Books, Prehistory, Honourable Society of Cymmrodorion 1910

Honourable Society of Cymmrodorion 1910 is in Honourable Society of Cymmrodorion.

We now arrive at the last and most interesting group of dolmens, namely, the twenty-seven examples which are either fairly complete or in a partially ruined condition.

Of these, the dolmen at Bryn Celli Ddu [Map], in the parish of Llanddaniel, and three-quarters of a mile E.S.E. of the Church, is in the best state of preservation and therefore seems worthy of first notice. Being close to Rowlands' home it naturally attracted his attention, and he thus describes it1 "There are also in Llanddaniel parish, at a place formerly called Llwyn Llwyd, now Bryn Kelli, the remains of two carnedds within a few paces of one another; the one (fig. 3) is somewhat broken and pitted into on one side where the stones have been carried away; the other (fig. 4) having had its stones almost all taken away into walls and bridges, with two standing columns erected between them." A curious old-fashioned engraving is given, which is of interest, as it shews the position of the two standing stones and their relation to the carneddau.

Note 1. H. R., p. 94.

Between the date of Rowlands' death and 1770, when Pennant made his tour through the island, the chamber in the larger or eastern carnedd, had been discovered, for Pennant describes the creepway1 as being 3 ft. wide, 4 ft. 2 ins. high, and about 19 ft. 6 ins. long. In the middle of the chamber was an artless stone pillar 4 ft. 8 ins. in circumference and "along the sides of the room a stone bench" on which were found human bones "which crumbled at the touch". This stone bench is only mentioned by Pennant, and it is very doubtful whether it was really found there as described. From his description it is not clear that he personally visited the spot, he certainly makes no mention of the second carnedd.

Note 1. T. P., ii, p. 262.

Skinner, in 1802, seems to have made a careful examination of the site. He refers1 to his visit to the spot, "where in Mr. Rowlands' time there were two carnedds remaining, having two rude stone pillars placed between them, but these stones have been employed for the pur pose of building a wall near this place, as well as a great part of the western carnedd which is nearly destroyed for the same purpose about 20 years ago (1780), when the labourers, when digging towards the centre, discovered a flat pan, about 10 ins., overturned bottom upwards and under it a wedge of gold, as they pretend, the size of the heater of an urn, with a piece of wire passing through the smaller end of it".

Note 1. J. S., p. 25.

The discovery of the chamber in the eastern carnedd is thus described by Skinner: "whilst a farmer was removing some of the stones from the N.E. side of the larger carnedd", in order to employ them in his repairs, he came to the mouth of a passage covered with a square stone. On crawling down the passage and into the chamber he found a stone pillar about 6 ft. high, "standing in the centre of the chamber". He over-turned the stone to discover what might be buried beneath but he only found some large human bones lying near the pillar. There is no mention of any stone bench.

When Skinner entered the chamber he found the walls composed of flat stones, the intermediate space up to the roof being filled with stones placed one above the other in the manner in which they build walls, but without any kind of cement. Two prodigious flat stones covered the whole, one about 3 yds. in length and 2 yds. in breadth; the pillar lying in the cavern appeared to have been rounded with the tool. Pugh seems to have visited the spot but he tells us nothing new.

Miss Llwyd, writing in 18331, says: "The two upright stones are still (sic) in position and in several of the adjacent fields are stones of large dimensions". But the two upright stones, as we know from Skinner, had been demolished more than thirty years previously. Miss Llwyd gives2 the dimensions of the creepway as 3 ft. wide, 4 ft. 6 ins. high, and about 19 ft. 6 ins. long. The "little room" is described as being covered by one stone near 10 ft. in diameter, supported by a rude pillar in the middle, and reference is also made to the stone seat and human bones, evidently quoted from Pennant. The statements that the roof consisted of one stone and that the pillar supported it, are at variance both with Skinner's sketches and with the fact that the farmer is said to have overturned the pillar immediately after entering; in any case a roof composed of two massive blocks of stone would not need support in the centre.

Note 1. A. Ld., p. 221.

Note 2. A. Ld., p. 241.

In 18471, the pillar is described as prostrate in the middle of the chamber, but there was no sign of the stone bench. The width of the entrance to the chamber is given at 20 ins. About the same year the site was protected by enclosing it with a stone wall2, and trees were planted round the remains of the carnedd.

Note 1. 2 A. C., 1847, p. 1.

Note 2. 3 Ib., p. 3.

The Rev. E. L. Barnwell, in 1869, contributed a paper to the Arch. Camb.1 in which is incorporated an excellent ground-plan and some notes by Captain Lukis, in which the latter mentions a second pillar near a small side cist close to the entrance to the crawl and about 3 ft. down it. He excavated the chamber and found on its right side a pavement of flat slabs lying on a bed of beach gravel about 2ft. thick; no pottery was found, but there were a few fragments of lead, some charcoal, a broken flint knife, a javelin head, and some pieces of human bones. The length of the larger pillar is given as 9 ft. Mr. Barnwell points out that there are two small cists which lead into the creepway, almost opposite each other, and he adds that some thirty or forty years previously one of the servants at Dinam remembered, as a boy, playing up and down the earn which was then tolerably complete, and as far as he could remember, the side chambers, shown by Captain Lukis in his plan, were then in existence. Mr. Barnwell was unable to find the second pillar.

Note 1. p. 140.

The following finds from Bryn Celli were presented to the British Museum by Captain F. D. Lukis, in April 1875; a piece of red colouring matter1, a fragment of pottery, shells, and a lead band, but there is no record of the exact spot where they were found, or of the date of their discovery.

Note 1. The red colouring matter was probably composed of ground hematite. Stanley refers (A. J., xxvii,p. 161, and 3rd Mem., p. 5) to a quartzite grinding stone, much worn by friction and deeply tinged with red, such as would be produced by grinding hematite of iron", found in one of the cyttiau at Pen y Bone, Holyhead. Sir John Evans says that "there can be little doubt of this red pigment having been in use for what was considered a personal decoration by the early inhabitants of Britain".

In the Arch. Camb. of 18951, Mr. Hubert Allen calls attention to the fact that "three large stones on the outer circumference of the rise probably formed part of a circle of stones which bounded the carnedd.

Note 1. p. 157.

The site is marked on the Ordnance Survey of 1841 as "Yr Ogof", and in the surveys since 1895 as "Carnedd".

The alignment of the creepway is between 69° and 70° Mag. (Az. N. 51-2 E.), which allowing for a 2° hill is within 2° of the Summer Solstice sun-rising.

The trees which have been planted close to the dolmen are now a source of danger, as the roots have doubtless grown round some of the stones and in a strong wind might cause them to move from their positions, also the wall, which is built within a few feet of the remains, quite prevents the observer from forming any idea of the general appearance of the monument.

The supports are of schist (local). The capstone, which is in position, is of the carboniferous pebbly sandstone, which occurs a mile or so to the south. (E. G.)

Unfortunately in none of the records relating to the destruction of the western carnedd, is there any information as to whether a chamber and allee or a cistfaen was hidden under the tumulus, or whether the objects described by Skinner were all that it contained.

This is perhaps the finest monument of its kind in Great Britain and it is earnestly to be hoped that Lord Anglesey will hand it over to the care of the Commissioners for the Preservation of Ancient Monuments. References2:— H. R., p. 94, fig. A. C., 1847, p. 1, fig. T. P., ii, p. 262 21 1854, p. 205 C. B. (Gough), ii, p. 570 1860, p. 364 Cam. Reg., ii, p. 288 1869, p. 140 J. S., p. 25, fig. 1870, p. 55, fig. E. P., p. 71 1895, p. 157 A. Ld., pp. 221 and 241 1908, p. 67, fig. S. L., i, p. 502 A. J., 1871, p. 102 J. E. G., fig.

Note 1. References to existing dolmens will be found at the end of their descriptions.

Not far from Llyn Llywenan at Presaddfed, in the parish of Bodedern, and over three quarters of a mile E.N.E. of the Church, there stands a fine dolmen [Presaddfed Burial Chambers [Map]], and a little further to the north, at the distance of a few feet, is to be seen a second one, in the latter case, however, the capstone has been dislodged and remains with one end resting on the ground.

Gough first makes mention of these dolmens in his edition of Camden. He says1 "In Bodedern parish, on an estate of Mr. Roberts, in the second field opposite the 9th milestone from Holyhead, is a very large double cromlech, almost equal to that at Plas Newydd [Map] the larger is 10 ft. by 8, and 2 ft. 6 ins. thick, resting on four stones, the highest 5 ft. The smaller is thrown down from its three stones and was 9 ft. square. The dimensions of the upper-most stones here exceed those at Plas Newydd, but, like that, their longest diameter points north and south. I find no mention of this noble monument in any other writer". (It must be remembered that in Gough's day the old coach road to Holyhead passed through Bodedern.)

Note 1. p. 571.

Skinner describes them1 as "the most finished cromlechs we have yet seen in the island, the capstone measuring 41 yds. long, 4 yds. wide, and 2 yds. (sic) thick, its three supporters each about 11 yds. high. Indeed, there is a fourth nearly of the same height, but it does not touch the stone above. Under this cromlech we were informed a whole family, who had been ejected from their habitation, sought shelter during the last winter.2 There was another cromlech close at hand but the capstone had been forced down and rests in a slanting direction against the supporters, the top stone of this measured 3 yds. long and 21 yds. wide, and its supporters nearly 2 yds. high". Miss Llwyd evidently derived the information which she gives, from Gough.

Note 1. J. S., p. 50.

Note 2. A family at one time lived in the dolmen at Haroldstown, Ireland, which has a singularly house-like appearance.- The Dolmens of Ireland, p. 397.

In 1846 it is stated by Mr. Longueville Jones1 that this cromlech was surrounded by a great number of small stones affording a strong presumption that here was once a carn", and in the Arch. Camb., 1870, we are told2 that "it originally consisted of two chambers with openings facing the east". Griffith gives the following measurements:-Capstone 12 ft. 6 ins. long, at one end 8 ft. wide, at the other 7 ft., thickness from 20 to 28 ins. The supports are from 4 ft. 4 ins. to 4 ft. 6 ins. in height. These remains are marked on the Ordnance Map of 1841 and all subsequent surveys. When I first saw the standing dolmen I was immediately struck with the resemblance which the arrangement of its uprights bore to that at Bryn Celli [Map], which latter monument is directed to the Summer Solstice sunrise. Sir Norman Lockyer was of opinion that the creepway originally extended in a north-westerly direction, at right angles to the south-east stone and towards the Summer Solstice sunset, but I originally had an impression, which still holds good, that it must have been directed to the sunrise, although when I formed this opinion I was not aware of the statement in the Arch. Camb. of 1870, above referred to, where it is said that the opening faced the east. Sir Norman and I were agreed that the position of the south-east stone was the key to the alignment of the creepway. I have obtained an accurate ground plan of the upright stones, and if the alignment of the south-east stone, viz., 65° Mag. (Az. N. 47° E.), is correct, it seems to me that the chamber was designed approximately on the same plan as that at Bryn Celli, and that the creepway followed the direction of the south-east stone towards the Summer Solstice sunrise, and not at right angles to it towards the sunset (fig. 5).

Note 1. A. J., 1846, p. 43.

Note 2. p. 365.

The geological particulars supplied by Mr. Edward Greenly with regard to these dolmens are as follows:-

No. 1. Capstone and two supports of Ordovician pebbly grit; two remaining supports of chlorite mica schist.

No. 2. Capstone and one support of local chlorite mica schist. One support of chloritic epidote schist and the remaining two supports of Ordovician pebbly grit.

"There is therefore much the same assemblage of materials in both cromlechs. The cromlechs stand on the schists: but the Ordovician rocks are close by, the boundary runs just along the east side of Presaddfed woods. Only shales, however, occur there, but the pebbly grits come on about Bodynolwyn, two and a half miles to the N.N.E., and have sent so many boulders out with the ice that there are plenty at Presaddfed." (E. G.)

I am glad to say that Major Fox Pitt has handed over these dolmens to the custody of the Commissioners for the Protection of Ancient Monuments. C. B. (Gough), ii, p. 571 A. C., 1855, p. 25 J. S., p. 50, fig. 1862, p. 13, fig. A. Ld., pp. 188 and 243 1870, p. 365 S. L., i, p. 93 1871, p. 283 J. E. G., fig. A. J., 1846, p. 43, fig. 1871, p. 106.

Perhaps no megalithic remains in these islands have been more frequently illustrated than the two standing dolmens at Plas Newydd [Plas Newydd Burial Chamber [Map]], in the parish of Llanedwen, and one mile north of the Church. Rowlands gives but a poor description1 of them. He makes the larger capstone 13 ft. long, 9 ft. wide, and 3 ft. thick, and the smaller, 6 ft. long by 5 ft. and 2 ft. 6 ins. thick. Pennant supplies2 a few more details. He gives the measurements of the larger capstone as 12 ft. 7 ins. long by 4 ft., and says that it rested on five tall stones. The smaller one he describes as 5 ft. 6 ins. long, supported on four stones. An engraving by Moses Griffith gives some idea of its condition in 1770. Bingley's account3 tells us that the larger capstone "formerly rested on five upright supporters but some years ago, after some heavy rain, the one at the back suddenly split, since which time it has been necessary to prop it with supporters of wood Richard Warner, in one of his Walks through Wales, 17994 says that the larger dolmen seemed originally to have consisted of seven stones, that is, six uprights supporting an immense superincumbent stone, with its flat side lying upon them, this stone being 13 ft. long by 4 ft. 6 ins. broad, and had originally been supported by four stones, one of which had fallen from its proper position. Thomas Evans, in the Camb. Itin., 18015, states that the larger capstone "rested originally on five stones, but one being detached or thrown down, four only bear its weight at present", the smaller one rested on three stones, the fourth having fallen down. Skinner gives no further details, neither does he mention the number of supporters: he, however, made a sketch of the dolmens. Pugh, in 18166 says: "Sometime before I saw it, it was supposed that some of its supporters had given way on one side, which greatly alarmed the family; it was in consequence, propped up with pieces of thick timber, and this has entirely destroyed the effect wood was a very injudicious auxiliary to stone". In Evans' (Brayley and Britten) Beauties of North Wales7, the larger capstone is described as "resting on six uprights, four at the broadest end and two at the other end, two fallen stones lie underneath". Miss Llwyd, quoting from her father's MSS.8, says the larger capstone is 12 ft. 7 ins. by 11 ft. and 4 ft. thick, the north end supported by four stones or perhaps three, the middle one being split. She also quotes from Monumenta Antiqua, where it is stated that this capstone was apparently supported years ago by five tall stones near the upper end, of which only three then remained.

Note 1. H. R., p. 47.

Note 2. T. P., ii, p. 236.

Note 3. W. B., p. 202.

Note 4. R. W., p. 297.

Note 5. T.E. p. 370.

Note 6. E.P., p. 277.

Note 7. p. 282.

Note 8. A. Ld., p. 239.

The dolmens are marked on all Ordnance Surveys. No reference is made to any mound of earth and stones, although both dolmens were probably once covered in this manner. At the present day the capstone of the larger dolmen rests on three uprights at its north-east end, one of these is split, and is stayed by a fourth stone set as a strutt which was apparently fixed, in place of the wooden support, between the dates of Pugh's visit, in 1816, and Evans' description published in 1819. The eastern end rests upon two stones. The whole monument has a considerable list to the north-east. The cap of the small dolmen, from which a portion has been detached, rests on three stones.

These monuments are composed throughout of dark blue Glaucophane Schist, with the exception of one supporter of the larger dolmen, which is of mica schist. The schists do not occur in situ but there are so many ice bound erratics of them, brought only a mile or two from the north-east, that the cromlech builders could easily have obtained them on the spot. (E. G.)

The orientation of the larger dolmen, as calculated by Sir Norman Lockyer, from the south-eastern supporter, is to the sunrise on the 2nd of November. (137° Mag. = Az. S. 61° E.)

These dolmens stand in a railed enclosure in the private park of Plas Newydd and should be safe from any wilful damage. A large portion of the cap of the smaller dolmen has at some time been detached from the present stone, and now lies on the ground between the two dolmens. When this portion was in its proper position it must have nearly touched the cap of the large dolmen, so that the two caps would have appeared, at a little distance, to form part of one long stone. Mr. W. E. Jones, Lord Anglesey's agent, has kindly sent me the following measurements. Length of larger capstone 11 ft. 9 ins., breadth 9 ft. 6 in. Length of smaller capstone 6 ft. 6 ins. and breadth 5 ft. 4 in. Length of block which has fallen from the latter, 5 ft. 6 ins. and breadth 2 ft. 9 ins.

Figure 7.

"The dolmen" is scheduled to the Ancient Monuments Protection Act of 1882, but it has not, as yet, been handed over to the Commissioners appointed under this Act. H. R., p. 94 A. Ld., p. 241 T. P., ii, p. 236 S. L., ii, p. 3 C. B. (Gough), ii, p. 568 J. E. G., fig. W. B., p. 202 A. C., 1854, p. 205 Cam. Reg., ii, p. 288 1860, p. 367 R. W., p. 297 „ 1870, p. 51, fig. T. E., p. 370 1880, p. 81, fig. J. S., p. 20, fig. 1895, p. 157 E. P., p. 77 A. J., 1871, p. 92, fig. and 102 E., p. 282

The dolmen at Ty Newydd [Map], in the parish of Llanfaelog, and three quarters of a mile N.E. of the Church, is supposed to have been formerly double, and it has been suggested that Pennant refers1 to this monument in his remarks on dolmens when he says: "Others again are quite bedded in the carnedd or heap of stones, of which instances may be produced in Llan Faelog It is noticed again in David Thomas' list and was visited by Skinner who calls it2 "a very perfect cromlech". The capstone was of an oblong shape and measured 16 ft. long, 6 ft. wide, and 3 ft. thick. It only rested upon three supporters, each about 3 ft. high, although there were four placed in the ground. Near the dolmen were lying two large stones, one of these being 17 ft. long and 3 ft. thick. Two good sketches accompany this account. Miss Llwyd, quoting from her father's MSS.3, says: "On a farm called Ty Newydd is a cromlech; the upper stone measures 12 ft. long, quite bedded in the carnedd or heap of stones". She adds, "a modern tourist describes it thus a large stone, nearly in a horizontal position, about 12 ft. long, beneath which is a small cell or cavity". Longueville Jones, writing in the Arch. Journ.4, describes it thus: "One flat on several upright stones, the flat top being about 12 ft. by 9 ft. in breadth and from 2 to 3 ft. in thickness. By its side lie the fallen remains of a much larger cromlech, the upper stone of which is not less than 15 ft. in length underneath the upright one are still to be seen numerous small stones, and the ground rises gently on all sides". A sketch accompanies this account. Writing in 18645, he again refers to the monuments and states that one cromlech was erect, and the other by the side of the first, having been thrown down or perhaps having formed part of a passage. The cap of the fallen one must have been 15 ft. long. The tenant of the farm had taken the stones for building, and at a later date a fire had been lit on the top of the cromlech to celebrate some event; this had split the stone, which at that time rested on three uprights.

Note 1. T. P., ii, p. 238.

Note 2. J.S. p. 46.

Note 3. A. Ld., p. 248.

Note 4. A. J., 1846, p. 42.

Note 5. A. C., 1864, p. 44.

It has been marked on all Ordnance Surveys. The capstone-which is 12 ft. 9 ins. in length and 5 ft. 3 ins. in width-and one support, are of Ordovician pebbly sand- stone. The second support is granite and the third dolerite. The fourth upright has vanished. It is very difficult to find the orientation of this dolmen. Sir Norman Lockyer at first believed that it was to the sunrise at the Winter Solstice, but he thinks it quite possible that an alignment (Az. N. 53° E.), to the Summer Solstice sunrise may be the correct one; "no other astronomical alignment", he says, than a solstitial one "is suggested by the arrangement of the stones". The monument is on the property of J. Rice Roberts, Esq. T. P, ii, p. 238 J. E. G., fig. W. B., p. 203 A. C., 1855, p. 25 Cam. Reg., ii, p. 288 1864, p. 44, fig. J. S., p. 46, fig. 1870, p. 58 A. Ld., p. 248 A. J., 1846, p. 42, fig. S. L,ii,p. 116 1871, p. 106

Two dolmens formerly stood at Trefor, in the parish of Llansadwrn, and one mile N.N.W. of the Church.

Pennant makes the following statement:1 "At Trefawr passed by a great and rude cromlech with the ruins of others adjacent". These remarks are repeated by Gough.

Skinner describes2 the one which was standing at the time of his visit as "a very perfect cromlech, the upper stone measuring above 3 yds. across, supported by two uprights, the larger 6 ft. high, the other not above 4 ft. 6 ins., which cause the capstone to recline in a slanting direction. Another long stone now lying on the ground appears to have been formerly used as a supporter. Near at hand are also three or four flat stones lying promiscuously". These stones had originally formed the second dolmen. Miss Llwyd gives the following account3 from her father's MSS. "On a tenement called Trefawr, in this parish (Llansadwrn), there are two cromlechau one is a large stone mounted high upon four pillars, its incli- nation westward; in length it is 9 ft., and 6 ft. in breadth. Near it and upon the same carnedd, is another supported by only two stones, with a great inclination northward". The date when both dolmens were to be seen standing is unfortunately not given, but a footnote states that one fell down in 1825.

Note 1. T. P., ii, p. 254.

Note 2. J. S., p. 86.

Note 3. A. Ld., p. 287.

It therefore appears that originally there were two dolmens here. The western one had four tall supporters or uprights and the eastern one two, but before Pennant's visit in 1770, the western one had fallen, and in 1825, the second also collapsed or was demolished.

Longueville Jones, in the Arch. Camb. of 18542, states that "they were thrown down by the tenant because they were superstitious". (For "they were" read "he was".) As a period of fifty-five years elapsed between the falling of the two monuments this statement is probably incorrect; perhaps Mr. Jones only refers to the second one which was destroyed or fell in 1825. The site is marked "cromlech" on all Ordnance Surveys. The stones are composed of mica schist and diabase. (E. G.). Of the dolmen demolished in 1825 only one supporter remains erect and any attempt at orientation is impossible. This one stone stands north and south. An alignment from the fallen western dolmen to the standing supporter of the eastern one, which is approximately a line from the centre of one dolmen to the centre of the other, gives 1370 Mag. (Az. S. 61° E.), or the November sunrise, but this may be fortuitous. The owner of these remains is Miss Thomas, of Beaumaris. T. P., ii, p. 254 A. Ld., pp. 243 and 297 C. B. (Gough), ii, p. 569 S. L., ii, p. 93 W. B., p. 203 J. E. G., fig. Cam. Reg., ii, p. 288 A. C., 1854, p. 205 R. W., p. 299 21 9 1870, p. 58 J. S., p. 86, fig. A. J., 1871, p. 105

Note 2. p. 205.

The dolmen at Bodowyr [Bodowyr Burial Chamber [Map]], Llanidan, one mile and three quarters W. by N. of the (New) Church, has received a great deal of attention and has been frequently figured.

Rowlands thus describes it:1 "There is a very pretty cromlech standing at the top of a hillock at Bodowyr". He also refers to traces of a carnedd and a cirque close by. Quaint representations of both dolmen and cirque, which looks like the wall of a British village are given. The Rev. J. Davies in a letter, reproduced in Gibson's Camden2, says "This Kromlech at Bod Owyr is more elegant than any monument that I have ever seen of its kind". Writing in 18023 Skinner calls it a very perfect cromlech, the cap sustained by three supporters, each 3 ft. in height and nearly the same in thickness. Miss Llwyd incorrectly describes the capstone as resting on four supporters. According to Griffith, "there were five supports but two have fallen and the capstone at present (1900) rests on three only. The largest dimensions of the cap are 4 ft. 6 ins. by 6 ft. 3 ins. by 7 ft. by 6 ft. The top of the cap is 7 ft. 6 ins. from the ground". It has been marked on all Ordnance Surveys. The capstone still rests on three supporters. A fourth upright has fallen and is partly embedded in the ground, a fifth is comparatively low and does not nearly touch the cap. It is curious that in this instance as also in the case of the dolmen at Pant- y-Saer, to be described later, both monuments have their own sides practically parallel, and one upright in each projects only a short distance above the ground. Hugh Prichard believed that a similar upright was to be found at Ty Mawr cromlech, but after a careful examination I think that the statement is open to doubt. Another similarity between the two monuments is that they both belong to the May-November group. The stones of the dolmen are chiefly composed of mica schist, but one supporter is of hornblende schist. A portion of the last mentioned supporter has become detached and now lies under the capstone.

Note 1. H. R, p. 93.

Note 2. p. 61.

Note 3. 3 J. S., p. 15.

The mean values of the two side supporters is 135° Mag. (Az. S. 63° E.), which gives the November sunrise on the 3rd of that month.

Lord Boston railed in this monument last year (1910) and he has now placed it under the care of the Com- missioners for the Protection of Ancient Monuments. H. R., p. 93, fig. S. L., ii, p. 66 C. B. (Gibson), ii, p. 61 J. E. G., fig. C. B. (Gough), ii, p. 567 A. C., 1854, p. 206 W. B., p. 203 11 1860, p. 367 Cam. Reg., ii, p. 288 71 1869, p. 263, fig. J. S., p. 15, fig. 1870, p. 58 E., p. 285 1873, p. 24, fig. A. Ld., p. 287 1908, p. 71

The remains at Mynydd Cnwc [Barclodiad y Gawres Burial Chamber [Map]], in the parish of Llangwyfan, and a mile and a half S.S.W. of Llanfaelog Church, are chronicled by David Thomas, while Bingley describes them as a "cromlech" partly demolished. Skinner says1: "Instead of a cromlech we found the vestiges of a large carnedd, many of the flat stones of the cistfaen, or chamber, are still remaining, but the small ones have been almost all removed to build a wall close at hand. On another fork of the peninsula, about a hundred yards distant, we observed the traces of another carnedd of much smaller dimensions".

Hugh Prichard2 gives the circumference of the base of the mound as perhaps 240 ft. The entrance he thought was from the north, the passage being at least 35 ft. long by rather more than 3 ft. wide, its extent being marked by a depression in the ground, and by seven stones which were all that remained of its side walls and roof supports. The remaining roof stone was 10 ft. by 5 ft. 6 ins. at its widest end, and was said to have been mistaken for the capstone of the cromlech. The upright slabs outlined one cell about 3 ft. 3 ins. by 3 ft. 9 ins., and other stones sug- gested further cells. On the other point, 150 yds. away, were well defined traces of a smaller tumulus, comprising one chamber. I quite agree with both Skinner and Prichard that the remains are those of a collection of cists and not of a dolmen or cromlech, properly so called. They are in a very ruinous condition. The small cist on the further promontory can still be traced.

The largest stone is sometimes called "Careg Enwau", from the number of names which tourists have scratched upon it. At the present time, however, Sir George Meyrick, on whose land it stands, does not allow the public access to it. It is named on the Ordnance Survey of 1841 as "Barclodiad y Gawres Cromlech", but in the later surveys the word "Cromlech" has been omitted. Sir Norman Lockyer orients it to the Winter Solstice sunrise (Az.S.50°.E.). W. B., p. 203 A. C., 1855, p. 25 Cam. Reg., ii, p. 288 1869, p. 403, fig. J. S., p. 45, fig. 1870, p. 58 J. E. G., fig. A. J., 1871, p. 106.

Note 1. J. S., p. 45.

Note 2. A. C., 1869, p. 403.