Holyrood Chronicle

Holyrood Chronicle is in Late Medieval Books.

24 May 1153. Mcliii, obiit pie memorie David rex Scottorum, ix kal. Junii, dominica4 [ante]5 ascensionem domini.6 Cui successit in regnum Malcolm7 nepos ejus, etate [xii]8 annorum9, filius Henrici predicti comitis Northumbrie.

24 May 1153. David of pious memory, king of the Scots, died on the ninth before the Kalends of June, the Sunday [24 May] before the Lord's Ascension. He was succeeded in the kingdom by his grandson Malcolm, [twelve] years old,* son of the aforesaid Henry earl of Northumbria.

Note 4. dominica: L, Domica.

Note 5. ante in L; au~ (i.e. autem) in K.

Note 6. Rogation Sunday, 24 May, 1153.

Note 7. Malcolm: K possibly malcolin.

Note 8. [xii]: In both K and L, the number is unintelligibly written, as if q with an oblique stroke through its tail, followed in L by two minims, perhaps u, and in K by minims that have been altered to xii. It is impossible to tell from photographic copies of the manuscript whether or not the alteration in K is by the text hand.

Malcolm was twelve years old at his accession, and was in his twenty-fifth year when he died on 9 Dec. 1165 (Chronicle of Melrose).

[Note. This paragraph, and the two following are enclosed in [] A note of Malcolm's birth, with no date, was added to the annal for 1141 in the Chronicle of Melrose. It was placed after an eclipse that was dated in the original text 20 Mar. 1141, but that occurred actually on 20 Mar. 1140. The added note was written much later than the text in which it is inserted. Itis not evidence for the day, and not good evidence for the year, of Malcolm's birth. Similarly a note of William's birth has been added at the end of the annal for 1143, much later than the text. In both cases, the birth-years have probably been deduced from the kings' ages entered in the Chronicle of Melrose at their deaths, under 1165 and 1214, and the annotators have added nothing to the evidence of the chronicle. A. O. A.]

Note 9. annorum: L, anorum.

1153. Obiit Eugenius papa, cui successit Anastasius; et abbas B[ernardus] Clarevallis; et Eustachius comes, filius Stephani1 regis Anglorum; Radulfus2 quoque comes Cestrie; et Symon comes Northantunie3; Henricus etiam archiepiscop[us]4 Eboracensis.

Pope Eugenius died, and was succeeded by Anastasius. And the abbot Bernard of Clairvaux [died]; and count Eustace, the son of Stephen king of the English; Ralph also, the earl of Chester; and Simon earl of Northampton*; and Henry, the archbishop of York.

Note 1. Stephani: L, tepha'.

Note 2. Radulfus: K and L, Rad'. Read Ranulfus. Ranulf de Gernons, earl of Chester, did homage to king David in 1149, while they were in opposition to king Stephen (John of Hexham, Rolls Series 75, ii, pp. 322-323). His sister had married Richard Gilbert's son, whose death is entered above at 1136 (see Dictionary of National Biography as there cited).

Note 3. Northantunie: L, northamtunie. [Simon II de Senlis was the son of Simon I de Senlis, earl of Northampton and Huntingdon, and countess Matilda, afterwards the wife of king David and mother of earl Henry. Matilda is said by Fordun to have died 1130x1131: the suggestion that she might have been alive in 1147 (Early Sources, ii, pp. 149, 151) is improbable considering her age. Simon's claim to Northampton, Huntingdon, and Northumbria, was prior to Henry's. For a time, Simon II held the earldom of Northumbria, before that was given in 1139 to his step-brother earl Henry; and in 1141 he seems to have received the earldom of Northampton and Huntingdon, which he held until his death. (Early Sources, ii, pp. 157-158, 151-153.) A. O. A.]

Note 4. archiepiscop[us]: K and L, archiepiscopi.

06 Nov 1153. Stephanus rex Anglie5 cum Henrico nobilissimo comite Andegavie pacem et fidem perpetu[a]m6, in die festo sancti Leonardi abbatis7, iniit.

Stephen king of England made peace and a lasting agreement with Henry, the most noble count of Anjou, on the festival of St Leonard the abbot [6 Nov.].

Note 5. In K, an abbreviation-sign after the l of anglie has been erased.

Note 6. perpetu[a]m: K and L, perpetuum.

Note 7. die .. abbatis: 6 Nov. The agreement between king Stephen and Henry, afterwards king Henry II, is placed by Robert de Torigni on the same day: viii Id. Nov. (Rolls Series 82, iv, p. 177). The resulting treaty is in Foedera, i, p. 18.

06 Nov 1153. Eo die8 apud9 Scotiam Sumerlede1 et nepotes sui, filii scilicet Malcolmi2, a[s]so[c]iatis3 sibi plurimis, insurrexerunt4 in regem Malcolm, et Scotiam in magna parte perturban[t]es inquietaverunt.

On that day [?], in Scotland, Somerled and his nephews, the sons of Malcolm [Macheth], allied with themselves very many men, and rebelled against king Malcolm, and disturbed and disquieted Scotland to a great extent.

Note 8. Eo die: In K and L, there is no mark of punctuation before eo. Perhaps Eo die is an error for Eodem anno.

Note 9. apud: L, apput.

Note 1. Sumerlede: Somerled, Gillebrigte's son, lord of Argyll. The Chronicle of Holyrood is the authority for his rebellion in 1153. The fact and date of the rebellion are to some extent confirmed by the Chronicle of Melrose, which describes him thus at his death in 1164: Sumerledus regulus Eregeithel, jam per annos duodecim contra regem Scotie Malcolmum dominum mum naturalem impie rebellans. But he seems to have been reconciled with king Malcolm for a time. A charter of king Malcolm, of 25 Dec. 1160, is dated on the Christmas after their reconciliation: apud Pert in natali domini proximo post concordiam Regis et Sumerledi (Registrum episcopatus Moraviensis, p. 453). Compare below, p. 137.

The foundation of the Cistercian abbey of Saddell, in Kintyre, appears to have been dated in 1160 in the Cistercian List (Journal of the British Archaeological Association, xxvi, p. 361), within this period of reconciliation.

Note 2. Malcolmi: Malcolm Macheth had apparently married a sister of Somerled. See below, 1156 and 115

Note 3. a[s]so[c]iatis: K, asotiatis; L, asociatis.

Note 4. insurrexerunt: L, insurexerunt.

1164. Octavianus antipapa interiit, et Wido [C]remensis scisma illius fovens in loco ejus successit.2 Magister Andreas ar[c]hidiaconus3 Laodonie4 factus est.5

Octavian the antipope died, and Wido of Crema, fostering his schism, succeeded in his place. Master Andrew was made archdeacon of Lothian.

Note 2. Cf. above, year 1159. Wido of Crema was the antipope Paschal III (Apr. 1164—Sep. 1168; Jaffe).

Note 3. ar[c]hidiaconus: K, ardhidiaconus.

Note 4. In Laodonie, the abbreviation-sign for n is misplaced, so that the apparent reading is Laodoine.

Note 5. Andrew's appointment is wrongly placed here. He became archdeacon of Lothian 1165x1166 (see 1163, note). Compare Early Sources, ii, p. 252.

1164. Sumerlede regis Scotie adversarius cum maxima classe apud Remfriu predaturus applicuit, et ipse ibi et films ejus cum innumerabili multitudine suorum interfectus est.6

Somerled, the opponent of the king of Scotland, landed with a great fleet at Renfrew, to plunder; and there he was killed with his son, and an innumerable host of his people.

Note 6. See 1153, note. For accounts of this affair, see Early Sources, ii, pp. 254-258. The Chronicle of Melrose says, under 1164: "And Somerled, regulus of Argyll, who had now been for twelve years in impious rebellion against Malcolm, king of the Scots, his natural lord, after landing at Renfrew, bringing with him a large army from Ireland and various places, was at last through divine vengeance killed there by a few fellow-provincials, and with him his son and innumerable people." The account given by Howden (Rolls Series 51, i, p. 224), briefer and with a few variations, is derived from the source of that passage (see above, p. 31).

1164. Conventus venit ad Cupro1, et a Gregorio episcopo de Dunkelde susceptus est venerabiliter, et abbas benedictus, scilicet F[ulco].2

The convent came to Coupar, and was reverently received, and the abbot was blessed (namelyF[ulk]), by Gregory bishop of Dunkeld.

Note 1. Cupro: read Cuprum.

Note 2. F[ulco]: the text of K reads F. In the inner margin a cursive hand, not much later than the hand of the text, has written Nota fulco, and connected the name by carets with its place in the text. The name fulco is written in full in the text on the same page, under 1170. In the outer margin of 1164 a rubric, Conventus venit ad Cuprum, is written apparently in a hand of the latter part of the fourteenth century. These marginal additions were probably made at Coupar.

The words scilicet F. may originally have been a gloss, copied into the text. The original gloss would presumably have been made at Coupar.

This entry is the first of several items in the chronicle that describe events in the Cistercian abbey of Coupar-Angus (now in Perthshire). See above, p. 37.

The Chronicle of Melrose under 1164 says: "The abbey of Coupar was made, which king Malcolm made"; and an addition in the margin, marked to stand at the end of the sentence, reads: "on the fourth day before the Ides of July" (12 July, a Sunday in 1164).

A list of Cistercian foundations places the foundation of the house of Coupar in 1164 (Journal of British Archaeological Association, xxvi, p. 361).

The Life of Waltheof, abbot of Melrose, written 1207x1214, says that king Malcolm promised Waltheof that he would found a Cistercian abbey, and he appointed Coupar as the place. But the foundation was postponed for a while "on account of unavoidable and urgent business"; and in the mean time Waltheof died (in 1159, according to the Chronicle of Melrose), leaving the work of the foundation to be done by his successor William, abbot of Melrose (Acta Sanctorum, 3 Aug., i, p. 262).

King Malcolm granted a charter (Rogers's Register of Cupar Abbey, Grampian Club 17, i, p. 319) confirming his whole land of Coupar "to God, and St Mary of Coupar, and the monks serving God there." "Arnold, legate of Scotland," was a witness to the charter, which can therefore be dated 1161x1162. It follows from this that there were already monks at Coupar not later than 1162. The establishment was apparently completed in 1164.

The church of St Mary ofCoupar was dedicated on 15 May 1233 (Chronicle of Melrose). On 9 July 1233 king Alexander II confirmed to the monks of Coupar the lands with which he had endowed that church, which he had caused to be dedicated (Rogers's Register of Cupar Abbey, i, pp. 325-326).

Fulk, the first abbot of Coupar, died in 1170 (see below). He witnessed a confirmation given by king William to the canons of St Andrews, at Alyth, 1165x1171 (Liber cartarum prioratus S. Andree, pp. 222-223).

1164. Obiit bone memorie Herebertus episcopus Glascouensis1, et I[n]gelramus cancellarius regis ad episcop[at]um electus est, et ab Alexandro papa consecratus est.1

Herbert of good memory, bishop of Glasgow, died; and Ingram, the king's chancellor, was elected to the bishopric, and was consecrated by pope Alexander.

Note 1. Herbert was elected to the bishopric of Glasgow after 3 May 1147 (see 1147, note); and was consecrated by pope Eugenius III at Auxerre on 24 Aug. 1147 (Chronicle of Melrose), a Sunday. Herbert had been a Tironian monk at Selkirk. He became abbot there in 1119, and was abbot when the monastery was transferred to Kelso (additions to the Chronicle of Melrose; facsimile edition, pp. xxxv-xxxvi, 31).

The transference was made in 1127. It is noticed in an addition to Simeon of Durham's Historia Regum, under the first of two year-sections numbered 1128; but the other events of that year- section belong to 1127, and its year-number has been altered from 1127, erroneously. (Corpus Christi College Cambridge Ms. 139, folio 130 verso, bottom margin.) Herbert appears as abbot of Roxburgh on 17 July 1127 (see above, 1159, note). The monastery was then at Kelso, which was close to Roxburgh. Herbert is called "abbot ofRoxburgh" until 3 May 1147 (Lawrie's Charters, no. 178). But the church of Kelso had been built not later than 1133, and perhaps in 1127 (Liber S. Marie de Calchou, no. 443; Lawrie's Charters, no. 82). A. O. A.

Note 2. Ingram was consecrated at Sens by pope Alexander III on 28 Oct. 1164 (Chronicle of Melrose). On 1 Nov., at Sens, the pope wrote a letter of commendation to the dean (Solomon) and canons of Glasgow, saying that he had consecrated Ingram as their bishop, notwithstanding the opposition of the archbishop of York, and that he commended the bishop, with the full favour and benediction of the apostolic see, to them as to his spiritual sons. (Registrum episcopatus Glasguensis, no. 19; Lawrie's Annals, pp. 84-85.)

Probably "spiritual sons" of the bishop is the true reading; not "special sons" of the apostolic see, as in Early Sources, ii, p. 253, and Lawrie's Annals, p. 86. But the letter of commendation implies the direct relationship that is expressed in the privilege of 1175, and later privileges, in which the pope calls the church of Glasgow the "special daughter" of the apostolic see. See below, under 1175. That expression alone does not fully describe the relationship. When the abbot of Kelso received the privilege of wearing the mitre (apparently in 1165, according to an addition in the Chronicle of Melrose) pope Alexander III wrote that the church of Kelso was the "special daughter" of the Homan church (Liber S. Marie de Calchou, no. 467).

The letter of commendation of Ingram was a rebuff to Roger archbishop ofYork, who had earlier in the same year, 1164, received the papal legation over England (Rolls Series 67, v, pp. 85-88; Migne, Patrologia Latina, cc, columns 285-286), and had attempted to include Scotland in his legation (addition in the Chronicle of Melrose).

Pope Alexander III had from the first shown favour to the Scottish church in its dispute with York. Ingram may have pressed upon his attention the special claims of Glasgow. But the suggestion that Ingram may have remained with the pope until July, 1165, (in Haddan and Stubbs, Councils, ii, p. 37; Lawrie's Annals, pp. 86-87; compare Early Sources, ii, p. 253) rests upon the misdating of pope Alexander's letter of 2 June, at Ferentino (Registrum episcopatus Glasguensis, no. 22), in the year 1165, instead of 1175, to which year it is restricted by its place of writing. See below, p. 159.

Ingram was apparently a clerk of earl Henry, 1139x1147, when Henry gave his charter to the church of Tiron; confirming king David's grant of free trade and fishing for one ship in Scotland, and conferring the same privilege in Northumbria (Merlet, Cartulaire de 1'abbaye de la S. Trinity de Tiron, ii, p. 14; Lawrie's Charters, no. 137). He became earl Henry's chancellor (1139x 1162, Lawrie's Charters, nos. 136, 246). As chancellor of the earl, he witnessed along with Walter de Bidun chancellor of the king (1147x1151, ibid., no. 230; 1160x1162, ibid., no. 244; cf. no. 195, 1147x1152).

Ingram continued to be chancellor after the death of earl Henry in 1152, and after the loss ofNorthumbria in 1157 As chancellor, presumably in part of southern Scotland, he witnessed along with Ascelinus archdeacon of Glasgow (1153x1160, Liber S. Marie de Melros, no. 5; 1153x1162, Liber S. Marie de Calchou, no. 415, and 1160x1162, no. 436).

Ingram probably became archdeacon when Ascelinus ceased to be archdeacon of Glasgow, 1160x1162; and for a time he witnessed as archdeacon, not as chancellor. Ingram appears as archdeacon 1160x1162 (Liber S. Marie de Calchou, nos. 439, 440, 451), and 1161x1162 (Registrum episcopatus Glasguensis, no. 16; and Liber cartarum S. Crucis, no. 15); and was almost certainly archdeacon in 1161, since he witnessed as archdeacon, after Walter the chancellor, king Malcolm's charter to Jedburgh abbey (at Roxburgh, 6 Jan. 1161 x 24 Jan. 1162; text and facsimile in Sir William Fraser's Camegies earls of Southesk (1867), ii, pp. 475-476). In bishop Arnold's confirmation of that charter (ibid., p. 476; Genealogist, New Series, xvii (1901), p. 107), of the same limit-dates, Ingram appears as archdeacon of Teviotdale.

Walter was still chancellor on 24 June 1161 or 1162, according to the charters of king Malcolm IV to Walter the Steward (History of the Berwickshire Naturalists' Club, xxiv, pp. 126, 139).

161x1163 (Registrum monasterii de Passelet, p. 1; Registrum de Dunfermelyn, no. 162), and perhaps 1161x1162 (Rogers's Register of Cupar Abbey, i, no. 1; Registrum S. Marie de Neuhotle, p. xxxvi and no. 155). He was still chancellor 1163x 1164 (Liber cartarum prioratus S. Andree, pp. 193-194, 201-202); and without doubt until he was consecrated bishop by the pope, as the Chronicles of Holyrood and Melrose say.

Ingram held the bishopric of Glasgow until his death on 2 Feb. 1174 (Chronicle of Melrose). He had brothers named Simon (Registrum monasterii de Passelet, p. 2), and William (Liber S. Marie de Calchou, no. 304).

The previous chancellor of the king, Walter, had obtained that office 1147x1151 (Registrum monasterii S. Marie de Camhuskenneth, no. 51, with Registrum de Dunfermelyn, no. 3; see also above). In a few charters he is called Walter de Bidun (see above; and compare Liber S. Marie de Calchou, nos. 373 (1147x 1152), and 376 (1153x1162); Liber cartarum prioratus S. Andree, p. 197 (1153x1159); Lawrie's Charters, no. 244 (1150x1162); and a charter quoted in Lawrie's Annals, p. 39 (1153x1160), of ? 1158). He may have been the same person as the later chancellor Walter, who is regularly called Walter de Bidun, who became chancellor after the death in 1171 of chancellor Nicholas (see below), and who was elected to the bishopric of Dunkeld, and died, in 1178 (Chronicle of Melrose). A. O. A.

1164. Thomas archiepiscopus Cantuariensis propter inimicitias regis in Gallia[m] transfretavit.1

Thomas archbishop of Canterbury crossed over to France, on account of the king's hostility.

Note 1. For Thomas Becket see 1170, below.