Historie of the Arrival of Edward IV

Historie of the Arrival of Edward IV is in Late Medieval Books.

1471 King Edward lands at Ravenspur

1471 Battle of Tewkesbury

Historie of the Arrivall of Edward IV, in England and the Finall Recouerye of His Kingdomes from Henry VI. A.D. M.CCCC.LXXI Edited by John Bruce, Esq. F.S.A. Published for the Camden Society. M.DCCC.XXX.VIII.

Late Medieval Books, Historie of the Arrival of Edward IV Part II

Landing through the Reconciliation with Clarence

Here folowethe the mannar how the moaste noble and right victorious prince Edwarde, by the grace of God, Kinge of England and of Fraunce, and Lord of Irland, in the yere of grace 1471, in the monethe of Marche, departed out of Zeland; toke the sea; aryved in England; and, by his force and valliannes, of newe redewced and reconqueryd the sayde realme, upon agaynst th'Erle of Warwicke, his traytor and rebell, calling himselfe Lieutenaunte of England1, by pretensed auctoritie of the usurpowre Henry, and his complices; and, also, upon and agains Edward, callynge hymselfe prince of Wales2, sonne to the sayde Henry than wrongfully occupienge the Royme and Crowne of England; and, upon many othur greate and myghty Lords, noble men, and othar, beinge mightily accompaigned. Compiled and put in this forme suinge, by a servaunt of the Kyngs, that presently3 saw in effect a great parte of his exploytes, and the resydewe knewe by true relation of them that were present in every tyme.

Note 1. calling himself Lievtenaunte of England.-- All the knowledge we have of the parliamentary arrangements made for carrying on the government during the short repossession of the throne by Henry VI. is derived from a statement by Polydore Vergil, which seems rather at variance with the notion of Warwick alone being Lieutenant of England. The roll of the parliament which met on 26th November 1470 is not known to be in existence; probably it was destroyed in 1477 when all the proceedings of that parliament were annulled. (Rot. Parl. Vol. 191.) The effect of Vergil's statement is accurately given by Hall in the following words: "Besides this, the Erle of Warwycke, as one to whome the common welthe was much beholden, was made Ruler and Gouvernor of the realme, with whom as felow and compaignion was associated George Duke of Clarence his sonne-in-law." (Hall, p. 286. Vergil, p. 521.) Probably the present writer is correct; but if Warwick and Clarence were, as Shakespeare express it,

"Yoak'd together like a double shadow

"To Henry's body," (Third part of Henry VI. act IV, sc. 7,)

the omission by the present writer, in this and several other places, of any mention of Clarence's share in the Lieutenancy may be attributed to an anxiety not to make Clarence's treachery to Henry appear the more obviously inexcusable.

Note 2. callinge himselfe Prynce of Wales. -- Edward was created Prince of Wales in 1454. (Vide Rot. Parl. V. 249)

Note 3. presently, i.e. being present.

In the yere of grace 1471, aftar the comptinge of the churche of England, the ij. day of Marche, endynge the x. yere4 of the reigne of our soveraign Lord Kynge Edwarde the IV, by the grace of God Kynge of England and of Fraunce, and Lord of Irland, the sayde moaste noble kynge accompanied with ij thowsand Englyshe men5, well chosen, entendynge to passe the sea, and to reentar and recovar his realme of England, at that tyme usurpyd and occupied by Henry, callyd Henry VI.6, by the traytorous meanes of his greate rebell Richard, Erle of Warwicke, and his complices, entered into his shipe, afore the haven of Flisshinge [Map], in Zeland, the sayde ij. of Marche; and forasmoche as aftar he was in the shippe, and the felowshipe also, with all that to them appertayned, the wynd fell and not good for hym, he therefore wold not retorne agayne to the land, but abode in his shipe, and all his felowshipe in lyke wyse, by the space of ix dayes, abydynge good wynde and wether; whiche had the xj. daye of Marche, he made saile, and so did all the shipps that awayted upon hym, takyng theyr cowrse streyght over [towards] the coste of Norfolke, and came before Crowmere, the Tuesdaye, agayne even, the xij. day of Marche; withar the Kynge sent on land Ser Robart Chambarlayne, Syr Gilbert Debenham, Knyghts, and othar, trustinge by them to have some knowledge how the land inward was disposed towards hym, and, specially, the countries there nere adioyninge, as in party so they browght hym knowledge from suche as for that caws wer sent into thos parties,from his trew servaunts and partakars within the land, whiche tolde them, for certayne, that thos parties wer right sore beset by th'Erle of Warwyke, and his adherents, and, in especiall, by th'Erle of Oxenforde7, in such wyse that, of lyklyhood, it might not be for his wele to lande in the contrye; and a great cawse was, for the Duke of Norfolke was had owt of the contrye, and all the gentlemen of whom th'Erle of Warwicke bare any suspicion ware, afore that, sent for by letars of privie seale, and put in warde about London, or els found surety; natheles, the sayd ij Knyghts, and they that came on land with them, had right good chere, and turned agayne to the sea. Whos report herd, the Kynge garte make course towards the north partyes.

Note 4. endynge the x. yere. -- The regnal years of Edward IV. were reckoned from the 4th day of March 1461, the day on which he took possession of the throne; (Fabyan, 639;) his tenth year ended therefore on 3rd March 1471.

Note 5. accompanied with ij thowsand Englishmen. -- Henry's government at first represented Edward's adherents as consisting wholly of foreigners, (Fœdera, XI, 705.) but afterwards admitted they were partly Englishmen and partly Flemings (Ibid. 706.) The Chroniclres are singularly contradictory. The Croyland Continuator describes them as 1500 Englishmen; (Gale, I. 554;) Fabyan as a small company of Flemings and others not exceeding 1000 in number; (Fabyan, 660;) Polydore Vergil as scarcely 2000 men at arms; (Vergil, 522;) the Chronicler in Leland as 900 Englishmen and 300 Flemings. (Collect. II. 503.)

Note 6. his realme of England at that tyme usurpyd and occupied by Henry, callyd Henry VI. -- Henry's brief restoration took place in the month of October 1470; the day is variously stated. There are documents in the Fœdera in Henry's name dated the 9th of October. (XI. 661-664.)

Note 7. in especiall by th'Erle of Oxenforde. -- Preparations to resist the meditated return of Edward IV. were made as early as December 1470. On the 21st of that month a Commission was directed to the Marquis Montague, authorising him, in case of necessity, to raise the counties of Nottyngham, York, Northumberland, Cumberland, and Westmerland; (Fœd. 676;) and a Commission of a similar character, but extending all over England, was directed to the Duke of Clarence, the Earl of Warwick, the Earl of Oxford and Sir John Scrope on the 28th of December. (Ibid. 677.) By a writ dated the 2nd January 1471, the Sheriffs and people of the counties of Cambridge, Huntingdon, Norfolk, Suffolk, Essex and Hertford, were directed to be attendant upon the last-mentioned Commissioners. (Ibid. 678.) The exertions of the Earl of Oxford in raising men in the Eastern Counties are manifest from two letters in the Paston Collection. (II. 54, 58.)

14 Mar 1471.The same night followinge, upon the morne, Wenesday, and Thursday the xiiij. daye of Marche, fell great stormes, wynds and tempests upon the sea, so that the sayde xiiij. day, in great torment, he came to Humbrehede, where the othar shipps were dissevered from hym, and every from other, so that, of neccessitye, they were dryven to land, every fere from other. The Kynge, with his shippe aloone, wherein was the Lord Hastings, his Chambarlayne, and other to the nombar of vc well chosen men, landed within Humber, on Holdernes syde, at a place callyd Ravenersporne, even in the same place where sometime the Usurpowr Henry of Derby, aftar called Kynge Henry IV. landed, aftar his exile, contrary and to the dissobeysance of his sovereigne lord, Kynge Richard the II. whome, aftar that, he wrongfully distressed, and put from his reigne and regalie, and usurped it falsely to hymselfe and to his isswe, from whome was linially descended Kynge Henry, at this tyme usinge and usurpinge the coronoe, as sonne to his eldest sonne, somtyme callyd Kynge Henry the V. The Kynge's brothar Richard, Duke of Glowcestar, and, in his company iijc men, landyd at an othar place iiij myle from thens. The Earle Rivers, and the felowshipe beinge in his companye, to the nombar of ijc, landyd at a place called Powle, xiiij myle from there the Kynge landyd, and the reminaunt of the felowshipe wher they myght best get land. That night the Kynge was lodgyd at a power village, ij myle from his landynge, with a few with hym; but that nyght, and in the morninge, the resydewe that were comen in his shipe, the rage of the tempest somewhate appeasyd, landyd and alwaye drewe towards the Kynge. And on the morne, the xv. day of Marche, from every landynge place the felowshipe came hoole toward hym. As to the folks of the countrye there came but right few to hym, or almost none, for, by the scuringe8 of suche persons as for that cawse were, by his said rebells, sent afore into thos partes for to move them to be agains his highnes, the people were sore endwsed to be contrary to hym, and not to receyve, ne accepe hym, as for theyr Kynge; natwithstondynge, for the love and favour before they had borne to the prince of fulnoble memorye, his father, Duke of Yorke, the people bare hym right great favowr to be also Duke of Yorke, and to have that of right apartayned unto hym, by the right of the sayde noble prince his fathar. And, upon this opinion, the people of the countrie, whiche in greate nombar, and in dyvars placis, were gatheryd, and in harnes, redye to resiste hym in chalenginge of the Royme and the crowne, were disposyd to content them selfe, and in noo wyse to annoy hym, ne his felowshipe, they affirmynge that to such entent were [they] comen, and none othar. Whereupon, the hoole felowshipe of the Kynges comen and assembled togethar, he toke advise what was best to doo, and concludyd brifely, that, albe it his enemies and chefe rebells were in the sowthe partes, at London and ther about, and that the next way towards them had to be by Lyncolneshire, yet, in asmooche as, yf they shulde have taken that waye, they must have gon eft sones to the watar agayne, and passyd ovar Humbar, whiche they abhoryd for to doo; and also, for that, yf they so dyd it would have be thowght that they had withdrawn them for feare, which note of sklaundar they wer right lothe to suffar; for thes, and othar goode considerations, they determined in themselves not to goo agayne to the watar, but to holde the right waye to his City of Yorke. The Kynge determined also, that, for as longe as he shuld be in passynge thrughe and by the contrye, and to the tyme that he myght, by th'assistaunce of his trew servaunts, subiects and lovars, whiche he trustyd veryly in his progres shuld come unto hym, be of suche myght and puissaunce as that were lykly to make a sufficient party, he and all thos of his felowshipe, shuld noyse, and say openly, where so evar they came, that his entent and purpos was only to clame to be Duke of Yorke, and to have and enjoy th'enheritaunce that he was borne unto, by the right of the full noble prince his fathar, and none othar. Thrwghe whiche noysynge the people of the contrye that were gatheryd and assembled in dyvars placis, to the number of vi or vij thowsand men, by the ledinge and gwydynge of a priste9 the vycar of-------, in one place, and a gentleman of the same contrye, callyd Martyn of the See10, to th'entent to have resisted and lettyd hym his passage, by the stiringe of his rebells, theyr complices, and adherents, toke occasyon to owe and beare hym favowre in that qwarell, not discoveringe, ne rememberinge, that his sayd fathar, bisydes that he was rightfully Duke of Yorke, he was also verrey trew and rightwise enheritoure to the roylme and corone of England &c. so he was declared by [the] iij astates of the land11, at a parliament holden at Westmynster, unto this day never repelled, ne revoked. And, under this manar, he kepinge furthe his purpos with all his felowshipe, toke the right way to a gode towne, called Beverley, being in his high way towards Yorke. He sent to an othar gode towne, walled, but vj myle thens, called Kyngstown upon Hull, desyringe th'enhabitants to have openyd it unto hym, but they refused so to doo, by the meanes and stirings of his rebells, whiche aforne had sent thethar, and to all the contrye, strict commendements willing, and also charginge, them, at all their powers, to withstonde the Kynge, in caase he there aryved. And, therefore, levinge that towne, he kept his way forthe streight to Yorke. And nere this way were also assembled great compaignies in divars places, muche people of the contrie, as it was reported, but they cam not in syght, but all they suffred hym to pas forthe by the contrye; eythar, for that he had all his felowshipe pretended by any manar langage none othar qwarell but for the right that was his fathars, the Duke of Yorke; or ells, for that, thowghe they were in nombar mo than he, yet they durst not take upon them to make hym any manifest warre, knowynge well the great curage and hardines that he was of, with the parfete asswrance of the felowshipe that was with hym; or ells, paradventure, for that certayne of theyr captaines and garders12 were some whate enduced to be the more benivolent for money that the Kynge gave them; wherfore the Kynge, keping furthe his way, cam beforn Yorke, Monday the xviij. day of the same monithe. Trewthe is that aforne the Kynge came at the citie, by iij myles, came unto him one callyd Thomas Coniers, Recordar of the citie, whiche had not bene afore that named trwe to the Kynges partie. He tolde hym that it was not good for hym to come to the citie, for eyther he shuld not be suffred to enter, or els, in caas he enteryd, he was lost, and undone, and all his. The Kynge, seeing so ferforthly he was in his ionrey that in no wyse he might goo backe with that he had begone, and that no good myght folowe but only of hardies13 , decreed in hymselfe constantly to purswe that he had begon, and rathar to abyde what God and good fortune would gyve hym, thwoghe it were to hym uncertayne, rathar than by laches, or defaulte of curage, to susteyne reprooche, that of lyklihode shulde have ensued; And so, therfore, notwithstondinge the discoraginge words of the Recordar, which had be afore suspecte to hym and his partie, he kept boldely forthe his ionrey, streyght towards the citie. And, within a while, came to hym, owt of the citie, Robart Clifford and Richard Burghe, whiche gave hym and his felowshipe bettar comforte, affirmynge, that in the qwarell aforesayde of his fathar the Duke of Yorke, he shuld be receyvyd and sufferyd to passe; whereby, better somewhate encoragyd, he kepte his waye; natheles efte sonnes cam the sayde Coniers, and put hym in lyke discomforte as afore. And so, sometyme comfortyd and sometyme discomfortyd, he came to the gates of the citie14, where his felashipe made a stoppe, and himself and xvj or xvij persons, in the ledings of the sayde Clifford and Richard Burgh passed even in at the gates, came to the worshipfull folks whiche were assembled a little within the gates, and shwed them th'entent and purpos of his comming, in suche forme, and with such maner langage, that the people contentyd htem therwithe, and so receyvyd hym, and all his felawshipe, that night, when he and all his feloshipe abode and were refreshed well to they had dyned on the morne, and than departed out of the citie to Tadcastar, a towne of th'Erls of Northumbarland, x mile sowthwards. And, on the morrow after that, he toke his waye towards Wakefielde and Sendall, a grete lorshipe appartayninge to the Duke of Yorke, leving the Castell of Pomfrete on his lefte hand, wher abode, and was, the Marqwes Montagwe, that in no wyse trowbled hym, ne none of his fellowshipe, but sufferyd hym to passe in peasceable wyse, were it with good will or noo, men may juge at theyr pleaswre; I deme ye15, but trouth it is,that he ne had nat, ne cowthe not have gatheryd, ne made, a felashipe of nombar sufficient to have openly resistyd hym in hys qwarell, ne in Kynge Henries qwarell; and one great caws was, for great partie of the people in thos partis lovyd the Kyngs person well, and cowthe nat be encoragyd directly to doo agayne hym in that qwarell of the Duke of Yorke, which in almannar langage of all his fellawshipe was covertly pretendyd, and none othar. An othar grete cawse, for grete partye of [the] noble men and comons in thos parties were towards th'Erle of Northumbarland, and would not stire with any lorde or noble man other than with the sayde Earle16, or at leaste by his commandement. And, for soo muche as he sat still, in suche wise that yf the Marques wolde have done his besines to have assembled them in any manier qwarell, neithar for his love, whiche they bare hym none, ne for any commandement of higher autoritie, they ne wolde in no cawse, ne qwarell, have assisted hym. Wherein it may right well appere, that the said Erle, in this behalfe, dyd the Kynge right gode and notable service, and, as it is deemed in the conceipts of many men, he cowthe nat hav done hym any beter service, ne not thowghe he had openly declared hym selfe extremly parte-taker with the Kynge in his rightwys qwarell, and, for that entent, have gatheryd and assemblyd all the people that he might have made; for, how be it he loved the Kynge trewly and parfectly, as the Kynge thereof had certayne knowledge, and wolde, as of himselfe and all his power, have served hym trewly, yet it was demyd, and lykly it was trewe, that many gentlemen, and othar, whiche would have be araysed by him, woulde not so fully and extremly have determyned them selfe in the Kyng's right and qwarell as th'Erle wolde have done hymselfe; havynge in theyr freshe remembraunce how that the Kynge, at the first entrie-winning of his right to the Royme and Crowne of England , had17 and won a great battaile in those same parties18, where theyr Maistar, th'Erll's fathar, was slayne, many of theyr fathars, theyr sonns, theyr britherne, and kynsemen, and othar many of theyr neighbowrs; wherefore, and nat without cawse, it was thowght that they cowthe nat have borne verrey good will, and done theyr best service, to the Kynge, at this tyme, and in this quarell. And so it may be resonably judged that this was a notable good service, and politiquely done, by th'Erle. For his sittynge still caused the citie of Yorke to do as they dyd, and no werse, and every man in all thos northe partes to sit still also, and suffre the Kynge to passe as he dyd, nat with standynge many were right evill disposed of them selfe agaynes the Kynge, and, in especiall, in his qwarell. Wherefore the Kynge may say as Julius Cesar sayde, he that is nat agaynst me is with me. And othar right greate cause why the Marqwes made nat a felawshippe agaynst hym for to have trowbled hym [was], for thwoghe all the Kynges [felowshipe] at that season were nat many in nombar, yet they were so habiled, and so well piked men, and, in theyr werke they hadd on hand, so willed, that it had bene right hard to right-a-great felashipe, moche greatar than they, or gretar than the Marquis, or his friends, at that tyme, cowthe have made, or assembled, to have put the Kynge and his sayde felowshipe to any distresse. And nothar cawse [was], where as he cam thrwghe the cuntre there, the people toke an opinion, that yf the peoples of the contries wherethrwghe he had passed aforne, had owght him any mannar of malice, or evill will, they would some what have shewed it whan he was amongs them, but, inasmoche as no man had so don aforne, it was a declaration and evidence to all thos by whome he passyd after, that in all othar contries wer none but his good lovars; and greate foly it had bene to the lattar cuntries to have attempted that the former cuntries would not, thinkynge verilie that, in suche case, they, as his lovars, would rathar have ayded hym thann he shulde have bene distressed; wherefore he passed with moche bettar will.

Note 8. scurynge, i.e. assuring.

Note 9. by the ledinge and gwydynge of a priste. -- This appears to have been one John Westerdale, who was afterwards thrown into Marshalsea prison, probably for his interference upon this occasion. (Leland's Coll. II. 503.)

Note 10. Martyn of the See. -- i.e. Martin de le Mere.

Note 11. declared by the iij. astates of the land. -- The parliamentary recognition of the right of Richard, Duke of York, here referred to, took place A.D. 1460. (Vide Rot. Parl. V. 377.)

Note 12. gadrers, gadres, in MS.

Note 13. only of hardies. -- hardies and, in MS.

Note 14. he came to the gates afore the citie. -- Polydore Vergil here introduces a long account of the parleying of the citizens with Edward IV. from their walls during the whole of one day, and their ultimately insisting upon his taking an oath to be faithful to Henry VI. before they would permit him to enter; which oath he took the following morning at the gate of the City. Vergil adds that Edward's perjury in this instance was probably the occasion of the punishment which fell upon his family in the murder of his sons. (P. 524) The Historian probably thought that the excellence of the moral was a sufficient justifiation for the invention of the incident, or, at any event, for its amplification from Fabyan, who says, Edward confirmed with an oath his deceptive declaration that he came merely to claim his father's rights. (P. 660.) Fabyan is a poor authority for an incident which took place at York.

Note 15. I deme ye, i.e. yea. -- Although the Marquis Montague subsequently appeared in arms in the party of his brother, the Earl of Warwick (age 42), there is reason to believe that the present writer was correct in supposing that he was secretly favorable to Edward IV. (Vide Leland's Coll. II. 505; Polydore Vergil, 527.)

Note 16. gret partye of the noble men and comons in thos parties, were towards th'Erle of Northumberland, and would not stire any lorde or noble man other than with the sayde Earle. -- The Chronicler in Leland's Collectanea asserts that "as Edward passid the Countery he shewid the Erle of Northumbrelande's lettre and seale that sent for hym," (II. 503.) -- a stratagem quite in character but which is not mentioned by any other authority. The feudal authority of the Earl of Northumberland is exemplified in other passages, at p. 7, and p. 32 [original Camden text]. The same power is attributed in the West to the Duke of Somerset and the Earl of Devonshire, as "the old enheritors of that contrie." (P. 23 [original Camden text])

Note 17. England had -- England and had, in MS.

Note 18. a great battaile in those same parties. -- The battle of Towton, fought 29th March, 1461.

Abowte Wakefylde, and thos parties, came some folks unto hym, but not so many as he supposed wholde have comen; nevarthelesse his nombar was encreasyd. And so from thens he passyd forthe to Doncastar, and so forthe to Notyngham. And to that towne came unto hym two good Knyghts, Syr William Parre, and Ser James Harington, with two good bands of men, well arrayed, and habled for warr, the nombar vic men.

The Kynge, beinge at Notyngham, and or he came there, sent the scorers19 alabowte the contries adioynynge, to aspie and serche yf any gaderyngs were in any place agaynst hym; some of whome came to Newerke, and undarstode well that there was, within the towne, the Duke of Excestar, th'Erle of Oxforde, the Lord Bardolf, and othar, with great felowshipe, which th'Erle and they had gatheryd in Essex, in Northfolke, Sowthefolke, Cambridgeshire, Huntyngdonshire, and Lyncolneshire, to the nombar of iiijm men. The sayde Duke and Erll, havynge knowledge that the sayde forrydars of the Kyngs had bene aforne the towne in the evenynge, thinkynge verily that the Kynge, and his hole hoste, were approchinge nere, and would have come upon them, determyned shortly within themselfe that [they] might not abyde his comynge. Wherefore, erly, abowte two of the cloke in the mornynge, they flede out of the towne, and ther they lost parte of the people that they had gatheryd and browght with them thethar. Trewthe it was, that, whan the Kynges aforne-ridars had thus espyed theyr beinge, they acertaynyd the Kynge therof, at Notyngham, which, incontinent, assembled all his felowshipe, and toke the streyght waye to-them-wards, within three myle of the towne. And, there, came to hym certayne tydings that they were fledd owt of Newerke, gonn, and disperpled21, to determyne his qwarell in playne fielde, which the same Earele refused to do at that tyme, and so he dyd iij dayes aftar-ensuinge continually. The Kynge, seinge this, drwe hym and all his hooste streght to Warwike, vijj small myles from thens, where he was receyvyd as Kynge, and so made his proclamations from that tyme forthe wards; where he toke his lodgyngs, wenynge thereby to have gyven the sayde Earle gretar cowrage to have yssyed owte of the towne of Coventrye, and to have taken the fielde, but he ne would so doo. Nathelesse dayly came certayne personns on the sayde Erlls behalve to the Kinge, and made greate moynes, and desired him to treat with hym, for some gode and expedient appoyntment. And, how be it the Kynge, by the advise of his Counseylors, graunted the sayd Elre his lyfe, and all his people beinge there at that tyme, and dyvers othar fayre offers made hym, consythar his great and haynows offenses; which semyd resonable, and that for the wele of peax and tranquilitie of the Realme of England, for ther-by to avoyde th'effusyon of Christen bloode, yet he ne woulde accepte the sayde offars, ne accorde thereunto, but yf he myght have had suche apoyntment unresonable as myght nat in eny wyse with the Kyngs honowr and swretye.

Note 19. scorers, -- or, as it is in other places, scowrers, i.e. scouts, avant-couriers, or afore-riders.

Note 20. disperpled, -- The same as disperbled, i.e. dispersed, which ocurrs hereafter p. 37 [original Camden text], and also in Fabyan, p. 31.

Note 21. the Kynge desyred him to come owte with all his people into the filde. -- The Chronicler in Leland says, that Warwick would have fought, but that "he had receyvid a lettre from the Duke of Clarence that he should not fight on til he cam." (Coll. II 504.)

Here is to be remembride how that, at suche season aforne, as whan the Kynge was in Holand, the Duke of Clarence, the Kyngs second brothar, consyderinge the great inconveniences whereunto as well his brother the Kynge, he, and his brother the Duke of Glocestar, were fallen unto, thrwghe and by the devysyon that was betwixt them, whereunto, by the subtyle compassynge of th'Erle of Warwike, and his complices, they ewre browght, and enduced; as, first to be remembred, the dishertinge of them all from the Royme and Crowne of England, and that therto apperteynyd; and besyds that, the mortall warre and detestable, lykely to falle betwixt them; and ovar this, that yt was evident that to what party so evar God woulde graunte the victorye, that, notwithstandynge, the wynner shuld nat be in eny bettar suerty therefore of his owne estate and parson, but abyde in as greate, or greatar, dangar than they wer in at that tyme. And, in especiall, he cnsidered well, that hymselfe was had in great suspicion, despite, disdeigne, and hatered, with all the lordes, noblemen, and othar, that were adherents and full partakers with Henry, the Usurpar, Margaret his wyfe, and his sonne Edward, called Prince; he sawe also, that they dayly laboryd amongs them, brekynge theyr appoyntments made with hym, and, of lyklihed, aftar that, shuld continually more and more fervently entend, conspire, and procure the distruction of hym, and of all his blode, wherethrwghe it apperyd also, that the Roylme and Regalie shuld remaygne to suche as thereunto myght nat en eny wyse have eny rightwyse title. And, for that it was unnaturall, and agaynes God, to suffar any suche werre to continew and endure betwixt them, if it myght otharwyse be, and, for othar many and great considerations, that by right wyse men and virtuex were layed afore hym, in many behalfs, he was agreed to entend to some good appointment for the pacification. By right covert wayes and meanes were good mediators, and mediatricis, the highe and myghty princis my Lady, theyr mothar22; my lady of Exceter, my lady of Southfolke, theyre systars; my Lord Cardinall of Cantorbery; my Lord of Bathe; my Lord of Essex; and, moste specially, my Lady of Bourgoigne; and othar, by mediacions of certayne priests, and othar well disposyd parsouns. Abowte the Kyngs beinge in Holland, and in other partes beyond the sea, great and diligent labowre, with all effect, was continually made by the high and mighty23 princesse, the Duches of Bowrgine, which at no season ceasyd to send hir servaunts, and messengars, to the Kynge, wher he was, and to my sayd Lorde of Clarence, into England; and so dyd his verrey good devowre in that behalfe my Lord of Hastings, the Kyng's Chambarlayne, so that24 a parfecte accord was appoyntyd, concludyd, and assured, betwixt them; wherein the sayde Duke of Clarence full honorably and trwly acquited hym; for, as sune as he was acertaygned of the Kyngs arivall in the north parties, he assembled anon suche as would do for hym, and, assone as he godly myght, drew towards the Kynge, hym to abyde and assyste agaynste all his enemyes, accompanied with mo than iiijm.

Note 22. my lady, theyr mother -- This was Cicely, daughter of Ralph Neville, first Earl of Westmerland, (Dug. Bar. 299, b.) Of her large family we here find mention, besides Edward IV. and his brothers Clarence and Gloucester, of Margaret, married to the Duke of Burgundy; Anne, the wife of Henry Holland, Duke of Exeter; and Elizabeth, wife of John de la Pole, Duke of Suffolk.

Note 23. high and mighty; right and mighty, in MS.

Note 24. so that; to that, in MS.

The Kynge, that tyme beinge at Warwyke, and undarstondynge his neere approchinge, upon an aftarnone isswyed out of Warwike, with all his felowshipe, by the space of three myles, into a fayre fylde towards Banbery, where he saw the Duke, his brothar, in faire array, come towards hym, with a greate felashipe. And, whan they were togedars, within lesse than an halfe myle, the Kynge set his people in aray, the bannars [displayed] and lefte them standynge still, takynge with hym his brothar of Glocestar, the Lord Rivers, Lord Hastings, and fewe othar, and went towards his brothar of Clarence. And, in lyke wyse, the Duke, for his partye takyinge with hym a fewe noble men, and levinge his hoost in good order, departyd from them towards the Kynge. And so they mett betwixt both hostes, where was right kynde and lovynge langwage betwixt them twoo, with parfite accord knyt togethars for evar here aftar, with as hartyly lovynge chere and countenaunce, as might be betwix two bretherne of so grete nobley and astate. And than, in lyke wyse, spake togethar the two Dukes of Clarnence and Glocestar, and, aftar, othar noble men beinge there with them, whereof all the people there that lovyd them, and awght them theyr trew service25, were right glade and ioyows, and thanked God highly of that ioyows metynge, unitie, and accorde, hopynge that, therby, shuld growe unto them prosperows fortune, in all that they shuld aftar that have a doo. And than the trompetts and minstrels blew uppe, and, with that, the Kynge browght his brothar Clarence, and suche as were there with hym, to his felowshipe, whom the sayd Duke welcomyd into the land in his best manner, and they thanked God, and hym, and honoryd hym as it apparteygned.

Note 25. trew service; trew servaunts, in MS.

Part III Confrontation at Coventry through the Battle of Barnet

Late Medieval Books, Historie of the Arrival of Edward IV Part 4

The Coming of Queen Margaret through the Battle of Tewkesbury

Here aftar, folowithe how that Qwene Margaret, with hir sonne Edward, called Prince of Wales, aftar theyr arryvall in the west contrye, asembled greate people and cam to Tewkesberye, where the Kynge delyveryd theym battayle, distressed theym, and theyr felawshipe, [and] the sayd Edward, the Duke of Somerset, and othar, were slayne.

Aftar all thes things thus fallen, the Twesday in Estar weke, the xvj. day of Aprile, came certayn tydyngs to the Kynge how that Qwene Margaret, hir sonne Edward, callyd Prince of Wales, the Countese of Warwyke, the Priowr of Seint Johns, that tyme called Tresorar of England, the Lord Wenloke, and many othere knyghts, squiers, and othar of theyr party, whiche longe had bene nowt of the land with them, with suche also as, with the sayde Priowr of Seint Johns, had gon into Fraunce to fet them into England, were arryved, and landed in the west contrye, upon Estar day, at Waymowthe, aftar longe abydynge passage, and beyng on the sea, and landinge agayne for defawlte of good wynde and wethar. For, trewthe it is, that the Qwene, Edward hir sonne, with all theyr felowshipe, entendinge to passe out of Normandy into England, toke first the sea, at Humflew, in the monithe of Marche, the xxiiij. day of the same, and, from that tyme forthe wards, they cowlde nat have any stable wethar to passe with; for and it were one day good, anon it chaunged upon them, and was agaynst them, and fayne they were therefor to goo to land agayne. And so, at divars tymes, they toke the sea, and forsoke it agayne, tyll it was the xiij. day of Aprill, Estars Even. That day they passyd. The Countysse of Warwyke had a shippe of avaunctage, and, therefore, landyd afore the othar, at Portsmowthe, and, from thens, she went to Showthampton, entendynge to have gon towards the Qwene, whiche was landyd at Wemowthe. But beinge there, she had certayne knowledge that the Kynge had wonne the fielde upon her howsband, at Barnet, and there slayne hym, wherefore she would no fathar goo towards the Qwene, but, secretly, gat ovar Hampton-watar into the new forreste, where she tooke her fraunches of an abbey called Beawlew37, whiche, as it is sayde, is ample, and as large as the franchesse of Westmynstar, or of Seint Martins at London.

Note 37. Beawlew. Beaulieu Abbey, founded by King John. (Vide Monasticon, V. 680.)

The Qwene, Margarete, and hir sonne went from there she landyd to an abbey nere by, callyd Seern38, and all the lords, and the remenaunt of the fellowshipe with them. Thethar came unto them Edmond, callyd Duke of Somerset, Thomas Courteney, callyd th'Erle of Devonshire, with othar, and welcomyd them into England; comfortyd them, and put them in good hope that, albe it they had lost one felde, whereof the Qwene had knowledge the same day, Monday, the xv. day of Aprell, and was therefore right hevy and sory, yet it was to thinke that they shuld have ryght good spede, and that, for that los, theyr partye was nevar the feblar, but rathar strongar, and that they dowted nothinge but that they shuld assemble so great puissaunce of people in dyvars partis of England, trewly asswred unto theyr partye, that it shuld nat mowe lye in the Kynge powere to resyste them; and in that contrye they would begyne. And so, forthewith, they sent alabout in Somarsetshere, Dorsetshire, and parte of Wiltshire, for to arredy and arays the people by a certayne day, suche, algats, as the sayde lords, and theyr partakers, afore that had greatly laboryd to that entent, prepparinge the contry by all meanes to them posseble. And, for that they would gather and arrays up the powere of Devonshire and Cornewaile, they drew from thens more west ward to the citie of Excestar, movinge Edward, callyd Prince, and his mothar, the Qwene, to doo the same; trustynge that theyr presence-shewinge in the contrye shuld cawse moche more, and the sonnar, the people to com to theyr helpe and assistaunce.

Note 38. Seern, i.e. Cerne Abbey.

At Excestar, they sent for Syr John Arundell, Syr Hughe Courteney, and many othar on whom they had any trust, and, in substaunce, they araysed the hoole myghte of Cornwall and Devonshire, and so, with great people, they departyd out of Excestre, and toke the ryght waye to Glastonberye, and, from thens, to the city of Bathe, withar they came the ----- day of Aprell; and, as they went, they gatheryd the hable men of all thos partes. The cuntrie had bene so longe laboryd afore by th'Erle of Warwike, and such as he for that caws sent thethar to move them to take Kynge Henry's partie, and, now of late, they were sore laboryd for the same entent, and thereunto the more lyghtly enducyd, by Edmond, callyd Duke of Somerset, and Thomas Courtney, callyd th'Elre of Devonshire, for that they reputyd them old enheritors of that contrie.

The Kynge beynge at London, and havynge knowledge of all this theyr demeanyng from tyme to tyme, anon purveyed for the relevynge of his syck and hurt men, that had bene with hym at Barnet fielde, which were ryght many in nombar, what left at London, and what in the contrye, and sent to all partes to get hym freshe men, and, incontinent, prepared all things that was thowght behovefull for a new field; whiche he saw was imminent and comyng on. So purveyed he artilary, and ordinaunce, gonns, and othar, for the filde gret plentye. And Fryday, the xix. day of Aprille, he departyd out of London and went to Wyndsore, ther to thanke and honor God, and Seint George, where he kept also the feaste of Seint George, tarienge somwhat the longar there for that he had commaundyd all the people, and thos that wold serve hym in this iourney, to draw unto hym thithar, and from thens, suche way as shulde happen hym take towards his enemyes. And, for so moche as they at that season were in an angle of the land, and nedes they must take one of the two wayes, that is to say, eythar to come streight to Salisbery, and so, that way, towards London; or ells, alonge the sea-coaste into Hampshire, Sussex, and Kent, and so to London, to make in the way theyr people the mo in nombar; or els, they, nat thynkyng themselves to be puissaunce lykly to have a doo with the Kynge, and therefore, paradventure, wowlde drawe northwards into Lancasshyre and Cheshere, trustynge also to have in theyr way th'assystaunce of Walchemen, by the meane of Jasper called Erle of Penbroke39, whiche, for that cawse, had bene afore sent into the contrie of Wales, to arays them, and make them redy to assyst that partye at theyr comynge; for whiche consyderations, the Kynge cawsed great diligence to be done by meane of espies, and by them he had knowledge, from tyme to tyme, of theyr purposes in that behalfe. Yf they would have taken estwards theyr way, his entent was to encountar them as sonne as he myght, and the farthar from London that shuld be to hym posseble, for th'entent that they shuld assemble no myght owt of eny contrye but where they then were, but, for so moche as he undarstode well they toke the othar waye, towards northwest, he hastyd hym, with his host, all that he myght, upon the purpos that he had taken to stope them theyr waye and passage into thos parties whereunto their desyre was to goo, and to make them the more myghty, whiche passagis of lykelyhode eythar, must be at Glowcestar, or els at Tewkesbery, or farthar of at Worcestar. And, algates40, the Kynge lay so that, would they or no, he nedes shuld now recounter them, or stoppe them, and put them bake. They, in lyke wyse, thynkynge by theyr wysdomes that suche was, or of convenience muste be, the purpos of the Kynges party, therefore, put them greatly in devowre to abwse the Kyngs party in that behalfe, for whiche cawse and prupos they sent theyr aforerydars streight from Excestar to Shaftesbery, and aftarwards to Salisbery, and toke them the streight way to Tawnton, and to Glastonberye, to Wells, and there abouts, hovinge in the contrye; from whens, an othar tyme, they sent theyr forrydars to a towne called Yevell, and to a towne callyd Bruton, to make men undarstond that they would have drawne towards Redynge, and by Barkeshire, and Oxfordshire, have drawne towards London, or ells fallen upon the Kynge at some great advantage. Such mannar sendynge natheles servyd them of two thyngs; one was, to call and arays the people to make towards them for theyr helpe owt of all thos parties; an othar was, to have abusyd the Kynge in his approchyng towards them, but thanked be God, he was nat hereof unadertysed, but, by goode and sad advyse, purveyed for every way, as may appere in tellyng furthe his progres from Wyndsowr towards them; from whence he departyd the Wednesday, the morne aftar Saynt Georgis day, the xiiij. day of Aprell, so kepinge his iorney that he cam to Abyndon the Satarday next, the xxvij. day; Where he was the Sonday; and, on the Monday, at Cicestre; where he had certayne tydyngs that they wowld, on Twesday next, [be] at Bathe, as so they were; and that on the morne next, the Wedensday, they wowld com on streight towards the Kyngs battayle. For whiche cawse, and for that he would se and set his people in array, he drove all the people owt of the towne, and lodgyd hym, and his hoste, that nyght in the fielde, iij myle out of the towne. And, on the morow, he, having no certayne tydyngs of theyr comynge forward, went to Malmesbury, sekynge upon them. And there had he knowledge that they, undarstandynge his approchinge and marchinge neare to them had lefte theyr purpos of gevynge battayle, and turned asyde-hand, and went to Bristowe, a good and stronge wallyd towne, where they were greatly freshed and relevyd, by such as were the Kyngs rebells in that towne, of money, men, and artilarye; wherethrwghe they toke new corage, the Thursday aftar to take the filde and gyve the Kynge battayll, for whiche intent they had sent forrydars to a town ix mule from Bristow, callyd Sudbury, and , a myle towards the Kynge, they apoyntyd a grownd for theyr fielde at a place callyd Sudbury hill. The Kynge, heringe this, the same Thursday, first day of May, with all his hooste in array and fayre ordinaunce came towards the place by them appoyntyd for theyr fielde. Th'enemyes alsoo avauncyd them forthe, the same day, owt of Bristow, makynge semblaunce as thwoghe they would have comen streyght to the place appoyntyd, but, havynge knoledge of the Kyngs approochinge, they lefte that way, albe it theyr harbengars were come afore them as ferre as Sudberye towne; where they distressed certayne of the Kyngs partye, five or six, suche as neglygently pressed so ferre forwards, dredynge no dangar, but only entendyng to have purveyed ther theyr masters lodgyngs; and so they changyd theyr sayd purpos, and toke theyr way streght to Berkley, travelyng all that nyght, and, from thens, towards the towne of Gloucestar. The Kynge, the same Thursday, sonne aftar none, came nere to the same grownd, called Sudbury hill, and, nat havynge eny certaynty of his enemys, sent his scowrers alabowte in the cuntrye, trustynge by them to have wist where they had bene. Aboute that place was a great and a fayre large playne, called a would, and dowbtfull it was for to pas ferther, to he myght here somewhate of them, supposynge that they were right nere, as so they myght well have bene, if they had kepte forthe the way they toke owt of Bristow. And, when he cowthe nat here any certayntye of them, he avaunced forwards his hoole battayle, and lodgyd his vaward beyonde the hill, in a valley towards the towne of Sudberye, and lodged hymselfe, with the remenaunt of his hooste, at the selfe hill called Sudbery hill. Early in the mornynge, sonne aftar three of the cloke, the Kynge had certayne tydyngs that they had taken theyre way by Barkley toward Gloucestar, as so they toke indede. Whereupon he toke advise of his counsell of that he had to doo for the stopynge of theyr wayes, at two passagys, afore namyd, by Gloucestar, or els by Tewkesberye, and, first, he purvayed for Gloucestar, and sent thethar certayne servaunts of his owne to Richard Bewchamp, sonne and heyre to the Lord Bewchampe, to whom afore he had comyttyd the rule and govarnaunce of the towne and castell of Gloucestar, commaundynge hym to kepe the towne and castle for the Kynge, and that he, in caas they woulde in any wise assayle them; as it was suppos they so would doo that same aforenone; lettynge them wete that he would have good espye upon them yf they do did. And, yf he myght know that they so dyde, he promised to come theyr rescows, and comforte. With this the Kynges message they were well receyvyd at Gloucestar, and the towne and castell put in sure and save kepinge of the sayd Richard, and the sayde Kyynges servaunts. Whiche message was sent and done in right good season, for certayne it is the Kyngs enemyes were put in sure hope, and determyned to have enteryd the towne, and ethar have kept it41 agaynst the Kynge, or, at the leaste, to have passed thrwghe the towne into othar contries, where they thowght [to] have bene myghtely assysted, as well with Welchemen, which they demed shuld have fallen to them in thos parties, in the company of Jasper, called Earle of Penbroke, as also for to have gotten into theyr companye, by the way-takynge, greate nombar of men of Lancashire and Chesshere, upon whom they muche trystyd. For whiche cawses they had greatly travayled theyr people all that nyght and mornynge, upon the Fryday, to the about ten of the cloke they were comen afore Gloucestar; where there entent was uttarly denyed them by Richard Bewchampe, and othar of the Kyngs servaunts, that, for that cawse, the Kynge had sent thethar. Natwithstandynge, many of the inhabytaunts of that towne were greatly disposed towards them, as they had certayne knowledge. Of this demenynge they toke right great displeasure, and made great manasys, and pretendyd as thowghe they wowlde have assaultyd the towne, and wonne it upon them, but, as well thos that kepte the towne as the sayde enemyes that so pretendyd, knewe well, that the Kynge with a myghty puisawnce was nere to them, and, yf eny affraye had there be made, he myght sone have bene upon them, and taken upon them ryght grete advantage; wherefore they in the towne nothynge dowbtyd, and they withoute durst not for feare begynne any suche werke; and, therefore, they shortly toke theyr conclusyon for to go the next way to Tewkesbery, withar they came the same day, about four aftar none. By whiche tyme they hadd so travaylled theyr hoaste that nyght and daye that they were ryght wery for travaylynge; for by that tyme they had travayleyd xxxvj. longe myles, in a fowle contrye, all in lanes and stonny wayes, betwyxt woodes, without any good refresshynge. And, for as mooche as the greatar parte of theyr hooste were fotemen, the othar partye of the hoste, whan they were comen to Tewkesbery, cowthe, ne myght, have laboryd any furthar, but yf they wolde wilfully have forsaken and lefte theyr fotemen behynd them, and therto themselves that were horsemen were ryght werye of that iorwney, as so were theyr horses. So, whethar it were of theyr election and good will, or no, but that they were veryly compelled to byde by twocawses; one was, for werines of theyr people, which they supposed nat theyr people woulde be eny longer endured; an other, for they knew well the Kynge ever approchyd towards them, nere and nere, evar redy, in good aray and ordinaunce, to have pursuyd and fallen uppon them, yf they wolde any ferther have gon, and, paradventure, to theyr moste dyssavantage. They therefore determyned t'abyde there th'aventure that God would send them in the qwarell they had taken in hand. And, for that entent, the same nyght they pight them in a fields, in a close even at the townes end; the towne, and the abbey, at theyr backs; afore them, upon every hand of them, fowle lanes, and depe dikes, and many hedges, with hylls, and valleys, a ryght evill place to approche, as cowlde well have bene devysed.

Note 39. Jasper, called Erle of Penbroke, had been afore sent into the contrie of Wales to arays them. -- A Commission to array the Welsh in the cause of Henry VI. and directed to the Duke of Clarence and the Earls of Pembroke and Warwick, was issued as early as the 30th January 1471. (Fœdera, XI. 680.)

Note 40. algates, i.e. always.

Note 41. ether have kept, othar have kept, in MS.

The Kynge, the same mornynge, the Fryday, erly, avanced his banners, and devyded his hole hoost in three battayles, and sent afore hym his forrydars, and scorars, on every syde hym, and so, in fayre arraye and ordinaunce, he toke his way thrwghe the champain contrye, callyd Cotteswolde, travaylynge all his people, whereof were moo tha iijm fotemen, that Fryday, which was right-an-hot day, xxx myle and more; whiche his people might nat finde, in all the way, horse-mete, ne mans-meate, ne so moche as drynke for theyr horses, save in one litle broke, where was full letle relefe, it was so sone trowbled with the cariages that had passed it. And all that day the evarmore the Kyngs hoste within v or vj myles of his enemyes; he in playne contry and they amongst woods; havynge allway good espialls upon them. So, continuynge that iourney to he came, with all his hooste, to a village callyd Chiltenham, but five myles from Tewkesberye, where the Kynge had certayn knolege that, but litle afre his comynge thethar, his enemyes were comen to Tewkesbury, and there were takynge a field, wherein they purposed to abyde, and delyver him ballayle. Whereupon the Kynge made no largar taryenge, but a litle confortyd hymselfe, and his people, with suche meate and drynke as he had done to be caried with hym, for vitalyge of his hooste; and, incontinent, set forthe towards his enemyes, and toke the fields, and lodgyd hym selfe, and all his hooste, within three myle of them.

04 May 1471. Upon the morow followynge, Saterday, the iiij. day of May, [the Kynge] apparailed hymselfe, and all his hoost set in good array; ordeined three wards;displayed his bannars; dyd blowe up the trompets; sommytted his caws and qwarell to Almyghty God, to owr most blessyd lady his mothar, Vyrgyn Mary, the glroious martyr, Seint George, and all the sayts; and avaunced, directly upon his enemyes; approchinge to theyr filde, whiche was strongly in a marvaylows grownd pyght, full difficult to be assayled. Netheles the Kyngs ordinaunce was so conveniently layde afore them, and his vawarde so sore oppressyd them, with shott of arrows, that they gave them right-a-ahrpe shwre. Also they dyd agayne-ward to them, bothe with shot of arrows and gonnes, whereof noethes they ne had not so great plenty as had the Kynge. In front of theyr field were so evell lanes, and depe dykes, so many hedges, trees, and busshes, that it was right hard to approche them nere, and come to hands; but Edmond, called Duke of Somarset, having that day the vawarde, withar it were for that he and his fellowshipe were sore annoyed in the place where they were, as well with gonnes-shott, as with shot of arrows, which they ne wowld not durst abyde, or els, of great harte and corage, knyghtly and manly avauncyd hymselfe, with his fellowshipe, womewhat asyde-hande the Kyngs vawarde, and, by certayne pathes and wayes therefore afore purveyed, and to the Kyngs party unknowne, he departyd out of the field, passyd a lane, and came to a fayre place, or cloos, even afore the Kynge where he was enbatteled and, from the hill that was in that one of42 the closes, he set right fiercely upon th'end of the Kyngs battayle. The Kynge, full manly, set forthe even upon them, enteryd and wann the dyke, and hedge, upon them, into the cloose, and, with great violence, put them upe towards the hyll, and, so also, the Kyng's vaward, being in the rule of the Duke of Gloucestar.

Note 42. one of; on in, in MS.

Here it is to be remembred, how that, whan the Kyng comyn afore theyr fielde, or se het upon them, he consydered that, upon the right hand of theyr field, there was a parke, and therein moche wood, and he, thinkynge to purvey a remedye in caace his sayd enemyes layed any bushement in that wood, of horsemen, he chose, out of his fellashyppe, ijc speres, and set them in a plomp, togethars, nere a qwartar of a myle from the fields, gyvenge them charge to have good eye upon that cornar of the woode, if caas that eny nede were, and to put them in devowre, and, yf they saw none suche, as they thowght most behovfull for tyme and space, to employ themselfe in the best wyse as they cowlde; which provisyon cam as well to poynt at this tyme of the battayle as cwothe well have been devysed, for the sayd spers of the Kyngs party, seinge no lyklynes of eny busshement in the sayd woode-corner, seinge also goode opportunitie t'employ them selfe well, cam and brake on, all at ones, upon the Duke of Somerset, and his vawarde, asyde-hand, unadvysed, whereof they singe the Kynge, gave them ynoughe to doo afore them, were gretly dismaied and abasshed, anaad so toke them toflyght into the parke and into the medowe that was nere, and into lanes, and dykes, where they best hoped to escape the dangar; of whom, netheles, many were distressed, taken, and slayne; and, even at this point theyr flyght, the Kynge corageiously set upon that othar fielde, were was chefe Edward, called Prince, and, in short while, put hym to discomfiture and flyght; and so fell in the chase of them that many of them were slayne, and, namely at a mylene43, in the medowe fast by the towne, were many drownyd; many rann towards the towne; many to the churche; to the abbey; and else where; as best they myght.

Note 43. mylene; i.e. a mill.

Part 5 The Aftermath of Tewkesbury through the Surrender of the Bastard of Fauconberg.