Books, Prehistory, Vestiges of the Antiquities of Derbyshire, Section I Tumuli 1843

Section I Tumuli 1843 is in Section I Tumuli.

Section I Barrows Opened by Mr Thomas Bateman (age 21) in 1843.

The first tumulus opened this season was situate upon the Meadow-place Farm, near Yolgrave, and is generally known as Bee Lowe [Map]; it was decided upon to open it on the 16th of June, when it was found to be impossible to excavate it in a proper manner, owing to the trees growing upon the sides; therefore the only method of examining it was by sinking a hole down the centre of the mound, which consisted of loose earth and stones, amongst which a profusion of rats' bones was met with. In the course of this excavation the broken fragments of a human skeleton were turned up, which made it evident that one interment at least had been disturbed at some former period. Amongst these bones were found a small arrow-head of flint, elegantly formed, two rude instruments of the same material, and about half a dozen horse's teeth. On reaching the native soil, which was about four feet from the top of the barrow, the primary deposit was found, consisting of burnt bones, amongst which was part of a bone pin, also calcined; and near to the same place lay some fragments of a well-baked clay urn, very tastefully ornamented with a chevron pattern, and which had been of the form of vessel designated "drinking cups" by Sir Richard Hoare, by which name they will be distinguished in the subsequent parts of this work, as a simple way of expressing their difference from the sepulchral urns and incense cups, although it is by no means certain that they were made use of for the purpose implied by the words "drinking cup."

June 17, 1843, was opened a barrow, called Lean Lowe [Map], situated on the summit of a hill near Hartington [Map]. The south side being most perfect it was deemed most prudent to commence the cutting on that side. Having penetrated to within about two feet from the middle of the mound, an interment was met with, which was probably not so early as the date of the original construction of the tumulus, as, instead of being placed upon the floor of the pile, as usual, it had been buried without care upon a higher level. The head lay between two large stones on the south-west side of the circle, and appeared to have been slightly protected by another stone lying across them. The legs lay in the direction of the interior of the barrow. This interment was devoid of any interest arising from the deposit of weapons or other articles, as nothing of the kind was discovered, more than two horse's teeth, and rats' bones in quantities. Owing to an erection of turf and stones, pertaining to the Ordnance Survey, which surmounted the top of the mound, it was found impracticable to explore the middle of it, which would probably have afforded far more interesting results. (See forward for further discoveries in this tumulus.)

June 21, 1848. A large barrow about eight feet in height, denominated End Lowe [Map], which forms a conspicuous object, being placed on an elevated ridge of land near Heathcote, was subjected to an examination, which proved anything but satisfactory; from the south side, where the turf was first removed, to the centre of the barrow, nothing but large stones presented themselves, which when unmixed with soil, as in this case, are the material worst calculated to afford success to the labours of the antiquarian excavator: however, at the very commencement large quantities of rats' bones, and pieces of the antlers of deer were abundantly scattered about through the more open parts of the mound. About six feet from the southern verge of the circle, was found a human skeleton, apparently of a very young individual, not more than twelve years of age, near which lay a deposit of calcined human bones, without urn or other means of protection from the weight of the overriding mass of stones, by which the skeleton had been much injured. Near the centre of the tumulus a very few human bones of adult size were observed, all of which had the appearance of being gnawed by rats. The natural surface of the ground immediately beneath the middle of the mound was formed to sink to a considerable depth lower than the surrounding levels and it is much to be regretted that owing to the loose nature of the barrow before alluded to it was formed impossible to penetrate to the undisturbed ground upon which in all probability the earliest interment would be formed to lie.

The 30th of June 1843 was occupied in examining the middle part of a large barrow on Brassington Moor, usually called Galley Lowe [Map], but formerly written Callidge Lowe, which is probably more correct. About two feet from the surface were found a few human bones mixed with rats' bones and horses' teeth; amongst these bones (which had been disturbed by a labourer digging in search of treasure) the following highly interesting and valuable articles were discovered: several pieces of iron, some in the form of rivets, others quite shapeless, having been broken on the occasion above referred to, two arrow-heads of the same metal, a piece of coarse sandstone, which was rubbed into the form of a whetstone; an ivory pin or bodkin, of very neat execution; the fragments of a large urn of well-baked earthenware, which was glazed in the interior for about an inch above the bottom; two beads, one of green glass, the other of white enamel, with a coil of blue running through it, and fourteen beautiful pendant ornaments of pure, gold, eleven of which are encircled by settings of large and brilliantly coloured garnets, two are of gold without setting, and the remaining one is of gold wire twisted in a spiral manner, from the centre towards each extremity (a gold loop of identical pattern is affixed to a barbaric copy of a gold coin of Honorius in the writer's possession); they have evidently been intended to form one ornament only, most probably a necklace, for which use their form peculiarly adapts them. It will here not be out of place to borrow some quotations relative to a remarkable superstition connected with glass beads similar to those discovered in Galley Lowe, particularly the one having "two circular lines of opaque sky-blue and white," which seem to represent a serpent entwined round a centre, which is perforated. "This was certainly one of the Glain Neidyr of the Britons, derived from glain, which is pure and holy, and neidyr, a snake. Under the word glain, Mr. Owen, in his Welsh Dictionary, has given the following article: "The Nair Glain, transparent stones, or adder stones, were worn by the different orders of the Bards, each exhibiting its appropriate colour. There is no certainty that they were worn from superstition originally; perhaps that was the circumstance which gave rise to it. Whatever might have been the cause, the notion of their rare virtues was universal in all places where the Bardic religion was taught."

These beads are thus noticed by Bishop Gibson, in his improved edition of Camden's Britannia: "In most parts of Wales, and throughout all Scotland, and in Cornwall, we find it a common opinion of the vulgar, that about Midsummer-eve (though in the time they do not all agree) it is usual for snakes to meet in companies, and that by joining heads together and hissing, a kind of bubble is formed, like a ring, about the head of one of them, which the rest, by continual hissing, blow on, until it comes off at the tail, when it immediately hardens, and resembles a glass ring, which whoever finds shall prosper in all his undertakings: the rings they supposed to be thus generated are called gleinen nadroeth, namely, gemma anguinum. They are small glass annulets, commonly about half as wide as our finger-rings, but much thicker, of a green colour usually, though some of them are blue, and others curiously waved with blue, red, and white.'' There seems to be some connexion between the glain neidyr of the Britons and the ovum anguinnm, mentioned by Pliny as being held in veneration by the Druids of Gaul and to the formation of which he gives nearly the same origin. They were probably worn as a mark of distinction, and suspended round the neck as the perforations are not large enough to admit the finger. A large portion of this barrow still remaining untouched on the south-east side, which was but little elevated above the natural soil, yet extending farther from the centre, it offered a larger area, in which interments were more likely to be found than any other part of the tumulus, it was decided on resuming the search on the 3d of July, 1843, by digging from the outside until the former excavation in the centre was reached. In carrying out this design the following interments were discovered, all of which seem to pertain to a much more remote era than the interment whose discovery has been before recorded. First, the skeleton of a child, in a state of great decay; a little farther on a lengthy skeleton, the femur of which measures nineteen and a half inches, with a rudely ornamented urn of coarse clay deposited near the head; a small article of ivory, perforated with six holes, as though for the purpose of being sewn into some article of dress or ornament (a larger one of the same kind was found in a barrow at Gristhorpe, near Scarborough, in 1832); a small arrow-head of gray flint, a piece of iron-stone, and a piece of stag's horn, artificially pointed at the thicker end, were found in the immediate neighbourhood of the urn. Between this skeleton and the centre of the barrow four more skeletons were exhumed, two of which were of young persons; there was no mode of arrangement perceptible in the positions of the bodies, excepting that the heads seemed to lie nearest to the urn before mentioned. Amongst the bones of these four skeletons a small rude incense cup was found, which is of rather unusual form, being perforated with two holes on each side, opposite each other.

In a plantation on the summit of Minninglowe Hill [Map] are two tumuli of large size, one being near fifteen feet high from the level of the ground. In the centre and in four places in the area of the circle are large cists, or, as they now appear from the soil being removed from them, large cromlechs, exactly of the same construction as that well-known druidical structure "Kit's-Coty-House [Map]" near Maidstone, Kent. They are formed of the large limestones of the country and have all had covers of the same only two of which now remain in their places. The other tumulus is of smaller dimensions and contains but one cist which is in the centre; it is situated about thirty yards distance from the larger one. The soil in the interior of the cists of the large barrow was removed down to the surface of the rock on the 5th of July 1843 when it was found that all the interments had been before removed, with the exception of one which was a skeleton laid at full length on the outside of the cist, unaccompanied by any weapons or ornaments. In the cell near which this body lay were found fragments of five urns, some animal bones, and six third brass Roman coins, namely, one of Claudius Gothicus, two of Constantine the Great, two of Constantine Junior, and one of Valentinian. An attempt to penetrate the substance of the mound was then made, which from want of time proved ineffectual. A few human teeth and a third brass coin of Constantine were the only relics found in this part of the excavation; but a far more interesting discovery was made of the manner in which this huge tumulus was built, a wall being found to encircle it in a manner precisely similar to the walls built round some of the Etruscan tumuli discovered in the south of Italy. In one part of this wall, which was exposed by the excavation, a gallery formed of stones set up edgeways, with others across the top of them, was found to have its commencement. This was not explored, owing to the roofing-stones having fallen in in some places. There is a striking analogy between this tumulus and the great barrow at New Grange [Map], in Ireland, described by Dr. Ledwich, of which a more complete investigation of Minning Lowe would probably furnish additional proof. The following day was selected to be the time for extending the researches of the smaller barrow, the cist of which, as well as those of the larger one, was found to have been previously rifled of its treasures, a few human teeth being the only traces of the interment at this time found. Continuing the cutting through the entire mound, a simple deposit of burnt human bones was found, near one side, which had not been before disturbed.

A smaller barrow having been discovered in the immediate vicinity of the foregoing it was opened on the 12th of July, 1843. Its small size and comparative low situation had undoubtedly prevented its being known as a barrow and are probably the reasons of its being destitute of any distinctive appellation. About a foot from the top in the middle part of the mound two skeletons were discovered one of which was nearly entire, the other seemed to have been disturbed. With these were found the fragments of a coarse dark-coloured urn, a flint arrow-head, a small piece of iron, part of a bridle-bit, and several horses' teeth. A complete stratum of rats' bones surrounded these bodies. Proceeding lower down, a cist, formed of large flat limestones, placed on edge, was disclosed; it was entirely filled up with very fine mould, which being removed, exposed two skeletons in an extremely decayed condition. Near the heads of these was placed a deposit of burnt human bones; and lower down, in the cist, an iron knife or dagger, contained in an iron sheath, was found. The south side of this tumulus being found to extend considerably further from the central point than any other part of the circle, it was thought that it might contain more interments, such having been proved in the case of a similarly extended barrow (Galley or Callidge Lowe [Map], 8d of July, 1843); and the result substantiated the correctness of this opinion, as on removing the soil to a very inconsiderable depth, a skeleton, evidently of a young person, was found to lie with its head towards the interior of the tumulus, and close to a quantity of calcined human bones; near the shoulders lay a highly-ornamented drinking-cup, a small brass or copper pin, pointed at each end, and a rude spear- or arrow-head of gray flint. In the immediate neighbourhood of this interment several horses' teeth and other animal bones were noticed.

July 14th, 1843, one of the most interesting barrows ever examined in this vicinity was opened. It is situated upon a ridge of high land, near the village of Biggin, which goes by the name of the "Liffs [Map]," the barrow itself having no specific name: the mound had been sadly mutilated, at least one third of it having been removed; notwithstanding this the truth of Sir Richard Hoare's maxim, "fronta nulla fides," was agreeably exemplified. That hemisphere of the circle which still remained the most perfect was selected as the place where to commence operations: on reaching the thickest part of the circle, which, owing to the depression usual in the middle of most barrows, would be about two yards from the centre, a few human bones, horses' teeth, various animal bones, and two small pieces of a very thick and coarse urn, were found; but not until penetrating to the heart of the barrow was the principal interment discovered. In that situation an octagonal cist was erected of the usual material, namely, thin flat lime-stones, which are admirably adapted for the purpose; this vault was about half filled with stiff clay, imbedded in which lay a fine human skeleton, whose knees were drawn up, according to a general custom, prevalent in the most remote ages. The extreme antiquity of this interment is demonstrated by the simple form and material of the weapons and tools which were, with one exception, deposited in a cluster behind the shoulders of this early denizen of the Derbyshire moors. The skull, which is fine and intellectual, lay on the left side so as to look towards the west, and in the angle formed by the contraction of the knees, was placed a hammer-head ingeniously constructed out of the lower part of the horn of a noble red deer; one end of this instrument is rounded and polished, the other is cut into a diamond pattern, somewhat similar to the wafer stamps used by attorneys. The articles before alluded to as being placed near the shoulders were of a very miscellaneous character, and highly interesting; as showing, after a lapse of several thousand years, that the savage Briton reposing in this cairn had cultivated the art of making war amongst the inhabitants of the forest, in preference to molesting his fellow-savages; as almost the first observed articles were a pair of enormous tusks of the wild boar, the trophies of some, perhaps his last, sylvan triumph; next came two arrow-heads of flint, delicately chipped, and of unusual form; two flint celts or chisels, beautifully chipped and polished at the cutting edges; two spear-heads of the same material; two flint knives polished on the edge, one of them serrated on the back, in order to serve as a saw; and numerous other pieces of flints of indescribable form and use, which, together with all the flint instruments enumerated above, seem to have undergone a partial calcination being gray tinted with various shades of blue and pink; with these utensils were found three pieces of red ochre, the rouge of these unsophisticated huntsmen which, even now, on being wetted imparts a bright red colour to the skin, which is by no means easy to discharge. Upon the summit of the little heap, formed by this accumulation of relics, lay a small drinking or incense cup of novel and unprecedented shape, which was unfortunately broken and crushed, but has been since restored. The absence of instruments of metal in this and other barrows should be borne in mind; it is commented on in another part of this work.

On the 19th of July, 1843, a small barrow [Map] situated near the edge of a rocky declivity, on Brassington Moor, and not previously known as a sepulchral mound, was opened in such an effectual manner as to cut it into four sections. A secondary interment near the surface was found to have been dug up and buried again some time since; there were a good many rats' bones, and six pieces of flint, three of which were chipped, in order to make some kind of rude instruments whose use is now quite unintelligible; arriving at the centre, a small square cist, haying a flat stone for its base, and another similar for a cover, was found to contain the remains on whose account the tumulus had been first raised, which consisted of a deposit of burnt bones, amongst which were found an arrow- or lance- head of flint, two inches and a half in length, and two instruments of flint of the circular shape, which appeared to have undergone the action of fire; on the outside of the cist a few fragments of an urn of unusual thickness and rude design were found.

On the afternoon of the same day, the remains of a large barrow, called Green Lowe [Map], in the same neighbourhood, were examined; all the upper part of this tumulus, which is of large extent, has been long removed, thus exposing to view the cist in the centre of its area; this cist, which is very large, is of the same kind of architecture as those existing at the large barrow at Minning Lowe [Map], and before described; the only difference being, that the one in question is divided into two compartments or vaults, by the introduction of a flat stone placed vertically across the middle; most of the component parts of this tumulus having been taken away as before stated, there was but little probability of discovering any relics, save by digging the soil and other debris out of the double vault, which was accordingly done with the following results: in one of the cists, at about eight inches from the surface, lay a human skeleton, much broken from its being so near the top, a piece of fine slatestone, which appeared to have served the purpose of a hone, and a few fragments of two urns, of a texture widely dissimilar, one being coarse and merely sun-dried, the other evidently baked in a kiln. In the other division of the cist, a few human teeth, a considerable quantity of animal bones, amongst which remains of the horse and dog were found, as well as rats' bones, which were plentifully distributed in both vaults; also a few pieces of the same kiln-baked urn which was discovered in the first cell; from which circumstance it is very certain that the interment had been taken out at the time the mound was removed.

On the 2d of August 1843 a fresh excavation was made into the large tumulus on End Lowe [Map] in a contrary direction to the one made on the former attempt and unfortunately with no better success. The surface not being reached only a few human bones and teeth were seen distributed through the barrow. The discovery of the primary interment in this immense accumulation of stone therefore still remains a desideratum to the Derbyshire archaeologist.

August the 5th 1843 was opened a barrow called Elk Lowe [Map] (quere Ell? that being the ancient British word signifying conspicuous) situate on a considerable eminence near Newhaven. It is of the form which Dr. Stukeley assigns to Druids' barrows without any substantial grounds. The only point in which this kind of tumulus differs from the general form being in the central depression which in this case is so much extended as to spread out into a level and circular area surrounded by a more elevated ring or rampire of earth or stones. In the barrow in question this circle was constructed of very large stones inclining towards the central plain, and covered with small stones and earth, thus forming an extremely durable erection to the height of about three feet, whilst the interior area is not more than one foot above the level of the surrounding soil. In the centre of this space, upon a stratum of stiff clay, was laid a skeleton, whose head rested upon a large limestone. This clay, appearing to replace soil (which had been removed for about a foot in depth below the natural surface), was dug out and carefully examined, and from amongst it were taken a large flint arrow- or lance-head, three other instruments of the same material, and a small piece of sandstone, rubbed smooth. These articles were immediately beneath the skeleton, on whose right hand lay a deposit of burnt human bones, containing an arrow-head of flint, also calcined, and a considerable quantity of charcoal, amongst which were several hazel-nuts, still retaining their perfect form. In other parts of the area, the remains of two more skeletons and some fragments of a large urn, composed of imperfectly baked clay, profusely ornamented, were found. A few dogs' teeth were also observed. The most remarkable circumstance attending the opening of this barrow was the discovery of rats' bones in an unprecedented quantity the whole of the interior circle of the area being covered with a stratum of them not less than three inches in thickness.

About the close of the last or the commencement of the present century, a very large barrow, situated upon Brassington Moor, and now called Stoney Lowe [Map], though sometimes written Stanhope Lowe, was removed, in order that its time-honoured materials might assist in Macadamising some lanes or roads in the immediate neighbourhood. In the course of this work of destruction a large cist was discovered, in which lay three human skeletons, ranged side by side, one of which is said to have had one half of its skull clothed with hair. In another part of this barrow an urn was found, and taken out only to be broken to pieces. On attentively surveying the site of this noble tumulus, which, previous to its demolition, was connected with a small cirque of stones adjoining to it, and destroyed at the same time, the edges of several large stones, placed in a cist-like form, and appearing above the turf, suggested an idea, that, by digging into the interior of these vaults, something might yet be recovered. This was put to the proof on the 8th of August, 1843, and produced the following results: the first vault was a square of about three yards, and contained earth and stones for about a foot in depth, which was indeed the entire depth of the vault itself when cleared out. These debris were minutely scrutinised, and were found to contain the following remains, all in the utmost disorder: no less than 161 human teeth, a large quantity of human bones, a small piece of an urn, various kinds of animals bones and rats bones in abundance. The second vault was of more irregular form, but was very similar to the first in the confusion visible amongst its contents, which were the remains of two human skeletons, apparently of females, with which a delicately-formed arrow-head was found, which, as is frequently the case, had been calcined. The number of interments originally deposited in this tumulus must have been enormous, as the teeth before mentioned vary from those of very juvenile subjects to those of persons of very advanced age, some of the latter are worn almost to a level with the jaw, and yet do not exhibit the least symptom of decay.

12th of August 1843, was opened a large barrow, called Hawk's Lowe [Map] about two miles north-west of the village of Parwich [Map]. It is about thirty yards in diameter and five feet in height, and has been dug into several times by various persons. At the depth of a foot or eighteen inches from the surface of the mound, on the occasion in question, were found human bones, pieces of flint and urns, horses' teeth, and rats' bones, but no appearance of an undisturbed interment was to be seen. Lower down, in the interior of the barrow, every sign of its former contents disappeared, nor was anything farther discovered.

August 23d, 1843, the large and well-known barrow upon the summit of Wolfscote Hill [Map], near Biggin [Map], was opened by cutting a wide trench from the south side towards the central depression. Shortly before arriving at this point, a cist, built of large limestones, was discovered immediately across the cutting and on the level of the natural ground. This vault, having no cover, was filled with earth and stones, which had settled down into it. On these being cleared out, the contents of the cist were found to be the remains of two young children, accompanied by an urn of sun-dried clay, rather neatly ornamented. This, owing to the settling of the mound, was crushed to pieces, and lay on one side on the floor of the cist, which was covered with rats' bones. On reaching the centre of the tumulus, it became very apparent that that part had been opened previously and the contents destroyed, the only remains now found being fragments of two urns, the bones of a similar number of human skeletons, and a variety of animal remains, all which had been taken out and thrown in again with the soil at the time of the prior opening of this barrow.

Some years ago, a large and interesting barrow upon Bakewell Moor, called Bole Hill [Map], was carted away in order to build stone fences, at which time a vault was discovered, closed with a large, fiat stone, which, being removed, displayed to the astonished rustics engaged in the work of demolition, the unexpected sight of three human skeletons. The only relic found with them was a large spear of some kind of metal, which was preserved for a short time and then lost. There are yet traces of five vaults to be seen on the ground fonnerly covered by the tumulus. These vaults were filled up for about a foot in depth with soil which was dug out and examined on the 24th of August, 1843, in the hope of rescuing some relic before all traces of this once noble barrow shall have disappeared, and its existence be forgotten. In the largest vault the remains of four human skeletons and the pieces of a large sepulchral urn of coarse material and plain manufacture were brought to light. In another of the vaults were found a few bones, horses' teeth, and two skulls of the polecat. In the other three vaults nothing was found but rats' bones, which were equally prevalent in each vault.

4th of September, 1843, a small barrow, about two miles south of Middleton-by-Yolgrave [Map], named Borther Lowe [Map], was investigated, first by digging down the centre, and afterwards by cutting it through to the south side. In the first excavation pieces of urns, horses' teeth, and other bones were immediately found. Proceeding lower down, upon the level of the ground on which the barrow was raised, a rude kind of pavement of rough limestones was found, which was covered with a layer of rats' bones. Yet no human bones were discovered in this part of the mound, which was therefore abandoned, and the south side subjected to an examination, with better success. The ground on the south being removed to the depth of a foot, a skeleton, with the head lying towards the interior of the barrow, was uncovered. It was found to be in a very decayed state, from its being placed so near the surface, within the influence of the atmosphere. On the left side of the skeleton were the remains of a plain, coarse urn, much disintegrated, owing to the reason above stated, a flint arrow-head, much burnt, a pair of the canine teeth of either a fox or a dog of the same size, and a diminutive bronze celt. The contemporary use of weapons of flint and bronze is remarkable: in another place are a few observations bearing upon this point. In other parts of the tumulus were three hones of fine slatestone. In an adjoining field are the remains of another barrow, removed in order to supply materials for a stone fence at the least expense; but there are no records of any discovery of interments having been made at the time.

Saturday the 9th of September 1843 a remarkable barrow at Cross Lowe [Map], near Parwich [Map], was opened. It had every appearance of being a small tumulus about three feet in height; but was found to have been constructed above a depression in the rock, about two feet deep, thus increasing the height of the artificial structure to five feet. It was thought that the most effectual way of opening this barrow was to begin a cutting on both the north and south sides, and thus to meet in the middle; this was done with the following interesting results: on the north side a secondary deposit was founds about eighteen inches below the surface of the mound; it was the skeleton of a young person, and was accompanied by a small urn, much ornamented, and a bone pin. On the south side the floor was found to decline rapidly towards the centre, on approaching which a very rude cist was discovered, formed of stones set edgeways upon the solid rock, which supplied the bottom of the cist, on which lay a large and strong human skeleton, with the head towards the south-east; about a foot from the head was placed a coarse urn, sparingly ornamented. Besides these the cist contained a large quantity of rats' bones, one horse's tooth, the fragment of a celt, and a small piece of chipped flint; and at the feet of the skeleton lay a large heap of calcined human bones, which on examination proved to be the remains of two children; near them a curiously-shaped and neatly-ornamented urn was deposited. On removing a large stone, which formed that side of the cist approximating to the centre of the barrow, another skeleton was uncovered, which was that of a young person, accompanied by a small urn, or incense cup, which was placed at the head. The occurrence of this interment on the exterior of the cist caused a careful examination of the surrounding parts in the immediate neighbourhood of the principal interment, which led to the discovery of four more human skeletons, upon the same level, and to all appearance deposited there at the same time as the body within the cist. Near the surface of the tumulus another skeleton was disinterred, which was accidentally discovered by part of the skull falling down, owing to the ground being undercut, for the purpose of following up the traces of some of the other skeletons. It was not accompanied by relics of any description.

September 27th, 1843, a barrow, called Ringham Lowe [Map], on Middleton Moor, was reopened. It was first examined by the late Mr. William Bateman in 1821, who found only the fragments of two urns and a piece of charcoal; one of the urns was of fine black ware, the other very coarse and of a grayish colour. The second investigation did not prove much more interesting than the first; the particulars are as follows: in the centre were the remains of a fire which had burnt upon the surface of the ground, before the construction of the mound; there remained pieces of charred wood, either oak or ash, near three inches in diameter. About the same place some more fragments of the above-mentioned urns were found; also numerous chippings of flint; but no bones, either human or animal, were seen. Near the surface of the tumulus a carefully-chipped instrument of flint was picked up, on refilling the excavation.