Holinshed's Chronicle 1548

Holinshed's Chronicle 1548 is in Holinshed's Chronicle.

1549 Trial and Execution of Thomas Seymour

1549 Prayer Book Rebellion

Trial and Execution of Thomas Seymour

16 Jan 1549. The sixteenth of Ianuarie, sir Thomas Seimer (age 41) baron of Sudleie, lord admerall, and brother to the duke of Summerset lord protector, was arrested and sent to the tower, and after by authoritie of parlement he was attainted, and the twentith of March next insuing, in the third yeare of this kings reigne beheaded at tower hill. Moreouer in this parlement, the vse of the masse was clearlie prohibited, and a booke for the vniformitie of diuine seruice, and right administration of the sacraments, was set foorth and established.

Yee haue heard how the Frenchmen fortified the towne of Dundee, where monsieur de Etauges, with his companie of horssemen lieng in garrison chanced in a skirmish to be taken by the Englishmen that laie in Broughticrag, to the great reioising of them that tooke him, and no lesse gréefe of the French and Scots, for the tried valiancie that was throughlie knowne to rest in him. Moreouer, the Englishmen that kept the towne of Hadington all this while against the enimies, could not come by anie vittels, but onelie by a conuoie of some conuenient power to gard the cariages that brought the same from the borders. And as it fortuned at one time when the conuoie came and passed by Dunbar, a skirmish was proffered by the French which laie within that castell in garrison. And as sir Iames Wilford that was there amongst other vpon this occasion (according to his woonted valiancie) shewed himselfe verie forward and egre against the enimie, he was inclosed by an ambush, which the Frenchmen had laid on ech side the stréete within the towne, that he could by no means escape out of their hands, but hauing his horsse there slaine vnder him, was taken prisoner euen by a Gascoigne of the countrie of Basque named Pellieque, taken prisoner. that woone no small commendation for that his good hap, in taking such a prisoner, whose name for his often approoued prowesse was verie famous euen among the enimies, who saw well inough a resolutenesse in the man rather by perillous aduentures to purchase the perpetuitie of renowme, than by defect of courage or negligent seruice to loose both life and same. Which persuasion should enter into the hart of euerie seruitor in the field, if they will be counted right valiant indeed, considering that he which in his life time dooth performe nothing worthie memorie, is like a plaier entring vpon the stage, but shewing nothing either in spéech or in action, as the poet verie fitlie saith:

Qui nullum facinus tota memorabile vita

Ediderint, obscuri homines migrare videntur

Hinc, vt qui structa nil dixerit histrio scena.

Some haue written that he was taken through default of those that were appointed to follow him, sith he vndertooke to charge the enimie, in hope that by them he should haue beene assisted. But suerlie those that had the charge of this conuoie, doubting by aduenturing too far, to put all in hazard, thought it wisedome rather to suffer the losse of one, than to ieopard the whole; not perceiuing which waie to remedie the matter at that present. Now after that the generall of Hadington was thus taken prisoner, to the great griefe vndoubtedlie, not onelie of all the garrison there, but also of all such as tendered the aduancement of the kings maiesties seruice, sir Iames Crofts was thought a man most méet to supplie the place, and therefore by the lord protector and others of the councell was ordeined generall of that towne of Hadington, and the garrison there, in which roome he bare himselfe so worthilie, as if I should not be suspected of flatterie, for that he liueth yet, and in such credit (as the world knoweth) I might mooue my selfe matter to saie rather much than sufficientlie inough in his due and right deserued commendation.

The king by the aduise of his councell meaning to prosecute the wars in Scotland, with great forces reteined a new power of lancequenets, and other strangers, vnder the conduct of diuers & sundrie capteines: but in the meane time the French king meaning to breake with the king of England, thought to haue stolen the fortresse of Bullognberg, so that a chosen power of men of warre, to the number of seuen thousand, vnder the conduct of monsieur de Chatillon, being sent downe about that exploit on Maie daie at night, came forward with their ladders, and all other furniture méet for the purpose, approching about the houre of midnight néere to the fort, within the which were not at that time manie aboue thrée hundred and fiftie soldiers, vnder the gouernement of sir Nicholas Arnalt knight generall of that péece, a capteine of great courage, and no lesse diligence in his charge.

And as it chanced, there were among the Frenchmen thrée or foure Englishmen, which hauing matched themselues in marriage with women of that countrie, after the peace was concluded betwixt France and England, were discharged out of the king of Englands wages; and remaining with their wiues, got interteinement among the Frenchmen, and were with monsieur de Chatillon, now comming towards this enterprise. Wherevpon one of the same Englishmen named Carter, that had aforetime giuen intelligence to the said sir Nicholas of the Frenchmens dooings, so farre as he might learne and vnderstand the same, would gladlie haue aduertised sir Nicholas Arnalt of the Frenchmens purpose at this time: but monsieur de Chatillon kept the matter so secret, that Carter nor any of the other Englishmen had knowledge thereof, till they were now marching forward, so that Carter could not get awaie from them, till they were approched within lesse than a quarter of a mile of Bullognberg, and then slipping aside from among them, came running so fast as he might towards the fort, crieng; Bowes, bowes, as lowd as his voice would serue, & so gaue the alarum to them within the fort.

One of the soldiers called Morgaine Deaton, that chanced to be there at hand in scout with three or foure other, streight knew him, and brought him to the draw-bridge, where sir Nicholas Arnalt caused him to be drawen vp betwixt two pikes, vnto whome he declared how the Frenchmen were at hand, meaning to assaile his fort now vpon the sudden, in hope so to surprise it. Herewith, it néeded not to will sir Nicholas to bestirre him, to cause euerie man to make readie, and place themselues as was thought most expedient. And vndoubtedlie the noble courage of that worthie gentleman, furthered much, to cause euerie capteine and soldier vnder him, to put awaie all feare, and to haue a regard to doo his dutie, for the receiuing of the enimies; so as they séemed glad of the occasion, whereby they might shew proofe of their accustomed manhood against the enimie, that thus came to steale on them without warning, in purpose to kill euerie man that fell into their hands, if their intention had taken place, making now such hast forward, that before the Englishmen could [...]e well readie with their armour and weapons in their appointed places, the Frenchmen were got to the ditches, and appointing thrée thousand of their numbers, the most part gentlemen and double paies, with targets, battell axes, and pistols, to haue the first scale, saluted them within vpon their verie approch, with seuen hundred harquebuts shot at the first volée.

The Englishmen by order giuen by sir Nicholas, kept themselues close, till the Frenchmen by their sealing ladders, which they brought with them, and had quickelie raised against the walles, began to mount vp, and enter vpon them; at which instant, off went the flankers. Those of sir Nicholas Arnalts monts discharged verie well at the first, but at the second volee the morters burst. Albeit there were two brasse peeces that were planted aloft on the same mont, of the which the one discharged fiue & twentie shot by the maister, and the other seuen and twentie by his maiestie. Sir Nicholas Arnalt here being accompanied with his capteins and soldiers about him, stood at defense so stoutlie as was possible, dooing so valiantlie, that their fame deserueth to liue for euer. There were burst vpon the faces of the enimies (ouer and beside the shot that was bestowed among them) to the number of fiftéene hundred pikes and blacke bils. The Frenchmen verelie stucke to it to the vttermost, and did what laie in the verie last point of their powers to enter vpon the Englishmen, supplieng still the places of their dead and wearie men with fresh succors.

Carter that came to bring word of their comming, with a pike in his hand, stood at the place of the bulworke where they thus gaue the assault, & fought right valiantlie, giuing manie wounds, and receiuing some againe: for he was hurt both in the thigh and arme, who suerlie of a priuat soldier (if he were priuat and ordinarie) séemed verie seruiceable at all assaies, considering into what desperat aduentures and hazzards he did as it were cast himselfe, estéeming lesse the losse of life and lim, than the reproch and dishonor of his countrie, the glorie & renowme wherof (aboue all worldlie things which are but temporall) all men are naturallie bound with might & maine both to séeke and saue; as one verie well saith:

Nascimur vt patriam vitáque operáque iuuemus.

Sir Nicholas Arnalt himselfe was hurt with a pike in the nose. Capteine Warren standing on the same bulworke with sir Nicholas, receiued two shots in his corselet, and one of them droue two or three links of his chaine into his necke. Capteine Broughton had there sixtéene of his armed men, euerie of them hauing their corselets persed through. The number of the Englishmen that were slaine, was reckoned to be fiue and twentie, and hurt eight and fiftie. Of Frenchmen there were slaine a great number, beside those that were hurt, and at length through shot, casting downe of stones and timber vpon their heads, scalding water and handblowes they were repelled, retiring out of the trenches shortlie after the breake of the daie, hauing continued the assault from midnight till that time, still renewing their forces, in hope to atchiue their wished preie: but being thus beaten off, they gathered togither their dead men, and lading fiftéene waggons with their carcasses, they returned backe, without making anie further attempt at that time.

And so by the high valiancie of sir Nicholas Arnalt, and the other capteins that serued in that fort vnder him, and chieflie by the assistance of almightie God, the giuer of all victories, the enimies were repelled, to their great dishonor, and the péece reserued to the immortall renowme of the defendants. Within a daie or two after, the generall of the Frenchmen sent to know of prisoners taken; but sir Nicholas Arnalt answered the messenger,

that he knew of no warre: and therefore if anie had attempted to make a surprise of his péece by stealth, they were serued accordinglie to their malicious meanings. Indéed (said he) we haue taken none of your men, but we haue got some of your braue guilt armour & weapons. Well (said the messenger) it is not the cowle that maketh the moonke, and no more is it the braue armour or weapon that maketh the man of warre: but the fortune of warre is such, sometime to gaine, and sometime to lose.

Sir Nicholas receiuing him into the fort, made him good chéere, and gaue him fiftie crownes in reward, and so he departed.

But concerning the liberalitie of sir Nicholas, I might here speake further thereof, how bountifullie he rewarded the souldiers for their great manhood shewed at that time, in defending so sharpe an assault, to their great honour, and no lesse confusion of the aduersaries. The daie after the said assault, there came to Bullognberg from Guisnes, a supplie of thrée or foure hundred men, vnder the leading of sir William Cobham, now lord Cobham and others. Within a while after, sir Nicholas Arnalt sent forth thrée hundred footmen, and fiue and twentie horssemen, conducted by the said sir William Cobham, capteine Mutton of the Old man, & capteine More of Bullognberg, with certeine cariages, to go vnto a wood not farre off, called the North wood, to fetch fagots and brush, to repare and mainteine the rampires.

These capteins with their bands being passed forward, about two miles in distance from the fort, met with certeine of their scouts that were sent forth that morning, who told them that they had discouered the tract of a great number of horssemen. Whervpon the Englishmen now being almost come to the wood side, retired with all spéed: and herewith the French horssemen brake out of the wood, and following them, fell in skirmish with them. The Englishmen casting themselues in a ring, kept them off with their pikes, wherewith they impailed themselues, and hauing their small troope lined with shot, they also galled the Frenchmen right sore therewith, as they still approched them. Neuerthelesse, those horssemen gaue three maine onsets vpon the Englishmen, with the number of a thousand horsse at two of the first onsets, and the third they gaue with all their whole power, being estéemed a fiftéene hundred horssemen in all.

But such was the valiant prowesse of the English souldiers, incouraged with the comfortable presence of sir William Cobham, and other their capteins, that conducted them in such order as stood most for their safegard, exhorting them with such effectuall words as serued best to purpose, that the enimie to conclude was repelled with losse of seuentie of their great horsses that laie dead there in the field, within the space of halfe a mile. There were also foure thousand French footmen that came forward, but could not reach, and so marching about the fort, returned in vaine, after they once perceiued that the Englishmen were safelie retired within their fort. The councell thus perceiuing the French kings purpose, which he had conceiued to worke some notable damage to this realme, as well in support of his friends in Scotland, as in hope to recouer those peeces which the English held at Bullongne, and in those marches, doubted also of some inuasion meant by him to be attempted into this realme, bicause of such great preparation as he had made, for leuieng of his forces both by sea and land.

The councell therefore made likewise prouision to be readie to resist all such attempts, as anie waie foorth might be made, to the annoiance of the realme. But as things fell out, the same stood in good stead, not against the forren enimie, but against a number of rebellious subiects at home, the which forgetting their dutie and allegiance, did as much as in them laie (what soeuer their pretense was) to bring this noble realme and their naturall countrie vnto destruction. But first, for that it maie appeare, that the duke of Summerset then protector, and other of the councell, did not without good ground and cause mainteine the warres against the Scots, I haue thought good to set downe an epistle exhortatorie, as we find the same in the great chronicle of Richard Grafton, sent from the said protector and councell vnto the Scots, to mooue them to haue consideration of themselues, and of the estate of their countrie, by ioining in that friendlie bond and vnitie with England, as had beene of the kings part and his fathers continuallie sought, for the benefit of both realmes, the copie of which exhortation here insueth.

Edward by the grace of God, duke of Summerset, earle of Hertford, vicount Beauchampe, lord Seimer, vncle to the kings highnesse of England, gouernor of his most roiall person, and protector of all his realmes, dominions, & subiects, lieutenant generall of all his maiesties armies, both by land and sea, treasuror and earle marshall of England, gouernor of the Iles of Gerneseie and Ierseie, and knight of the most noble order of the garter, with others of the councell of the said most high and noble prince Edward, by the grace of God of England, France, and Ireland king, defender of the faith, and in earth vnder Christ the supreame head of the churches of England and Ireland. To the nobilitie and councellors, gentlemen and commons, and all other the inhabitants of the realme of Scotland, greeting and peace.

COnsidering with our selues the present state of things, and weieng more déepelie the maner and tearmes wherein you and we doo stand, it maketh vs to maruell, what euill & fatall chance dooth so disseuer your hearts, and maketh them so blind and vnmindfull of your profit, and so still conciliate and heape to your selues most extreame mischiefs, the which we whome ye will néeds haue your enimies, go about to take awaie from you, and perpetuallie to ease you therof. And also by all reason & order of necessitie, it should be rather more conuenient for you to séeke and require moderate agréements of vs, whome God hath hitherto according to our most iust, true, and godlie meanings and intents, prospered and set forward, with your affliction and miserie, than that we being superiours in the field, maisters of a great part of your realme, should seeke vpon you. Yet to the intent that our charitable minds and brotherlie loue should not cease, by all meanes possible to prouoke and call you to your owne commoditie and profit, euen as the father to the son, or the elder brother to the yoonger; and as the louing physician would doo to the mistrustfull and ignorant patient: we are content to call and crie vpon you to looke on your estate, to auoid the great calamitie that your countrie is in, to haue vs rather brothers than enimies, and rather countrimen than conquerors. And if your gouernor or capteins shall reteine and kéepe from you this our exhortation, as heretofore they haue doone our proclamation, tending to the like effect, for their owne priuat wealth & commoditie, not regarding though you be still in miserie, so they haue profit and gouernance ouer you, and shall still abuse you with feined and forged tales: yet this shall be a witnesse before God, and all christian people, betweene you and vs, that we professing the gospell of Iesus Christ, according to the doctrine thereof, doo not cease to call and prouoke you from the effusion of your owne bloud, from the destruction of the realme of Scotland, from perpetuall enimitie and hatred, from the finall destruction of your nation, and from seruitude to forren nations, to libertie, to amitie, to equalitie with vs, to that which your writers haue alwaies wished might once come to passe.

Who that hath read the stories in times past, and dooth marke & note the great battels past [...]ought betwixt England & Scotland, the incursions, rodes, & spoiles, which haue béene doone on both parties: the realme of Scotland fiue times woone by one king of England, the Scotish kings some taken prisoners, some slaine in battell, some for verie sorrow and discomfort vpon losse, dieng and departing the world: and shall perceiue againe, that all nations in the world, that nation onelie beside England, speaketh the same language: and as you and we be annexed and ioined in one Iland, so no people are so like in maners, forme, language, and all conditions as we are: shall not he thinke it a thing verie vnméet, vnnaturall, and vnchristian, that there should be betwixt vs so mortall war, who in respect of all other nations, be and should be like as two brethren of one Iland of great Britaine? And though he were a stranger to both, what should he thinke more meet, than if it were possible one kingdome to be made in rule, which is one in language, and to be diuided in rulers, which is all one in countrie?

And for so much as two successors cannot concurre and fall into one, by no other maner of meanes than by marriage, wherby one bloud, one linage, one parentage is made of two, and an indefensible right giuen of both to one, without the destruction and abolishing of either. If God should grant that whatsoeuer you would wish, other than that which now not by fortune hath chanced, but by his infinit mercie and most inscrutable prouidence, as carefull for you he hath giuen vnto you. The which thing that you should also thinke to come of his disposition, and not by blind fortune, how vnlike hath it beene, and how suddenlie hath it turned, that the power of God might be shewed: your last king being a prince of much excellencie and yoong, whom you know after a promise broken contrarie to his honor, & misfortune by Gods iust iudgement following vpon it, God either by sorrow or by some meanes otherwise at his inscrutable pleasure, did take awaie from you, had thrée children, did not almightie God (as it were) to shew his will and pleasure to be, that the long continued warre and enimitie of both the nations should be taken awaie, and knit in perpetuall loue and amitie, take the two men-children of those babes being distant the one from the other, and in diuerse places, both as it were at one time, and within the space of foure and twentie houres, leauing but one maiden-child and princesse?

When the most wise and victorious prince late our king and maister, king Henrie the eight, in other of his mariages not most fortunate, had by his most lawfull and most vertuous wife, quéene Iane, his otther two wiues before that mariage departed this world, and neuer surmise nor question made of that mariage, since that time to this daie, nor so much as all hir life time, name or motion to or of anie other wife, one prince of so high expectation, of so great gifts of God, the right and vndoubted heire of the realme of England and his maiestie onelie of male issue left behind him to succéed the imperiall crowne. If nothing else had béene doone, what can anie wise or anie christian man that thinketh the world to be gouerned by Gods prouidence and not by fortune, thinke otherwise, but that it was Gods pleasure it should be so, that these two realmes should ioine in mariage, and by a godlie sacrament, make a godlie, perpetuall and most friendlie vnitie & concord, whereby such benefits as of vnitie and concord commeth, may through his infinit grace come vnto these realmes. Or if anie man of you or of anie nation doubteth hereof, except you looked for miracles to be doone herein, and yet if ye marke all the possibilities of the natures of the two princes, the children alreadie had, the doubtfull chance, least each of them should haue a sonne, or both daughters, or not of méet ages, with other circumstances both of the partie of this realme of England, and that of Scotland, which hath not chanced in eight hundred yeares, it must néeds be reckoned a great maruell and a miracle.

But let it be no miracle, séeing that God dooth not now speake in oracles, as amongest the Iewes he did: and present prophesies now adaies be but either not certeine, or else not plaine: what more certeine can be had of Gods will in this case, than the before rehearsed dooth bring? But if God himselfe should speake, what could he speake more, than he speaketh in these? Call you them prouidences or chances, if you be still afflicted and punished? Maie he not saie: I of mine infinite mercie and loue to your nation, had prouided a right heire and a prince to the one, and a right heire and princesse to the other, to be ioined in my holie lawes, and by the lawe of nature and the world to haue made an vnitie, concord and peace, in the which Isle of both the realmes you refused it; you loued better dissention than vnitte, discord than agréement, warre than peace, hatred than loue and charitie. If you doo then therefore smart for it, whome can you blame but your owne election?

But because some of those, who make therevnto impediments, cannot but confesse, that there appeareth Gods prouidence herein, and oportunitie and occasion giuen to vnitie of both the realmes, yet may hereafter say, and heretofore haue said, that the fault herein is, that we séeke not equalitie, nor the mariage, but a conquest: we would not be friends but the lords. Although our proclamation at the last warres dooth inough declare the contrarie, yet here we protest and declare vnto you and all christian people, to be the kings maiesties mind our maisters, by our aduise and counsell not to conquer, but to haue in amitie; not to win by force, but to conciliate by loue; not to spoile and kill, but to saue and kéepe; not to disseuer and diuorse, but to ioine in mariage, from high to low both the realms, to make of one Isle one realme, in loue, amitie, concord, peace and charitie, which if you refuse, and driue vs to conquer, who is guiltie of the bloudshed? Who is the occasion of the warre? Who maketh the battels, the burning of houses, and the deuastation which shall follow?

Can it be denied but that we haue the great seale of Scotland granted by the parlement of Scotland, for the mariage which should be made, with assurances and pledges, vntill the performance? And thus in the time that the late king of most famous memorie our souereigne lord king Henrie the eight did reigne, and in the time of the same your gouernour, who now is the earle of Arrane, who then being a chiefe dooer and laborer therin, for the high and inestimable benefit of that realme, so soone as he was by the late cardinall of saint Andrews and others, with certeine vaine feares and hopes & gréedinesse of dignitie peruerted, reuolted from his first agréement, and put all the realme to the losse of such holds and fortresses as are now taken from you, and to the losse of a foughten field, for the which we are sorie, if otherwise peace might haue bin concluded, for his owne priuat lucre and retchlesnesse of that noble realme. And what end can you looke for of these manner of proceedings, but such successe as heretofore hath béene experimented & assaied? We offer loue, we offer equalitie and amitie, we ouercome in warre, and offer peace: we win holds, and offer no conquest: we get in your land, and offer England.

What can be more offered and more proffered, than intercourse of merchandizes, and interchange of mariages, the abolishing of all such our lawes, as prohibiteth the same, or might be impediment to the mutuall amitie. We haue offered not onelie to leaue the authoritie name, title, right or chalenge of conquerour, but to receiue that which is the shame of men ouercommed, to leaue the name o [...] the nation, and the glorie of anie victorie (if anie we haue had, or should haue of you) and to take the indifferent old name of Britains againe, because nothing should be left on our part to be offered, nothing on your part vnrefused, whereby ye might be inexcusable. And all the world might testifie all other meanes, not being able to doo anie thing, after manie other waies and remedies attempted, battell of vs to be taken as an extreame refuge, to atteine right and reason among christian men: if anie man may rightfullie make battell for his espouse and wife. The daughter of Scotland was by the great seale of Scotland promised to the sonne & heire of England.

If it be lawfull by Gods lawe to fight in a good quarrell, and for to make peace, this is to make an end of all warres, and to conclude an eternall and perpetuall peace; which to confirme, we shall fight, and you to breake, is it not easie to discerne who hath the better part? God and the sword hath alreadie, and shall hereafter (if there be no remedie) trie it. Who so willeth the mariage to go forward; who so mindeth the peace and tranquillitie of both the realmes; who willeth no conquest to be had, but amitie and loue to go forward, we refuse no man: let him bring his name and his pledge of good seruice in this quarrell, he shall not onelie be receiued to the amitie; but shall haue sufficient defense against the aduersaries, and recompense of his liuing, if he susteine anie losse. We neither doo nor intend to put anie man from his lands, taxes, or offices, vnlesse he will néeds resist, and so compell vs therevnto.

What face hath this of conquest? We intend not to disherit your queene, but to make hir heires inheritors also to England. What greater honour can ye séeke vnto your quéene, than the mariage offered? What more méeter mariage than this with the kings highnes of England? What more sure defense in the nonage of your quéene for the realme of Scotland, than to haue England your patrone and garrison? We séeke not to take from you your lawes nor customes; but we seeke to redresse your oppressions, which of diuerse ye doo susteine. In the realme of England, diuerse lawes and customes be according to the ancient vsage thereof. And likewise, France, Normandie, and Gascoigne haue sundrie kind of orders. Haue all the realmes and dominions that the emperour now hath, one custome and one sort of lawes? These vaine feares and fantasies of expulsion of your nation, of changing the lawes, of making a conquest, be driuen into your heads, of those, who in deed had rather you were all conquered, spoiled, and slaine, than they would lose anie point of their will, of their desire of rule, of their estimation, which they know in quietnesse would be séene what it were, as it were in a calme water.

Now in this tumult of disorder, when the realme is tossed vp and downe with waues and surges of battell, famine, and other mischiefes which the warre bringeth, they thinke they cannot be espied; but looke on them you that haue wit and prudence, and consider the state of your quéene and realme, you will not kéepe hir sole and vnmaried, the which were to you great dishonor. If you maried hir within the relme, that cannot extinguish the title which we haue to the crowne of Scotland. And what dissention, enuie, grudge, and malice that shall bréed among you, is easie to perceiue. You will marrie hir out of the realme, our title remaineth, you be subiects to a forren prince of another countrie, and of another language, and vs ye haue your enimies, euen at your elbow, your succours farre off from you: and be we not in the bowels now of the realme? Haue we not a great part thereof, either in subiection or in amitie and loue? Who shall come into your realme, but he shall be met with, and fought with, if néede be, euen of your owne nation, who be faithfull and true to the realme of England in the waie of this most godlie vnion by mariage.

And if anie forren power, prince, or potentate, or whosoeuer be your aider to nourish still discord, send you an armie also, how shall they oppresse you, fill your houses, waste your grounds, spend and consume your vittels, hold you in subiection, & regard you as slaues, which without them could not liue, & will take your quéene to bestow as they lust, & speciallie if their ruler or king (as perchance he may be) in other warres be otherwise occupied, to be a preie to vs, & a true conquest, then it should be too late to saie; We will haue a mariage and no conquest, We wish peace & amitie, We are wearie of battell and miserie. The stubborne ouercommed must suffer the victors pleasure, and pertinacitie will make the victorie more insolent, whereof you your selfe haue giuen the cause, if they send monie and capteines, but no souldiers. First if they be capteins, who ruleth and who dooth obeie? Who shall haue the honor of the enterprise, and if it be well atchiued? But whether it be well atchiued or no, which number is that which shall be slaine? Whose bloud shall be shed? Their monie peraduenture shalbe consumed, & their commandements obeied. But whose bodies shall smart for it? Whose lands shall be wasted? Whose houses burned? What realme made desolate? Remember what it is to haue a forren power within you, a strong power of your enimies vpon you, you (as it were) the campe & plaine betwixt them to fight on, & to be troden vpon, both of the victor, and of the ouercommed. And imagine you see before your eies your wiues & daughters in danger of wantonnesse & insolencie of the soldiors, the proud looks of the capteins & soldiors, whom you call to helpe you, the contempt you shall bring your nation in, then take heed least indeed that follow which you feare, that is, that you shall be by them conquered, that ye shall be by them put from your holds, lands, taxes & offices, that your laws by them shall be altered, that your nation shall be by them destroied. Consider in this realme, did not the Britons call in the Saxons for helpe, & by them were put out? Where be the Picts, once a gret nation betwixt you and vs? How did the nation of France put out the Galles out of all France? How got the Turk first all Grecia, & now of late all Hungarie, but being called in for to aid & helpe? And did not the Goths by like meanes get all Italie, and the Lombards one part therof now called Lombardie? What looke you for more? Néedie soldiors, & hauing their weapons in their hands, and knowing that you cannot liue without them, what will not they command you to doo? What will they not incroch vpon you? What will they not thinke they may doo? And what will they thinke that you dare doo? This forren helpe is your confusion, that succour is your detriment, the victorie so had is your seruitude: what is then to be thought of losse taken with them? The strangers and forren soldiors shall oppresse you within, our power and strength without; and of your owne nation, so manie as loue quietnesse, godlines, and wealth of your realme, shall helpe also to scourge and afflict you. Is it not better to compose and acquite all this calamitie and trouble by marriage, to end all sorrows and battels by such and so honorable a peace? Hath not the emperor Spaine & Burgundie by title of marriage? How holdeth the French king Britaine now latelie annexed to that crowne, EEBO page image 1001but by title of marriage? How haue all the great princes of the world happilie and with quiet made of two kingdoms one, of diuerse lordships one, of nations alwaies at warre with themselues, or else in doubtfull peace, one well gouerned kingdome, rule, and dominion, but by that godlie, most quiet, and most amiable composition of marriage? Two meanes there be of making one rule,Two meanes or waies of making one regiment or [...] wherto title is pretended, and perfect agréement betwixt two nations, either by force or superioritie, which is conquest; or by equalitie and loue, which is by parentage & mariage: you hate the one, that is, conquest; and by refusing the other, you inforce vpon you hatred & malice.

You will not haue peace, you will not haue aliance, you will not haue concord; and conquest commeth vpon you whether you will or no. And yet if all things were considered, we feare it will appeere that it were better for you to be conquered of vs, than succoured of strangers, lesse losse to your goods, lesse hurt to your lands, lesse dishonor to your realme; this nation which is one in toong, one in countrie and birth, hauing so little diuersitie to occupie the whole, than other powers come in to you, neither like in language, nor yet like in behauior, who should rule ouer you, and take you to be but their slaues. But we eftsoons and finallie declare and protest vnto you, that although for the better furtherance of this godlie purpose of vniting the realmes, and for the sure defense of them which fauour the marriage, we are compelled for the time to keepe holds, and to make fortifications in your realme: yet the kings maiesties mind and determinat pleasure is, with our aduise and counsell to be as before is declared, that where fauour may be shewed, not to vse rigor, if by conditions you will receiue this amitie offered, not to follow conquest: for we desire loue, vnitie, concord, peace and equalitie. Let neither your gouernor nor your kirkemen, nor those, who so often haue falsified their faith and promise, and by treacherie and falshood be accustomed to proroge the time, féed you foorth with faire words, and bring you into the snare from whence they cannot deliuer you. They will peraduenture prouide for themselues with pensions in some other realme, and set soldiors strangers in your holds to kéepe you in subiection, vnder the pretense to defend them against vs. But who prouideth pensions for you? How are you defended when they are fled away? Who conquereth you when the strange capteins haue your holds, when your land is wasted, and the realme destroied, and the more part kept from you? Who will set by the mariage of the quéene to buie a title with the war of England; to marrie the name, an other mightie king holding the land? If we two being made one by amitie, be most able to defend vs against all nations, and hauing the sea for wall, the mutuall loue for garrison, & God for defense, should make so noble and well agréeing monarchie, that neither in peace we may be ashamed, nor in war afraid of anie worldlie or forren power: whie should not you be as desirous of the same, and haue as much cause to reioise at it as we? If this honor of so noble a monarchie doo not moue you to take and accept amitie, let the griefe and the danger of the aforenamed losses feare you to attempt that thing which shall displease God, increase warre, danger your realme, destroie your land, vndoo your children, wast your grounds, desolate your countries, and bring all Scotland either to famine & miserie, or to subiection and seruitude of an other nation. We require but your promised quéene, your offered agréement of vnitie, the ioining of both the nations, which God of his infinite clemencie and tender loue that he hath declared to beare to both the nations, hath offered vnto vs both, and in manner called vs both vnto it, whose calling and prouocation we haue, and will folow to the best of our powers, and in his name, and with his aid, admonition, exhortation, requests, and ambassages, not being able to doo it, and to find stablenesse in promises, we shall not willing, but constreined pursue the battell, chastise the wicked & malicious by the angrie angels of God, fire and sword.

Wherefore we require and exhort you all, who haue loue to the countrie, pitie of that realme, a true hart to your quéene and mis [...]resse, regard of your honors and promises made by the great seale of Scotland, and who fauoureth the peace, loue, vnitie, and concord and that most profitable marriage to enter and come to vs; and declaring your true and godlie harts thervnto, to aid vs in this most godlie purpose and enterprise. To be witnesse of our dooings we refuse no man, temporall nor spirituall, lord ne lard, gentleman nor other, who will aid this our purpose, and minish the occasion of slaughter and destruction, to whom we shall kéepe the promises heretofore declared, and further sée reward and recompense made according to the desert.

And for a more sure proofe and plainer token of the good mind and will which we beare vnto you, that which neuer yet was granted to Scotland in anie league, truce, or peace betwixt England and Scotland, because yée shall haue proofe of the beginning of loue and amitie of both the realmes: the kings highnes considering the multitude of them which are come to his maiesties deuotion, and of them that be well-willers and aiders of this godlie enterprise, hath by our aduise and counsell granted, and by these presents doth grant, that from henceforth all maner of merchants and other Scotishmen, who will enter their names with one of the wardens of the marches, & there professe to take part with vs in this before named godly purpose, to his owne commoditie, & to serue all such as be of the same agréement, may lawfullie and without anie trouble and vexation enter into anie port, créeke, or hauen of England, and there vse their traffike of merchandize, buie and sell, bring in the commodities of Scotland, and take and carrie foorth the commodities of England, as liberallie and as fréelie, and with the same and none other custome or paiments therefore, than Englishmen and the kings subiects doo at this present: minding further vpon the successe hereof to gratifie so the furtherers of this most godlie enterprise and vnion, that all the world may be witnesse of the great zeale and loue which his highnesse dooth beare toward you and your nation. And all this the kings highnesse, by our aduise and counsell, hath willed to be declared vnto you; and giuen in commandement vnto vs, and all his lieutenants, wardens, rulers, and other head officers, ministers, and subiects, to sée executed and doone, according to the true purport, effect, and meaning thereof. Fare you well.

Although this admonition and wholsome exhortation might haue mooued the Scots to haue regarded their owne state, yet it litle auailed, as by the sequele it appeared. For hauing both great promises made by the French, and now considering therewith the hurlie burlies and tumults that sproong vp in England, they continued in their obstinat purposes, not to yéeld vnto such reasonable motions as had béene offered, if they would haue shewed themselues conformable thereto, and not haue so stubbornlie denied to submit themselues to that which of right they were bound vnto. So that herein they shewed themselues verie peruerse and wilfull, reiecting not onelie the good aduise that the duke gaue them, but also not so much as once thinking what might insue to their great mischéefe vpon their refusall, and what benefit redound to them by admitting the offer: naie, they were of opinion and beléefe, that if so braue a bootie might befall England, it would be an occasion of great ruth and wretchednesse to Scotland: as one of late hath affirmed in his poeticall supposall:

—si haec praeda Britannis

Cederet, ô miserae Scotiae mis [...]rabile regnum,

Genti infelici nihil est nisiflere relictum.

But now to let the Scots alone for a time, we will returne to the rebellion which followed in this yéere, to the whole disappointing of the plot laid by the councell, for the present subduing of the Scots, as it was verie like that it should haue so come to passe, if none other let had come. So it was, that the kings maiestie, by the aduise of his vncle the lord protector, and other of the councell, thought good to set foorth a proclamation against inclosures, and taking in of fields and commons that were accustomed to lie open, for the behoofe of the inhabitants dwelling neere to the same, who had greeuouslie complained of gentlemen and others for taking from them the vse of those fields and commons, and had inclosed them into parks and seuerall pastures for their priuat commodities and pleasures, to the great hinderance and vndooing of manie a poore man.

This proclamation tending to the benefit and reléefe of the poore, appointed that such as had inclosed those commons, should vpon a paine by a daie assigned laie them open againe. But how well soeuer the setters foorth of this proclamation meant, thinking thereby peraduenture to appease the grudge of the people that found themselues grieued with such inclosures; yet verelie it turned not to the wished effect, but rather ministred occasion of a foule and dangerous disorder. For wheras there were few that obeied the commandement, the vnaduised people presuming vpon their proclamation, thinking they should be borne out by them that had set it foorth rashlie without order, tooke vpon them to redresse the matter: and assembling themselues in vnlawfull wise, chose to them capteins and leaders, brake open the inclosures, cast downe ditches, killed vp the deare which they found in parkes, spoiled and made hauocke, after the maner of an open rebellion. First they began to plaie these parts in Summersetshire, Buckinghamshire, Northhamptonshire, Kent, Essex, and Lincolneshire.

In Summersetshire they brake vp certeine parks of sir William Herbert, and the lord Sturton: but sir William Herbert assembling a power togither by the kings commission, slue and executed manie of those rebellious people. In other places also, by the good diligence and policie vsed by the councell, the rebels were appeased and quieted. But shortlie after, the commons of Deuonshire and Cornewall rose by waie of rebellion, demanding not onelie to haue inclosures laied open, and parkes disparked: but also thorough the instigation and pricking forward of certeine popish priests, ceased not by all sinister and subtill meanes, first vnder Gods name & the kings, and vnder the colour of religion, to persuade the people to assemble in routs, to choose capteins to guide them, and finallie to burst out into open rebellion. Their chiefe capteins were these, Humfrie Arundell esquier, gouernour of the Mount, Iames Rosogan, Iohn Rosogan, Iohn Paine, Thomas Underhill, Iohn Soleman, and William Segar. Moreouer, of priests which were principall stirrers, and some of them chiefe gouernors of the camps, and after executed, there were to the number of eight, whose names we find to be as follow: Robert Bocham, Iohn Thompson, Roger Barret, Iohn Wolcocke, William Alsa, Iames Mourton, Iohn Barrow, Richard Benet, besides a multitude of other priests which ioined with them.

The whole companies of these rebels amounted little lesse than to the number of ten thousand stout and valiant personages, able indéed (if their cause had beene good and fauoured of the Lord and giuer of victories) to haue wrought great feats. But being (as they were) ranke and malicious traitors, the almightie God confounded their deuises, and brought them to their deserued confusion. A strange case, that those mischéefous and wicked traitors could not be warned by the euill successe of their diuelish attempted outrage, in the yeare last past: at what time certeine seditious persons in Cornewall fell vpon one of the kings commissioners named master Bodie, sent thither with others for the reformation of matters in religion, in like manner as other were sent at the same time into other shires of the realme, for the which murther a priest being apprehended, arreigned, and condemned, was drawne into Smithfield, and there hanged and quartered the seauenth daie of Iulie, in the said last yeare before mentioned, to wit, 1548. Other of his complices and associats were executed and put to death in diuerse other parts of the realme.

But now touching these other that rose in this present summer. At the first they were in great hope that the other disordered persons, which stirred in other parts of the realme, would haue ioined with them, by force to haue disappointed and vndoone that which the prince by law and act of parlement, in reformation of religion, had ordeined and established. But afterwards perceiuing how in most places such mischeefous mutinies and diuelish attempts, as the commons had begun, partlie by force and partlie by policie were appeased, or that their cause being but onelie about plucking downe of inclosures, and inlarging of commons, was diuided from theirs; so that either they would not, or could not ioine with them in aid of their religious quarrell: they began somewhat to doubt of their wicked begun enterprise. Notwithstanding now, sith they had gone so farre in the matter, they thought there was no shrinking backe: and therefore determining to proceed, they fell to new deuises, as first before all things to bring into their hands all such places of force, wealth, and defense, as might in anie respect serue for their aid and furtherance. Herevpon the second of Iulie, they came before the citie of Excester, incamping about the same in great numbers, and vsed all waies and meanes they could deuise how to win it by force, sometimes assaulting it right sharplie, sometimes firing the gates, otherwhiles vndermining the wals, and at other times (as occasions serued) procuring skirmishes.

Finallie, nothing was left vndoone which the enimie could imagine to serue his purpose for the winning of that citie. And albeit there wanted not lustie stomachs among the citizens to withstand this outward force of the enimie: yet in processe of time, such scarsitie of bread and vittels increased, that the people waxed weari [...] & loth to abide such extremitie of famine. Howbeit the magistrats (though it gréeued them to sée the multitude of the citizens in such distresse) yet hauing a speciall regard of their dutie toward the prince, and loue to the common-wealth, left no waies vnsought to quiet the people, & staie them in their dutifull obedience to resist the enimies: so that comforting the people with faire promises, and reléeuing their necessities verie liberallie, so farre as their power might extend, did in such sort vse the matter, that euerie of them within resolued with one generall consent to abide the end, in hope of some spéedie reléefe. And in the meane while, when their corne and meale was consumed, the gouernors of the citie caused bran and meale to be moulded vp in cloth, for otherwise it would not sticke togither.

Also they caused some excursions to be made out of the citie, to take and fetch into the citie such cattell as were found pasturing abroad néere to the wals, which being brought in, were distributed among the poore. To conclude, into such extremitie were the miserable citizens brought, that albeit mans nature can scarselie abide to féed vpon anie vnaccustomed food; yet these sillie men were glad to eat horsse flesh, and to hold themselues well content therewith. Whilest the siege thus remained before Excester, the rebels spoiled and robbed the countrie abroad, and laieng their traitorous heads togither, they consulted vpon certeine articles to be sent vp to the king. But herein such diuersitie of heads and wits was among them, that for euerie kind of braine there was one maner of article: so that neither appeared anie consent in their diuersitie, nor yet anie constancie in their agréement. Some séemed more tollerable, others altogither vnreasonable, some would haue no iustices, some no state of gentlemen. The priests euer harped vpon one string, to ring the bishop of Rome into England againe, and to hallow home cardinall Poole their countriman. After much a doo, at length a few articles were agréed vpon, to be directed vnto the king, with the names of certeine of their heads set therevnto, the copie whereof here insueth.

The articles of the commons of Deuonshire and Cornewall, sent to the king, with answers afterward following vnto the same.

First, forsomuch as man, except he be borne of water, and the Holie-ghost, can not enter into the kingdome of God, and forsomuch as the gates of heauen be not open without this blessed sacrament of baptisme; therefore we will that our curats shall minister this sacrament at all times of need, as well on the wéeke daies, as on the holie daies.

2 Item, we will haue our children confirmed of the bishop, whensoeuer we shall within the diocesse resort vnto him.

3 Item, forsomuch as we constantlie beléeue, that after the priest hath spoken the words of consecration being at masse, there celebrating and consecrating the same, there is verie reallie the bodie and bloud of our sauiour Iesus Christ God and man, and that no substance of bread and wine remaineth after, but the verie selfe same bodie that was borne of the virgin Marie, and was giuen vpon the crosse for our redemption: therefore we will haue masse celebrated as it hath beene in times past, without anie man communicating with the priests, forsomuch as manie rudelie presuming vnworthilie to receiue the same, put no difference betweene the Lords bodie & other kind of meat; some saieng that it is bread before and after, some saieng that it is profitable to no man except he receiue it: with manie other abused termes.

Reseruation of the lords bodie conse [...]ated.

Holie bread and holie water.

4 Item, we will haue in our churches reseruation.

5 Item, we will haue holie bread and holie water in the remembrance of Christs pretious bodie and bloud.

6 Item, we will that our priests shall sing or saie with an audible voice, Gods seruice in the quier of the parish churches, and not Gods seruice to be set foorth like a Christmasse plaie.The single [...] of priests.

7 Item, forsomuch as priests be men dedicated to God for ministring and celebrating the blessed sacraments, and preaching of Gods word, we will that they shall liue chast without marriage, as saint Paule did, being the elect and chosen vessell of God saieng vnto all honest priests; Be you followers of me.

Item, we will that the six articles, which our souereigne lord king Henrie the eight set forth in his latter daies, shall be vsed and so taken as they were at that time.

9 Item, we praie God saue king Edward, for we be his both bodie and goods.

1549 Prayer Book Rebellion

Aug 1549. For the pacifieng of these rebels, were appointed by the king and his councell, sir Iohn Russell (age 64) knight lord priuie seale, the lord Greie of Wilton (age 40), sir William Herbert (age 48) after earle of Penbroke, sir Iohn Paulet, sir Hugh Paulet, sir Thomas Speake, and others, with a conuenient power of men of warre both on horssebacke and foot. Amongst others, there were certeine strangers that came with my lord Greie, as capteine Germane an Hennower, with a band of horssemen, most part Albanoises and Italians. Also capteine Paule Baptist Spinola an Italian borne of a noble house in Genoa, with a band of Italian footmen. But now the lord priuie seale that was ordeined by the king and his councell, generall of that armie, vpon his first approching towards them, sent vnto them the kings maiesties proclamation: the effect whereof was, that all such persons as were vnlawfullie assembled, and did not within thrée daies next after the proclaming thereof, yéeld and submit themselues to the lord priuie seale (the kings lieutenant) they should from thenceforth be deemed, accepted, and taken for rebels against his roiall person, and his imperiall crowne and dignitie.

And further, the kings maiestie, for a more terrour to the rebels, and the incouragement of such other his louing subiects, as should helpe and aid to apprehend anie of the said rebels, he by his said proclamation granted and gaue all the offices, fées, goods and possessions, which the said rebels had at and before their apprehension. This proclamation notwithstanding, the rebels continued in their wicked deuises & traitorous purposes, hastening to the hazzards of their owne deaths & vndooings, as the poet saith of the foolish fish swiming to the hidden hooke:

Occultum visus decurrere piscis ad hamum.

Wherevpon yet once againe the kings maiestie, for the auoiding of the shedding of christian bloud, sent vnto them a most gentle and louing message in writing, thereby to reduce them againe to their dutifull obedience: but all would not serue nor auaile to mooue their obstinate minds to leaue off their desperate and diuelish enterprise. The message was as followeth.

The kings message to the rebels of Cornewall and Deuonshire.

ALthough knowledge hath beene giuen to vs, and our deerest vncle the duke of Summerset gouernor of our person, and protector of all our realms, dominions, and subiects, and to the rest of our priuie councell, of diuerse assemblies made by you, which ought of dutie to be our louing subiects, against all order of law, and otherwise than euer anie louing or kind subiects haue attempted against their naturall and liege souereigne lord: yet we haue thought it méet, at this verie first time, not to condemne and reiect you, as we might iustlie doo; but to vse you as our subiects, thinking that the diuell hath not that power in you, to make you of naturall borne Englishmen, so suddenlie to become enimies to your owne natiue countrie of our subiects, to make you traitors, or vnder pretense to relieue your selues, to destroie your selues, your wiues, children, lands, possessions, and all other commodities of this your life. This we saie, that we trust, that although ye be ignorantlie seduced, ye will not be vpon knowledge, obstinate.

And though some amongst you (as euer there is some cockle amongst good corne) forget God, neglect their prince, estéeme not the state of the realme, but as carelesse & desperat men delite in sedition, tumults & wars: yet neuerthelesse the greater part of you will heare the voice of vs your naturall prince, and will by wisedome and counsell be warned, and cease your euils in the beginning, whose ends will be euen by God almighties order your owne destruction. Wherfore as to you our subiects by ignorance seduced, we speake and be content to vse our princelie authoritie like a father to his children, to admonish you of your faults, not to punish them; to put you in remembrance of your duties, not to auenge your forgetfulnesse. First, your disorder to rise in multitudes, to assemble your selues against our other louing subiects, to arraie your selues to the war, who amongst you all can answer for the same to almightie God, charging you to obeie vs in all things? Or how can anie English good hart answer vs, our lawes, and the rest of our verie louing and faithfull subiects, who in deed by their obedience make our honour, estate, and degrée?

Ye vse our name in your writings, and abuse the same against our selfe. What iniurie herein doo you vs, to call those which loue vs, to your euill purposes, by the authoritie of our name? God hath made vs your king by his ordinance and prouidence, by our bloud and inheritance, by lawfull succession, and our coronation: but not to this end, as you vse our name. We are your most naturall souereigne lord & king, Edward the sixt, to rule you, to preserue you, to saue you from all your outward enimies, to sée our lawes well ministred, euerie man to haue his owne, to suppresse disordered people, to correct traitors, théeues, pirats, robbers, & such like, yea to keepe our realms from other princes, from the malice of the Scots, of Frenchmen, of the bishop of Rome. Thus good subiects, our name is written, thus it is honored and obeied, this maiestie it hath by Gods ordinance, not by mans. So that of this your offense we cannot write too much. And yet doubt not but this is inough from a prince to all reasonable people, from a roiall king to all kindharted & louing subiects, frõ the puissant K. of England, to euerie naturall Englishman.

Your pretense, which you saie, moueth you to doo thus, and wherewith you séeke to excuse this disorder, we assure you is either false, or so vaine that we doubt not, that after that ye shall hereby vnderstand the truth thereof, ye will all with one voice acknowlege your selues ignorantlie led, and by errour seduced. And if there be anie one that will not, then assure you the same be ranke traitors, enimies of our crowne, seditious people, heretikes, papists, or such as care not what cause they haue to prouoke an insurrection, so they may doo it, nor in deed can wax so rich with their owne labors & with peace, as they can doo with spoiles, with wars, with robberies and such like, yea with the spoile of your owne goods, with the living of your labors, the sweat of your bodies, the food of your owne households, wiues and children: such they be, as for a time vse pleasant persuasions to you, and in the end will cut your throtes for your owne goods.

You be borne in hand, that your children, though necessitie chance, shall not be christened but vpon the holie daies: how false this is, learne you of vs. Our booke which we haue set foorth by free consent of our whole parlement in the English toong teacheth you the contrarie, euen in the first leafe, yea the first side of the first leafe of that part which intreateth of baptisme. Good subiects (for to other we speake not) looke & be not deceiued. They which haue put this false opinion into your eares, they meane not the christening of children, but the destruction of you our christened subiects. Be this knowne vnto you, that our honor is so much, that we may not be found faultie of one iote or word: proue it, if by our laws you may not christen your children when ye be disposed vpon necessitie, euerie daie or houre in the wéeke, then might you be offended: but seeing you may doo it, how can you beléeue them that teach you the contrarie? What thinke you they meane in the rest, which moue you to breake your obedience against vs, your king & souereigne, vpon these so false tales & persuasions in so euident a matter? Therfore all you which will acknowledge vs your souereigne lord, and which will heare the voice of vs your king, may easilie perceiue how you be deceiued, and how subtillie traitors and papists, with their falsehood séeke to atchiue and bring their purpose to passe with your helpe. Euerie traitor will be glad to dissemble his treason, and féed it secretlie; euerie papist his poperie, and nourish it inwardlie; and in the end make you our subiects partakers of treason and poperie, which in the beginning was pretended to be a commonweale and holinesse.

And how are you seduced by them, which put in your heads the blessed sacrament of Christes bodie, should not differ from other common bread? If our lawes, proclamations, and statutes be all to the contrarie, whie shall anie priuat man persuade you against them? We doo our selfe in our owne hart, our councell in all their profession, our lawes and statutes in all purposes, our good subiects in all our dooings most highlie estéeme that sacrament, and vse the communion thereof to our most comfort. We make so much difference thereof from other common bread, that we thinke no profit of other bread, but to mainteine our bodies: but this blessed bread we take to be the verie food of our soules to euerlasting life. How thinke you, good subiects, shall not we being your prince, your lord, your king by Gods appointment, with truth more preuaile, than certeine euill persons with open falsehood? Shall anie seditious person persuade you that the sacrament is despised, which is by our lawes, by our selfe, by our councell, and by all our good subiects estéemed, vsed, participated, and dailie receiued? If euer ye were seduced, if euer deceiued, if euer traitors were beleeued, if euer papists poisoned good subiects, it is now. It is not the christening of children, nor the reuerence of the sacrament, nor the health of your soules that they shoot at, good subiects: it is sedition, it is high treason, it is your destruction they séeke. How craftilie, how pitiouslie, how cunninglie so euer they doo it, with one rule iudge yée the end, which of force must come of your purposes.

Almightie God forbiddeth vpon paine of euerlasting damnation, disobedence to vs your king, and in his place we rule in earth. If we should be slow, would God erre? If your offense be towards God, thinke you it is pardoned without repentance? Is Gods iudgement mutable? Your paine is damnation, your iudge is incorruptible, your fault is most euident. Likewise are ye euill informed in diuerse other articles, as for confirmation of your children, for the masse, for the maner of your seruice of mattins and euensong. Whatsoeuer is therein ordered, hath beene long debated, and consulted by manie learned bishops, doctors, and other men of great learning in this realme concluded, in nothing so much labour and time spent of late time, nothing so fullie ended. As for seruice in the English toong hath manifest reasons for it, and yet perchance seemeth to you a new seruice, and yet in déed is none other but the old. The selfe same words in English which were in Latin, sauing a few things taken out, so fond that it had béene a shame to haue heard them in English, as all they can iudge which list to report the truth.

The difference is, that we ment godlie, that you our subiects should vnderstand in English, being our naturall countrie toong, that which was heretofore spoken in Latine, then seruing onelie them which vnderstand Latine, & now for all you that be borne English. How can this with reason offend anie reasonable man, that he should vnderstand what anie other saith, and so to consent with the speaker? If the seruice in the church were good in Latine, it remaineth good in English: for nothing is altered, but to speake with knowledge, that before was spoken with ignorance: and to let you vnderstand what is said for you, to the intent you maie further it with your owne deuotion, an alteration to the better, except knowledge be worse than ignorance. So that whosoeuer hath mooued you to mislike this order, can giue you no reason, nor answer yours, if ye vnderstand it.

Wherefore you our subiects, remember we speake to you, being ordeined your prince and king by almightie God, if anie wise we could aduance Gods honour more than we doo, we would doo it, and sée that ye become subiects to Gods ordinance. Obeie vs your prince, and learne of them which haue authoritie to teach you, which haue power to rule you, and will execute our iustice, if we be prouoked. Learne not of them whose fruits be nothing but wilfulnesse, disobedience, obstinacie, & destruction of the realme. For the masse, we assure you, no small studie & trauell hath béene spent by all the learned clergie therin, and to auoid all contention thereof, it is brought euen to the verie vse as Christ left it, as the apostles vsed it, as holie fathers deliuered it: indeed somwhat altered from that which the popes of Rome for their lucre brought to it. And although you maie heare the contrarie of some popish and euill men, yet our maiestie, which for our honor maie not be blemished nor stained, assureth you, that they deceiue you, abuse you, and blow these opinions into your heads for to furnish their owne purposes.

And so likewise iudge you of confirmation of children, and let them answer you this one question. Thinke they that a child christened is damned, bicause he dieth before bishopping? Marke good subiects, what inconuenience hereof commeth. Our doctrine therefore is founded vpon true learning, and theirs vpon shamelesse errors. To conclude, beside our gentle maner of information to you, whatsoeuer is conteined in our booke, either for baptisme, sacrament, masse, confirmation and seruice in the church, is by parlement established, by the whole clergie agréed, yea by the bishops of the realme deuised, & further by Gods word confirmed. And how dare you trust, yea how dare you giue eare without trembling, to anie singular person to disalow a parlement; a subiect to persuade against our maiestie, or anie man of his single arrogancie against the determination of the bishops, and all the cleargie, anie inuented argument against the word of God?

But now you our subiects, we resort to a greater matter of your vnkindnesse, a great vnnaturalnes, and such an euill, that if we thought it had not béene begun of ignorance, and continued by persuasion of certeine traitors amongst you, which we thinke few in number, but in their dooings busie, we could not be persuaded but to vse our sword and doo iustice: and as we be ordeined of God for to redresse your errors by auengement. But loue and zeale yet ouercommeth our iust anger, but how long that will be, God knoweth, in whose hand our heart is; and rather for your owne causes, being our christened subiects, we would ye were persuaded than vanquished, taught than ouerthrowne, quietlie pacified than rigorouslie persecuted. Ye require to haue the statute of six articles reuiued. And know you what ye require? Or know ye what ease ye haue with the losse of them? They were lawes made, but quicklie repented; too bloudie they were to be borne of our people, yet at the first in deed made of some necessitie. Oh subiects how are ye trapped by euill persons? We of pitie, bicause they were bloudie, tooke them awaie, and you now of ignorance will aske them againe. You know full well that they helped vs to extend rigour, and gaue vs cause to draw our sword verie often.

And since our mercie mooued vs to write our lawes with milke and equitie, how are ye blinded to aske them in bloud? But leauing this maner of reasoning, and resorting to the truth of our authoritie, we let you wit, the same hath béene adnulled by parlement with great reioise of our subiects, and not now to be called in question. And dareth anie of you with the name of a subiect, stand against an act of parlement, a law of the realme? What is our power if lawes should be thus neglected? Or what is your suertie if lawes be not kept? Assure you most suerlie, that we of no earthlie thing vnder the heauen make such reputation as we doo of this one, to haue our lawes obeied, & this cause of God to be throughlie mainteined, from the which we will neuer remoue a heares bredth, nor giue place to anie creature liuing: but therein will spend our whole roiall person, our crowne, treasure, realme, and all our state, whereof we assure you of our high honor. For herein resteth our honor, herein doo all kings knowledge vs a king. And shall anie one of you dare breath or thinke against our kingdome and crowne?

In the end of this your request (as we be giuen to vnderstand) ye would haue them stand in force till our full age. To this we thinke, that if ye knew what ye spake, ye would not haue vttred the motion, nor neuer giuen breath to such a thought. For what thinke you of our kingdome? Be we of lesse authoritie for our age? Be we not your king now as we shall be? Shall ye be subiects hereafter, and now are ye not? Haue we not the right we shall haue? If ye would suspend and hang our dooings in doubt vntill our full age, ye must first know, as a king we haue no difference of yeares, but as a naturall man and creature of God we haue youth, and by his sufferance shall haue age. We are your rightfull king, your liege lord, the souereigne prince of England, not by our age, but by Gods ordinance; not onelie when we shall be one and twentie yeares of age, but when we were of ten yéers. We possesse our crowne not by yeares, but by the bloud and descent from our father king Henrie the eight. If it be considered, they which mooue this matter, if they durst vtter themselues, would denie our kingdome.

But our good subiects know their prince, and will increase, not diminish his honor, inlarge his power, not abate it, knowledge his kingdome, not deferre it to certeine yeares. All is one, to speake against our crowne, and to denie our kingdome, as to require that our lawes maie be broken vnto one and twentie yeares. Be we not your crowned, annointed, and established king? Wherein be we of lesse maiestie, of lesse authoritie, or lesse state, than our progenitors kings of this realme, except your vnkindnes, your vnnaturalnesse will diminish our estimation? We haue hitherto since the death of our father, by the good aduise and counsell of our deare and intirelie beloued vncle the duke of Summerset, and gouernor and protector, kept our estate, mainteined our realme, preserued our honour, defended our people from all enimies. We haue hitherto béene feared and dread of our enimies, yea of princes, kings, and nations. Yea herein we be nothing inferiour to anie our progenitors, which grace we acknowledge to be giuen vs from God, and how else, but by good obedience, good counsell of our magistrates, and by the authoritie of our kingdome?

England hitherto hath gained honour during our reigne: it hath woone of the enimie, and not lost. It hath béene maruelled that wée of so yoong yeares haue reigned so noblie, so roiallie, so quietlie. And how chanceth that you our louing subiects of that our countrie of Cornewall and Deuonshire, will giue occasion to slander this our realme of England, to giue courage to the enimie, to note our realme of the euill of rebellion, to make it a preie to our old enimies, to diminish our honour which God hath giuen, our father left, our good vncle and councell preserued vnto vs? What greater euill could ye commit, than euen now when our forren enimie in Scotland, and vpon the sea seeketh to inuade vs, to doo our realme dishonour, than to arise in this maner against our law, to prouoke our wrath, to aske our vengeance, and to giue vs an occasion to spend that force v [...] on you, which we meant to bestow vpon our enimies, to begin to slaie you with that sword that we drew forth against Scots, and other enimies, to make a conquest of our owne people, which otherwise should haue beene of the whole realme of Scotland?

Thus farre we haue descended from our high maiestie, for loue to consider you in your simple ignorance, and haue béene content to send you an instruction like a father, who of iustice might haue sent you your destructions like a king to rebels. And now we let you know, that as you sée our mercie abundantlie, so if ye prouoke vs further, we sweare to you by the liuing God, ye shall féele the power of the same God in our sword, which how mightie it is, no subiect knoweth; how puissant it is, no priuat man can iudge; how mortall, no Englishman dare thinke. But suerlie, suerlie, as your lord and prince, your onlie king and maister, we saie to you, repent your selues, and take our mercie without delaie: or else we will foorthwith extend our princelie power, and execute our sharpe sword against you, as against infidels and Turks, and rather aduenture our owne roiall person, state, and power, than the same should not be executed.

And if you will proue the example of our mercie, learne of certeine which latlie did arise, as they perceiuing pretended some griefes, and yet acknowledging their offenses, haue not onelie most humblie their pardon: but féele also by our order, to whome onelie all publike order apperteineth, present redresse of their griefes. In the end, we admonish you of your duties to God, whome ye shall answere in the daie of the Lord, & of your duties toward vs, whom ye shall answere by our order, and take our mercie whilest God so inclineth vs, least when ye shall be constreined to aske, we shall be two much hardened in heart to grant it you. And where ye shall heare now of mercie, mercie, and life; ye shall then heare of iustice, iustice, and death. Written the eight of Iulie, in the third yeare of our reigne.

Although the rebels receiued this princelie message, & wholesome admonition from the kings maiestie, yet would they not reforme themselues, as dutifull subiects ought to haue doone, but stood still in their wicked begun rebellion, offering to trie it at the weapons point. There wanted not priestes and other busie bodies among them, such as by all waies and meanes possible sought to kindle the coles of malice and hatred betwixt the king and his subiects; which as the maner is among all the like wicked disposed people, contriued to raise and strew abroad false forged tales, and feined rumors, giuing it out, that the people should be constreined to paie a ratable taske for their sheepe and cattell, and an excise for euerie thing that they should eate or drinke. These and such other slanderous brutes were spred abroad by those children of Beliall, whereby the cankered minds of the rebels might the more be hardened and made stiffe from plieng vnto anie resonable persuasion, that might be made to moue them to returne vnto their dutifull obedience, as by the lawes both of God and man they were bounden: and so it came to passe. For the rebellious ront were growne to an obstinacie, séeming so far from admitting persuasions to submission, that they became resolute in their pestilent actions; wilfullie following the woorst, which they knew full well would redound to their detriment; and auoiding the best, which they doubted not might turne to their aduantage, agreable in sense and meaning vnto that of the poet:

Quae nocüere sequar, fugiam quae profore credam.