Wriothesley's Chronicle 1485-1509

Wriothesley's Chronicle 1485-1509 is in Wriothesley's Chronicle.

1485 Sweating Sickness Outbreak

1486 Birth and Christening of Arthur Prince of Wales

1487 Battle of Stoke Field

1487 Coronation of Elizabeth of York

1491 Birth and Christening of Henry VIII

1495 Perkin Warbreck Plot

1497 Cornish Rebellion

1501 Marriage of Arthur Tudor and Catherine of Aragon

1509 Death of Henry VII

1509 Coronation of Henry VIII and Catherine of Aragon

1875 Marriage of King Henry VIII and Catherine of Aragon

1485 Sweating Sickness Outbreak

1485. This yearea was great death of the sicknesse called the sweatinge sicknesse;b and the crosse in Cheepe new made; and a great taske and dismec grawnted to the Kinge.

Note a. Henry VII's regnal years counted from 22nd Aug. 1485, the day of the Battle of Bosworth. The year in the text, howerer, are computed from Lord Mayor's day.

Note b. This disease, unknown to any other age or nation, appeared first in London about the middle of September, and by the end of October had decimated the population. Two mayors and six aldermen died of it within one week.— See "Hall's Chronicle."

Note c. This expression is copied from Arnold, signifying "tax and tenth." In Jean Falsgrare's "L'Eclaircissement de la Langue Franyaise" the word "taske" is rendered by the French "taux."

Birth and Christening of Arthur Prince of Wales

1486. This yeared Prince Arthure was borne at Windsore [Map].e

Note d. This paragraph is wrongly placed both in Arnold and our MS. after the next entry, but I hare restored it to its proper date.

Note e. A clerical error for Winchester [Map].

Coronation of Elizabeth of York

25 Nov 1487. This yeare the Queene was crowned.f

Note f. At Westminster on the 25th November, 1487.

Battle of Stoke Field

16 Jun 1487. The Earle of Lincolne (age 25)1, the Lord Lovell (age 31), and one Martin Swarte, a straunger, slayne all in a feild that they made againste the Kinge.2

Note 1. John Earl of Lincoln (age 25) was son of John de la Pole (age 44), Duke of Suffolk, and of Elizabeth (age 43), eldest sister of Edward IV.

Note 2. This battle was fought at the village of Stoke [Map], near Newark [Map], 16th June, 1487, when Lambert Simnel (age 10) was made prisoner.

1489. This yeare the Kinge sent manye knightes with seaven thowsandb men into Brytane.

Note b. Eight thousand according to Stow.

28 Apr 1489. Th' Earle of Northumberlande (age 40) slayne in the Northe.c.

Note c. By the rebels, April 28th, 1489.

1489. A capp of mayntenance brought from Rome to the Kinge.d

Note d. This agrees with Arnold and Bernard André, but Stow places it in 1505.

1490. This yeare Creplegate [Map] was new made, and E. Franckee and other put to death.

Note e. Edward Franke in Arnold.

Birth and Christening of Henry VIII

28 Jun 1491. This yeare, in June,f Kinge Henrie the Eightg was borne at Greenewich [Map], which was second sonne to King Henry the VIIth (age 34), named Duke of Yorke.

Note f. June 28th, 1491.

Note g. This expression shows that this portion of the Chronicle was written after the accession of Henry VIII.

12 Mar 1491. Sir Robert Chamberlayne (age 53) was beheaded. A conduict begon at Christ Churche.h

Note h. Christ Church probably refers to Christ Church Greyfriars [Map].

1492. This yeare the Kinge (age 34) went to Calis [Map] with a great armiei againste France, but the peace was made without battell.k.

Note i. 25,000 foot and 1,600 horse.

Note k. By the terms of this treaty, known as the Peace of Estaples, the French King engaged to pay 745,000 crowns down and 52,000 crowns yearly under the name of pension.

08 Jun 1492. The Queenes (age 26) mother (age 55)l deceased, and the Lowersm set upon Guylde Hall [Map].

Note l. Elizabeth Woodville (age 55), widow of Edward IV.

Note m. Towers.

1493. This yeare was a risinge of yonge men againste the Stiliarde [Map].a

Note a. The Hanseatic or Easterling merchants had their repository, "Goyhalda Tentonicorum" in the Still-yard [Map] in Thames Street, from which circumstance they received the sobriquet of Merchants of the Steelyard.

Perkin Warbreck Plot

1495. This yeare was beheaded Sir William Stanley (age 60), Lord Chamberlayne, Sir Symon Monforde and his sonne, and manye other that landed in the Downes,b to the number of viiixx, that came from Perkin Werbeck (age 21),c callinge himselfe King Edwardes sonne.d

Note b. Near Deal [Map].

Note c. Other authorities say Warbeck's followers, to the number of 169, were on this occasion made captives and gibbeted; but our author has copied Arnold, who has "viii skore."

Note d. Warbeck (age 21) pretended to be Richard Duke of York, son of Edward lV.

22 Jun 1497. This yeare was Blackheath [Map] feild in June.e The Lord Awdley (age 34) chiefe capteyn with 30,000 Cornishe men. The capteynes put to death,f.

Note e. June 22nd.

Note f. Lord Audley (age 34) was beheaded at Tower Hill [Map]; Flammock, an attorney, and Michel Joseph, a blacksmith, were hanged, drawn, and quartered at Tyburn [Map]; all the rest were pardoned by proclamation.

1497 Cornish Rebellion

Aug 1497... and in August Perkin Warbeck (age 23) landed in Cornewale,g and by pursuit fledd to Bowdley St. Marie [Map],h but by appoyntment he came to the Kinge, followinge the Courte.i

Note g. In Whitsand Bay; and, having sent his wife, the Lady Catherine Gordon, for safety to Mount St Michael, assumed the title of Richard IV.

Note h. The Sanctuary of Beaulieu [Map] in the New Forest, written in Arnold "Bewdeley sent wary," which has been erroneously transcribed in our MS. "St. Marie."

Note i. In Arnold this passage is, "and so remained following the Court."

Dec 1498. This yeare, in December, was the weathercock of Paules, the crosse [Map], and the bowle,k taken downe, and all new made. And in May after were solemnlye hallowed, and sett up agayne.

Note k. ball.

22 Feb 1499. This yeare was borne the third sonne of King Henry the VII (age 42) named Edmunde Duke of Somersett, at Greenwich [Map], the 22nd of Februarie.

19 Jun 1500. This yeare, in June, deceased the third sonne (age 1) of the Kinge (age 43), named Duke of Somersett, and was buried at Westminster [Map].a

Note a. Our author follows Arnold, but others say that the infant Prince Edmond did not die till the fifth year of his age.

23 Nov 1499. Perkin Werbeck (age 25) putt to death at Tyburne [Map]; and the Earle of Warwyke (age 24),b sonne to the Duke of Clarence, who had bene kept in the Tower [Map] from the age of 11 years unto the end of 14 yeares, was beheaded at the Tower Hill [Map].c A great pestilence throughout all England.

Note b. Edward Earl of Warwick (age 24) was the last remaining male of the honse of Plantagenet. He bore the title of Earl of Warwick, though it does not appear that his father's attainder had been reversed.

Note c. Warbeck (age 25) was executed at Tyburn [Map] on the 23rd Norember, together with O'Water, Mayor of C!ork, and the Earl of Warwick on the following day, or, according to some anthorities, on the 28th.

Note. "though it does not appear that his father's attainder had been reversed." Edward's (age 24) claim was from through his mother Isabel Neville Duchess Clarence, daughter of Richard "Kingmaker" Neville Earl Warwick, 6th Earl Salisbury and Anne Beauchamp 16th Countess Warwick, whose claim had come from her mother Anne Beauchamp, so his father's attainder was irrelevant.

1501. This yeare the Kinge (age 43) buylded new his manner at Sheene,d and chaunged the name and named it Richmonde [Map];e and buylded new his place, called the Baynards Castle [Map], in London; and repayred his place in Greenewich [Map], with muche new buyldinge.f

Note d. Stow has placed this paragraph under the year 1507, being the twenty-second year of Henry's reign.

Note e. After his own title.

Note f. Greenwich [Map] has much favoured by Henry VII (age 43) and here his son, afterwards Henry VIII (age 9) was born.

Marriage of Arthur Tudor and Catherine of Aragon

14 Nov 1501. This yeare, the 14th day of November, Prince Arthure (age 15) was marriedg at Paules Churche [Map], in London, to the Kinge of Spaynes (age 49) third daughter, named Katheryne (age 15).a

Note g. At the age of fifteen, his bride (age 15) being seventeen. The commission and marriage articles may be seen in MS. Harleian. Cod. 6, 220, Art. 1.

02 Apr 1502. And in Easter weeke followinge the saide Prince Arthure (age 15) deceased at Ludlowe [Map], in Wales, and was buried at Worcester [Map].b

Note b. Prince Arthur (age 15) died on the Saturday following Easter Sunday in 1503, being April 2nd, and was buried in Worcester cathedral on the 27th April.

11 Feb 1503. This yeare, in Februarie, died Queene Elizabeth (age 37) at the Towre of London [Map], lyeinge in childebedd of a daughter named Katherine (the 8th day after her birth), and was buried at Westminster [Map];c

Note c. Elizabeth (age 37), the eldest child of Edward IV by Elizabeth Woodville his wife, was heiress of the house of York. She was born at Westminster [Map] on the 11th February, 1466, and died on her thirty-seventh birthday in the Tower of London [Map], having been delivered of a daughter on the second of the same month, who died soon after its mother.

08 Mar 1503... and on Passion Sundaye a peace made betwene the Emperoure and the Kinge (age 46) duringe their lyves, solemnized upon a great oathe at the highe aulter in Paules queere [Map].

1504. This yeare the Taylors sued to the Kinge (age 46) to be called Marchant taylors.d

Note d. This Society, anciently denominated "Taylors and Linen-Armorers," was incorporated by letters patent of 6 Edward IV 1466. But many of the members being great merchants, and Henry VII a member thereof, he for their greater honour reincorporated the same in 1503, by the name of "The Master and Wardens of the Merchant Taylors of the Fraternity of St John the Baptist in the City of London." — Maitland's "History of London."

1504. And this yeare was a great fier at the ende of London Bridge next to St. Magnus [Map].

1505. This yeare was a great strife for th' election of the sheriffs in the Guylde Hall [Map]. One parte woulde have William Fitz-Williams, marchante taylor, and another Boger Grove, grocer, who at length was admitted for one of the sheriffes.a

Note a. The two sheriffs chosen for the yetr 1606 were Richard Shore and Roger Grore.

1506. This yeare a great parte of the cittie of Norwich [Map] was burnt, and the towne of Berkwayeb more then halfe burnt. Also a great fier in London betwene the Custome Howsse and Billinsgate, that did great hurte.

Note b. Berkwey in Arnold, probably Berkeley in Gloucestershire.

1507. This yeare, about the latter ende of Januarye, the Kinge of Castell and his wife (age 28)c were driven into Englande,d and had here great cheare. The King was made Knight of the Garter at Windsore [Map].e

c. Archduke Philip and his wife Juana, who, by the death of her mother lsabella, was now Queen of Castille.

Note d. For a full account of the arrival of the Archduke Philip, and his entertainment whilst in England, see MS. Harleian. Cod. 640, fol. 60-66, and Cod. 643, fol. 140.

Note e. The English monarch invested Philip with the order of the Garter at Windsor, and the latter made him and Prince Henry Knights of the Golden Fleece.

Death of Henry VII

21 Apr 1509. This yeare, in Aprill, died King Henry the Vllth (age 52) at Richmond [Map] and his Sonne King Henry the VIII (age 17) was proclaymed Kinge on St Georges dayeg 1508 [1509], in the same moneth.

Note g. We should here read St George's Eve, 22nd April, 1509, from which day Henry Vlll reckoned his regnal years. Stow, however, says that Henry was not proclaimed till the 24th.

Marriage of King Henry VIII and Catherine of Aragon

03 Jun 1509. And in June followinge the King was married to Queene Katherin, late wife of his brotherh Prince Arthure,

Note h. At Greenwich, on Trinity Sunday, June the 3rd.[Note. Other sources say at 11 Jun 1509?]

Coronation of Henry VIII and Catherine of Aragon

24 Jun 1509... and were both [King Henry VIII of England and Ireland (age 17) and Catherine of Aragon Queen Consort England (age 23)] crowned on Midsommer day.i

Note i. For the account of Henry's coronation with his queen, Kadiarine, see MS. Harleian. 169, Art 7.

24 Jun 1509. The coronationa of Kinge Henrie the Eight (age 17), which was the 24th of June, A.D. 1509.

Note a. In consequence of the erroneous idea that the Kings of England always ascended the throne immediately on the decease of the preceding sovereign, some authorities make the regnal years of Henry VIII. to commence on the 21st April, 1509, the day of his father's decease, but it is clearly established, as shown by Sir Harris Nicolas, that they ought to be computed from the day following, viz. April 22. The years in the text, howerer, are computed from Lord Mayor's day.