Hall's Chronicle 1536

Hall's Chronicle 1536 is in Hall's Chronicle.

1536 Death of Catherine of Aragon

1536 May-Day Jousts

1536 Arrest of Anne Boleyn

1536 Execution of George Boleyn, Brereton, Norris, Smeaton and Weston

1536 Execution of Anne Boleyn

1536 Marriage of Henry VIII and Jane Seymour

1536 Pilgrimage of Grace

15376 Anne Boleyn's Miscarriage

Death of Catherine of Aragon

08 Jan 1536. And the eighth day of January following died the Princess Dowager (deceased) at Kimbolton and was buried at Peterborough. Queen Anne (age 35) wore yellow for the mourning.

Anne Boleyn's Miscarriage

Feb 15361. And in February following was Queen Anne brought a bed of a child before her time, brought a bed of a child which was borne dead.

Note. Hall has the date wrong here - the miscarriage occurred on the 29th of January, the same day as Catherine of Aragon's funeral.

Sep 1536. This year in the month of September Wyllyam Tyndale (age 42) otherwise called Hichins was by the cruelty of the clergy of Louvain condemned and burned in a town beside Brussels in Brabant called Vilvoorde. This man translated the New Testament into English and first put it in print, and likewise he translated the five books of Moses, Joshua, Judicum, Ruth, the books of the Kings and the books of Paralipomenon, Nehemias or the first of Eldras, the Prophet Jonas, and no more of the holy scripture. He made also divers treatises, which of many were well liked and highly praised, and of many utterly despised and abhorred, and especially of the most part of the bishops of this realm, who often by their great labours caused Proclamations to be made against his books, and got them condemned and burned, as well the New Testament as other works of his doings. Such as best knew him reported him to be a very sombre man, born upon the borders of Wales, and brought up in the University of Oxford, and in life and conversation unreprovable: and at the last being in Oxford Luther then setting forth certain works against the Bishop of Rome, Tyndale occasioned by them to search the scriptures whether Luther said the truth or no, did thereby not only himself attain the knowledge of the usurped authority of the Bishop of Rome and his superstitious and damnable doctrines that he had taught and published through all Christendom, but also lamenting the ignorant state that his native country of England was in, who altogether were wrapped in errors thought it his duty, for that God had revealed the light of his Gospel to him, to bestow his talent to the honour of God and profit of his country, and thought no way so good to reduce the people from their error as first to make them acquainted with Gods word, that they might know what Gods will was that we should do, and what the Bishop of Rome said that we must do and therefore first as is aforesaid: he translated into English the New Testament, a work no doubt very notable and to him very painful, for that he was forced to fly his own native country, and to live in a strange land among people that as well varied from his manners, as the persons to him were unknown. Amongst whom after great pains by him taken, and many and diverse treatises by him published, he was at Antwerp this year by one Philipps an Englishman and then a scholar at Louvain, betrayed and taken, and as many said, not without the help and procurement of some bishops of this realm: but true it is, that after he had been in prison more than a yere and almost forgotten, he was laboured for by letters written by the Lord Cromwell, and then in all haste because he would recant no part of his doings, was burned as you have heard before. But yet this report did the Procurator General there (which we call here the Lieutenant) make of him, that he was, homo doctus pius, et bonus that is to say, learned, godly, and good.

04 Feb 1536. The fourth day of February the King (age 44) held his high court of Parliament at Westminster, in the which was many good and wholesome statutes and laws made and concluded. And in this time was given unto the King by the consent of the great and fat Abbots, all religious houses that were of the value of three hundred marks and under, in hope that their great monasteries should have continued still. But even at that time one said in the Parliament house that these were as thorns, but the great Abbots were putrefied olde oaks and they must needs follow, and so will other do in Christendom quoth Doctor Stokesley bishop of London or many years be passed.

May-Day Jousts

01 May 1536. On Maye day were a solemn jousts kept at Grcnewyche [Map], and suddenly from the jousts the King departed having not above six persons with him, and came in the evening from Greenwich to his place at Westminster. Of this sudden departure many men mused, but most chiefly the Queen (age 35),

Arrest of Anne Boleyn

02 May 1536 ... who the next day was apprehended and brought from Greenwich to the Tower of London [Map], where after she [Queen Anne Boleyn of England (age 35)] was arraigned of high treason, and condemned. Also at the same time was likewise apprehended, the Lord Rochford (age 33) brother to the said Queen (age 35), and Henry Norrys (age 54), Marke Smeaton (age 24), William Brereton and Sir Francis Weston (age 25), all of the King’s Privy Chamber. All these were likewise committed to the Tower [Map] and after arraigned and condemned of high treason.

Execution of George Boleyn, Brereton, Norris, Smeaton and Weston

17 May 1536. And all the gentlemen were beheaded on the scaffold at the Tower hyll.

Execution of Anne Boleyn

19 May 1536. But the Queen (age 35) was with a sword beheaded within the Tower. And these following were the words that she spoke the day of her death which was the nineteenth day of May, 1536.

Good Christen people, I am come hither to die, for according to the law, and by the law I am judged to die, and therefore I will speak nothing against it. I am come hither to accuse no man, nor to speak anything of that, whereof I am accused and condemned to die, but I pray God save the King and send him long to reign over you, for a gentler nor a more merciful prince was there never: and to me he was ever a good, a gentle and Sovereign Lord. And if any person will meddle of my cause, I require them to judge the best. And thus I take my leave of the world and of you all, and I heartily desire you all to pray for me. O Lord have mercy on me, to God I commend my soul. And then she kneeled down saying: To Christ I commend my soul, Jesu receive my soul diverse times, till that her head was stricken of with the sword. And on the Ascencion day following, the King wore white for mourning.

Marriage of Henry VIII and Jane Seymour

30 May 1536. The week before Whitsuntide the King (age 44) married lady Jane (age 27) daughter to the right worshipful Sir John Seymor (age 62) knight, which at Whitsuntide was openly showed as Queen.

08 Jun 1536. The eighth day of June the King held his high court of Parliament in the which Parliament the King’s two first marriages, that is to say with the Lady Katherine, and with the lady Anne Boleyn (deceased) were both adjudged unlawfully as more at large appears in the Act in the book of statutes. See Second Succession Act 1536 28 Hen 8 c7.

Around Jun 1536. In the Parliament season Lord Thomas Howard (age 25) without the King’s assent affianced the Lady Margarete Douglas (age 20) daughter to the Queen of Scottes (age 46)Margaret Tudor Queen Scotland (age 46) and near to the King (age 44) for which presumptuous act he was attainted of treason, and an Act made for like offenders, and so he died in the Tower [Map], and she was long there as a prisoner.

Around Jun 1536. In the time of this Parliament, the bishops and all the clergy of the realm held a solemn convocation at Paul’s Church in London where after much disputation and debating of matters they published a book of religion entitled Articles devised by the Kings Highness etc. In this book is especially mentioned but three sacraments, with the which the Lincolnshire men (I mean their ignorant priests) were offended, and of that occasion depraved the Kings doinges. And this was the first beginning, as after you shall plainly hear.

Pilgrimage of Grace

Around Jun 1536.After this book which passed by the King’s authority with the consent of the clergy, was published, the which contained certain articles of religion necessary to be taught unto the people, and among other it specially treated of no more than three sacraments, where always the people had bene taught seven sacraments, and beside this book, certain injunctions were that time given whereby a number of their holy days was abrogated and specially such as fell in the harvest time, the keeping of which was much to the hinderance of the gathering in of corn, hay, fruit, and other such like necessary and profitable commodities.

Around Oct 1536. These articles thus ordained and to the people delivered. The inhabitants of the North parts being at that time very ignorant and rude, knowing not what true religion meant, but altogether nuzzled in superstition and popery, and also by the meanes of certain Abbots and ignorant priests not a little stirred and provoked for the suppression of certain Monasteries, and for the extirpation and abolishing of the Bishop of Rome, now taking an occasion at this book, saying see friends now is taken from us four of the seven sacraments and shortly ye shall lose the other three also, and thus the faith of Holy Church shall utterly be suppressed and abolished: and therefore suddenly they spread abroad and raised great and shameful slanders only to move the people to sedition and rebellion, and to kindle in the people hateful and malicious minds against the King’s Majesty and the magistrates of the realm, saying let us fully bend ourselves to the maintenance of religion, and rather than to suffer it thus to decay even to die in the field. And amongst them also were to many even of the nobility that did not a little provoke and stir up the ignorant and rude people the more stiffly to rebel and stand therein, faithfully promising them both aid and succour against the King and their own native country (like foolish and wicked men) thinking by their so doing to have done God high pleasure and service. There were also certain other malicious and busy persons who added oil (as the adage says) to the furnace: These made open clamours in every place where opportunity served, that Christian religion should be utterly violate, despised and set aside, and that rather then so, it behoved and was the parts of every true Christian man to defend it even to the death, and not to admit and suffer by any meanes the faith (in the which their forefathers so long and so many thousand years have lived and continued) now to be subverted and destroyed. Among these were many priests which deceived also the people with many false fables and venomous lies and imaginations (which could never enter nor take place in the heart of any good man, nor faithful subject) saying that all manner of prayer and fasting and all Gods service should utterly be destroyed and taken away, that no man should marry a wife or be partaker of the sacraments, or at length should eat a piece of roast meat, but he should for the same first pay unto the King a certain sum of money, and that they should be brought in more bondage and in a more wicked manner of life, then the Saracens be under the great Turk. With these and such other like errors and slanderous tales, the people thus instructed (or as I may truelier speak) deceived and mocked being to light of credit, incontinent to the help and maintenance of religion once established and confirmed, they stiffly and stoutly did conspire and agree and in a part of Lincolnshire, first they assembled and shortly after, joined into an army, being (as it was supposed) of men apt and feet for the war, in number about twenty thousand.

Against these traitorous rebels, with all the haste and speed that might be (after he hard thereof) the King’s Royal Majesty, in his own proper person, furnished with a goodly and warlike army, lacking nothing that to such a company should appertain, marched toward them. But these rebels hearing that his Majesty was present with his power and army royal, feared what would follow of this matter, and such as were noble men and Gentlemen, that before favoured them began to withdraw themselves, so that they were destitute of captains: and at the last they in writing made certain petitions to the King’s Majesty, professing that they never intended hurt toward his royal person. The King’s Majesty received there petitions, and made answer unto them as follows.

Around Oct 1536. First we begin and make answer to the four and six articles, because upon them depend much of the rest. Concerning choosing of counsellors, I never have read, heard, nor known, that Prince’s counsellors and prelates should be appointed by rude and ignorant common people, nor that they were persons mete, nor of ability to discern and chose mete and sufficient counsellors for a Prince: how presumptuous then are you the rude commons of one shire, and that one of the most brute and beastly of the whole realm, and of the least experience, to find fault with your Prince for the electing of his counsellors and prelates, and to take upon you contrary to Gods law and mans law to rule your Prince, whom you are bound by all laws to obey and serve with both your lives, lands and goods, and for no worldly cause to withstand the contrary whereof you like traitors and rebels have attempted and not like true subjects as you name yourselves.

Around Oct 1536. As to the suppression of religious houses and monasteries, we will that you and all our subjects should well know that this is granted us by all the nobles spiritual and temporal of this our realm, and by all the commons in the same by Act of Parliament, and not set forth by any counsellor or counsellors upon there mere will and fantasy, as you full falsely would persuade our realm to believe.

Around Oct 1536. And where ye allege that the service of God is much diminished, the truth thereof is contrary, for there be no houses suppressed where God was well served, but where most vice, mischief and abomination of living was used, and that does well appear by their own confessions subscribed with their own hands in the time of their visitations, and yet we suffered a great many of them (more then we needed by the Act) to stand wherein if they amend not their living, we fear, we have more to answer for then for the suppression of all the rest. And as for the hospitality for the relief of the poor, we wonder you be not ashamed to affirm that they have been a great relief of poor people, when a great many or the most part hath not past four or five religious persons in them, and diverse but one which spent the substance of the goods of their houses in nourishing of vice and abominable living. Now what unkindness and unnaturality may we impute to you and all our subjects that be of that mind, that had leaver [>] such an unthrifty sort of vicious persons, should enjoy such possessions, profits and emoluments, as grow of the said houses, to the maintenance of their unthrifty life, then we your natural Prince, Sovereign Lord and King, which does and has spent more in your defences of our own, then six times they be worth. As touching the Act of uses, we marvel what madness is in your brain, or upon what ground you would take authority upon you to cause us to break those laws and statutes, which by all the noble knights and gentlemen of this realm (who the same chiefly touches) hath been granted and assented to: seeing in no manner of things it touches you the base commons of our realm.

Also the grounds of all those uses were false, and never admitted by law, but usurped upon the prince, contrary to all equity and justice, as it hath been openly both disputed and declared by all the well learned men in the realm of England in Westminster Hall: whereby you may well perceive, how mad and unreasonable your demands be, both in that and in the rest, and how unmete it is for us and dishonourable, to grant or assent unto, and less mete and decent for you in such a rebellious sort to demand the same of your Prince.

As touching the fifteen which you demand of us to be released, think you that we be so faint hearted, that perforce you of one shire (were you a great many more) could compel us with your insurrections and such rebellious demeanour to remit the same or think you that any man will or may take you to be true subjects, that first make and shew a loving grant and then perforce would compel your sovereign Lord and King to release the same the time of payment whereof is not yet come, yea and seeing the same will not countervail the tenth penny of the charges, which we do and daily sustain for your tuicion [guardianship] and safeguard make you sure, by your occasions of these your ingratitudes, unnaturalness and unkindness to us now administered, you give us cause which has always been as much dedicate to your wealth as ever was King, not so much to set or study for the setting forward of the same, seeing how unkindly and untruly, you deal now with us, without any cause or occasion: and doubt ye not, though you have no grace nor naturalness in you to consider your duty of allegiance to your King, and sovereign Lord, the rest of our realm we doubt not hath: and we and they shall so loke on this cause, that we trust it shall be to your confusion, if according to your former letters you submit not yourselves.

As touching the first fruits, we let you wit, it is a thing granted us by Act of Parliament also, for the support of part of the great and excessive charges, which we support and bear for the maintenance of your wealths and other our subjects: and we have known also that you our commons have much complained in times passed, that the most part of our goods, lands and possessions, of the realm, were in the spiritual men’s hands: and yet bearing us in hand that ye be as loving subjects to us as may be, ye cannot find in your hearts that your prince and sovereign Lord should have any part thereof (and yet it is nothing prejudicial unto your our commons) but to rebel and unlawfully rise against your Prince, contrary to the duty of allegiance and God’s Commandment, Sirs, remember your follies and traitorous demeanours, and shame not your native country of England nor offend no more so grievously your undoubted King and natural prince, which always hath showed himself most loving unto you, and remember your duty of allegiance, and that you are bound to obey us your King, both by God’s Commandment and law of nature.

Wherefore we charge you eftsoons upon the aforesaid bonds and pains, that you withdraw yourselves to your own houses, every man, and no more to assemble contrary to our laws, and your allegiances, and to cause the provokers of you to this mischief, to be delivered to our lieutenants hands or ours, and you yourselves to submit you to such condign [deserved] punishment as we and our nobles shall think you worthy: for doubt you not else that we and our nobles can nor will suffer this injury at your hands unrevenged, if you give not place to us of sovereignty, and show yourselves as bounden and obedient subjects, and no more to intermeddle yourselves from henceforth with the weighty affairs of the realm, the direction whereof only appertains to us your King and such noble men and counsellors, as we list to elect and chose to have the ordering of the same: and thus we pray unto almighty god, to give you grace to do your duties, to use yourselves towards us like true and faithful subjects, so as we may have cause to order you thereafter, and rather obediently to consent amongst you to deliver into the hands of our Lieutenant a hundred persons, to be ordered according to their demerits, at our will and pleasure, then by your obstinacy and wilfulness, to put yourselves, your wives, children, lands, goods and cattle, beside the indignation of god, in the utter adventure of total destruction, and utter ruin, by force and violence of the sword.

Around Oct 1536. After the Lincolnshire men had received this the King’s answer aforesaid, made to their petitions, each mistrusting other who should be noted to be the greatest meddler, even very suddenly they began to shrink and out of hand they were all divided, and every man at home in his own house in peace: but the captains of these rebels escaped not all clear, but were after apprehended, and had as they deserved: he that took upon him as captain of this rout, named himself Captain Cobler, but it was a monk called Doctor Makerel, with diverse other which afterward were taken and executed.

Al these things thus ended, the country appeased, and all things in quiet, the King’s majesty retired, and brake up his army.

Around Oct 1536. But se, even within six days following, was the King truly certified that there was a new insurrection made by the Northern men, which had assembled themselves into a house and great army of warlike men and well-appointed both with captains, horse, harness and artillery to the number of forty thousand men, which had encamped themselves in Yorkshire: And these men had each of them to other bound themselves by their other to be faithful and obedient to his captain: they also declared by their proclamations solemnly made, that this their insurrection, should extend no farther but only to the maintenance and defence of the faith of Christe and deliverance of Holy Church sore decayed and oppressed, and also for the furtherance as well of private as public matters in the realm touching the wealth of al the Kings pore subjects. They named this there seditious and traitorous voyage, an holy and blessed Pilgrimage: they had also certain banners in the field, whereupon was painted Christ hanging on the Crosse on the one side, and a chalice with a painted kake [?] in it on the other side with diverse other banners of like hypocrisy and feigned sanctity: the soldiers also had a certain cognisance or badge, embroidered or set upon the sieves of their coats, which was the similitude of the five wounds of Christ, and in the midst thereof was written the name of our Lord, and this the rebellious Garrison of Satan with his false and counterfeited signs of holiness set forth and decked themselves, only to delude and deceive the simple and ignorant people.

Around Oct 1536. After that the King’s highness was credibly certified of this new insurged insurrection, he making no delay in so weighty a matter, caused with all speed the Dukes of Norffolke (age 63) and Suffolke (age 52), the Marques of Exeter (age 40), the Erle of Shrewsbury (age 68) with other, accompanied with his mighty and royal army, which was of great power and strength, forthwith to set upon the rebels: but when these noble captains and counsellors approached, the rebels and perceived their number and saw how they were bent to battle, they practised with great policy to have pacified all without bloodsheding, but the Northern men were so stiff necked that they would in no wise stoop, but stoutly stood and maintained their wicked enterprise, wherefore the nobles above said perceiving and seeing none other way to pacify these wretched rebels, agreed upon a battle, the battle was appointed, and the day was assigned: but, se the same night which was the night before the day of the battle appointed, fell a small rain nothing to speak of but yet as it were by a great miracle of god, the water which was but a very small ford, and that men in manner the day before might have gone dry-shod over, suddenly rose of such a height, deepness and breadth that the like no man that there did inhabit could tell that ever they saw it so afore, so that the day, even when the hour of battle should come it was impossible for the one army to come at the other.

After this appointment made between both the armies (disappointed as it is to be thought only by God, who extended his great mercy and had compassion on the great number of innocent persons, that in that deadly slaughter had like to have been murdered) could take no place: Then by the great wisdom and policy of the said captains, a communication was had, and a pardon of the King’s Majestic obtained, for all the captains and chief doers of this insurrection, and they promised that such things as they found themselves aggrieved withall they should gently be heard, and there reasonable petitions granted and that their articles should be presented to the King’s Majesty, that by his highness authority, and wisdom of his counsel, all things should be brought to good order and conclusion: and with this order every man quietly departed, and those which before were bent as hot as fire to fight, being letted thereof by God, went now peaceably to their houses, and were as cold as water. A domino factum est istud [This was done by the Lord].

Around Oct 1536. In this time of insurrection, and in the rage of hurley burley, even when the King’s army and the rebels were ready to join, the King’s banner being displayed, and the King’s Majesty then living at Winsore [Map], there was a butcher dwelling within five mile of Wynsore [Map] which caused a priest to preach that all such which took part with the Yorkshiremen whom he named God’s people, did fight and defend God’s quarrel and farther the said butcher in selling of his meat, one did bid him a less price of a sheep then he made of it, he answered nay by God’s soul, I had rather the good fellows of the north had it among them and a score more of the best I have: this priest and butcher were accused to the King’s Majesty’s Counsell, of the treasons abovesaid on the Monday in the morning and the same day were both sent for, which confessed there treasons and so according to the law marshal they were adjudged to die: and so the said Monday they were both examined, condemned and hanged, the bocher was hanged on a new pair of gallows set at the bridge end before the castle gate: and the priest was hanged on a tree at the foot of Winsore [Map] bridge.

13 Nov 1536. [Note. This entry appears after Feb 1537 in the original text as if an afterthought; we have moved it to be chronological] In this year one Robert Packington (age 47), Mercer of London, a man of good substance, and yet not so rich as honest and wise, this man dwelled in Cheapside at the Sign of the Leg, and used daily at four of the clock Winter and Summer to rise and go to masse at a Church then called Saint Thomas Acres (but now named the Mercers chapel) and one morning among all other, being a great misty morning, such as has seldom be seen, even as he was crossing the street from his house to the church, he was suddenly murdered with a gun, which of the neighbours was plainly heard, and by a great number of laborers at the same time standing at Soper Lane end, he was both seen go forth of his house, and also the clap of the gun was hard, but the deed doer was never espied nor known, many were suspected, but none could be found faulty; howbeit, it is true, that forasmuch as he was known to be a man of a great courage and one that both could speak and also would be heard and that the same time he was one of the burgesses of the parliament, for the City of London, and has talked somewhat against the covetousness and cruelty of the clergy, he was had in contempt with them, and therefore most like by one of them thus shamefully murdered, as you perceive that Master Honne was in the sixth year of the reign of this King.

Dec 1536. This year in December was the Thames of London all frozen over wherefore the King’s Majesty with his beautiful spouse Queen Jane (age 27), rode throughout the City of London to Greenwich. And this Christmas the King by his messengers and heralds sent down into the North his general pardons to all capital offenders and shortly after came Aske (age 36) to London, and so to the court to the King. This Aske was the chief captain of the last rebellion in the North, and now both pardoned of the King, and his grace received him into his favour and gave unto him apparel and great rewards, but as after you shall perceive Aske (age 36) enjoyed not the King his new friends kindness a year and a day, and pity it was that he had any favour at all, for there lived not a veriar [?] wretch as well in person as in conditions and deeds, especially against his anointed governor and sovereign Lord.