Books, Prehistory, Transactions of the Bristol and Gloucestershire Archaeological Society
Transactions of the Bristol and Gloucestershire Archaeological Society is in Prehistory.
Books, Prehistory, Transactions of the Bristol and Gloucestershire Archaeological Society, Volume 5 1880
Books, Prehistory, Transactions of the Bristol and Gloucestershire Archaeological Society, Volume 7 1882
Transactions Of The Bristol and Gloucestershire Archaeological Society for 1882-83. Edited by Sir John Maclean, F.S.A., etc. VOL. VII.
Books, Prehistory, Transactions of the Bristol and Gloucestershire Archaeological Society, Volume 9 1876
Transactions Of The Bristol and Gloucestershire Archaeological Society for 1884-85. Edited by Sir John Maclean, F.S.A., etc. VOL. IX.
Transactions of the Bristol anb Gloucestershire Archaeologhical Society. At the Annual Meeting, held at Evesham, on Wednesday, Thursday, and Friday, the 23rd, 24th and 25th July, 1884.
I should mention here that the old Salt-way from Droitwich to the coast of Hampshire climbs the Coteswold Hills in the parish of Hailes. In the church of the adjoining parish of Didbrook, some Lancastrians are said to have sought refuge after the battle of Tewkesbury, A.D. 1471, but were brought out and shot down at the west end. The door is perforated with bullet holes. I give the tradition as it was narrated to me. Passing along the side of the hill, in the hundred of Kiftsgate, of which I shall say more presently, we come to the village of Stanway. There is here a large and handsome manor house, in the Tudor style. The banquetting hall is a fine room, and the lodge was built by Inigo Jones, about 1630. Dover, who instituted the Coteswold games, is said to have been buried here, but I think this is a mistake, for the registers of Uarton-on-the-Heath, give a long list of the Dover family, amongst others Mr. Robert Dover, who was buried in 1652. In the adjoining parish of Stanton there are the remains of a large camp, but I have been quite unable to glean any particulars about it beyond the fact that it is sometimes called "Shenborough Camp," sometimes "Lidcombe," sometimes "Stanton," and is supposed to be the connecting link between Beckbury Camp and WiUersey Camp, both of which are visible from it. There is some old glass in the church of the 15th century. Still keeping under the brow of the hill, we come to Buckland, or "Bocland," because the tenure of the land was by deed in opposition to "Folkland" that held by hearsay of the folk. There is an interesting little church with some curious glass in the windows. Mr. Gambier Tarry, a former president, remarks: — "There are some Hue old seats and tiles, the unusual feature, too, of testers projecting over the seats against the wall, frescoes, and a beautiful Kancte-belle cot." These are described in the Archaeological Transactions of this Society, Tart I., 1879-80, pp. 10 and 11. The manor belonged to the Abbey of Gloucester, and I do not find mention made of any other property in the neighbourhood in the possession of that house. The counties of Gloucester and Worcester are in this district very much intermixed, and we shall enter the latter in the parish of Broadway. The ancient road to London passed by the old church; but now the village is so far distant that a new church, in a more convenient situation, has been built, and the venerable old building of the latter part of the 12th century is only used daring the summer months for service. A paper will be read on our visit to the church. In contrast to the care which is bestowed upon this sacred edifice, let me call attention to the almost ruinous state of the building called "the Grange." Alas, this once cosy retreat of the Abbots of Pershore is falling to decay, and unless some means are speedily taken to preserve it this relic of the 14th century will soon be a ruin and a building of the past. The drive up Broadway Hill is rather steep. On the top is a small Inn, with the sign of "The Fish" — either "lucus a non lucendo" — or to keep up the old saying "as thirsty as a fish," which you certainly will he after walking up. The Downs on the top, before enclosure, must have been very extensive. Here both Cavalier and Roundhead were often alternately encamped, and there is a despatch in existence from Lord Digby, dated Broadway Downs, 17th of June, 1644. On the top of the hill, but in the parish of Willersey, and consequently in the county of Gloucester, looking over the Vale of Evesham, are the remains of a very large camp. In extent it is more than 60 acres, and is said by Rudder to have been formed during the Danish ravages. On two sides the camp is naturally defended, on the other two it must have been strongly fortified, for there are evidences of double entrenchments. It is said that here the Mercians were encamped before the battle which took place between them and the West Saxons, at a spot which still retains the name of Battle Bridge, in the parish of Chipping Campden, in the hamlet of Berrington, which probably takes its name from the barrows or "tumuli" [Willersey Barrow [Map]] raised over the bodies of the slain. Guthrum, the Danish King, spent a whole year in Gloucestershire, and it may be that the record of one of the engagements with Alfred about A.D. 877 has thus been traditionally preserved. Within the camp is a large long-barrow running east and west. Through the kindness and liberality of Mr. Chadwiok, the owner of the property, tins barrow was in some measure opened ten days ago. The outside walls on the north and south sides were clearly traced, and some very large stones were found at the east end. A few bones were discovered under the largest stone. These have been carefully preserved, and the opening, so far as it went, has been left for your inspection. In the adjoining parish of Saintbury (or as it is called in the Doomsday book Swineberie, that is Swine's camp) there is a smaller camp, probably an outlying work, as it is connected with the larger one in Willersey. Fosbroke calls it Danish. But by the side of these two camps runs the ancient road of Buckle Street, or Buggilde Street. Mr. Witta has traced this road from Ryknield Street, which runs near Bidford to its junction with the Kossway, near Bourton-on-the-Water, and says it is first mentioned in a Saxon charter dated 709. Rudder attributes all these entrenchments to the Danish locusts, who for many years desolated the country, but I think there can be no doubt that both here and on Meon Hill these camps may have been British, were undoubtedly Roman, and were afterwards occupied by both Saxons and Danes. Driving on, now on the top of the hill we come to the parish of Weston Suhcdge, with which I am more immediately connected, and by the route I hope we shall take to-morrow it will be entered near to a very celebrated locality — namely, Kifts-gate, from which the Hundred takes its name. The position was formerly called "The Narrows," and the meaning of the word may be derived from the old Celtic word "Cefn" — a ridge — as this accurately describes the tongue of land ou which it stood. Alas ! the gate lias gone, the post alone remains. I believe it is the intention of hold Gainsborough, on whose property it stands, carefully to preserve this ancient relic. In former days the court of the hundred or Wapentake was assembled here for the administration of justice, as well as for military purposes, and evidently the place of assembly for such business must have been of considerable importance. I have reason to believe that
At the close of this address the journey was resumed, and Willersey Camp was next reached. It is the site of a British Camp, on property now belonging to Mr. R. N. Chadwick, who had obligingly given permission for its inspection, and also for the exploration of the barrow adjacent. Mr. George B. Witts (age 29) here acted as cicerone, and by his concise and graphic description of the remains gave his auditory clear ideas of their ancient form and uses. The camp, Mr. Witts stated, was 68 acres in extent, and after describing how it was originally constructed, pointed out the number of British camps which were visible from it. Amongst them were those as distant as Shenboro', Cleeve Hill (Cheltenham), Oxenton Hill, May Hill, Welshboro', Malvern, Bredon (2), Meon, Chastleton, and the Rollright stones [Map], to all which, with others, Mr. Witts directed attention. He also described the situation of the camp in relation to the Roman roads and its connection with Saintbury (Swains'-bury) camp. From the camp a short walk brought the party to the barrow [Willersey Barrow [Map]], which with praiseworthy zeal Mr. Witts had on the previous day, with a willing party of workers, partially excavated. The face of the outer wall of the barrow was exposed for some distance, also the walls of some of the chambers, though displaced probably by previous explorers. Here the bones of the ox were found, and also many fragments of human bones and of pottery, with some flint chips. After an explanation of the form and extent of the barrow, a hearty vote of thanks was given to Mr. Chadwick for his permission to explore the barrow, and to those who had so well done the work. The carriages were resumed, and on arriving at Kiftsgate Stone the President pointed it out to the party as their carriages arrived in succession at the spot, and thence they were conveyed to the summit of "Dover's Hill." From this hill is a most magnificent panorame, which was seen to great advantage, the atmosphere being just at that time particularly favorable for views of distant scenery. From the hill associated with the historic name of Mr. Dover, the great patron of the Coteswold games, the travellers proceeded to the picturesque town of Chipping Campden, where at the ancient hostelry of the Noel Arms the party alighted to lunch, to which they had been kindly invited by the President. Having partaken of the President's hospitality