Wriothesley's Chronicle 1530-1539

Wriothesley's Chronicle 1530-1539 is in Wriothesley's Chronicle.

1533 Anne Boleyn's First Appearance as Queen

1533 Coronation of Anne Boleyn

1533 Birth and Christening of Elizabeth I

1535 Execution of the Carthusians

1535 Burning of the Anabaptists

1535 Execution of Bishop Fisher and Thomas More

1536 Henry VIII becomes Supreme Head of the Church

29 Oct 1530. This yeare, the morrowe after Simon and Jude,c which was the Majors feast, there dyned in the Guylde hall [Map] at the said feast the Lorde Chauncellor of Englande (age 52), the Duke of Northfolke (age 57), the Duke of Suffolke (age 46), and 9 Earles and a Bishopp, sittinge all at one table, prepared in the Majors courte in the Guyld hall [Map], and two other side tables sittinge with lordes and knightes.

Note c. October 29.

29 Nov 1530. This yeare, on the even of St. Andrewe,d the Cardinall, Thomas Wolsey (age 57), died at Leicester, cominge to London to his indictment,e and there is buried in Our Ladies Chappell. Some recken he killed himselfe with purgations.f

Note d. November 29.

Note e. The Cardinal (age 57) had been arrested by the Earl of Northumberland (age 28) on a charge of high treason at Cawood [Map], near York, on the 4th of November.

Note f. Wolsey (age 57) is generally believed to hare died of dysentery at Leicester Abbey, on the third day of his jourmey, about 8 o'clock in the morning of the 29th of November, being in the sixtieth year of his age. He was buried at midnight, without any solemnity, in Our Lady Chapel in the church of that monastery.

16 Aug 1531. This yeare was one burnt at Maidestone [Map] for heresie, and one Bylney (age 36),g a priest, disgraded and burnt at Norwich, Norfolk [Map] for heresie.

Note g. Thomas Bilney (age 36), Bachelor of both Laws, was burnt on the 16th August, 1531.

20 Nov 1531. This yeare, in November, on St. Edmonds day,a there was oneb convict of heresie which was some tyme a moncke in St. Edmondsburie, and was disgraded in Powles by the Bishop of London (age 56) of the orders of priesthoode, and so delivered to the Sherifies of London; and the 4th day of December followinge he was burnt in Smythfeilde [Map].

Note a. Norember 20.

Note b. Bayfield.

Dec 1531. This yeare Mr. Risse (age 23)c was beheaded at Tower hill, and one that was his servante was drawne from the Tower of London to Tibume [Map], where he was hanged, his bowells burnt, and his bodie quartered.

Note c. "Griffeth Rise (age 23) beheaded for treason."— Fabyan's Chronicle.

Dec 1531. This yeare was a purser of London burnt in Smythfeilde [Map] for heresie, who bare a fagott at Powles Crosse [Map] the yeare afore.

Apr 1532. The last day of Aprill, 1532, one Baynam, a gentleman, was burnt in Smythfeild [Map] for heresie.

Anne Boleyn's First Appearance as Queen

12 Apr 1533. Memorandum: the 12th day of Aprill, Anno Domini 1533, beinge Easter eaven, Anne Bulleine (age 32), Marques of Pembroke,d was proclaymed Queene at Greenewych, and ofired that daie in the Kinges Chappell as Queene of England.e

Note d. Anne Boleyn (age 32) was raised to the dignity of Marchioness of Pembroke on Sunday, September 1st, 1532, at Windsor Castle, an honour which had never before been conferred on any unmarried female.

Note e. She had been some months preriously married to Henry VIII in great privacy by Dr. Rowland Lee (age 46), afterwards Bishop of Lichfield and Coyentry, but whether the marriage took place, as Sanders says, November 14th, 1532, on their arrival at Dover from France, or was deferred, as Cranmer (age 43) [?] supposed, to January 25th, 1533, still remains uncertain.

Around 08 Apr 1533. And the Wednesdaie before the good Queene Katherinf was deposed at Hanthill [Map]a by the Duke of Norfolke (age 60), the Duke of Suffolke (age 49), and Lord Marques of Exceter (age 37), my Lorde of Oxforde (age 62), Lord Chamberlaine of the Kinges howse, Mr. Treasorer and Mr. Controwler of the Kinges howse. And from that dale after to be called Ladie Catherin, wife of Prince Arthur, dowarie of Englande,b she to have by yearelie pencion for her dowarie eight thousand poundes sterlinge.

Note f. The general opinion in England was distinctly adverse to the divorce. See Calendar of State Papers preserved in the Archives of Venice, vol. iv. 1532-3.

Note a. Ampthill [Map], in Bedfordshire, to which place Queen Katharine retired while the question of her dirorce was under discussion. This castle had been erected by Lord Fanhope, and reverted with the manor to the Crown in the reign of Edward IV, by whom it was conferred on Lord Grey of Ruthin, Earl of Kent, from whose descendants it passed again to the Crown about 1530, and became a palace of Henry VIII (age 41).

Note b. Princess Dowager of Wales, which designation was displeasing to the ex-queen, who refused to resign herself to the judgment passed. She went so far as to obliterate with her own pen the words "Princess Dowager" whererer they had been written by her Chamberlain, Mountjoy (age 55), in his report to the King (age 41).

Coronation of Anne Boleyn

29 May 1533. Memorandum, Thursdaie, the 29th daie of Maie, 1533, Ladie Anne, Marques of Pembroke (age 32), was receayed as Queene of Englande by all the Lordes of Englande.c And the Majord and Aldermen, with all the craftes of the Cittie of London, went to Greenewych in their barges after the best fashion, with a barge also of Batchlers of the Majors crafte rytchlie behanged with cloath of golde and a foyste to wayte on her. And so all the Lordes, the Major, with all the craftes of London, brought her by water from Greenewych [Map] to the Tower of London [Map], and ther the Kinges grace (age 41) receaved her at her landinge; and then were shott at the Towre above a thousand gunnes, besides other shotts that were shott at Lymehowse, and in other shipps lying in the Thammes. And the morrowe after being Fridaief their were made divers Knightes of the Bath.

Note c. Anne Boleyn (age 32) was descended through both parents from the royal stock of King Edward I; paternally, from Elizabeth, daughter of that monarch, and, maternally, from Thomas de Brotherton, Earl of Norfolk, son of the same King.

Note d. Sir Stephen Pecocke

Note e. A light and fast-sailing ship.

Note f. May 30.

31 May 1533. And on Saturdaie, the last daie of Maie, shee (age 32) rode from the Towre of London [Map] throwe the Cittie,a with a goodlie companye of Lordes, Knightes, and Gentlemen, with all the Peares of the Realme, rytchlie apparailed, and also eightene Knightes of the Bath newlie made, ridinge in blewe gownes with hoodes on their sholders purfeled with white, and white laces of silke knitt on the left sholders of their gownes. And she herself riding in a rytch chariott covered with cloath of silver, and a rich canapie of cloath of silver borne over her heade by the fower Lordes of the Portes,b in gownes of Scarlett, and fower chariotts, with ladies followinge after her rytchlie behanged; and also divers other ladies and gentlewomen riding on horscbacke all in gownes made of crymson velvett; and their was divers pageants made on skaffoldes in the Cittie; and all the craftes standing in their liveries everie one in order, the Major and Aldermen standinge in Cheepeside; and when she came before them the Recorder of London made a goodlie preposition to her, and then the Majorc gave her a purse of cloath of golde, with a thousand markes of angell nobles in it, for a presente for the whole bodie of the Cittie; and so the Lordes brought her to the Palace at Westminster, and their left her that night.

Note a. The City on this occasion appears to hare been decorated in a more somptaoos manner than at any time heretofore. — Maitland's "History of London," p. 188.

Note b. Cinque Ports.

Note c. According to Stow, it was Master Baker, the Recorder of London, who presented to Anne Boleyn (age 32) the City purse, containing one thousand marks of gold.

01 Jun 1533. Memorandum, the first dale of June,d Queene Anne (age 32) was brought from Westminster Hall to the Abbey of Sainct Peeter's [Map] with procession, all the monkes of Westminster going in rytch copes of golde with 13 abbotts mitred; and after them all the Kinges Chappell in rych copes with fower bushopps and tow archbishopps mittred, and all the Lordes going in their Perliament roabes,e and the crowne borne afore her by the Duke of Suffolke (age 49), and her tow scepters by tow Earles, and she herself going under a rytch canapie of cloath of golde, apparailed in a kirtell of crymson velvett powdred with ermyns, and a robe of purple velvett furred with powdred ermines over that, and a rich cronett with a calla of pearles and stones on her hedde, and the olde Dutches of Norfolke (age 56)b bearing upp her traine in a robe of scarlett with a cronett of golde on her bonett, and the Lorde Boroughe,c the Queenes Chamberlaine, staying the traine in the middes; and after her tenne ladies following in robes of scarlett furred with ermins and rounde cronettes of golde on their heades; and next after theim all the Queenes maides in gownes of scarlett edged with white lettushe furre; and so was shee brought to Sainct Peeters Church [Map] at Westminster, and their sett in her seate riall, which was made on a high scaffolde before the highe aulter; and their shee was anoynted and crowned Queene of Englande by the Archbishopp of Canterberied1 and the Archbishoppe of Yorke, and so sate crowned in her seate riall all the masse, and offred also at the said masse; and the masse donne, they departed everie man in their degrees to Westminster Hall [Map], she going still under the cannapie crowned with towe septers in hir handes, my Lorde of Wilshire, her father,e1 and the Lorde Talbottf leadinge her, and so theire dynned; wheras was made the most honorable feast that hath beene seene.

The great hall at Westminster was rytchlie hanged with rych cloath of Arras, and a table sett at the upper ende of the hall, going upp twelve greeses,a2 where the Queene dyned; and a rytch cloath of estate hanged over her heade; and also fower other tables alongest the hall; and it was rayled on everie side, from the highe deasse in Westminster Hall to the scaffold in the church in the Abbaj.

And when she went to church to her coronation their was a raye cloath,b2 blew, spreed from the highe dessesc of the Kinges Benche unto the high alter of Westminster, wheron she wente.

Note B. the Lorde William Howard, Lord Chamberlen (age 23), in a purse of crymsen silk and gold knytt, in dimy soveraignes £10 0s 0d.

And when the Queenes grace had washed her handes, then came the Duke of Suffolke (age 49), High Constable that daie and stewarde of the feast, ryding on horsebacke rytchlie apparailed and trapped, and with him, also ridinge on horsebacke, the Lorde William (age 23) Howarde as deputie for the Duke of Norfolke (age 60) in the romthd2 of the Marshall of Englande, and the Queenes servicee2 following them with the Archbishopps, a certaine space betwene which was bornef2 all by knightes, the Archbishopp sitting at the Queenes borde, at the ende, on her left hande.g2 The Earle of Sussex (age 50) was sewer, the Earle of Essex carver, the Earle of Darbie (age 24) cuppbearer, the Earle of Arrondell (age 57) butler, the Viscount Lisle (age 69) pantler, the Lord Gray almoner.

Att one of the fower tables sate all the noble ladies all on one side of the hall, at the second table the noble men, at the thirde table the Major of Londonh2 with the Aldermen, att the fowerth table the Barons of the Fortes with the Masters of the Chauncerie. The goodlie dishes with the delicate meates and the settles which were all gilt, with the noble service that daie done by great men of the realme, the goodlie sweete armonie of minstrells with other thinges were to long to expresse, which was a goodlie sight to see and beholde.

And when shee had dined and washed her handes she stoode a while under the canopie of estate, and behelde throwghe the hall, and then were spices brought with other delicates, which were borne all in great high plates of gold, wherof shee tooke a litle refection, and the residue geavinge among the lordes and ladies; and that donne she departed up to the White Hall, and their changed her apparell, and so departed secreetlie by water to Yorke Place [Map], which is called White Hall, and their laie all night.

Note d. Whitsanday. Compare this with the account of the receiving and coronation of Anne Boleyn in MS. Harleian. Cod. 41, arts. 2-5, and MS. Harleian. 543, fol. 119.

Note e. Henry's (age 41) first wife, Katharine of Aragon (age 47), was crowned with him, and a magnificent ceremony was ordained for her successful rival Anne Boleyn, but none of the other wives of Henry were honoured with a coronation.

Note a. A caul was a kind of net in which women inclosed their hair.

Note b. Grandmother (age 56) of Anne Boleyn, being widow of Thomas Howard, Duke of Norfolk, whose daughter Elizabeth (age 53) married Sir Thomas Boleyn (age 56), afterwards Earl of Wiltshire, the father of Anne.

Note. b, immediately above, appears to be a mistake? The grandmother of Anne Boleyn was Elizabeth Tilney Countess of Surrey, first wife of Thomas Howard 2nd Duke of Norfolk. He, Thomas, married secondly his first wife's first cousin Agnes Tilney Duchess Norfolk (age 56) who must be the old Duchess of Norfolk referred to since Elizabeth Tilney Countess of Surrey died in Apr 1497.

Note c. Thomas, Lord Bnrgh of Gainsboroogh (age 45).

d1. In Sir Henry Ellis's Collection of Original Letters occurs a very interesting letter written by Cranmer to the English ambassador at the Emperor's court, giving his own account of the pronouncing of sentence on Katharine and of the coronation of Anne Boleyn (age 32).

e1. Anne Boleyn's father (age 56) had been created Earl of Wiltshire and Ormond on the 8th December, 1529.

a2. Steps or stain, Latin gressus.

b2. Striped cloth.

Note c. Desks.

d2. Room.

e2. Suite.

f2. Occupied.

g2. Stow expressly states that Archbishop Cranmer sat on the right hand of the Queen at the table's end. Ed. 1631, p. 567.

h2. Sir Stephen Pecocke.

02 Jun 1533. On the morrowe after was great justes at the tilte donne by eightene lordes and knightes, where was broken many speares valiantlie, but some of their horses would not come at their pleasure nere the tilt, which was great displeasure to somme of them that ranne; and, the justes donne, their was a goodlie banquett made to all the lordes, ladies, and gentlemen in the Queenes Chamber.

23 Jun 1533. This yeare, on Midsommer eaven, died the French Queene (age 37),a sister to the Kinge (age 41), and wife to the Duke of Suffolke (age 49), and was buried at Sainct Edmondesburie in Suffolke.

Note a. Mary (age 37), sister to Henry VIII (age 41) and Queen Dowager of France, died at the manor of Westhorpe [Map], in Suffolk, on the 23rd June, and was buried (July 22) at the monastery of St. Edmondsbury, where her corpse was found in a perfect state on September 6th, 1784, being 251 years after her interment.

04 Jul 1533. This yeare, in Julie, on a Fridaie, one Frith (age 30), a servingman, a great clearke in the Greeke and Latten tonge, was brent in Smithfielde [Map], and a tailor of London with him, for heresie.b

Note b. John Frith (age 30) and Andrew Hewit, both Protestants; the former, a yonng man of learning and piety, was condemned for his book against the doctrine of Purgatory and his opinions on Transabstantiation.

Birth and Christening of Elizabeth I

07 Sep 1533. Memorandum, the viith daie of September, 1533, being Sonndaie, Queene Anne (age 32) was brought to bedd of a faire daughterc at three of the clocke in the after noune;d and the morrowe after, being the daie of the Nativitie of Our Ladie, Te Deum was songe solempnlie at Powles, the Major and Aldermen being present, with the head craftes of the Cittie of London.

Note c. The Princess Elizabeth, afterwards Queen of England.

Note d. Between three and four of the clock at afternoon. — Stow, p. 569.

10 Sep 1533. And the Wednesdaie next followinge,a the most honorable yonge ladie was christened at Greenewychb in the Friers Church, all the noble lordes and ladies doing service about the christening in their Elizabeth. offices after their degrees, which was a goodlie sight to see, and their shee had geaven her to name Elizabeth; my Lord Thomas Cranmer (age 44), Archbishopp of Canterberie, godfather; the old Dutchesse of Northfolke (age 56),c wydowe, my Ladie Marques of Dorcett (age 46), widowe, godmothers at the fonte, and my Ladie Marques of Exceter (age 30) godmother at the bishoppinge;d and the morrowe after their was fiers made in London, and at everie fire a vessell of wyne for people to drinke for the said solempnitie.

Note a. September 10.

Note b. Compare this with the accomit of the maimer of the chrifltening "of the Lady Elisabeth" in MS. Harleian. Cod. 643, fol. 128-80.

Note c. The Dowager Duchess (age 56) of Norfolk carried the infant, in a mantle of purple velvet, with a long train furred with ermine. Hall's "Chronicle" ed. 1809, p. 806.

Note d. Immediately after the christening the Archbishop (age 44) confirmed the infant princess, the Marchioness of Exeter (age 30) being godmother.

23 Nov 1533. This yeare, on St. Clements day, the 23rd of November, beinge Sunday, the Holie Maide of Kent (age 27) and two monckes, two freeres observants, a priest, and two laymen,e were brought from the Tower of London to Paules Crosse [Map], and there stood on a skaffolde all the sermon tyme, where was declared by him that preached the abuse of a miracle done on the saide Holye Mayde (age 27) at our Ladie of Courte Upstreet,f in Kent, by the craft of the sayde monckes, freeres, and priest.

Note e. The abettors of Elizabeth Barton, called the Holy Maid of Kent, were Richard Master, priest, parson of Aldington, co. Kent, Edward Bockyng, D.D. monk of Canterbury, Richard Deryng, also monk of Canterbury, Edward Thwaites, gentleman, Thomas Lanrence, registrar to the Archdeacon of Canterbnzy, Henry Gold, BJ). parson of Aldermary (Alderbniy?), Hugh Biche, friar obserrant, Richarde Bisby, and Thomas Gold, gentlemen.

Note f. Coort-at-Street, a hamlet in the parish of Lympne.

01 Apr 1534. This yeare, on Tenebrae Weddensday, beinge the first day of Aprill, 1534, one Alis Gray, and Wolfe, an Esterlinge,a which she saide was her husbande, were ledd from Newgate to the Neshe, against Savoy on the Thames syde, and there were hanged on two gibbetts for murderinge of two straungers in a wherie in the Thames about the same place where they were hanged.

Note a. A term applied to merchants trading to Germanj and the Baltic, or natiyes of those parts, as Ijing to the east of England.

20 Apr 1534. This yeare, the 20th day of Aprill, beinge Mundaye, 1534, the Holie Maide of Kent (age 28), beinge a nun of Canterburie,b two munckes of Canterburie of Christes Churche, one of them called Doctor Bockinge, two gray freeres observantes, and a priest, were drawne from the Tower of London to Tiburn, and there hanged,c and after cutt downe and their heades smitten of, and two of their heades were sett on London Bridge, and the other fower at diverse gates of the cittie.

Note b. In the priory of St Sepulchre.

Note c. The persons executed were Elizabeth Barton, Richard Master, parson of Aldington, Dr. Bocking, Richard Dering, Henry Gold, a London minister, and Richard Risby.

20 Apr 1533. Allso the same day all the craftes in London were called to their halls, and there were swome on a booke to be true to Queene Anne (age 32) and to beleeve and take her for lawfull wife of the Kinge (age 41) and rightfull Queene of Englande, and utterlie to thincke the Ladie Marie (age 17),d daughter to the Kinge by Queene Catherin (age 47), but as a bastarde, and thus to doe without any scrupulositie of conscience; allso all the curates and priestes in London and thoroweout Englande were allso swome before the Lord of Canterburie (age 43) and other Bishopps; and allso all countries in Englande were sworne in lykewise, everie man in the shires and towncs were they dwelled.

Note d. The Princess Mary (age 17), who was no longer admitted to Court.

Jun 1535. This yeare the Bishop of Rochester (age 65)e and Sir Thomas More (age 57), sometime Chauncellor of Englande,a were put into the Tower of London [Map] for misprisonne,b and there to remajme at the Kinges pleasure, but all the Bishopp of Rochesters (age 65) goodes and bishopricke were taken into the Kings handes. Allso diverse priestes, religiouse men, and laymen, were sett in prison in the Tower of London becausse they would not be sworne.

Note e. Dr John Fisher (age 65), Chancellor of Cambridge University, and Master of Queen's College, was appointed to the see of Rochester 14th October, 1504; attainted in Parliament December, 1534; made Cardinal 1535; and beheaded 22nd June, 1535.

Note a. More became Chancellor in 1629 on the fall of Wolsey, bnt in May 1532 was deprived of the seals.

Note b. For refusing to take the new oath of allegiance. It would appear that they did not so much object to the part of the oath regulating the succession, as to the doctrinal points involved.

09 Jul 1534. Memorandum: the Lord Dakers (age 41),c of the North Countrie, was pechid of highe treason, and sett in prison in the Tower of London [Map], and all his goods and landes were seised into the Kinges handes, which was great riches, and the 9th of Julye, 1534, he was arreigned at Westminstre, the Duke of Northfolke (age 61) sittinge then as high judge,d and there he discharged himselfe of all that his accuserse coulde alledge againste him, and so there he was quitt by a jurie of Lordes, and by the lawe allso.

Note c. William Dacre (age 41), third Lord Dacre, of the North.

Note d. Being Lord High Steward.

Note e. Sir Ralph Fenwick (age 64) and Nicholas Musgrave (age 37), who brought in their false Scotes for witnesses. — Stow. [Note. Nicholas Musgrave proably a mistake for William Musgrave (age 37).]

Sep 1534. This yeare allso the Lord Kildaye (age 47)g of Ireland was putt in prison in the Tower of London [Map], and there died in prison in the moneth of Septembre, and his sonne (age 21)h made an insurrection in Irelande, and there the Bishoppe of Divelyn (age 58)a was slayne. It was reported that he was upon the coste [coast] of Englande comminge out of Irelande, and then the winde turned, and so was dryven backe agayne to Irelande, where he was taken by the Lord Kildayes sonne and his head stricken of from the bodie, and after his bodie cutt in peeces, and as many as were with him that would not tume to the Lord Kildayes partie were slayne and his goodes taken and spoyled; his name was Doctor Aleyne.

Note g. Gerald Fitzgerald (age 47), ninth Earl of Kildare. After having thrice filled the office of Lord Deputy, he was accused of maladministration in 1533, and committed to the Tower of London, where he died of grief and confinement.

Note h. Lord Thomas Fitzgerald (age 21), afterwards tenth Earl of Kildare.

Note a. John Allen (age 58), LLD, Archbishop of Dublin.

08 Oct 1534. This yeare allso, in the beginninge of Michaellmasse terrae, Mr. Thomas Crumwell (age 49) was made Master of the Rolles,b and tooke his oathe in the Chauncerie the first day of the same terme.

Note b. Thomas Cromwell (age 49), afterwards Earl of Essex, K.G. was made Master of the RoUs, 8th October, 1534.

Henry VIII becomes Supreme Head of the Church

Feb 1536. This yeare, at a Parliament holden at Westminster in Februarie, was grawntedc to the Kinge and his heires for ever the first fruits of all spirituall dignities and promotions fallinge after that day, and allso the tenth parte of all spirituall promotions yearlie, to be payde to the Kinge and his heires for ever, and the King to be taken and called supreme heade of the Churche of Englande,d and so to be written in his style for ever with these wordes followinge: Henricus Dei gratiâ Rex Angliæ et Franciæ, supremum caput ecclesiæ terræ Anglicanæ, Defensor Fidei, &c

Allso it was grawnted at the same Parliament a subsidie of 12d. in the pownde, to be levied and taken of the Temporalltie, and to be payde in two yeares next followinge, and in the third yeare a fifteene and a tenth to be payde of the temporalltie allso.

Note c. Statute 26 Henry Vm. cap. 3.

Note d. See Statutes 26 Henry VIII cap. 1..

Execution of the Carthusians

28 Apr 1535. This yeare, the 28 of Aprill, 1535, being Weddensdaye, were arreigned at Westminster in the Kings Benche (the Lord Chauncellor sittinge there as Highe Commissioner, with the moste parte of the nobles of the realme and the judges allso)a three munckes of the Charterhowsse, one beinge Prioure of the Charterhowsse in London named Mr. John Houghton (age 48), another named Mr. Robarte Lawrence,b prioure of a place in Lincolneshire, and sometyme chaplein to the Duke of Northfolke (age 62) now being, and the thirdc prioure of a place in Northamptonshire, and one, Richarde Reynold,d a brother of the monasterie of Syon, and two priests allso, one beinge Vicare of Thistleworthe in the shire of Middlesex, and this day were all endicted of highe treason against the Kinge; and the morrowe after, beinge the 29th of Aprill, all the saide persons appeared there agayne, the Lords beinge agayne present; and there their inditements being redd afore them, a jurie of esquiers and gentlemen of Middlesex were swome to passe on them, and incontinent gave verditt of them beinge guiltie of the same treason, whereupon the Lorde Cheefe Justice of Englande gave sentence on them, which was: that the saide muncks and priests should goe from thence to the place they came from, which was the Tower of London, and from thence to be drawen throughe London to Tiburne [Map], and there to be hanged, and beinge aly ve cutt downe, their bowells to be brent afore them, and then their heades to be cutt of and theyr bodies to be quartered, and then their heades and bodies to be sett at suche placesf as the King should assigne them.

. And the 4th day of May followinge, being Tewsday in the Rogation week, the parties aforesayde were drawne from the Tower to Tybome [Map], and there had execution as afore is written, savinge the other priest called Jo. Ferne, who had his pardon delyvered him on the Tower Hill, and so was quitt.

Note a. It was with the full approral of his Council that Henry VIII took the resolution of executing the laws without mercy against such as impugned his spiritual authority.

Note b. Thomas Laurence, Prior of Hexham. — Stow.

Note c. Augustine Webster, Prior of "Bevall."— Stow.

Note d. Richard Reginalds, doctor, a monk of Sion.— Stow.

Note e. John Haile, Vicar of Isleworth.

Note f. Their heads and quarters were set on the gates of the City all sare one quarter, which was set on the Charterhouse at London.-Stow.

Burning of the Anabaptists

04 Jun 1535. This yeare, the 4th day of June, were diverse Dutch men and weomen convicted for heresie to the number of 22,a of the which 14 were condemned, and two of them, that is to say a man and a woman, were brent in Smythfeild [Map] this day at three of the clocke in the aftemoone, and the other 12 were sent to diverse good townes in England, there to be brent; and the residue were converted and commaunded to departe out of this realme within 14 dayes into their countries, on payne of death at the Kings pleasure.

Note a. On the 25th May, in St. Paul's church at London, 19 men and 6 women, born in Holland, were examined, of whom 14 were convicted as Anabaptists.—Stow.

Execution of the Carthusians

11 Jun 1535. This yeare, 11 June, were arreigned in the Kinges Benche at Westminster 3 munckes of the Charterhowsse of London, and there condempned of highe treason against the Kinge,b and judged to be drawne, hanged, bowelled, beheaded, and quartered; one of them was called Francis Nitigate,c another called Mr. Exmew,d prompter of the same place, and the third was called Mr. Middlemore, vicar of the same placee.

Note b. The treason against the King was for denying that Heniy oovdd be, in spiritoal matters, the head of the Chnrch.

Note c. Sebastian Nidigate. — Stow.

Note d. Thomas Exmew or de Exmouth.

Note e. Humphry Middlemore, Vicar of Exmonth.

Execution of Bishop Fisher and Thomas More

17 Jun 1535. This yeare allso, the 17 day of June arreigned at Westminster in the Kinges Benche Mr. John Fisher (age 65), Bishop of Rochester, for treason againste the Kinge, and there was condemned by a jurie of knightes and esquiers (the Lord Chauncellore sittinge as Highe Judge), who gave this sentence on him: that the sayde John Fisher shoulde goe from thence to the place he came from, which was the Tower of London, and from thence to be drawne thorowe the cittie of London to Tiburne [Map], there to be hanged, being alyve cutt downe, his bowells to be taken out of his bodie and brent afore him, his head to be cutt of, and his bodie to be devided in 4or partes, and his head and bodye to be sett at suche places as the King should assigne. The effect of the treason was for denyinge the Einge to be supreme head of the a.d. 1^86. Churche of Englande, accordinge to a statute made at the last session of the Parliament.a

Note a. This bishop was of very many men lamented, for he was reported to he a man of great learning, and a man of very good life, but therein wonderfully deceived, for he maintained the Pope to he supreme head of the Church, and very maliciously refused the King's title of supreme head. It was said that the Pope, for that he held so manfully with him, and stood so stifly in his cause, did elect him a Cardinal, and sent the Cardinal's hat as far as Calais, but the head it should hare stande on was as high as London Bridge or ever the hat could come to Bishop Fisher, and then it was too late, and therefore he neither wore it nor enjoyed his office. Hall's "Chronicle," ed. 1809, p. 817.

Execution of the Carthusians

19 Jul 1535. The 19th day of June, beinge Saterday, the 3 muncks of the Charterhowsse, afore written, were drawne from the Tower to Tyborne, and there were executed accordinge to their judgment, and their heades and bodies hanged at diverse gates aboute the Cittie.

Execution of Bishop Fisher and Thomas More

22 Jun 1535. Allso, the 22th of June, beinge Tewsday, John Fisher (age 65), Bishopp of Rochester, was beheaded at the Tower Hill, and the residue of his execution pardoned; his bodie was buried within Barkinge churche [Map] yeardb next the Towre of London, and his head was sett on London Bridge.

Note b. Bishop Fisher's body was taken up out of Barking churchyard [Map], and re-buried with Sir Thomas More, both in the Tower. — Stow, p. 672.

01 Jul 1535. This yeare allso, the first day of Julie, beinge Thursdaye, Sir Thomas More (age 57), knight, sometyme Chauncellor of England, was death, arreigned at Westminster for highe treason and there condemned,c and the Tuesday after, beinge the 6th of Julie, he was beheaded at the Tower Hill, and his bodie was buried within the chappell in the Tower of London [Map], and his head was sett on London Bridge. The effect of his death was for the same causse that the Bishopp of Rochester (deceased) died for.d

Note c. The interrogatories and answers of Sir Thomas More and Bishop Fisher will he found printed in the first rolume of State Papers, pp. 431-6.

Note d. For refusing to subscribe the new Oath of Supremacy as enacted hy the last parliament "This Act," said Sir Thomas More, "is like a sword with two edges, for if a man answer one way it will destroy the soul, and if he answer another it will destroy the body."

1535. Also this yeare was commaunded by the King that all bishops and curates should preach the gospell of Christe syncerlye and trulie everie Sunday and festivall day in their diocesse and parishe churches thorowe out all Englande, and allso should publishe and shewe to the people how the Pope hath usurped and taken upon him contrarie to Christes faythe, and that his auctoritie and pardons should be extinct and putt downe out of this realme of England for ever more, and his name to be blotted or putt out of the masse booke for ever.a

Note a. For the measures taken to suppress the Pope's authority in England, see "Minutes for the Council" printed in the first volume of State Papers, pp. 411-414.

1535. Allso divers religiouse persons, muncks, freres, and chanons, left their religiouse habitt, and took on them capasites for benefices and secular preistes habitt.

After 24 Jun 1535. Allso this yeare, after mydsommer, Dr. Fox (age 39), the Kinges almoner,b was made Bishopp of Hereford, and the black friere of Bristowec was made Bishop of Rochester, and Dr. Latimer (age 48) Bishop of Worcester, which men were great furtherers [of the Reformation],d in their preachinges, shewinge the abusions of the Spiritualtie, and allso how the worde of God ought to be preached syncerelye and purelye.

Note b. Edward Fox (age 39), Archdeacon of Leicester, and Provost of King's College.

Note c. John Hilsey, Prior of the Dominican Friars in London, appointed Bishop of Rochester, October 4, 1535.

Note d. These words are not in MS.

Aug 1535. Allso this yeare, in August, the Lord Thomas Gerard (age 22),e sonne to the Earle of Kildaye, was taken in Irelande by the Lord Leonard Marques (age 56),f and sent into England to the King to Winchester, but the King sent him to prison to the Tower of London shortlye after.

Note e. Lord Thomas Fitzgerald (age 22), who sncceeded to the title of Kildare on the death of his father in the Tower of London abont 1634, headed the rebellion of the Fitzgeralds, but, being made prisoner, was sent into England and beheaded in 1637.

Note f. Lord Leonard Grey (age 56), fourth son of Thomas Marquis of Dorset For this service he was created Viscount Graney, and in the year following (1536) made Lord Justice and Lord Deputy of Ireland.

1535. Also this yeare Mr. Thomas Cromwell (age 50) and Doctor Lee (age 24)a visited all the religious places in Englande,b being ordained by the Kinges grace for his high yisitors,c and they tooke out of everie religious house all religious persons from the age of 24 years and under,d and shewed them how they shoulde use wilfull povertie,e and also he closed up all the residue of the religious persons booth men and weomen that would remaine still, so that they should not come out of their places, nor no men resorte to the places of nonnes, nor weomen to come into the places of religious men, but onelie to heere service and masses in their churches, and also they tooke out of divers churches of England certaine reliques that the people were wont to worshipp, as Our Ladies girdell at Westminster, which weomen with chield were wont to girde with, and Sainct Elizabethes girdell, and in Poules a relique of Our Ladies milke, which was broken and founde but a peece of chalke, with other reliques in divers places which theyf used for covetousnes in deceaphing the people.

Note a. Dr. Thomas Lee (age 24).

Note b. A report of these visitations was compiled for the use of the King and Parliament, bnt has not heen preserved.

Note c. Thomas Cromwell was chosen to manage this ioquiry nnder the name of Visitor-General, and he appointed as his substitutes or Commissioners, Richard Leighton, Thomas Lee (age 24), and William Petre (age 30), Doctors of Law, and Dr. John London, Dean of Wallingford, &c. See Herbert, p. 186; Burnet, i p. 183.

12 Oct 1535. Also this yeare, on Saint Edwardes Eaven,g at the election of the Major in the Yelde hall, Mr. Gostife, the Kinges serieante, brought a letter from the King to the Recorder, which letter was read openlie in the hall, declaring that the Kinges pleasure was that the Comens should elect and chuse for their Major Sir John Allen, maiocer,h being also one of the Kinges Counsell, and so he was chosen by the whole voyce of the Commons, which was donhe against his will; somme thought it was donne by the counsell of Mr. Secretarie for somme consideration, but it was said that it cost Mr. Alan above an hundred markes in giftes and rewardes to put it by, but it prevayled not.

Note g. October 12.

Note h. Mercer.

12 Nov 1535. This yeare, the 12tha daie of November, was songe at Paules a masse of the Holie Ghost and Te Deum, first with the children of Paules schole, and then all the orders of fryars with copes on their backes, all the channons about London, the monkes of Tower Hill, Barmonsley, and Westminster, with all the priestes of everie parrishe in London, Poules quire going all in rytch robes of cloath of gould, and seaven abbotts and bishopps with myters on their heades, the Bishop of London bearing the sacramcnte of the aulter under a rich cannapie of gould with torches going about it, and then the batchlers of the Majors crafl following afore the Major and Aldermen, and after them all the craftes in London in their best liveries, which solemnitie was donne for the health of Frances (age 41) the French Kinge, which was nighe dead, and so recovered againe by the goodnes of Almightie God.

Note a. 11th according to Stow, which is probably the correct date, being St. Martin's day.