Wriothesley's Chronicle 1538

Wriothesley's Chronicle 1538 is in Wriothesley's Chronicle.

23 Jan 1538. This yeare, the 23th of Januarie, 1538, the Ladye Awdley (age 48), [A. D. 1538.] wife to Sir Thomas Audeley (age 50), knight, and Lord Chauncellor of England, departed this life, being Weddensday, at 3 of the clocke in the morninge, that day beginninge the last quarter of the moone, the signe beinge in Scorpio the 14th degree.

29 Jan 1538. This yeare, the 29 of Januarie, was arreigned at Westminster in the afternoone a boye of Mr. Culpepers,c Gentleman of the Kings Privie Chamber, which had stolne his maisters purse and £11 of money, with a Jewell of the Kinges which was in the same purse, and there condemned to death; but the morrowe after when he was brought to the place of execution, which was at the ende of the tylt yeard afore the Kinges Pallace at Westminster, and that the hangman was takinge the ladder from the gallowes, the Kinge sent his pardon for the sayde boye, and so he was saved from death, to the great comforte of all the people there present, &c.

Note c. Thomas Culpeper.

18 Feb 1538. This yeare, the 18th of Februarie being Mundaye, there was a yonge man, servante to the Ladye Pargetourd of London, drawne from Newgate to Tower Hill, and there was hanged, his members cutt of and bowells brent afore him, and his head cutt of, and his bodie divided in 4 peeces, which yonge man had clipped goulde [gold] to the value of £30; his head was sett on London Bridge [Map], and his quarters at diverse gates of the cittie.

Note d. Wife of Sir Thomas Pargitor, who was Lord Mayor in 1530.

Feb 1538. This yeare, allso in Februarie, there was an image of the Crucifixe Grace of Christe, which had bene used or longe continuance for a great pylgremage at the Abbey of Boxley [Map],a by Maydestone in Kent, called the Roode of Grace, taken from thence and brought to the Kinge at Westminstre, for certeyne idolatrie and crafte that had bene perceaved in the sayde roode, for it was made to move the eyes and lipps by stringes of haire, when they would shewe a miracle, and never perceyved till now. The Archbishop of Canterburie (age 48) had searched the sayde image in his visitation, and so, at the Kinges commaundement, was taken thence, that the people might leave their idolatrie that had bene there used. Allso the sayde roode was sett in the markett place first at Maydstone, and there shewed openlye to the people the craft of movinge the eyes and lipps, that all the people there might see the illusion that had bene used in the sayde image by the monckes of the saide place of manye yeares tyme out of mynde, whereby they had gotten great riches in deceav- inge the people thinckinge that the sayde image had so moved by the power of God, which now playnlye appeared to the contrarye.

Note a. A Cistercian Abbey, founded by William d'Ypres, Earl of Kent, in the middle of the twelfth century.

Mar 1538. Allso it was proclaymed in the Starre-Chamber at Westminster, the last end of Hilarie Terme, in the presence of the Lord Chauncellor and the Lordes of the Kinges Councell, with divers Justices of the Peace of diverse shires in Englande, that the sayde justices shoulde causse the Bible and Testament in Englishe to be had in their shires, and see that the curates and priests should preach the worde of God syncerelye and trulie to the people, and suffer the people to have the Bible and Testament in Englishe,b and to see that they accused no person of heresie, but that he should A.D. 1538. be examined and tried afore the justices in their Sessions, and there to make their aunsweres and trialls accordinge to the statutes of this realm e for the same, upon payne of the Kings dis pleasure, &c.

Note b. One of the books originally included in the list of proscription with the writings of Luther and the foreign "Protestants, was the translation of the New Testament into English by Tindal, printed at Antwerp in 1526. A complete version of the Bible, partly by Tindal and partly by Coverdale, appeared in 1535, and a second edition, under the name of Matthews, followed in 1537.

24 Feb 538. This yeare, the 24th daie of Februarie, beinge the Soundaie of Sexagesima and Sainct Mathias daie, the image of the roode that pouie was at the Abbey of Bexley [Map], a in Kent, called the Roode of Grace, and their was brought to Poules Crosse, and their, at the sermon made by the Bishopp of Rochester,b the abuses of the gracesc and engines,d used in old tyme in the said image, was declared, which image was made of paper and cloutes from the legges upward; ech legges and armes were of timber; and so the people had bene eluded and caused to doe great adolatrie by the said image, of long contynuance, to the derogation of Godes honor and great blasphamie of the name of God, as he substancially declared in his said sermon by scripture, and also how other images in the Church, used for great pilgrimages, hath caused great idolatrie to be used in this realme, and shewed how he thincketh that the idolatrie will neaver be left till the said images be taken awaie; and that the boxes that they have to gather the devotions of the people were taken awaye first, so that they should have nothing used to putt the charitie of the people in; but if their were any persons that would ofFree to such images, that the said offring might be geaven incontynent to poore people, and that the people, should be shewed howe they should ofFree no more to the said images, he doubted not butt then in short tyme they would grant that the said images might be taken awaie; also, he said, how he confessed a woman twentie yeares agoe in Oxford, which woman was the miller s wief, by the Abbey of Hailes, and how she shewed him how the abbott of the same place had given her manye Jewells that had bene offred ther at the holie bloode,a and how he would have geaven her one Jewell which she knewe verie well hanged about the said holie bloode, and said to the said abbott that she would not have that "bloude,"b2 because she was afraid because it hanged by the holie bloud, and the abbott said tush! thou art a foole, it is but a duckes bloode; and this the said bishopp shewed that it was true, as he besought God he might be damned if it were not so as he said; and also how he had shewed the King and the Counsell of the same, and that it should be knowen more openlie afterward; also, after the sermon was done, the bishopp tooke the said image of the roode into the pulpitt and brooke the vice of the same, and after gave it to the people againe, and then the rude people and boyes brake the said image in peeces, so that they left not one peece whole.

Note b. Bishop John Hilsey.

Note c. Probably a clerical error for vices, as in another place we read "the bishop broke the vice."

Note d. This rood or automaton, besides rolling its eyes and moving its lips, was so constructed that, by means of springs or vices, it could be made to bow, and shake its head, hands, and feet. See Herbert, p. 213, and Stow, ed. 1G31, p. 575.

Note a. Another great imposture was at Hales in Gloucestershire, where the blood of Christ brought from Jerusalem was showed in a chrystal vial, and was said to have this property: That if a man was in a mortal sin, and not absolved, he could not see it. Therefore, every man that came to behold this miracle was forced to continue to make presents till he bribed Heaven to give him the sight of so blessed a relic. This was now discovered to be the blood of a duck renewed every week, and one side of the vial was so thick that there was no seeing through it, but the other was trans parent. It was so placed near the altar that anyone in a secret place behind could turn which side he pleased outward. Lord Herbert in Kennett, vol. ii. p. 213.

b2. A clerical mistake for "jewel.";

24 Feb 1538. Item, this said daie, at night, being Saint Matthias daie,c one killed herselfe Mrs. Alen, sometime wife to Mr. Peerson, one of the clarkes of the Counter, and afore him one Gibsons wife, a surgeon, by the instigation of the devill cutt her throote with a knife; howbeit, when the curatt and neighboures came in she had lief, but she could not speake; but, when the curatt bade her cry God mercye, she knocked on her breast with her owne hande and held upp her handes, which was a token of contricion; but she died the same night, and was buried at Saint Swythens parish that she dwelled in, by London-Stone.

Note c. February 24th.

20 Feb 1538. Also, the 20th dale of Februarie, their was drawen from Newgate to Tiburne [Map] a priest, sometyme chapleyne to my Lord Beawchamp, called Sira John Alane, for treason, and also an Irishman of my Lord Garrattesb kynnered,c also for treason, which tow persons were hanged, boyld,d and quartered, their heades and quarters sett about London.

Note a. Such priests as have the addition of Sir before their Christian name were men not graduated in the Universities, being in orders but not in degrees, whilst others entitled Masters had commenced in arts. Fuller, Church Hist.

Note b. Lord Thomas Fitzgerald, executed in 1537.

Note c. kindred.

Note d. Clerical error for boweled, but omitted in Stow.

02 Mar 1536. Item, on Saterdaie, the second daie of March, the image of the Sainct Saviour roode at the Abbey of Bermonsley [Map], called Sainct Saviour,e was taken downe by the Kinges commandment.

Note e. An alien Cluniac priory was founded at Bermondsey, in 1082, by Aylwin Child, citizen of London, which was erected into an abbey in 1399, and, subsequently, the two hospitals of St. Thomas and St. Saviour were attached to it.

20 Mar 1538. This yeare, the 20th daie of March, being Saterdaie the second weeke of Lent, Thomas Harford, gentleman, was drawen from Newgate to Tiburne [Map] for seditious wordes of treason against the Kinges Majestie, and also a yong man called Yewer, sometyme a freeman of London of the Company of the Marchant Tailors, was drawen to Tiburne [Map] for dyminishinge the Kinges coyne, as he confessed at the gallowes, to the value of sixteene grottes, and their the said Harford and Yewer were hanged, their bowells brent, headded, and quartered.

Apr 1538. Also this yeare, in Lent, the Maire (age 53)f caused divers worshipfull Gathering for the poore men to gather money for the poore people everie Soundaie at the sermon at Poules Crosse [Map], tow parsons standing at everie dore to gather the devotions of the people, which said money was distributed weeklie to them that had most neede thereof in the cittie of London, and a registre kept of the same, and so to contynewe.

Note f. Sir Richard Gresham (age 53), who in so doing acted in accordance with the new statute 37 Hen. VIII. cap. 25, made for the relief of the indigent poor. By the same statute no alms were suffered to be given to beggars, on pain of forfeiting ten times the value. Curiously the act referred to wasn't legislated until 1545?

22 Apr 1538. This yeare, the morrowe after Easter dale, being the twentie towe daie of Aprill, Sir Thomas Awdeley (age 50), knight, Lord Chauncelor of Englande, was married to my Ladie Elizabeth Graie,a sister to the Lord Marques of Dorsett (age 21) now living, and daughter to the old Lord Marques late deceased.

Note. Thomas Audley 1st Baron Audley Walden (age 50) and were married. She by marriage Baroness Audley Walden in Essex. She the daughter of Thomas Grey 2nd Marquess Dorset and Margaret Wotton Marchioness Dorset. She a great x 5 granddaughter of King Edward III of England.

Note a. Elizabeth Grey, eldest daughter of Thomas fifth Marquis of Dorset, and sister of Henry (age 21), who succeeded to the title in 1530.

12 May 1538. This yeare, the 12th daie of Maie, being the third Soundaie after Easter, the Bishopp of Worcester, called Dr. Latymer (age 51), preached at Poules Crosse [Map], at whose sermon should have bene present a penitent to have donne his penance called John Forrest, Friar Observant, Doctor of Divinitie, latelie abjured for heresie,b the eight daie of the said moneth of Maie, at Lambeth, before the most reverend father in God Thomas Cranmer (age 48), Archbishopp of Canterberie, with other, and after his said abjuration, sworne upon the Evangelistes, to abide the injunction of the said most reverend father for his penance; which said Friar Forrest obstinatlie and frowardlie, not like a true penitent performing his said penance, but standing yet stiff and proud in his malicious mynde, refused to doe; yet this daie againe, intreated by the Deane of the Arches, called Doctor Quent, with other, like a good Christian to performe his pennance, he yet notwithstanding, maliciouslie by the instigation of the devill, refused to doe, although the said Deane opened unto him the indignation of God and dampnation of his bodie and soule perpetuallie, and also have a temporall death by brenning as all heretickes should have by the lawes of this realme; which said Friar Forrest should this daie have borne a fagott at Paules Crosse for his pennance, and also with a lowde voyce have declared certaine thinges by his owne month, after the said sermon enjoyned him, for his said pennance; all which said thinges he refusing to doe, the said bishopp (age 51)a desiring all the awdience then present at the said sermon to pray hartelie unto God to convert the said friar from his said obstinacie and proude minde, that he might have grace to turne to be a true penitent the soner by the grace of God at their prayers, and further their declaring his said abjuration, and articles subscribed with his owne hande, and sworne and abjured on the same, and after sworne againe to abide such injunction and pennance as he shoulde be enjoyned by the said court, whose articles were theise, as the Bishopp then openlie read at the said crosse, his owne hand subscribed to the same: First, that the Holie Catholike Church was the Church of Rome, and that wee ought to beeleve out of the same. Second, that wee should beleeve on the Popes pardon for remission of our sinnes. Thirdlie, that wee ought to beleeve and doe as our fathers have donne aforetyme fowertene yeares past. Fourthlie, that a priest maie turne and change the paines of hell of a sinner, trulie penitent, contrite of his shins, by certaine pennance enjoyned him in the paines of purgatorie; which said articles be most abhominable heresies, blasphemie against God and the countrey,b1 to Scripture, and the teaching of Christ and all his Apostles, and to abhorr any true Christian hart to thinck.

Note b. Forest was apprehended for that in secret confession he had declared to many of the King s subjects that the King was not supreme head of the Church, "whereas, before, hee had beene sworne to the Supremacie; upon this point hee was examined, and answered that he tooke his oath with his outward man, but his inward man never consented thereunto; then, being further accused of clivers hereticall opinions, hee submitted himself e to the punishment of the Church; but having more libertie than before to talke with whom he would, when his abjuration was sent him to read, hee utterly refused it."; Stow, p. 575.

Note a. Dr. Latimer of Worcester (age 51).

b1. Evidently a clerical error for " contrary."

Execution of Friar John Forest

22 May 1538. Also the 22th daie of Maie, being Wednesdaie this same yeare, the said Friar Forrest was drawen from Newgate to the place of execution in Smythfielde, where was a noble sermon made by the Bishopp of Worcestre (age 51), afore writton, to have drawen the said Friar Forrest from his opinions; but he, obstinatlie standing still and stiffe in his opininons, and beinge asked by the said bishopp in what state he would die, he openlie declaring their with a lowde voyce to the Bishopp as followeth: That if an angell should come downe from heaven and shew him any other thing then that he had beleeved all his liffe tyme past he would not beleeve him, and that if his bodie should be cutt joynt after joynt or membre after membre, brent, hanged, or what paine soever might de donne to his bodie, he wold neaver turne from his old sect of this Bishopp of Rome; and also seaven yeare agone hea durst not have made such a sermon for his lief. And then after this, being a false traitor to his Praynce, an hereticke, and a seditious person to the Kinges leighe people, was had to the place of executionb and their hanged about the middle in chains of iron on a paire of gallowes alive, a great fire made under him and about him, and so was burned for his said heresie and treason.

Also their was brent with him an idollc that was brought out of Gidarne was North Wales, which idoll was of woode like a man of armes in his armes in his harneies having a litle speare in his hande and a caskett of iron about his necke hanging with a ribond, the which people of North Walles honored as a sainct. The name of the idoll was called in Walch Darvell Gadarn.d Present at this execution were the Duke of Norfolke (age 65), the Duke of Suffolke (age 54), the Erle of Sussex (age 31), the Earle of Hartford (age 38) being Vicount Beawchampe, the Bishoppe of London, with other of the Kinges Counsell, the Major (age 53)e of London, with the most part of the aldermen and shrives, and, as I thinke, tenne thousand persons and more; also the place of execution where the gallowes and fire was made was railed round about; and their was a skaffold made to sett the pulpitt on where the preacher stoode, and an other against itt where the friar stoode all the sermon tyme, and a long skaffold next to Sainct Bartholomewes spittell gate, where the Lordes of the Privie Counsell sate with the major and aldermen and other gentlemen and commons of the cittie.

Note a. Bishop Latimer (age 51).

Note b. Compare this with the account of the burning of Friar Forest in Harleian MS. 530, f. 120.

Note c. The Welshmen had a prophesy that this image should set a whole forest a fire, which prophesie now toke effect, for it set this Frier Forest on fyre, and consumed him to nothing. Hall, p 826.

Note d. Usually written Darvell or David Gatheren.

Note e. Sir Richard Gresham (age 53).

22 May 1538. Allsoe the same 22 th day of Maye after midnight the image of the Roode at Sainct Margrett Pattins by Towre Streate was broken all in peeces with the house he stoode ina by certeine lewde persons, Fleminges and Englishe men, and some persons of the sayd parishe.

Note a. "His tabernacle."; Stow, ed. 1631, p. 575.

27 May 1538. Allso the 27th daye of Maye, beinge the Monday in the Rogation weeke, was a great fyre in St. Margrett Pattyns parishe amonge the baskett makers, where were burnt and perished in three houres above a dossin howses and 9 persons of men, women, and children, cleane burnt to death, which was a pyteous sight.