consist of one skull, one broken calvarium, and fragments of at least ten other crania.

" No. I, the large and finely developed skull of a man of middle age. Its capacity is represented by 88 ounces of white sand and the contained brain must have weighed about 58 ounces avoirdupois. The type is dolichocephalic, with a full and prominent occiput. The only exception as to equable development depends on the presence of slight parieto-occipital flatness. The frontal region is rather narrow, but is moderately elevated and well arched where it joins the parietals. The parietal tubers are not prominent. The superciliaries are large and form a central overhanging boss. The nasals are broken off at the roots. The superior maxillaries are short, especially the alveolar portions ; as in other skulls from the chambered tumuli of Uley and West Kennet. Slight prognathism is exhibited in the prominence of the intermaxillaries. A greater number of the teeth, viz., two or three incisors and two or three molars, have been lost during life than in almost any other British skull I have examined. One molar and two premolars are in place ; they are very much worn down and have the dentine hollowed out. There is no lower jaw among the fragments which can be confidently attributed to this skull.

" No. 2. A broken calvarium of still more decidedly dolicocephalic character than the skull No. i. In this instance likewise, the supra- occipital region is full and prominent. Behind the coronal suture is a marked depression, which extends down the sides of the skull, and suggests the idea of having been produced by the long-continued use of a constricting bandage in early life. This peculiarity of form is one occasionally observed in ancient British skulls, and especially those from the north of Wiltshire and Gloucestershire, the country of the Dobuni, as seen in many crania in any collection.

" Nos. 3, 4, and 5. Frontal bones ; all apparently of male skulls. They are characterised by their generally low, narrow and receding form ; as is likewise the frontal bone in the calvarium No. 2. This form prevails especially in skulls from the chambered Long Barrows of Wilts., Gloucester and Somerset. (See the description of the skull from Uley \vl Crania Britannica, Plate 5).

"No. 6. Frontal and facial bones and lower jaws (all imperfect) of a female, probably of less than thirty years. The form is in no respect peculiar, except that the lower jaw is square and angular. The teeth are considerably eroded.

" No. 7. Fragments of the frontal and facial bones of a male of about forty years.

" No. 8. Upper maxillaries of, perhaps, a female, of about sixty years.

"No. 9. Left upper maxillary of a male of about forty years.

" No. 10. Left upper maxillary of a young adult, with two molar teeth, showing incipient attrition on the inner edges.

" No. II. Part of inferior maxillary of an infant, with two deciduous teeth in place.

" No. 12. Fragment of lower jaw of an aged female, completely edentulous.

The fragments of two lower jaws of males, marked A and B, show in a high degree the broad and angular form of the ascending ramus which is so marked a feature in the adult male British cranium.

" There are several fragments of burnt human bones, the largest being part of the occiput of a child. They are very imperfectly burned, many of them merely charred, and are very different from the cinders of bone found when unambiguous cremation has been practised. Devizes, September, 1862."

Visited December ist, 1920. The barrow can never have been appreciably larger than it is now, as the western edge stands at the ex- treme edge of the escarpment, which is almost precipitous here. No signs of a ditch were observed either here or at Uley. Ploughing is in progress over part of the mound, up to the edge of a small circle on the 6 in. map, indicating a wooden fence which formerly enclosed the area of the chambers. This fence is now represented only by the fragments of four rotten posts. The stones themselves are becoming overgrown with brambles and moss and are in a precarious condition. The whole monu- ment needs protection and immediate attention. It is still well preserved and worth making permanently secure.

Mr. A. E. W. Paine, of Cheltenham, has in his collection from this barrow two anchylosed human vertebrae, four teeth of Bos primigenius, and one tooth of a horse.

W. 25.

Journal of the Anthropological Society, Vol. III., 1865, pp. LXVI., LXVIII.

Proc. C.N.F.C., III., 184-190. (Paper read in 1863, with an account of the excavations and plan).

Trans. B. and G.A.S., v. 95.

Gent's Mag., 1862, Part II., p. 529.

Plan given also on the margin of Witts' Map.

Books, Prehistory, Long Barrows of the Cotswolds, Section 2 Long Barrows, Gloucestershire, 43 Pinkwell Barrow

Gloucestershire, 43 N.E. Parish of Chedworth. 43*.

Latitude 51° 47' 37". Longitude 1° 56' 04". Height above O.D. about 690 feet.

The following is an account of the excavation of this barrow by Akerman (age 49) in 1856 given in Proc. Soc. Ant., iv, 1859, pp. 16 and 17:-

"My attention having been directed to a barrow of this description [i.e., long], situated in a field near the farmstead of Pinkwell, a little to the west of the village of Chedworth, in Gloucestershire, I applied to the Reverend A. Gibson, the trustee for the land on which it stands, and Mr. Townsend, the occupier, for permission to explore it, which was very promptly and kindly granted.

" This tumulus has always been known as ' Long Barrow,' and the field in which it is situated as ' Long Barrow Field,' but this designation was probably given to it at a comparatively recent period, when the Chedworth district of the extensive Cotswold range was first enclosed. I learned that the southern end of the barrow had been disturbed about twenty years since for the purpose of obtaining stone, when three human skeletons were found lying side by side, but unaccompanied by relics of any description. The teeth were remarkably perfect. This rather invited than discouraged further investigation, for although the centre of the mound appeared to have been disturbed on its surface, I was led to believe that this was attributable to the labourers in search of stone, and that it had never been ransacked by the antiquary or the treasure-seeker.

"We commenced excavations on the eastern side of the south end of the mound, which appeared to be intact, and on reaching the interior it became evident that the floor of the barrow had been excavated to a depth of two feet below the natural surface of the soil. The sides were built up with the smaller stones of the district, in the manner of a ' dry wall,' but nearer the centre the stones were of larger size, and all were placed with great apparent care, plainly showing that this end of the barrow had not been disturbed since its first formation.

" After a careful search for some hours, and the removal of a vast number of stones, we were satisfied that there had been no deposit of any kind in this portion of the barrow, and we proceeded to remove the stones at the opposite end, where the skeletons already mentioned had been found. As the work proceeded it became obvious that the stones here were not placed with care ; in fact that they had been thrown to- gether without order or arrangement, and that this barrow had been assailed at some distant period. Nothing but the hope that the mound had been imperfectly explored would have tempted further search, and this at length ended in the finding of the metal tag of a lace and a minute fragment of pottery. By the dark brown glaze upon the latter, it is probably not earlier than the end of the sixteenth or beginning of the seven- teenth century, and to this period I would refer the first assault of the barrow at Pinkwell."

The barrow is not marked on Witts' map or included in his list, though it appears on the Ordnance Map. I visited it on December 22nd, 1920. It lies in a ploughed field and is wholly under plough, so that it has now spread. It is about 180 feet long and is higher and wider at the S.E. end. A depression can be seen a little east of the centre, marking doubtless the site of Akerman's excavations. The genuinely local character of the name " Long Barrow " is confirmed by the fact that an old inhabitant - Frederick Norman, of Chedworth - used it in describing the barrow to me. It is oriented N.W.-S.E.

Books, Prehistory, Long Barrows of the Cotswolds, Section 2 Long Barrows, Gloucestershire, 44 Pole's Wood East Barrow

Gloucestershire, 22 S.W. Parish of Upper Swell. 44*.

Latitude 51° 56' 12". Longitude 1° 45' 59". Height above O.D. about 650 feet.

The barrow is situated at the east end of Pole's Planta- tion, about 650 yards S.W. of Upper Swell Church. It is thinly planted with beeches, the rest of the wood consisting mainly of firs. The remains of a modern wall surround it on four sides. In the highest part is a large crater-like depression, on the western side of which are the remains of dry walling.

The following is Witts' summary of the excavations made in it by Canon Greenwell:-

" The extreme length was 120 feet and extreme width 40 feet ; its direction was N.N.E. and S.S.W., its horned end being at the N.N.E. end ; its greatest height was 5 feet. It was surrounded by a wall which measured 4 feet in height at the north end. The principal interment was in a trench about 28 feet long, 6 feet 4 inches wide and 2 feet deep, and this was sunk below the original surface of the ground, similar to the trench described under the West Tump [W. 35; No. 52 in this book]. In this trench-chamber were found nineteen skeletons, also bones of the roe deer, red deer, ox, wild boar, goat, pig, etc., bone implements, one vessel of coarse pottery, and a considerable number of worked flints. Three Saxon skeletons were found near the surface of the barrow."

Visited November 18th, 1920, and again October i8th, 1922.

W. 31.

J.A.I. V. 120.

Brit. Bars., p. 524. (Greenwell's No. 232. Plan made by Sir Henry Dryden, but not reproduced by G.)

Books, Prehistory, Long Barrows of the Cotswolds, Section 2 Long Barrows, Gloucestershire, 45 Pole's Wood South

Gloucestershire, 22 S.W. Parish of Upper Swell. 45*.

Latitude 51° 56' 06". Longitude 1° 45' 23". Height above O.D. about 710 feet.

As a result of the condition in which this barrow was left after " excavation " there is now nothing left of it visible except the chamber at the west end on the north side of the barrow. The surrounding walls and the horned ends have crumbled into complete decay. The chamber itself, however, is fairly well preserved and is surrounded by a stout wooden fence. It is 6 feet 7 inches long (distance between inner faces of stones I and 5), 3 feet 2 inches wide (ditto, stones 3 and 7), and 2 feet 5 inches deep. The dimensions of the stones are as follows ; No. 1 being the one closing the north end ; No. 5 that closing the south end ; Nos. 2, 3 and 4 being on the west side ; No. 2 nearest to No. I ; Nos. 7 and 6 being on the east side. No. 6 nearest to 5.

Digging appears to have begun on the south side of the chamber and advanced northwards (traces of modern excavations being obvious at the south end of the chamber). The entrance passage leading to the chamber, as shown on the plan, was to the north of stone i. No signs of it are now visible. On the east side between stones i and 7, is a piece of dry walling. The stones overlap each other inwards, and once were con- tinued to form a corbelled roof. They also partly overlap stone 7. The mound is planted with beech and fir trees ; the rest of the field in which it stands is under permanent grass. Measures to protect the chamber and open up the passage should be taken before it is too late.

The following is Witts' account:-

" Its length was 173 feet, its greatest width 57 feet and greatest height, 8 feet 6 inches ; its direction was E. by N. and W. by S., the highest portion lying towards the east. Like the others in this neigh- bourhood it is composed of oolitic rubble and slabs, and is surrounded by a wall, which at the east end reached to a height of 5 feet, where it assumed the ' horned ' shape. Only one chamber was found in the whole of this mound ; this was 24 feet from the W. end, and on the N. side of the barrow ; it had a passage leading to it similar to the last [IF. 29. Cow Common Barrow, No. 21 in this book]. The chamber was 7 feet long, 4 feet wide and 3 feet 8 inches high. At least nine skeletons were found here, together with bones of the goat or sheep, ox, pig, and two pieces of pottery. In the passage were found three other skeletons. Near the surface of the barrow three bodies were discovered, evidently Saxons, as proved by the articles found with them, viz., two bronze buckles, an iron knife, and an amber bead."

Referring to the " nine or ten " skeletons found in the chamber, Rolleston says [y.A.I., 1876]: " The almost perfect state in which one skeleton found in the [entrance] passage [to this chamber] was recovered makes the rifling and destruction of the others still more regrettable." Further on he adds " No record has been recovered by us, as to how the nine bodies or more which the chamber contained had been packed away in its area of 7 feet by 4 feet." It is clear that the fragmentary condition of the bones in the chamber was due, not to previous disturbance, but to imperfect burial, or rather, to re-burial after storage elsewhere; and the presence of a perfect skeleton in the entrance passage suggests the im- molation of a victim. The possibility of this practice being in vogue was suggested by the burials near the Portal at Belas Knap. The passage skeleton in this barrow was that of a man about 30 years ; height about 5 feet 5 inches ; cephalic index, 76. " With his bones came also the jaw of a young pig, just as was the case with the bones from the chamber in Swell I [Cow Common, my No. 21] ; as also some bones of a sheep or goat."

An interesting vessel was found at the east end of the barrow. It is now in the British Museum, and seems to be intermediate in type between the round-bottomed neolithic bowls and food vessels. Canon Greenwell thinks that it " possibly at one time accompanied a body now totally gone to decay. It was found just over the facing of the north ' horn,' near to its eastern extremity, and not much below the present surface of the mound. It is somewhat of the drinking cup type [this is hardly correct], 4 inches high, 4f inches wide at the mouth, and 2J inches at the bottom, and orna- mented over the whole surface with lines forming no distinct pattern. On the upper part of the vessel these have been made with a sharp- pointed instrument, and on the remainder of it by impressions of a notched strip of wood or bone." For a general account of this type of pottery, the reader should consult Mr. Reginald Smith's article in Archceologia of Neolithic Pottery."

Visited November 18th, 1920.

W. 30.

J.A.I. V. 1876., pp. 165-171. (Rolleston's Swell VII). Plan.

Brit. Bars., p. 521-524 (Greenwell's No. 231).

Arch., LXII, 1910, 347, Fig. 14. (Reproduced above, by kind permission of Mr. R. A Smith, F.S.A., and the Society of Antiquaries.)

See also p. 16 of this book.

Books, Prehistory, Long Barrows of the Cotswolds, Section 2 Long Barrows, Gloucestershire, 45a Pole's Wood West

Gloucestershire, 22 S.W. Parish of Upper Swell. 45a*.

Latitude 51° 56' 13'. Longitude 1° 45' 30". Height above O.D. 700 feet.

The remains of this barrow were discovered accidentally on Oct. 17th, 1922. It lies in the field adjoining Pole's Plantation on the west, and is 730 feet N.W. of the Pole's Wood South Long Barrow (No. 45) and 1820 feet west of the Pole's Wood East Long Barrow (No. 44). Its length by tape is 118 feet, and its distance from the western (north and south) wall of Pole's Plantation, 312 feet, measured along the north wall of the field. Its orientation is N.N.W. and S.S.E. The elevation is low and it has certainly been dug into in places. There are several bare stoney patches on its surface, and many big (but hardly " megalithic ") stones lying about over its southern end. It probably conceals a good deal of unrifled material. The field in which it lies is under permanent grass. This discovery confirms the remarkable concentration already referred to, and makes a total of four Long Barrows within a space of 1,000 yards square. If, as is probable, the Whittlestone and the " tump " 700 yards to the west of it are both remains of Long Barrows, this number would be raised to six.

Books, Prehistory, Long Barrows of the Cotswolds, Section 2 Long Barrows, Gloucestershire, 46 Quern's Barrows

Gloucestershire, 51 S.W. Parish of Cirencester. 46 *.

Latitude 51° 42' 44". Longitude 1° 58' 19". Height above O.D. about 400 feet.

Situated in a field called " The Querns"1 N.E. of the " Bull-ring" and S.W. of the station. About 180 feet long. Opened " about 30 years ago by Messrs. Newmarch and Buckman, and mentioned by them in their Remains of Roman Art in Cirencester . . Several skeletons were found arranged E. and W., but it seems they were in a very frag- mentary state, none of them being in a condition to be capable of measure- ment. The explorations consisted simply of two transverse cuts through the mound."

Visited December 24th, 1920. The steepest slope is on the N. side of the barrow, which is widest at the east end and highest now zt the west end. There are no signs of any excavations, which must have been filled in, a most unusual procedure in those days.

W. 8.

Buckman, Corinium, p. 12.

Note 1. In the year 1292 the name of this piece of ground was spelt CRONDLES or CRONNES (Trans. B. and G.A.S. IX. 1884-5, P. 321). The first spelling clearly goes back to O.E. Crundel. The second part of the word means a pit or quarry, and is still used in Hampshire to describe old chalk-pits ('dells'). The first part seems connected with 'crown/ May the whole word have meant originally a quarry from which quern-stones were got? This meaning would of course be inapplicable to a chalk district, but the original meaning might have become lost there. The change from cron to quern undoubtedly took place at Cirencester, whether my suggested explanation is correct or not. I do not know whether the oolite here was used for, or suitable for, grinding-stones, or whether there is any record of their manufacture here. The shape of the Romano- British circular quern is strongly suggestive of a crown.

Books, Prehistory, Long Barrows of the Cotswolds, Section 2 Long Barrows, Gloucestershire, 47 Randwick Barrow

Gloucestershire, 41 S.W. Parish of Rand wick. 47*.

Latitude 51° 45' 34*'. Longitude 2° 15' 16". Height above O.D. 700 feet.

This barrow was excavated by Witts himself, and the following is his account:- This barrow is situated on the top of Randwick Hill, within the entrenchments of an ancient camp. The direction of the mound is E.N.E. andW.S.W.,the highest portion being towards the E.N.E. The west end has been destroyed by quarrying operations, leaving the present mound only 113 feet in length. The original barrow (comparing it with others in the neighbourhood) was probably 185 [feet] in length. The two external walls were exposed to view in the quarry at the west end. In July 1883, Mr. Witchell and myself directed the labourers to excavate along the outside of the southern wall, com- mencing at the exposed point in the quarry. After driving a trench about 8 feet, we came upon several skeletons laid close to the external wall ; these skeletons, though in rather a composed mass [sic], had evidently been buried in the usual sitting posture-this was proved by the skulls and knee-pans [patellae] being found together, and the heel bones and heads of the femurs. An examination of the bones found at this point showed that there were nine femurs and only portions of four With the human bones were a few skulls of the lower creatures, including a peculiar The southern wall proved to be jaw. . very much perished, and it was only occasionally that its line could be traced. The northern wall was traced for some distance from the western quarry, and, as far as the examination continued, the wall was intact. On a [later] day Mr. Witchell exposed to view the central line of the barrow ; this consisted of a roughly built wall, in some places 10 to 12 feet in height. For the first 30 feet from the west end this wall faced towards the north ; it then came to a transverse wall ; for the next 40 feet it faced the south ; there were also four transverse walls, two of which seemed to form an enormous buttress about 15 feet wide. I quite agree with the late Professor Rolleston, who, in describing similar walls in one of the Swell barrows, attributes them solely to the neolithic labourer who constructed the barrow, built up for his own convenience, and that they are very misleading to modern archasologists, having no connection whatever with the chambers. But from the excellent manner in which the walls at Randwick have been exposed, they prove very valuable in showing the interior construction of a Long Barrow, and I feel sure there is no other example in the county so well calculated to throw light on this point. On August 9th we directed the men to excavate at the south-east end, to try and find the ex- ternal wall at that point ; but it may surprise those who have not per- sonally conducted the exploration of a Long Barrow to hear that we excavated a trench three feet wide right through the wall without seeing it ! I have seen this done so often, though under the keen eye of Professor Rolleston, that it was no surprise to me. After vainly endeavouring to find this wall for several hours. . we attacked the central portion of the E.N.E. end, and were soon rewarded. After excavating to a depth of three feet we noticed the top of a large stone ; coming to the conclusion that this was the main entrance, we continued at this spot in [«V] August loth. Following the line of the large stone (placed on end) discovered the previous night, we soon found that we were excavating in the interior of the principal chamber, placed exactly in the centre of the east end of the barrow (E.N.E.), that, in fact, we were inside the boundary wall, which we had hitherto failed to discover at this point. The chamber consisted of five upright stones (as the plan will show):-

The first thing of interest we found in this chamber, about one foot from the surface, was a piece of Roman pottery, with the mark of the potter's wheel and a well formed rim. Shortly afterwards we found a second piece of Roman pottery. Continuing our excavation in the chamber, which was completely filled with oolitic rubble, we found, two feet from the surface, half of a Roman horseshoe1, and shortly afterwards we came upon a few scattered human bones. On nearing the bottom of the chamber, we found several pieces of very old British pottery, without the mark of the potter's wheel, three flint flakes, and an extraordinarily confused mass of human bones, broken up into very small pieces, and utterly defying the greatest expert in giving any opinion as to the direction in which the skeletons were originally laid. Possibly the most remarkable incident connected with this find was that there were no femurs at all, and only a very few small portions of skull. With the human bones were a few of the lower creatures, including birds. The contents of the chamber were mi- nutely examined, in the hope of finding the usual flint arrowhead, or heads, but without success ....

Note 1. A pencil drawing of this is given in the black note-book at Cheltenham.

"Having completed our examination of the chamber, and being of course, convinced that we were inside the sur- rounding walls, we next commenced a vigorous attack to bring them to light, nor were we unsuccessful. At a point 20 feet south of the main chamber we found the wall very irregular and difficult to recognise .... but, tracing out the line of our supposed wall on its proper curve to the main chamber, we were at once rewarded by finding it intact, leading in a gentle curve right up to the entrance stones. Alas! we had already passed through this wall in two places without seeing it, but moving a few stones in the exact line which our friend, 20 feet south, pointed to us, revealed the wall in good preservation.

"Reverting to the skeletons we found near the exterior wall at the S.W. corner, some have supposed that they were subsequent interments of a much later date, but, looking to the decided dolicohcephalic character of the skulls, and the sitting posture in which the skeletons were placed, I am inclined to agree with Professor Rolleston and Canon Greenwell that it was the custom to bury slaves and retainers as near as possible to. . their chiefs, and if they were unable to get leave to place them in the barrow, they placed them as near as possible to the external wall, just as we found them. No less than twelve skeletons were found by me in this position at the West Tump Barrow (Cranham). Five flint flakes (rather large ones) with several pieces of old British pottery, were found in the centre line of the barrow, about 12 feet from the western quarry, on the original surface of the ground, and with them many burnt stones. I should mention that many of the bones in the chamber were much burnt, some of them being quite black, and many stones showed signs of fire, though many were unburnt. No signs of the stain of manganese were found ....

"By direction of the owner, Mrs. Barrow (an odd coincidence) the walls and chambers have been covered up to protect them from damage."

Visited December 7th, 1920. The barrow stands between two quarries, that on the N.E. not being marked on the map (1903 ed.). It has been truncated at both ends by quarrying, but probably the east end is as perfect as when excavated by Witts, the truncation being more apparent than real. There are evident signs of Witts' excavations at the N.E. end ; but owing to the care of the owner in insisting on the covering in of the excavated area, we may be sure that the walling and chamber are still intact, though invisible. No large stones are visible anywhere. The west end is being rapidly denuded by the weather, and the of the mound is falling in a cascade of talus into the quarry beneath. Mr. A. E. W. Paine has in his possession a flake from this barrow, from the collection of the late C. A. Witchell, labelled "Found by me in the centre of the Randwick tumulus with remains of fingered pottery and ashes, the dry walls on either side being marked by fire. - C.A.W."

W. 26.

Proc. C.N.F.C., viii., 1883, 156-160. (Plate). Quoted at length above.

Books, Prehistory, Long Barrows of the Cotswolds, Section 2 Long Barrows, Gloucestershire, Rodmarton

Books, Prehistory, Long Barrows of the Cotswolds, Section 2 Long Barrows, Gloucestershire, Shurdington

See 23 Crippets Barrow, p. 93.

Books, Prehistory, Long Barrows of the Cotswolds, Section 2 Long Barrows, Gloucestershire, 48 Througham Barrow

Gloucestershire, 42 S .W. Parish of Bisley-with-Lypiatt. 48 *.

Latitude 51"45 ' SS"- Longitude 2"07' 46". Height above O.D. about 820 feet.

Length 100 feet ; greatest width, 50 feet ; height, 5 feet ; oriented E and W "The mound was cut in two about 50 years ago to make room for a cottage and some pigstyes ; the latter now occupy the centre of the barrow ! During the excavation one skeleton was round.

Visited December 6th, 1920. There is little to add to the above description. There are very distinct traces of the mound on the N. side. The mound is now the property of the occupants of the cottage who recently bought it.

W. 32.

Books, Prehistory, Long Barrows of the Cotswolds, Section 2 Long Barrows, Gloucestershire, 49 Tinglestone Barrow

(often described as the "Gatcombe Barrow")

Gloucestershire, 50 S.W. Parish of Avening. 49*.

Latitude 51° 41' 21". Longitude 2° 10' 12". Height above O.D. about 520 feet.

Length, 130 feet ; width, 70 feet ; height 6 feet ; highest at N. end. "On the broadest portion of the mound stands a large stone 6 feet in height, which bears the name of the "Tingle Stone" (quoting from Proc. C.N.F.C,, v., 280).

Visited November 30th, 1920. The Tingle Stone itself is a slab of oolite very like the Long Stone. It stands on the N. end of the barrow, which is oriented N. and S. The North end is the highest and widest. There are a few signs of disturbance on the west or lower side of the barrow, as if the material of the mound had been carried away at some distant date ; otherwise the barrow is unusually well preserved and would probably repay excavation. It stands in a ploughed field and is being gradually encroached upon by annual ploughing and so in danger of eventual destruction. It is planted with about 30 young beeches. It belongs to Colonel Ricardo of Gatcombe Park. (See plate, p. 116.)

Some flints "from Tinglestone," together with a distant photograph (here reproduced) of it are exhibited in the Gloucester Museum.

W. 33.

Proc. C.N.F.C., V. 280. (Referred to only).

Bigland's Gloucestershire, 1791, p. 92.

Stevens, Flint Chips, p. 494.

Books, Prehistory, Long Barrows of the Cotswolds, Section 2 Long Barrows, Gloucestershire, 50 The Toots

Gloucestershire, 49 N.W. Parish of King's Stanley. 50 *.

Latitude 51° 43' 33". Longitude 2° 15' 01". Height above O.D. 689 feet.

"This barrow is generally known as 'The Toots' and is situated high up on Selsley Hill, two miles S.W. of Stroud. Its length is 210 feet ; its greatest width, 90 feet, and height, 11 feet ; its direction is E.N.E.-W.S.W., the highest part lying towards the E.N.E. From these dimensions it will be seen that this is one of the largest long barrows in Gloucestershire. It has been opened in three places, but unfortunately, no record has been preserved of the results of these excavations."

Visited December ist, 1920. It lies on an open grass common which appears never to have been under plough. It is therefore in- teresting to note that there are not the faintest external indications of a ditch on either side of the barrow, and it appears practically certain that such never existed. It has been dug over in many places, both in the middle and at the east end. The excavation across the middle is so large as to cause it to appear to be two mounds ; this gave rise to the name "Toots," the plural of Toot, meaning a hill that was used as a look-out post, or thought in later times to have been so used. As this word is now obsolete it seems that this excavation must have taken place a long time ago. It is in no immediate danger of destruction. It stands on the edge of the escarpment, with a magnificent view across the Vale of Gloucester and the Severn Estuary .

In the temporary museum formed at Stroud during the meeting there of the B. and G.A.S. in 1880 there were exhibited by the Rev. A. Page, of Selsley "two hollowed stones, from a burying place on Selsley Hill, and accompanying an interment." As no other barrows are recorded on Selsley Hill, these would appear to have been found in the Long Barrow. But there may have been flat burials (such as quarrying would reveal) and their must therefore remain doubtful.

W. 28.

Proc. C.N.F.C. V. 279.

Trans. B. and G.A.S., Vol. v, 1880-81, 61.

Books, Prehistory, Long Barrows of the Cotswolds, Section 2 Long Barrows, Gloucestershire, Uley

Books, Prehistory, Long Barrows of the Cotswolds, Section 2 Long Barrows, Gloucestershire, 51 West Barrow

(often referred to as "The Leighterton Barrow")

Gloucestershire, 65 N.W. Parish of Boxwell-with-Leighterton. 51*.

Latitude 51° 37' 13*. Longitude 2° 15' 40". Height above O.D. about 590 feet.

Aubrey says: "Near Layterton in the field is an oblong barrow like Hubba's Low [Map] but broader ; it is made of the field stones as the other, and lies west and eastward. At the great end (in a place digged) is a stone, standing as here in the figure. On the other side of the village is such another barrow."

Witts says: "Opened about the year 1700 by Matthew Huntley. It contained three vaults arched over like ovens, and at the entrance of each was found an earthen jar containing burnt human bones, but the skulls and thigh bones were found unburnt."

Visited December 8th, 1920. This is the highest Long Barrow I have seen, and is equalled only by the East Kennet Long Barrow. Its height is, I should think, about 20 feet at the east end which, as usual, is the highesL It is 220 feet long, and is partially surrounded and very impartially protected by a wall. As shown by the hachures, the east end projects beyond this wall. There are no visible remains of the "oven-like " chambers, except the silted up excavations made by Matthew Huntley. He appears to have dug over the mound pretty thoroughly and to have left little for future excavators even to see. Since the year 1700 Nature has doubtless completed the work of destruction. The principal excavations appear to have been at the E. end and on the N. side. On the S. side is what looks like the remains of the original walline much overgrown and covered witri sou. i uc ISckly overgrown with trees of all kinds. It is worth protecting.

W. 21.

Atkyns, Hist, of Gloucestershire, p. 155.

Rudder's Gloucestershire, 1779, p. 306.

Aubrey, Monumenta Britannica, fol. 61. (This manuscrip has never been published. It is in the Bodleian, where it is referred to as MSS. Gen. Top. C, 24-25).

Books, Prehistory, Long Barrows of the Cotswolds, Section 2 Long Barrows, Gloucestershire, 52 West Tump

Gloucestershire, 34 S.W. Parish of Brimpsfield. 52*

Latitude 51° 49' 02". Longitude 2° 07' 43". Height above O.D. 900 feet.

Witts gives thefollowing account of this barrow in his Handbook (pp. 89-93):

"This barrow is to be found in the middle of Buckholt Wood, in the parish of Brimpsfield, about one and a half miles south west of Birdlip. I discovered it accidentally in July, 1880, and in the following autumn [October] thoroughly examined it. The direction of the barrow is south-east and north- west, the well-developed 'horns' being at the south-east end. Its length is 149 feet; greatest width, 76 feet, and greatest height 10 feet 3 inches. A well-built dry wall sur- rounds the whole mound, faced only on the outer side. At the south-east end, between the 'horns,' the walls attain a height of 3 feet 6 inches. The ' horns' are of equal size, and in the centre of the concavity z between them are two upright stones, forming as it were a doorway ; but this proved to be a deception, as there was no passage or chamber at this end. Four skele- tons were found lying outside the circumscribing wall and close to it. The principal chamber was discovered at a distance of 82 feet from the southern ' horn.' Here there was a passage through the wall 2 feet wide. In breaking through the rubble of the opening, we found two pieces of British pottery and a very perfect leaf-shaped arrowhead [illustrated here, actual size, from an original drawing], A passage 3 feet wide and 7 feet long led to the main chamber or trench ; this passage was filled with rubble and bones in a very disorderly or confused state. The chamber was excavated below the original surface of the ground, beginning gradually to decline until it reached a depth of 15 inches. The width of it was 4 feet and length 15 feet 6 inches. We discovered the remains of upwards of 20 skeletons; the last one we found was at the end of the chamber, 24 feet from the outside wall ; here were five flat stones, arranged in the shape of a semi- circle, and on these was deposited in a contracted form, the skeleton of, probably, a young female, with the remains of a baby in close proximity. Professor Rolleston (whose valuable assistance I was privileged to have during the excavation) was of opinion that the barrow was erected in honour of this Cotteswold chieftainess. All the skulls found were of the dolichocephalic type."

The letter following, dated "Hôtel de Londres, Genoa, January 17th, 1881 ," was, according to Witts, the last written by Rolleston on any archaeological subject. It is too long to quote here in full nor does it add anything material to the subject.

I visited West Tump on December 12th, 1920. It stands in a wood of small beeches, a few of which grow on the mound. The "false " entrance (plate opp. p. 70), at the east end is still visible, flanked by two small upright slabs. Excavations have been made west of it along the central axis of the mound. The passage and trench on the south appear to have been filled in again, since no masonry is visible, and only a shallow depression marks the site. There are no visible signs of the surrounding wall or of ditches, and there is nothing now visible which could be planned. The mound appears to be in no danger of destruction.

I am indebted to Mrs, Hicks-Beach, of Witcombe Park, for the loan of the arrowhead for illustration,

W. 35. (Plan given on margin of map).

Trans. B. and G.A.S., v. 201.

Books, Prehistory, Long Barrows of the Cotswolds, Section 2 Long Barrows, Gloucestershire, 53 WestWood Barrow

Gloucestershire, 50 N.E. Parish of Edgeworth. 53*.

Latitude 51° 44' 45". Longitude 2° 05' 33". Height above O.D. about 710 feet.

This barrow is marked on the Ordnance Map, but is not mentioned at all by Witts. I visited it on December 6th, 1920. It is evidently the remains of a chambered Long Barrow which has been almost totally destroyed by quarrying. Its length is 160 feet ; originally it was a little more, the E. end being cut off by a wall. Of the chambers only five large stones remain. Probably the barrow was destroyed to get materials for building the wall on the N.E. side, not more than 100 years ago, I should say, and probably less. It is noticeable that the least disturbed portion of the barrow is the W. end which is furthest from the wall in question. It is hardly worth any further protection, as it could scarcely be more effectually destroyed than it has been.

Books, Prehistory, Long Barrows of the Cotswolds, Section 2 Long Barrows, Gloucestershire, 54 Whitefield's Tump

Gloucestershire, 49 S.E. Parish of Minchinhampton. 54*.

Latitude 51° 42' 49". Longitude 2° 12' 40". Height above O.D. about 670 feet.

Situated "a little to the north of the Amberley Camp." Much disturbed. Orientation E.S.E.-W.N.W. Probable dimensions 75 feet long by 36 broad. Highest end at east. Known as "Whitefield's Tump," from the tradition that George Whitefield (1714-1770) preached here, probably in March, 1743.

Visited November 30th, 1920. It has been much dug over but is quite easy to find. It lies 90 yards S.W. of the milestone (Stroud 3 miles, Cirencester ii miles). Immediately E. of the E. end is what looks like the remains of a much dug over round barrow.

W. 36.

Proc. C.N.F.C., V., 279.

A. T. Playne, Minchinhampton and Avening (John Bellows, Gloucester, 1915), p. 127.

Books, Prehistory, Long Barrows of the Cotswolds, Section 2 Long Barrows, Gloucestershire, 107 Whittlestone aka Whistlestone Barrow

Gloucestershire, 22 S.W. Parish of Lower Swell. 107.

Latitude 51° 55' 49*'. Longitude i°44' 57". Height above O.D., between 500 and 600 feet.

The site only is marked on the Ordnance Map. It is on the top of a ridge caused apparently by the outcrop of a seam of hard rock. There are no signs of a mound anywhere. The ground is occupied by allot- ments. Not mentioned by Witts.

The above height and coordinates relate to the former site of the stone, which is marked on the 1903 edition of the O.S. map. The following account gives all that is known of it "Within a stone's throw [actually 200 yards] from the north-west angle of the church [of Lower Swell], on the summit of the rising ground, in the allotments, stood, within the memory of the writer of this paper [the Rev. David Royce], a familiar, yet most venerable monolith. It was known as the Whistlestone (so called, perhaps, from this the Wheat Hill, as the one beyond was the Oat Hill). This stone was the last, most probably, of a cist. Many bones were found at its base. A witticism amongst the villagers was this ' When the Whistlestone hears Stow clock (a mile off) strike twelve, it goes down to Lady- well (at the hill's foot) to drink.' Alas! poor Whistlestone. Farmer Hies, one of the olden time, one day picked up two of a perfect set of teeth, in ploughing by the stone, but so harried was he by the weirdy teeth that he replaced them speedily where he found them. But a later occupier did what the good folk of the village declared could not be done - ^for ' all the King's horses and all the King's men' could not cast down nor carry away Whistlestone - but it was carried away - yet rescued from the roads or profane use. In the Vicarage paddock the prehistoric block now finds asylum."

All archaeologists will be grateful to the late Mr. Royce, both for preserving the stone itself from destruction and for leaving so valuable an account of it behind. The stone at present lies flat in the Vicarage paddock, near the hedge on the western side. It is a shapeless mass 4 feet by 3 feet 6 inches and i foot 6 inches thick. It is of the usual oolitic stone. Mr. Royce's account is important for several reasons. It pro- vides good evidence in the discovery of bones and teeth, that the stone was the last remnant of a burial-chamber (as he says, calling it a "cist "). It preserves the record of two common pieces of folklore - that the stone went down to drink when it heard the clock strike twelve, and that it could not be moved from its position. Both these tales are told of other stones in the area of Sheet 8 - ^the former (modified to suit salt water) about Gwal-y-filiast, Monmouthshire (No. 112), and the latter about the Hoar Stone (No. 92), close by.

Trans. B. and G.A.S., VII, 1882-3, 75, 6. ("Finds near Stow-on-the-Wold," by the Rev. David Royce, Vicar of Lower Swell).

Books, Prehistory, Long Barrows of the Cotswolds, Section 2 Long Barrows, Gloucestershire, 55 Willersey Barrow

Gloucestershire, 7 S.E. Parish of Willersey. 55*.

Latitude 52° 02' 33". Longitude 1° 49' 42". Height above O.D. about 850 feet.

Witts gives its length as 160 feet, width 66 feet and height at the east end 4 feet 6 inches. It lies within Willersey Camp. The follow- ing remarks, being the only known accounts of its "excavation," are quoted verbatim ; - "Through the kindness and liberality of Mr. Chadwick, the owner of the property, this barrow was in some measure opened ten days ago [written July 25th, 1884]. The outside walls on the north and south sides were clearly traced, and some very large stones were found at the east end. A few bones were discovered under the largest stone. These have been carefully preserved, and the opening, so far as it went, has been left for your inspection." (p. ii). "From the camp a short walk brought the party to the barrow, which with praiseworthy zeal Mr. Witts had on the previous day [July 23rd, 1884], with a willing party of workers, partially excavated. The face of the outer wall of the barrow was exposed for some distance, also the walls of some of the chambers, though displaced probably by previous explorers. Here the bones of the ox were found, and also many fragments of human bones and of pottery, with some flint chips. After an explanation of the form and extent of the barrow, a hearty vote of thanks was given to Mr. Chadwick for his permission to explore the barrow, and to those who had so well done the work. The carriages were resumed. . ." (p. 29).

That is the only record left to posterity by the persons responsible for the affair. The dates are irreconcilable but are given as in the original.

The barrow stands in a ploughed field, and is crossed by a field wall. About 500 feet to the east is a round barrow. Visited Nov. i6th, 1920.

W. 37.

Trans. B. and G.A.S., IX, 1884-5, pp. 11, 29. (Quoted above).

Books, Prehistory, Long Barrows of the Cotswolds, Section 2 Long Barrows, Gloucestershire, 56 Windmill Tump aka Rodmarton Long Barrow

Gloucestershire, 5^ N.E. Parish of Rodmarton.

Latitude 51° 40' 26". Longitude 2° 05' 50"- Heiht above O.D. about 480 feet.

Thurnam's account in Crania Britannica is as follows:- The barrow is placed on the edge of a hill which slopes to the west, where two or three valleys meet. Its present length is about 180 feet ; greatest breadth 70 feet ; the height, near the east end, about 8 feet. During the year 1863 it was explored by the owner, the Rev. S. Lysons, b .b.A. (by whom it is briefly described in the Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries, 2 S. II., 275). About 25 feet from the eastern end, and somewhat more than a foot below the surface, two standing stones were uncovered. The stones were about 5 feet apart, and faced each other north and south. They were sunk about 3 feet below the natural level, having a total height of feet, that on the north side being a few inches higher than the other. In front of these, on the east side, and resting against them, was an oblong flat slab, about 8 feet in length by 4 feet in breadth, preserved in a slanting position by two low walls of flat stones, which slightly diverged from the outer edges of the two uprights, the space between which was filled in to a certain height by a third dry wall [Thurnam's plan. No. 1]. The three stones together occupied the same situation as the triliths which form entrances to the sepulchral chambers at Stoney Littleton [Map] and at Uley [Map]. [Also numerous other Long Barrows, such as those at Camp, West Tump, Belas Knap, Lodge Park, etc]. After noting the traces of fire pbseiwed at the base of the mound in front of these stones, he continues:- "Not only was there a considerable deposit of fine charcoal, but the colour of the stones of which the barrow is formed was in some places changed to a grey and in others to a reddish hue. Beneath or near this trilith there was no trace of human bones ; but numerous bones and teeth of oxen, horses, and tusks of boars were scattered about. Near the centre of the tumulus, a foot or two below the surface, a coin of Claudius Gothicus [A.D. 268-270], a curved nail, and a ferrule about 3 inches long, both of iron - vestiges probably of Roman tomb-breakers- were picked up.

"On the south side, at no great depth, another Roman coin and a niece of a small horseshoe were found; and immediately beneath w a sepulchral chamber [Thurnam's plan, No. 2] which had been iifl , having been opened from above, by the removal of one or perhaps two of its covering stones. One such remained, 5 feet long and 3 feet wide, at the northern end. This chamber was about 8 feet long, 4 feet wide, and between 4 and 5 ^cet in height- -its walls being formed of a combination of ortholithic and horizontal masonry , without a trace of cement. None of the uprights, nine in number, were high enough to reach the capstones. The two at the south end, where was the entrance, were of a curious form hollowed out on one side, so as to- gether to form a kind of port-hole, through which access to the tomb, in a creeping posture, could be obtained. Outside, a narrow, short gallery, formed of upright stones, led from the skirt of the barrow to the entrance. With the rubble by which the chamber was filled were fragments of several skeletons and a few bits of coarse British pottery.

"Exactly opposite, at a distance of about 30 feet, another chamber [Thurnam's plan No. 3] of similar construction was uncovered on the northern side of the tumulus . It was somewhat shorter and wider than the other, and formed of seven upright stones, covered bv a single capstone, weighing, as computed eight tons. The narrow gallery leading to the entrance was formed of horizontal dry walling and not of standing stones. This chamber was fortunately intact ; it was entered by removing the dry walling between the capstone and the two hollowed stones which form the proper entrance [see woodcut]. This was protected by a third stone placed in front, by which the opening was concealed .... The chamber was entirely free from rubble, but contained the remains of thirteen persons, which appeared to have been deposited in a crouching posture. Among the bones were a nodule of siliceous grit, as big as the fist, very much battered, a few shards of rather thin, black, rude pottery ; a small fragment of a fine green stone, ground and rudely polished ; a large flint from which flakes had been broken off, and three flakes and two finely chipped, leaf-shaped arrowheads of flint, of the same type with others from Long Barrows in Wiltshire and Yorkshire: there were also a few burnt bones, which, like those from the chambered barrow at Nympsfield [Map], were very imperfectly incinerated, and some of them merely charred. The skulls, many of which were encrusted with stalagmite, are those of six or seven men, three or four women, and three children of about 2, 3 and 12 years. Those of the adults are of middle age, none perhaps of more than 55 years .... Though the remains of a people of short stature, the form of the bones shows that they were endowed with powerful and vigorous frames."

The site was visited on December 4th, 1920. The barrow stands in a ploughed field, but is protected from encroachment by a surrounding wall like that at Cold Aston. It is in a de- plorable state of ruin, having been left open and uncared for after excavation. A great deal could be done to preserve it if prompt measures were taken. The chamber on the south side is more or less intact, but that on the north is in a very bad way. The entrance is completely blocked with fallen stones, the remains of the dry walling doubtless, which has collapsed. Some remains of the dry walling may exist underneath this but it is hardly visible now. The whole barrow is overgrown with small bushes and trees, all of which should be cut down before the damage they cause increases. A pile of human bones from this barrow (no skulls) is stacked at the bottom of a case in the Cheltenham College Museum. They are said to have been found (or presented ?) in 1864.

W. 27.

Arch., IX., 367 ; XLII., 200, 217, Fig. 12 (reproduced also in Arch. Celt, et Gauloise, by A. Bertrand, 2nd ed., 1889, Fig. 37): arrowheads, Figs. 22 and 23, reproduced above.

Cran. Brit. ,Yol. ii (views and plan of barrow 1/240), account by Thurnam, quoted above.

Proc. Soc. Ant., 2 S. II., 275 (Lysons) ; III, 168.

S. Lysons's Our British Ancestors (1865), pp. 137, 150.

Reliq. Brit. Rom., II., 8., III., 7.

Journ. Anthr. Soc., III., 1865, pp. LXVI., LXVIII; (quoting Lysons).

Mem. Anthr. SocNoX. i. (1863-4) p. 153.

Books, Prehistory, Long Barrows of the Cotswolds, Section 2 Long Barrows, Gloucestershire, 57 Withington Barrow

Gloucestershire, 35 S.E. Parish of Withington. 57*.

Latitude 51° 49' 33". Longitude 1° 57' 19'". Height above O.D. about 730 feet.

About 150 feet long. Oriented N.E. - S.W. "Several stones - forming chambers- are exposed, and it is evident that excavations have been made at some time, and some of the chambers examined; but no record has been kept and nothing is known as to what was found."

Visited December 21st 1920. It lies to the west of Swilly Bottom (which joins the Coin Valley at Woodbridge) on the edge of Pear-tree Bank. (These names were told me on the spot by a game-keeper). I had comparatively little difficulty in finding it, as the whole of that part of the wood in which it lies has now been cut down. It is oriented N.E.-S.W., the N.E. end being the highest, about 6 feet. It is perfect, except at the ends, both of which have been disturbed. At the S.W . end are some large stones, but as the small crater on whose sides they lie was covered with felled underwood, it was difficult to make exact observations. They are of no great size and do not appear to be arranged in any order. The surface at present is stony and loose and much covered by moss. The stools of two or three large trees remain. Otherwise both it and its surroundings are bare of all vegetation. It does not stand on the biggest part of the hill, but it does lie close to the edge of the steep western side of Swilly Bottom. There are many "Roman" snail shells of the wood. About a quarter of a mile to the N.W. is a Round Barrow, not marked on the map (1903 ed).

W. 38 [A mistake for 37?].

Books, Prehistory, Long Barrows of the Cotswolds, Section 2 Long Barrows, Gloucestershire, 58 Woodbarrow

Gloucestershire, 35 S.E. Parish of Chedworth. 58*.

Latitude 51° 48' 31". Longitude 1° 54' 10"- Height above O.D. about 640 feet.

Not mentioned by Witts.

Visited December 22nd, 1920. It lies in a ploughed field called Woodbarrow. I was told by the two ploughboys at work in the field that this was its name ; and that the field immediately opposite on the N. side of the road was called "Royal Oak" ("because there is an oak on the edge of the wood which comes out a fortnight before the other," added Frederick Norman, who confirmed these names to me) barrow is about 210 feet long and is oriented N. and S. Its present height is not more than 2 to 3 feet. (A subsequent examination of Isaac Taylor's Map of Gloucestershire, 1777, reveals the fact that it was known as "Wood Barrow" then, and was sufficiently high and conspicuous to be shown as a hachured mound).

In Gough's Camden is the following account:- "On the hill, a little above the bath (a Roman hypocaust in Listercombe), is a large tumulus which had a huge rough stone set upright; which being lately removed, exposed great quantities of human bones lying near the top of the barrow."

Gough's Camden, Vol. i., 1789, p. 281.

Rudder, p. 334.