Holinshed's Chronicle 1544

Holinshed's Chronicle 1544 is in Holinshed's Chronicle.

01 Jan 1544. On New yeares daie, was sir Thomas Wriothesleie the kings secretarie made lord Wriothesleie of Tichfield.

14 Jan 1544. This yeare chanced foure eclipses, one of the sunne the fourtéenth of Ianuarie, and three of the moone.

07 Mar 1544. On the seuenth of March, Germaine Gardner, and Larke person of Chelseie were executed at Tiburne, for denieng the kings supremacie, & with whom was executed for other offenses one Singleton. And shortlie after Ashbeie was likewise executed for the supremacie. In this yeare sir Iohn Allen (who had bin twise maior of London, & of councell to the king) departing out of this life, did giue to the citie of London a rich collar of gold, to be worne by the maior: which collar was first worne by sir William Laxton on S. Edwards daie, to the election of the new maior, who gaue to euerie ward in London twentie pounds to be distributed to the poore housholders, besides to one hundred and twentie persons, three score men euerie of them a gowne of brode cloth, and a blacke cap, and thréescore women, to euerie of them a gowne of the like cloth, and a white kerchiefe. Humfreis Monmouth, and Iohn Coles which were shiriffes in his maioraltie, in the beginning of their yeare put awaie twelue sargeants and twelue yeomen, till they were forced by a court of common councell to take them againe.

In this meane while was the cardinall of Scotland deliuered forth of prison, and shortlie after got into his hands againe all such conclusions as were made touching the marriage betwixt the quéene of Scots and prince Edward, procuring in maner all the lords and nobles of the realme to renounce that which they had promised to the king of England, as well diuerse of those whome the said king had released home out of captiuitie, as others. Wherwith the king tooke such sore displeasure, that he prepared an armie to passe into Scotland by sea, and ordeined the lord Edward Seimer, earle of Hertford to be lieutenant of the north parts, and to haue the leading of the same armie, who went thither in March, as well for defense of the borders, as to foresee all things in order for the armie that should thus go into Scotland, whereof he was appointed generall.

When all things were in a readinesse for the nauie which was rigged to set forward towards Scotland, and that the soldiers were come which were appointed to go with sir Iohn Dudleie lord Lisle, and high admerall of England in that voiage, they were imbarked, and so the two and twentith of March the said lord admerall, with sir Nicholas Pointz, and diuerse other knights and capteins departed from the port of London towards the north parts; and comming to Newcastell, found the erle of Hertford readie with such power as was appointed to be there at a daie assigned, forth of those countries that lie from Trent northwards. And now wanted nothing to further their iournie, but a conuenient wind; which caused them to staie certeine daies at the said towne of Newcastell, and in the villages thereabouts.

After that the earle of Hertford, and the lord admerall, accompanied with the earle of Shrewesburie, the lords Cobham, Clinton, Couiers, Stinton, the lord William Howard; and manie other right valiant knights, gentlemen, and capteines, had lien with the armie and nauie readie at Newcastell a certeine time, looking for a prosperous wind to set forward on their purposed iournie, at length the same came about verie fit to serue their turne, and then with all spéed the soldiers were bestowed aboord, euerie companie in their appointed vessels: and herewith vp went the sailes, and forth they got into the maine seas, making their course directlie towards the Forth, a gulfe or riuer in Scotland, able to beare vessels fiftie miles vp within the countrie. There were at the least two hundred saile which the lord admerall had caused to come togither, according to his commission, rigged, trimmed, and furnished with all things necessarie for the conduction of such an armie, estéemed to be about ten thousand men.

03 May 1544. The third of Maie they arriued in the Forth, entring betwéene two Ilands, the Bas and the Maie. The next daie being the fourth of Maie, the whole armie was landed two miles by west the towne of Lith, at a place called Grantham crag. And forthwith the lord lieutenant putting his people in good order of warre, marched on towards the said towne of Lith. The lord admerall led the fore-ward, the lord lieutenant the battell, and the earle of Shrewesburie gouerned the rere-ward. Before they came to the towne of Lith, they found in their waie readie to impeach their passage six thousand horssemen beside footmen. At the first the Scots made towards the Englishmen, as if they had ment to set vpon the voward: but being manfullie assailed by the hatquebutters, fiue hundred in number, and shrewdlie by them curried and galled, they had no mind to come forward, but perceiuing how willing the Englishmen were to incounter with them, after certeine shot on both sides, they made a sudden retreat, and leauing their artillerie behind them, they fled to Edenburgh.

The first man that fled (as the talke went) was the cardinall, who perceiuing the deuotion which the Englishmen had to sée his holinesse, had no mind to tarie. With him also fled the gouernour, the earles of Huntleie, Murreie, and Bothwell: as for their soldiers, they were disparkled, and feared the English forces as the lambe dooth the wolfe, the doe the dog, or the hart the lion: to vse the words of Anglorum praelia verie fitlie describing this battell, and saieng:

Exhorrent, vt dama canes, vt cerua leones.

The Englishmen thus hauing put their enimies to flight, & seized vpon their artillerie, made streight to the towne of Lith, and entered it without anie great resistance, wherein they incamped themselues the same night to their most ease and aduantage, and afterwards landed their vittels and great artillerie. They found also in this towne such plentie of riches as they looked not to haue found in anie one towne of Scotland.

06 May 1544. The sixt of Maie they went towards Edenburgh, and as they approched néere the towne, the prouost of the same towne accompanied with one or two burgesses, and two or three officers at armes, desired to speake with the kings lieutenant, and in the name of all the towne, said that the keies of the towne should be deliuered vnto his lordship, conditionallie that they might go with bag & baggage, and the towne to be saued from fire. Wherevnto answer was made by the said lord lieutenant, that where the Scots had so manifestlie broken their promises confirmed by oths and seales, and certified by the whole parlement, as was euidentlie knowne to the world, he was sent thither by the kings highnesse to take vengeance of their detestable falsehood, to declare and shew the force of his highnesse sword to all such as should make anie resistance vnto his graces power sent thither for that purpose. And therfore he told them resolutelie, that vnlesse they would yéeld vp their towne franklie without condition, and cause man, woman, and child, to issue foorth into the fields, submitting them to his will and pleasure, he would put them to the sword, and their towne to the fire. The prouost answered it were better to stand to their defense.

Wherevpon charge was giuen to the said prouost and officer at armes, vpon their perill to depart. And foorthwith the lord lieutenant sent to the voward, commanding that they should march toward the towne, which right hardilie they did, and the English gunners manfullie assailed the gates; namelie sir Christopher Morice master of the ordinance, insomuch that the Scots were beaten from their ordinance, and the gate called Canogate beaten open with shot of the great artillerie, and therewith the Englishmen entering the same gate by fine force, beat downe & slue a great number of Scots, and continuallie without staieng was the great ordinance drawne vp the stréet to the castell gates: but those that were within the castell shot so freelie at the Englishmen thus approching with their great artillerie, that diuerse were slaine, the artillerie of the castell beat so directlie alongest the high stréet, as the Englishmen came vp the same. At length also one of the Englishmens culuerings was striken, and dismounted, and therevpon they were forced to retire backe and giue ouer their enterprise of making batterie to the castell, wanting pioners, baskets, and other things necessarie for such a purpose.

This daie the Englishmen set fire in diuerse parts of the towne, but they had not leasure to mainteine it, by reason of the smoke rising and troubling them so extremelie, that no great hurt could be doone that daie, for that the night also came on, and so they departed backe againe to their campe at Lith. But the next daie, a certeine number of Englishmen vnder the leading of doctor Leigh, went againe to Edenburgh, and did what they could, vtterlie to destroie the whole towne with fire, and so continued all that daie & the two daies next following. During all this violence offered by the English to the enimie, & nothing left but despaire of life, the women and children beholding this desolation, made such outragious exclamations and wofull lamentations, that heauen it selfe rang with their noise, as verie pithilie is described by Chr. O. in his report, saieng:

Foeminei sexus gemitus ad sydera grandi

Tolluntur strepitu, puerorum clamor in auras,

Nil nisi triste fuit, faciésque miserrima rerum.

In the mean time, foure thousand light horssemen, vnder the leading of the lord Euers, came from our borders, as order was taken afore, and ioined themselues with the armie thus lieng in Lith, where after their comming, they did such exploits, in riding and wasting the countrie, that within seuen miles euerie waie of Edenburgh, they left few places, either pile, village, or house vnburnt. And beside this, they brought great numbers of cattell dailie into the armie, and met with much good stuffe, which the inhabitants of Edenburgh had for the safetie of the same conueied out of the towne.

The names of the knights made at Lith after the burning of Edenburgh by the earle of Hertford, generall of the kings armie there, on sundaie the eleuenth of Maie, in the six & thirtith yeare of the reigne of king Henrie the eight, in the yeare 1544, as they were deliuered to me by sir Gilbert Dethike knight, aliâs Garter, king of armes, are as followeth: The lord Clinton, the lord Coniers, sir William Wroughton, sir Thomas Holcroft, sir Edward Dorrell, sir Iohn Luttrell, sir Iohn Ienins, sir Thomas Waterton, sir Charles Howard, sir George Blunt, sir Peter Mewtas, sir Edward Warner, sir Rafe Bulmer, sir Hugh Cholmeleie, sir Thomas Leigh, aliàs doctor Leigh, sir Richard Leigh, sir Peter Leigh, sir Iohn Leigh of Booth, sir Laurence Smith, sir William Uauasour, sir Richard Shirburne, sir Robert Stapleton, sir Thomas Holt, sir William Dauenport, sir Rafe Leicester, sir Humfrie Bradborne, sir Thomas Maliuereie, sir Francis Hothome, sir Iohn Massie, sir Leonard Beckwith, sir Thomas Cokaine, sir Peter Freshwell, sir Richard Egerton, sir Anthonie Neuill, sir Iohn Neuill, sir William Ratcliffe, sir George Bowes, sir Brian Brereton, sir William Brereton, sir Roger Brereton, sir Edward Waren, sir Brian Leiton, sir Robert Wurseleie, sir Thomas Talbot, sir Hugh Caluerleie, sir Iohn Clere, sir Richard Holland, sir Thomas Uenables, sir Iohn Constable, sir Edmund Trafford, sir Iohn Atherton, sir Richard Cholmeleie, sir Philip Egerton, sir Hugh Willoughbie, sir Thomas Constable, sir William Woodhouse, sir Edmund Sauage, and sir Thomas Gerard.

14 May 1544. On the fourtéenth daie the Englishmen brake downe the [...]ir [...] of the hauen of Lith, and burnt euerie sticke of it. This doone, and hauing shipped their great artillerie, and taken foorth all such Scotish ships as were méet to serue, appointing them to attend on their ships, they tooke vpon them to returne home by land. Amongst other ships which the Englishmen had in Lith h [...]uen; there were two of notable fairenesse, the one called the Salamander, giuen by the French king at the marriage of his daughter into Scotland, the other called the Unicorne, made by the late Scotish king [...]punc; The balast of these two ships was cannon [...], which they found in the towne, to the number of foure score thousand. The rest of the Scotish ships being taken awaie togither with their owne ships, which they brought with them, were for the more part pestered with the spoile and boot [...]es of the souldiors & mariners. On the fiftéenth of Maie; their armie and their fleet departed from Lith both in one houre, the towne being set on fire and burned to the gro [...]nd.

The English armie incamped that night at a place called Seaton, seuen miles from Lith, where they burnt the castell, and destroied the orchards and gardens with the more despite, for that the lord Seaton owner of the place, was the chiefe laborer to helpe the lord cardinall out of prison. The same daie was Haddington burnt, with a great nunrie and house of friers there. The next night they incamped beside Dunbar, where they had an alarum giuen them, but in the morning they burnt the towne of Dunbar, and marched foorth, though somewhat staid by the waie, by reason of the mist and fog, which was verie thicke, continuing all the forenoone, and bicause also they vnderstood how the lords of Seton & Hume with the lard of Bouclough, and others, had assembled a power of men of warre, and were minded to impeach their passage at a streict named the Pease.

But after that the mist brake vp, which was about two of the clocke in the afternoone, the Englishmen came forward, and passed the same streict without anie resistance. For the Scotish lords perceiuing that they were not of power sufficient to incounter with the Englishmen, minded not to put their people in their danger, but wiselie retired, suffering the Englishmen to passe at their pleasure, who that night lodged at Ranton, eight miles distant from our borders, where hauing ouerthrowne a pile which stood there, they dislodged the next morrow, and the same daie being the eightéenth of Maie, they entered into Berwicke: so ending their voiage with great ioie and gladnesse, not hauing lost past fortie persons in all this iournie.

The names of the chiefe townes, castels, and places burned in this voiage, were these: the burow and towne of Edenburgh, with the abbeie called holie Rood house, and the kings palace adioining to the same. The towne of Lith burnt, and the hauen and pire destroied, the castle and village of Cragmiller, the abbeie of Newbottle, part of Muskelburow towne, with the chappell of our ladie of Lauret, Preston towne and the castell, Seton castell, Hadington towne, with the friers and nunrie, a castell of Oliuer Sinclers, the towne of Dunbar, Lanreston with the grange, Drilaw, Wester crag, Enderligh, the pile, and the towne, Broughton, Thester fields, Crawnend, Dudi [...]ton, Stan house, the Ficket, Beuerton, Tranent, Shenston, Markle, Trapren, Kirkland hill, Hatherwike, Belton, east Barnes, Bowland, Butterden, Quickewood, Blackeburne, Ranton, Bildie and the Tower, Kinkorne, saint Minees, the quéenes ferrie, part of Petin Waines, and the burnt Iland, were burned by the fleet on the sea.

For during the continuance of the armie at Lith, the ships laie not idle, but scowring the riuer, burnt diuerse places, and left neither ship, craier, nor bote belonging to anie village, towne, créeke, or hauen, vpon either side of the foord, betwéene Sterling, and the mouth of the riuer, vnburned, or brought awaie, which space conteineth fiftie miles in length. About the same time the earle of Lenox fled out of Scotland into the rebne of England, where he was right gladlie receiued by king Henrie, and shortlie he obteined in marriage the ladie Marie Dowglas, néece to the king of England, and returned soone after into Scotland by sea, accompanied with a good competent crue of English. But finding no such friendship among his countrie men as he looked to haue doone, he was constreined to returne, without atchiuing the enterprise which he had taken in hand, in hope of such assistance by his friends, as now failed him at néed.

In the moneth of Maie proclamation was made for the inhancing of gold to eight & fortie shillings, & siluer foure shillings the ounce. Also the K. caused to be coined base monie, which was since that time called downe, the fift yeare of Edward the sixt, and called in the second of queene Elizabeth. In the same moneth also passed through the citie of London in warlike maner, to the number of seauen hundred Irishmen, hauing for their weapons, darts, and handguns, with bagpipes before them: and in saint Iames parke besides Westminster they mustered before the king. In Iune the letanie or procession was set foorth in English, with commandement by the king to be generallie vsed in parish churches. About the same time that the armie before remembred, was set forward into Scotland vnder the guiding of the earle of Hertford, as before yée haue heard, the king by aduise of his councell tooke order for the leuieng of a mightie armie, to passe ouer into France, according to the appointment taken with his confederate, fréend and colleague, the emperour, against the French king, at that present common aduersarie to them both, and not long before had entered in league with the Turks, as Ch. Oc. noteth:

—cum dira foedera Turcis

Iunxerat, heu nimiùm res est indigna relatu,

Christicolam facere hoc, qui relligionis amantem

Se profitens, titulum pietatis venditat orbi.

There were appointed thrée battels, the voward vnder the leading of the duke of Norffolke, the battell vnder the guiding of the duke of Suffolke, which also was reckoned to be the kings battell, bicause his maiestie ment to be present with the same in person, and the rere-ward was led by the lord Russell lord priuie seale. Those of the fore-ward were appareled in blew cotes garded with red, and had caps and hosen after the same sute, partie blue and partie red, their caps made fit for their sculs, which were put into the same. The battell in cotes, caps, and hosen, after the like fashion, but their colours were red and yellow.

The duke of Norffolke and the lord priuie seale, accompanied with diuerse other noble men, as the earle of Surreie sonne to the said duke of Norffolke marshall of the field, the earle of Oxford, the lord Greie of Wilton lieutenant of Hammes, whose name euen then began to grow famous, the lord Ferrers of Charteleie, and sir Richard Deuereux his sonne and heire, that brought with them a great number of Welshmen, sir Thomas Cheinie lord warden of the cinque ports, the lord Mountioie a towardlie yoong gentleman, well learned, and for his time perfect in all points and qualities fit for a noble man, sir Francis Brian knight, one of the kings priuie chamber, and no lesse affectioned to his seruice, than of him fauoured and well estéemed, sir Thomas Poinings capteine of Guisnes, and diuerse others beside, no lesse worthie to be remembred for their valure and merits, if time would permit to rehearse them, passed ouer to Calis about Whitsuntide, and from thence marching forward to France, left Bullongne on their right hand, & kéeping foorth towards Muttrell, ioined with an armie which the emperour had raised for that purpose, vnder the leading of the countie de Buren, admerall of the low countries, and so these armies being vnited in one, came before Muttrell, and there laid siege to that towne, being well manned and furnished with all things necessarie for defense, as well in vittels as munition. The chéefe capteine of which towne was mounsieur de Biez one of the marshals of France, and gouernour also in the absence of monsieur de Uandosme of Picardie, who being within Bullongne & hearing how the English armie was passed by, and drew towards Muttrell, he left Bullongne, and with all speed got him into Muttrell, not mistrusting anie thing of that policie which the king of England went about, which was, to send this armie to besiege Muttrell, to the end the Frenchmen might be kept occupied further off, while he with the residue of his power should come and besiege Bullongne, which towne standing most commodious for his purpose, he ment by force to bring vnder his subiection.

Herevpon was the duke of Suffolke appointed with the kings armie to passe ouer, accompanied with the earle of Arundell marshall of the field, the lord saint Iohn, and the bishop of Winchester, sir Iohn Gage comptrollor of the kings house, sir Anthonie Browne maister of the kings horsse, with diuerse other worthie capteins, all which the ninteenth of Iulie came before Bullongne, incamped on the eastside of the said towne aloft vpon the hill, and after for his more safetie remooued into a vallie, where after manie sharpe skirmishes they first entered the base towne, being left and forsaken by the inhabitants, which hauing set fire on their fishing nets, and other such baggage, vnder couert of the smoke, got them vp into the high towne, before the Englishmen could espie them. After this, the Old man, otherwise called Le toure dordre, standing without the towne for a direction to them that were to enter the hauen, and now being kept by sixtéene souldiers, was yéelded vp by them, vpon presenting the canon before it.

The Frenchmen within the towne, being despoiled of those two places, yet spared not to shoot off from their walles and bulworkes, dooing what damage they might deuise, and namelie from the castell and gréene bulworke they did much hurt to the Englishmen with their shot, whereof they made no spare, till at length they were forced to be quiet: for the Englishmen so applied them with such plentie of their shot, that the Frenchmen had no oportunitie to doo them anie great hurt with their artillerie. The fourtéenth of Iulie, the king in person, accompanied with diuers of the nobilitie, passed the seas from Douer to Calis; and the six and twentith of the same moneth incamped himselfe before Bullongne on the north side, within lesse than three quarters of a mile of the towne, where he remained, till the towne was surrendered into his hands. The king being then in campe, it was a matter of ease to discerne which was he, for none of the rest came néere him in talnesse by the head: as for his proportion of lims, it was answerable to his goodlie stature and making: a memorable description whereof, as also of his artificiall armour, I find reported as followeth:

Rex capite Henricus reliquos supereminet omnes,

Heros praeualidus seu fortia brachia spectes,

Seu suras quas fuluo opifex incluserat auro,

Siue virile ducis praestanti pectore corpus,

Nulla vi domitum, nullo penetrabile ferro, &c.

Beside the trenches which were cast, and brought in maner round about the town, there was a mount raised vpon the east side; and diuerse peeces of artillerie planted aloft on the same, the which togither with the morter péeces, so [...] annoied them within, & battered downe the steeple of our ladies church. To conclude the batterie was made in most forcible wise in thrée seuerall places, and the walles, towers, and castell were vndermine [...]; and the towne within so beaten with shot out of the campe, and from the mount and trench by the morter péeces, that there were verie few houses left whole therein. The towne thus standing in great distresse, there were two hundred Frenchmen and Italians, which interprised vnder the conduct of Io [...]ourtio to enter the town in couert of the night, which exploit they so warilie atchiued, that by meanes of a priest that could speake the English toong, they passed by the scouts, & through the watch, so as the most part of them were got ouer the trenches yer it was knowne what they were: to the number of six score of them got into the towne, but the residue after they were once descried, being intercepted, were taken or slaine. Although this small succour somewhat relieued them within, and put them in some hope to defend the towne somewhat longer against the kings power: yet [...]t length when a péece of the castell was blowne vp, and the breaches made, as was thought reasonable, the assault was giuen by the lord admerall Dudleie, that was come thither from the sea, which he had scowred after his returne foorth of Scotland.

This assault was couragiouslie giuen, and to speake a truth, no lesse manfullie defended: so that when the assailants had perceiued in what state the breaches stood, and what prouision they within had made for defense of their towne, which vndoubtedlie was great (for nothing was by them omitted, that might either aduantage the defendants, or annoie the assailants) those that were appointed in this sort to giue the assault, were called backe, and so they retired, but not without losse on both sides, and namelie of them within. For during the time of the assault, the great artillerie did beat still vpon them that presented themselues at the breaches to repell the assailants, and so diuerse of their valiant capteins and braue souldiers were slaine at this assault, & among other, capteine Philip Corse. Shortlie after, the capteins within the towne, doubting to be eftsoones assaulted, and perceiuing themselues in extreame danger to lose the towne by force, if they prouided not the sooner, by rendering it to saue themselues: they sent foorth two of their chiefe capteins, monsieur Semblemont, and monsieur de Haies, which declared vnto the king, that monsieur de Ueruine gouernour of the towne, with his retinue, was contented to deliuer the towne vnto his grace, with condition that they might passe wi [...]h [...]ag and baggage. Which request the king, like a noble and mercifull prince, fréelie granted: and so the next daie, the duke of Suffolke rode into Bullongne, vnto whome in the kings name the keies of the towne were deliuered, & in the afternone departed out of Bullongne all the Frenchmen with heauie hearts, to the number of six thousand, as C. O. witnesseth, saieng:

Sex hinc exierant Gallorum millia gentis.

The number of the men of warre that were strong and able to serue, were of horssemen sixtie seuen, of footmen fiftéene hundred, thréescore and three, of the which number eight hundred were harquebutters, of hurt men fourescore and seuen, of women & children ninetéene hundred and twentie seuen, beside a great number of aged & sicke persons, not able to depart with the others. The last person that came foorth was monsieur de Ueruine himselfe, who vpon his approch to the place where the king stood, alighted from his horsse, and came to the king, and after hée had talked with him a space, the king tooke him by the hand, and he reuerentlie kneeling vpon his knées, kissed his hand, and afterward mounted vpon his horsse, and so departed, following his companie.

The eight of September, the king hauing the sword borne before him by the lord marques Dorset, like a puissant conqueror rode into Bullongne, and the trumpetters standing on the walles, sounded their trumpets at the time of his entering, to the great comfort of the beholders. In the entering, there met him the duke of Suffolke, and deliuered to him the keies of the towne, and so he rode foorth to his lodging that was prepared for him on the south side of the towne. Within two daies after, the king rode about the towne within the walles, and appointed that our ladie church of Bullongne should bée taken downe, and in the place thereof a mount to bée made, for the more strengthening of the towne. Finallie after he had set things in order for the safe kéeping of this his towne of Bullongne, by his princely force thus woone out of the possession of his aduersaries hands, he appointed the lord Lisle high admerall of the seas, to be his deputie of the same towne, and then determining not to staie there any longer, he tooke the seas, & returned into England, landing at Douer the first of October.

In this meane time, whilest the king of England laie (as ye haue heard) with his siege about Bullongne, and the duke of Norffolke, and lord priuie seale about Mutterell, the emperour inuaded France by Champeigne, winning diuerse castels and townes, as Comersis, Lignie, saint Desir, Chausteau, Thierie, and others. But at the length, meanes were made by treatie to haue the matter taken vp, as in the end it was, and a peace concluded without consent of the king of England, although there was place left for him and other princes to enter into this agréement of peace. But the king of England hauing now defraied no small quantitie of treasure in these warres, beside the trauell of his owne person and his people, and hauing the thing now in a maner sure in his possession, which he chieflie went about to obteine, that is to wit, the strong towne of Bullongne, he would not agrée vnto anie peace, except he might inioy that towne, at that instant redie to be deliuered into his hands. And euen now after it was to him deliuered, hearing that for certeine, the peace was concluded betwixt the emperour and the French king, he determined to breake vp his camps: but neuerthelesse to kéepe Bullongne in his possession, in despite of all his aduersaries. But here, before we procéed anie further, we haue thought good somewhat to speake touching the siege which all this white continued afore Mutterell, where the Englishmen and Burgonians inforced themselues by all waies and meanes they could deuise, how to constreine their enimies within the towne. On the other part, monsieur de Biez, and those that were with him in gard of the same towne, left nothing vndoone that might serue for their defense, and make to the annoiance of their enimies.

There were with monsieur de Biez within the towne, an hundred men at armes of the retinue of the constable of France, vnder the leading of the lord de la Guich an expert man of war. There were also with the lord of Genlie, foure ensignes of French footmen. Count Berenger a Neapolitane with a thousand footmen Italians. Capteine Francisco de Chiaramont, a Neapolitane also, with the like number of Italian footmen. So that the towne might séeme sufficientlie furnished with men, and they wanted neither shot nor powder requisit, so that there was no spare thereof when occasion serued on either part.

The duke of Norffolke and the lord priuie seale caused amount to be raised, and aloft thereon were certeine peeces of artillerie planted to shoot into the towne. Moreouer they compassed the walles so on ech hand with their seuerall camps and trenches, that hardlie might anie escape either in or out vnespied. Sir Francis Brian was appointed with certeine bands, conteining about the number of a thousand men, to lodge in a campe fortified by himselfe, ouer against one part of the towne, to stop certeine passages on that side, that no succors should enter by the same to the reléefe of them within. There were skirmishes dailie betwixt them that sallied forth of the gates, and the Englishmen that watched and warded in the trenches, and other places, insomuch that diuerse lost their liues, and some were irrecouerablie wounded, as Anglorum praelia witnesseth, saieng:

Confossi saeuo moriuntur vulnere multi

Disperso cerebro; faciei nulla figura.

On a daie as sir Thomas Poinings soldiours were warding in one of the trenches, an Italian secretlie comming forth of the towne, fetched awaie the said sir Thomas Poinings his ensigne; and notwithstanding the pursute that was made after him, he escaped and got into the towne with it, to the great displeasure of the whole campe. But as the enimies sometimes went awaie with the aduantage of their attempted enterprises, so ofttimes againe they paid for their aduenturing ouer rashlie aboue the common price of the market.

But here I cannot but lament the negligence vsed in that season: for there is not one English writer to be found extant, that hath written anie thing effectuallie of the exploits atchiued in that iornie; so as we are driuen to borrow of the aduersaries that haue written thereof, wanting other helps of our owne nation to furnish our booke héerin according to our wished purpose. But neuerthelesse, to giue occasion to those that yet liue, and can best doo it, to set forth hereafter a more perfect discourse therof, I haue thought it not amisse to recite in part what I haue read and learned of such things as then were accounted worthie of relation, and now like to be buried in the dimme booke of obliuion, vnlesse some fauourer of notable euents chancing in the assiegement of those two townes, Bullongne and Muttrell, will put to his helping hand to report the same to posteritie.

Among other stratagems, one I remember, deuised and put in practise by the lord Mountioie, as thus. The enimies had espied a place of aduantage without the towne, where vnder fauour of the shot of certeine peeces of great artillerie lodged vpon some platforms or bulworks within the towne, they might lie without the walles betwixt the Englishmens trenches and the towne ditches, and there couer themselues within a litle trench or counterscarpe made for the purpose, and out of the same be readie with their harquebusses to shoot at the Englishmen, so soone as anie of them should once shew his head out of the trenches, to the great danger of them that warded in the same.

The lord Mountioie perceiuing this, deuised with himselfe how to rouse the enimies out of that lurking place, and withall came to the duke of Norfolke, and desired licence to put the deuise (which he had alreadie forecast in his mind) in practise. But the duke being not willing that he should put himselfe in such danger, was loth to grant thereto, but rather persuaded with him not to attempt it: for (said he) my lord, yée may doo the king better seruice than so to hazard your life, and cast your selfe awaie, as it is verie like you should, in aduenturing vpon such a desperat peece of seruice, and therfore I would not wish you to meddle therewith, for we shall otherwise prouide for the matter well inough. But the lord Mountioie still persisted in his sute verie earnestlie, declaring that he doubted not (by Gods helpe) but to atchiue his purpose to his good contentation without anie great danger, if that were executed which he tooke to be necessarie for the accomplishment of his deuise: and that was to haue certeine peeces of the great ordinance shot off that waie forth, at what time the wind stood méet to carrie the smoke full vpon the place where the Frenchmen laie. At length vpon his earnest sute, the duke gaue him licence to trie what he could doo, commanding the great ordinance to be laid and charged readie to shoot off as he should appoint it. Herewith the lord Mountioie taking with him fouretéene of his owne soldiors (of the which number one of them forsooke to go through with him when it came to the point) immediatlie vpon the shooting off of the artillerie, & that all the ground about was couered ouer with smoke, he came to the place where those Frenchmen laie vnder couert of their trench, and so displaced them, that they had no liking eftsoones to lodge so neere vnto such vnfriendlie neighbors.

Manie other valiant and politike feats (no doubt) were atchiued during this siege, & happilie as worthie the rehearsall as this. But sith it was the inuention of so noble a yoong gentleman, I haue estéemed it not impertinent to speake thereof, and withall to lament the losse of the inuentor, who being taken awaie shortlie after in his returne homewards, by vntimelie death, was like (if he had liued to greater yéers of experience) to haue prooued comparable in valor to anie of his noble progenitors. But now to speake of other incidents that chanced whilest this siege remained before Muttrell, you must vnderstand that the most part of the vittels that was spent in the campe was brought to them either from the kings campe at Bullogne, or else from S. Omers, to conueie the same so far off, it was néedfull to haue the carriage garded with good troops and bands both of horssemen and footmen: for the French fortresses were stronglie furnished with great numbers of men of war, which vpon occasions were readie to take aduantages offered.

And as it fortuned at one time among other, there was a conuoie of certeine wagons loden with vitels appointed to come from saint Omers, the same being garded with diuerse bands of Englishmen and Burgonions, sent thither for that purpose, the which marching forward from saint Omers, kept not so good order as had béene requisit: whereof certeine companies of French horssemen that were abroad being aware, set vpon the Burgonions that were attendant vpon the foremost carriages, and finding them in some disorder, easilie discomfited them, followed, and slue them in the chase, till they came to the hindermost carriages, where six hundred English men that attended on the same, impaled themselues with their wagons, so as the Frenchmen could take no aduantage: but with shot of the English archers were so curried and galled that they were driuen to retire, and that in such hast, as they left diuerse of their companie captiues in the Englishmens hands beside those that were faire laid to take their last sléepe there on the ground. Neuerthelesse, of the Burgonions there were slaine foure hundred, and much good vittels lost, the bottoms of the hogsheads and other vessels being beaten out, and manie a good Flemish mare killed or taken. For the Frenchmen found small resistance (as before ye haue heard) till they approched to the Englishmen, by whose accustomed manhood, some part of the vittels of that conuoie was saued, to the releefe of the campe, which notwithstanding by losse of the residue suffered great want for the time.

Moreouer, somewhat towards the latter end of this siege, the earle of Surreie son vnto the duke of Norffolke and marshall of his field, accompanied with the lord warden of the cinque ports, and diuerse other valiant capteins English & Burgonions marched forth into the countrie towards Abuile, where they tooke and burnt a proper towne called saint Requiers: Rieu sacked and after comming to another towne called Rieu, they found no bodie at home but women and children, for the men were departed out of it before their comming thither. When they had taken their pleasure in sacking all such goods as they found there fit to be carried awaie, they spared the towne from fire, and so departed. And thus after they had béene two daies and two nights abroad in the countrie, they returned home to the campe with a great bootie of beasts, sheepe, and other things which they had got in that voiage.

But now to conclude with this siege of Muttrell, after the king had woone Bullongne, and vnderstood how the emperor had agréed with his aduersarie the French king, he resolued to haue his armie to raise that siege which thus had lien before Muttrell, and with all cõuenient spéed to draw toward Calis. And because it was signified that the Dolphin of France Henrie was comming forward with a great power, which had béene raised by his father the French king to resist the emperor, and now was sent vnder the conduct of the said Dolphin, to the succours of them that were besieged in Muttrell, the king sent the earle of Arundell, sir Iohn Gage, sir George Carew, sir Iohn Reinsford, and others, with a chosen number of lustie soldiors vnto Muttrell, to reinforce his armie there, that in leuieng the campe, and withdrawing backe, they might be the better able to withstand anie attempt which the enimies might put in execution to their annoiance. And verelie this was doone with good aduise and necessarie consideration, for the Englishmen that had lien so long time at the siege before Muttrell, wanting such behoouefull refreshment as those were stored with that laie before Bullongne, hauing the seas open, and all things at pleasure brought vnto them forth of England, were sore weakened and decaied by death and sicknesse, and now in raising their campe had manie things to looke vnto, as well for the conueieng of their ordinance, trusse, and baggage, as their feeble and diseased persons: so that if the Dolphin with his armie might haue made such spéed forward as to haue ouertaken them with his maine power before they had come to Bullongne, it was to be feared least he might haue put them in danger of a plaine distresse. But with such timelie foresight as was vsed the siege was raised, and the armie retired first to Bullongne, and after to Calis without losse, although the French horssemen in great number followed, and sundrie times made proud proffers to giue the charge vpon the hindermost companies; but nothing was doone to make great account of, except certeine skirmishes that were procured, and alarums giuen, as in such cases it fortuneth.

The Dolphin notwithstanding that the siege was thus raised from Muttrell, yer he could come thither, yet he kept forward his iourncie, to prooue what he might doo to recouer Bullongne, which towne the king of England (as ye haue heard) had left in the keeping of the lord Lisle high admerall. The same towne being then weake, God knoweth, on all sides through batterie and minings, which by the kings power had béen made, to bring it into his subiection, EEBO page image 967and the trenches not cast downe, nor the ordinance mounted.

The Dolphin being come before the towne, sent certeine bands of his best soldiors by night to giue a camisado to the base towne. They that thus were sent, entred the same the ninth of October, about two of the clocke in the morning, where they tooke the stand watches, and slue (beside a great number of sicke and weake persons) as well soldiors as other, before they could araie themselues, or well get out of their beds. But after, the Frenchmen and Italians fell to rifling and breaking vp of coffers, scattering here and there abrode, and began to fall to their vittels, which they found there in good plentie. The Englishmen that were driuen vp to the gates of the high towne, got weapons that were throwne downe vnto them foorth of the same, & assembling togither, fiercelie entred in amongst the prease of their enimies. And herewith there sallied foorth of the high towne sir Thomas Poinings with a band of two hundred soldiors, the which togither with the other so bestirred themselues, that they manfullie beat backe the enimies, slue to the number of eight hundred of them, and chased the residue out of the towne, which fled ouer the sands vp to the hill, where the Dolphin himselfe stood with a great troope of horssemen about him, and durst not once come downe to the rescue of his people, for feare of the great artillerie that with plentie of bullets saluted the enimies, after that the breake of the daie had once discouered them in sight. Amongst other that were slaine in this repulse of the Frenchmen, le segneur de Foquessolles, another of the marshall de Biez his sons in law, and seneschall of Bullongne was one.

Thus the Dolphin, perceiuing that it would nothing auaile him to make anie further attempt against Bullongne, passed foorth toward Guisnes, & shortlie after through want of vittels, and sicknesse which sore infested his campe, brake vp his armie, and returned into France: so that the proud enterprises of the vainglorious and most insolent French turned to their owne great shame, as C. O. trulie saith:

Sic Galli in magnum cesserunt dedecus ausa.

But shortlie after Christmas came downe an armie of fourtéene thousand, vnder the conduction of monsieur de Biez, the which the six and twentith of Ianuarie incamped on the west side of Bullongne beyond the hauen, where they laie ten daies: but on the sixt of Februarie, the earle of Hertford, the lord admerall, as then lord lieutenant of the towne of Bullongne, the lord Greie of Wilton, sir Thomas Poinings & others, hauing assembled out of the garisons on that side the seas, to the number of foure thousand footmen, & seuen hundred horsmen, whereof an hundred or foure score were Albanoises, issued foorth of Bullongne about foure of the clocke in the morning, and comming to the place where the king had incamped during the time of the siege, they staid there, and put themselues in order of battell: and about six of the clocke, it being then a low water, capteine Edward Breie, with three hundred shot, was appointed to passe ouer, and to giue the enimies an alarum in their campe.

At which instant the trumpets sounded, and the drums stroke vp in the English armie, and herewi [...]h they being diuided into three battels, and to ech one his gard of two hundred horssemen, beside the od hundred that attended as a defense to the residue, they shewed themselues to their enimies. The Frenchmen perceiuing this, packed awaie with all haste possible, marching toward Hardilo in two battels. Wherevpon the English capteins leauing their footmen behind them, and taking onelie with them the horssemen, followed with all spéed after their enimies, and comming to the bridge commonlie called pont de Bricque, which certeine English carpenters garded with a number of harquebutters, and foure small field peeces, had forced and repared the same that night: and so the horssemen finding it sufficientlie repared, passed ouer, and comming to S. Estienne, they found there fiue hundred Dutch horsmen, commonlie called Swart rutters, that were lodged there to kéepe that passage: but being surprised on the sudden by the English horssemen, and sharpelie assailed, they were wholie distressed, and the most part of them taken prisoners, and therewith left with the followers of the armie, were after slaine, bicause they knew not where to bestow them.

But now the hill of saint Estienne being thus gained by the English horsmen, they put themselues in order of battell againe, appointing an hundred of their men at armes to follow and kéepe aloofe as a stale to relieue their fellowes in time of need, when they saw them in anie danger. The lords, to incourage euerie one to doo his dutie, rode vp and downe about the troops, & vsing manie comfortable words, desired them, that although they were but an handfull in comparison to the number of their enimies, they would yet in regard of the honour of the realme of England, make a proffer of an onset to the enimies, that they might perceiue that there they were to giue them battell, and to follow, as they should sée them their capteins and gouernors to lead them the waie. Herewith forward they make towards the enimie, and ouertaking them three miles on the hitherside of Hardilo sands, they valiantlie gaue the charge, and thrusting in betwixt the two French battels, ouerthrew their cariages, tooke their ordinance and munitions, slue and bare downe manie of them that preased foorth to defend the same.

Monsieur de Biez being in the fore ward, brought backe the strongest and best armed men he had to resist his enimes, ranging them in order so, as he ment to haue inclosed the English horssemen betwixt his battels and the sea, and so to haue distressed them. But this purpose being espied first of all by the lord admerall, the Englishmen by his valiant incouragement gaue a new charge, and breaking through their ranks by force, came backe againe vnto their hundred men of armes that kept aloofe, and there staied till their footmen might come to them, who by this time were aduanced within sight of them, but distant yet by the space of two English miles, or little lesse.

Monsieur de Biez, perceiuing that the English footmen began thus to approch, made forward againe with his armie, so fast as was possible for his people to march, drawing still his armed men and best souldiors to the hindermost ranks, there to be readie to withstand the Englishmen, as they should offer to assaile them: and in this order the Frenchmen made away, and rested not till they came to Hardilo sands, being a place of such strength and aduantage, by reason of the streict, that after they were once got thither, they might account themselues out of all danger, and therefore there they staid, and dispatched an herald vnto the chiefteins of the English armie, to signifie vnto them, that there they ment to abide and to giue them battell, if they would aduance forward to fight with them: but yet they would not in anie wise come foorth of their strength vnto some euen ground, although they were earnestlie required therevnto. Wherevpon the Englishmen, to light them a candle that they might sée where they were, set all the villages & houses about on a light fire, continuing the same all that afternoone, and most part of the night following, and the next morning betwixt foure and fiue of the clocke, they came backe againe vnto Bullongne with all their spoiles and prisoners.

They tooke in this incounter seuen peeces of artillerie, two of brasse and fiue of iron; also the peeces of aduantage of the armour of monsieur de Biez, beside apparell, plate, and furniture in great plentie, as well taken in the field, as also in their campe, where they left their tents standing, & all their prouision of vittels wholie vnremoued. The same péeces of armour were sent ouer into England to the king for a witnesse of the good successe that had thus happened to his people in this famous enterprise, in the atchiuing wherof there were not past halfe a dozen Englishmen slaine, besides those that were hurt, which neither were manie, as vnder halfe a score at the most.

Whilest such things were in dooing about Bullongne, and other places (as before ye haue heard in this twentie and sixt yeare) the ships of the west countrie and other coasts of this realme wasted abroad on the seas, and tooke to the number of thrée hundred & od French ships, so that the Graie friers church in London was laid full of wine, the Austine friers and Blacke friers full of herring, and other fish that was taken, as the same should haue béene conueied into France. About the same season the king demanded a beneuolence of his subiects spirituall and temporall, towards the maintenance of the warres against the Frenchmen and Scots.