Biography of Admiral John Lawson 1615-1665

1660 Rump Parliament

1665 Sinking of The London

1665 Battle of Lowestoft

1665 Great Plague of London

Around 1615 Admiral John Lawson was born.

Calendars. 04 Jun 1655. 37. Sir William Coventry (age 27) and Sir William Penn (age 34) to the Navy Comrs, A good quantity of masts, yards, and all other stores must be sent immediately to the Downs. Engaged yesterday with the Dutch; they began to stand away at 3 p.m.; chased them all the rest of the day and all night; 20 considerable ships are destroyed and taken; we have only lost the Great Charity. The Earl of Marlborough (age 37), Rear-Admiral Sansum, and Capt. Kirby'are slain, and Sir John Lawson (age 40) wounded. [Adm. Paper.]

Rump Parliament

Pepy's Diary. 01 Jan 1660. My wife (age 19) … gave me hopes of her being with child, but on the last day of the year … [the hope was belied.] The condition of the State was thus; viz. the Rump, after being disturbed by my Lord Lambert (age 40), was lately returned to sit again. The officers of the Army all forced to yield. Lawson (age 45) lies still in the river, and Monk (age 51) is with his army in Scotland. Only my Lord Lambert (age 40) is not yet come into the Parliament, nor is it expected that he will without being forced to it.

Pepy's Diary. 21 Feb 1660. Tuesday. In the morning going out I saw many soldiers going towards Westminster, and was told that they were going to admit the secluded members again. So I to Westminster Hall [Map], and in Chancery Row I saw about twenty of them who had been at White Hall with General Monk (age 51), who came thither this morning, and made a speech to them, and recommended to them a Commonwealth, and against Charles Stuart. They came to the House and went in one after another, and at last the Speaker (age 68) came. But it is very strange that this could be carried so private, that the other members of the House heard nothing of all this, till they found them in the House, insomuch that the soldiers that stood there to let in the secluded members, they took for such as they had ordered to stand there to hinder their coming in. Mr. Prin (age 60) came with an old basket-hilt sword on, and had a great many great shouts upon his going into the Hall. They sat till noon, and at their coming out Mr. Crew (age 62) saw me, and bid me come to his house, which I did, and he would have me dine with him, which I did; and he very joyful told me that the House had made General Monk (age 51), General of all the Forces in England, Scotland, and Ireland; and that upon Monk's (age 51) desire, for the service that Lawson (age 45) had lately done in pulling down the Committee of Safety, he had the command of the Sea for the time being. He advised me to send for my Lord forthwith, and told me that there is no question that, if he will, he may now be employed again; and that the House do intend to do nothing more than to issue writs, and to settle a foundation for a free Parliament. After dinner I back to Westminster Hall with him in his coach. Here I met with Mr. Lock (age 39) and Pursell, Masters of Music, [Note. Henry Purcell, father of the celebrated composer, was gentleman of the Chapel Royal.] and with them to the Coffee House, into a room next the water, by ourselves, where we spent an hour or two till Captain Taylor (age 35) came to us, who told us, that the House had voted the gates of the City to be made up again, and the members of the City that are in prison to be set at liberty; and that Sir G. Booth's' (age 37) case be brought into the House to-morrow.

Pepy's Diary. 06 Mar 1660. This day I hear that the Lords do intend to sit, and great store of them are now in town, and I see in the Hall to-day. Overton at Hull do stand out, but can, it is thought, do nothing; and Lawson (age 45), it is said, is gone with some ships thither, but all that is nothing. My Lord told me, that there was great endeavours to bring in the Protector again; but he told me, too, that he did believe it would not last long if he were brought in; no, nor the King (age 29) neither (though he seems to think that he will come in), unless he carry himself very soberly and well. Every body now drinks the King's (age 29) health without any fear, whereas before it was very private that a man dare do it. Monk (age 51) this day is feasted at Mercers' Hall, and is invited one after another to all the twelve Halls in London! Many think that he is honest yet, and some or more think him to be a fool that would raise himself, but think that he will undo himself by endeavouring it. My mind, I must needs remember, has been very much eased and joyed at my Lord's great expressions of kindness this day, and in discourse thereupon my wife and I lay awake an hour or two in our bed.

Pepy's Diary. 23 Mar 1660. Up early, carried my Lord's will in a black box to Mr. William Montagu (age 42) for him to keep for him. Then to the barber's and put on my cravat there. So to my Lord again, who was almost ready to be gone and had staid for me. Hither came Gilb. Holland, and brought me a stick rapier and Shelston a sugar-loaf, and had brought his wife who he said was a very pretty woman to the Ship tavern hard by for me to see but I could not go. Young Reeve also brought me a little perspective glass which I bought for my Lord, it cost me 8s. So after that my Lord in Sir H. Wright's (age 23) coach with Captain Isham (age 32), Mr. Thomas, John Crew, W. Howe, and I in a Hackney to the Tower, where the barges staid for us; my Lord and the Captain in one, and W. Howe and I, &c., in the other, to the Long Reach, where the Swiftsure lay at anchor; (in our way we saw the great breach which the late high water had made, to the loss of many £1000 to the people about Limehouse [Map].) Soon as my Lord on board, the guns went off bravely from the ships. And a little while after comes the Vice-Admiral Lawson (age 45), and seemed very respectful to my Lord, and so did the rest of the Commanders of the frigates that were thereabouts. I to the cabin allotted for me, which was the best that any had that belonged to my Lord. I got out some things out of my chest for writing and to work presently, Mr. Burr and I both. I supped at the deck table with Mr. Sheply. We were late writing of orders for the getting of ships ready, &c.; and also making of others to all the seaports between Hastings and Yarmouth, to stop all dangerous persons that are going or coming between Flanders and there. After that to bed in my cabin, which was but short; however I made shift with it and slept very well, and the weather being good I was not sick at all yet, I know not what I shall be.

Pepy's Diary. 17 Apr 1660. All the morning getting ready commissions for the Vice-Admiral (age 45) and the Rear-Admiral (age 35), wherein my Lord was very careful to express the utmost of his own power, commanding them to obey what orders they should receive from the Parliament, &c., or both or either of the Generals.

Pepy's Diary. 17 Apr 1660. The Vice-Admiral (age 45) dined with us, and in the afternoon my Lord called me to give him the commission for him, which I did, and he gave it him himself. A very pleasant afternoon, and I upon the deck all the day, it was so clear that my Lord's glass shewed us Calais very plain, and the cliffs were as plain to be seen as Kent, and my Lord at first made me believe that it was Kent. At night, after supper, my Lord called for the Rear-Admiral's commission, which I brought him, and I sitting in my study heard my Lord discourse with him concerning D. King's and Newberry's being put out of commission. And by the way I did observe that my Lord did speak more openly his mind to me afterwards at night than I can find that he did to the Rear-Admiral (age 35), though his great confidant. For I was with him an hour together, when he told me clearly his thoughts that the King would carry it, and that he did think himself very happy that he was now at sea, as well for his own sake, as that he thought he might do his country some service in keeping things quiet. To bed, and shifting myself from top to toe, there being J. Goods and W. Howe sat late by my bedside talking. So to sleep, every day bringing me a fresh sense of the pleasure of my present life.

Pepy's Diary. 25 Apr 1660. All the morning about my Lord's character. Dined to-day with Captain Clerke on board the Speaker (a very brave ship) where was the Vice-Admiral (age 45), Rear-Admiral (age 35), and many other commanders. After dinner home, not a little contented to see how I am treated, and with what respect made a fellow to the best commanders in the Fleet. All the afternoon finishing of the character, which I did and gave it my Lord, it being very handsomely done and a very good one in itself, but that not truly Alphabetical. Supped with Mr. Sheply, W. Howe, &c. in Mr. Pierce, the Purser's cabin, where very merry, and so to bed. Captain Isham (age 32) came hither to-day.

Pepy's Diary. 07 May 1660. This morning Captain Cuttance sent me 12 bottles of Margate ale. Three of them I drank presently with some friends in the Coach. My Lord went this morning about the flag-ships in a boat, to see what alterations there must be, as to the arms and flags. He did give me order also to write for silk flags and scarlett waistcloathes1. For a rich barge; for a noise of trumpets2, and a set of fidlers. Very great deal of company come today, among others Mr. Bellasses, Sir Thomas Lenthropp, Sir Henry Chichley, Colonel Philip Honiwood, and Captain Titus, the last of whom my Lord showed all our cabins, and I suppose he is to take notice what room there will be for the King's (age 29) entertainment. Here were also all the Jurates of the town of Dover, Kent [Map] come to give my Lord a visit, and after dinner all went away. I could not but observe that the Vice-Admiral (age 45) after dinner came into the great cabin below, where the Jurates and I and the commanders for want of room dined, and there told us we must drink a health to the King, and himself called for a bottle of wine, and begun his and the Duke of York's. In the afternoon I lost 5s. at ninepins. After supper musique, and to bed. Having also among us at the Coach table wrote a letter to the French ambassador, in French, about the release of a ship we had taken. After I was in bed Mr. Sheply and W. Howe came and sat in my cabin, where I gave them three bottles of Margate ale, and sat laughing and very merry, till almost one o'clock in the morning, and so good night.

Note 1. Waist-cloths are the painted canvas coverings of the hammocks which are stowed in the waist-nettings.

Note 2. A set or company of musicians, an expression constantly used by old writers without any disparaging meaning. It is sometimes applied to voices as well as to instruments.

Pepy's Diary. 11 May 1660. Up very early in the morning, and so about a great deal of business in order to our going hence to-day. Burr going on shore last night made me very angry. So that I sent for Mr. Pitts to come to me from the Vice-Admiral's (age 45), intending not to have employed Burr any more. But Burr by and by coming and desiring humbly that I would forgive him and Pitts not coming I did set him to work. This morning we began to pull down all the State's arms in the fleet, having first sent to Dover for painters and others to come to set up the King's (age 29). The rest of the morning writing of letters to London which I afterwards sent by Dunne. I had this morning my first opportunity of discoursing with Dr. Clarke1, whom I found to be a very pretty man and very knowing. He is now going in this ship to the King. There dined here my Lord Crafford (age 48) and my Lord Cavendish (age 20), and other Scotchmen whom I afterwards ordered to be received on board the Plymouth, and to go along with us. After dinner we set sail from the Downs, I leaving my boy to go to Deal, Kent [Map] for my linen. In the afternoon overtook us three or four gentlemen; two of the Berties, and one Mr. Dormerhoy, a Scotch gentleman, whom I afterwards found to be a very fine man, who, telling my Lord that they heard the Commissioners were come out of London to-day, my Lord dropt anchor over against Dover Castle [Map] (which give us about thirty guns in passing), and upon a high debate with the Vice and Rear Admiral whether it were safe to go and not stay for the Commissioners, he did resolve to send Sir R. Stayner (age 35) to Dover, to enquire of my Lord Winchelsea, whether or no they are come out of London, and then to resolve to-morrow morning of going or not; which was done. It blew very hard all this night that I was afeard of my boy. About 11 at night came the boats from Deal, with great store of provisions, by the same token John Goods told me that above 20 of the fowls are smothered, but my boy was put on board the Northwich. To bed.

Note 1. Timothy Clarke, M. D., one of the original Fellows of the Royal Society. He was appointed one of the physicians in ordinary to Charles II on the death of Dr. Quartermaine in 1667.

Pepy's Diary. 23 Aug 1660. By water to Doctors' Commons to Dr. Walker, to give him my Lord's papers to view over concerning his being empowered to be Vice-Admiral under the Duke of York. There meeting with Mr. Pinkney, he and I to a morning draft, and thence by water to White Hall, to the Parliament House, where I spoke with Colonel Birch (age 44), and so to the Admiralty chamber, where we and Mr. Coventry (age 32) had a meeting about several businesses. Amongst others, it was moved that Phineas Pett (kinsman to the Commissioner) of Chatham, Kent [Map], should be suspended his employment till he had answered some articles put in against him, as that he should formerly say that the King was a bastard and his mother a whore. Hence to Westminster Hall [Map], where I met with my father Bowyer, and Mr. Spicer, and them I took to the Leg in King Street, and did give them a dish or two of meat, and so away to the Privy Seal, where, the King being out of town, we have had nothing to do these two days. To Westminster Hall [Map], where I met with W. Symons, T. Doling, and Mr. Booth, and with them to the Dogg, where we eat a musk melon1 (the first that I have eat this year), and were very merry with W. Symons, calling him Mr. Dean, because of the Dean's lands that his uncle had left him, which are like to be lost all. Hence home by water, and very late at night writing letters to my Lord to Hinchinbroke, and also to the Vice-Admiral (age 45) in the Downs, and so to bed.

Note 1. "Melons were hardly known in England till Sir George Gardiner brought one from Spain, when they became in general estimation. The ordinary price was five or six shillings".-Quarterly Review, vol, xix.

Pepy's Diary. 20 Sep 1660. At home, and at the office, and in the garden walking with both Sir Williams all the morning. After dinner to Whitehall to Mr. Dalton, and with him to my house and took away all my papers that were left in my closet, and so I have now nothing more in the house or to do with it. We called to speak with my Landlord Beale, but he was not within but spoke with the old woman, who takes it very ill that I did not let her have it, but I did give her an answer. From thence to Sir G. Downing (age 35) and staid late there (he having sent for me to come to him), which was to tell me how my Lord Sandwich (age 35) had disappointed him of a ship to bring over his child and goods, and made great complaint thereof; but I got him to write a letter to Lawson (age 45), which it may be may do the business for him, I writing another also about it. While he was writing, and his Lady and I had a great deal of discourse in praise of Holland. By water to the Bridge, and so to Major Hart's lodgings in Cannon-street, who used me very kindly with wine and good discourse, particularly upon the ill method which Colonel Birch (age 45) and the Committee use in defending of the army and the navy; promising the Parliament to save them a great deal of money, when we judge that it will cost the King more than if they had nothing to do with it, by reason of their delays and scrupulous enquirys into the account of both. So home and to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 25 Sep 1660. To the office, where Sir W. Batten (age 59), Colonel Slingsby (age 49), and I sat awhile, and Sir R. Ford (age 46)1 coming to us about some business, we talked together of the interest of this kingdom to have a peace with Spain and a war with France and Holland; where Sir R. Ford (age 46) talked like a man of great reason and experience. And afterwards I did send for a cup of tee2 (a China drink) of which I never had drank before, and went away. Then came Col. Birch (age 45) and Sir R. Browne by a former appointment, and with them from Tower wharf in the barge belonging to our office we went to Deptford, Kent [Map] to pay off the ship Success, which (Sir G. Carteret (age 50) and Sir W. Pen (age 39) coming afterwards to us) we did, Col. Birch (age 45) being a mighty busy man and one that is the most indefatigable and forward to make himself work of any man that ever I knew in my life. At the Globe we had a very good dinner, and after that to the pay again, which being finished we returned by water again, and I from our office with Col. Slingsby (age 49) by coach to Westminster (I setting him down at his lodgings by the way) to inquire for my Lord's coming thither (the King and the Princess3 coming up the river this afternoon as we were at our pay), and I found him gone to Mr. Crew's (age 62), where I found him well, only had got some corns upon his foot which was not well yet. My Lord told me how the ship that brought the Princess and him (The Tredagh) did knock six times upon the Kentish Knock4, which put them in great fear for the ship; but got off well. He told me also how the King had knighted Vice-Admiral Lawson (age 45) and Sir Richard Stayner (age 35). From him late and by coach home, where the plasterers being at work in all the rooms in my house, my wife was fain to make a bed upon the ground for her and me, and so there we lay all night.

Note 1. Sir Richard Ford was one of the commissioners sent to Breda to desire Charles II to return to England immediately.

Note 2. That excellent and by all Physicians, approved, China drink, called by the Chineans Tcha, by other nations Tay alias Tee, is sold at the Sultaness Head Coffee-House, in Sweetings Rents, by the "Royal Exchange, London". "Coffee, chocolate, and a kind of drink called tee, sold in almost every street in 1659".-Rugge's Diurnal. It is stated in "Boyne's Trade Tokens", ed. Williamson, vol. i., 1889, p. 593 that the word tea occurs on no other tokens than those issued from 'the Great Turk' (Morat ye Great) coffeehouse in Exchange Alley. The Dutch East India Company introduced tea into Europe in 1610, and it is said to have been first imported into England from Holland about 1650. The English "East India Company" purchased and presented 2 lbs. of tea to Charles II in 1660, and 23 lbs. in 1666. The first order for its importation by the company was in 1668, and the first consignment of it, amounting to 143 lbs., was received from Bantam in 1669 (see Sir George Birdwood's "Report on the Old Records at the India Office", 1890, p. 26). By act 12 Car. II., capp. 23, 24, a duty of 8d. per gallon was imposed upon the infusion of tea, as well as on chocolate and sherbet.

Note 3. "The Princess Royall came from Gravesend, Kent [Map] to Whitehall by water, attended by a noble retinue of about one hundred persons, gentry, and servants, and tradesmen, and tirewomen, and others, that took that opportunity to advance their fortunes, by coming in with so excellent a Princess as without question she is".-Rugge's Diurnal. A broadside, entitled "Ourania, the High and Mighty Lady the Princess Royal of Aurange, congratulated on her most happy arrival, September the 25th, 1660", was printed on the 29th.

Note 4. A shoal in the North Sea, off the Thames mouth, outside the Long Sand, fifteen miles N.N.E. of the North Foreland. It measures seven miles north-eastward, and about two miles in breadth. It is partly dry at low water. A revolving light was set up in 1840.

Pepy's Diary. 13 Dec 1660. All the day long looking upon my workmen who this day began to paint my parlour. Only at noon my Lady Batten and my wife came home, and so I stepped to my Lady's, where were Sir John Lawson (age 45) and Captain Holmes, and there we dined and had very good red wine of my Lady's own making in England.

Pepy's Diary. 05 Apr 1661. Up among my workmen and so to the office, and then to Sir W. Pen's (age 39) with the other Sir William and Sir John Lawson (age 46) to dinner, and after that, with them to Mr. Lucy's, a merchant, where much good company, and there drank a great deal of wine, and in discourse fell to talk of the weight of people, which did occasion some wagers, and where, among others, I won half a piece to be spent. Then home, and at night to Sir W. Batten's (age 60), and there very merry with a good barrell of oysters, and this is the present life I lead. Home and to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 03 Jul 1661. So to the office, and that being done to Sir W. Batten's (age 60) with the Comptroller (age 50), where we sat late talking and disputing with Mr. Mills the parson of our parish. This day my Lady Batten and my wife were at the burial of a daughter of Sir John Lawson's (age 46), and had rings for themselves and their husbands. Home and to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 08 May 1662. At the office all the morning doing business alone, and then to the Wardrobe, where my Lady going out with the children to dinner I staid not, but returned home, and was overtaken in St. Paul's Churchyard by Sir G. Carteret (age 52) in his coach, and so he carried me to the Exchange [Map], where I staid awhile. He told me that the Queen (age 23) and the fleet were in Mount's Bay on Monday last, and that the Queen (age 23) endures her sickness pretty well. He also told me how Sir John Lawson (age 47) hath done some execution upon the Turks in the Straight, of which I am glad, and told the news the first on the Exchange [Map], and was much followed by merchants to tell it.

Pepy's Diary. 22 May 1662. So home, and supped with Sir W. Pen (age 41), where Sir W. Batten (age 61) and Captn. Cocke came to us, to whom I have lately been a great stranger. This night we had each of us a letter from Teddiman from the Streights, of a peace made upon good terms, by Sir J. Lawson (age 47), with the Argier men, which is most excellent news? He hath also sent each of us some anchovies, olives, and muscatt; but I know not yet what that is, and am ashamed to ask. After supper home, and to bed, resolving to make up this week in seeing plays and pleasure, and so fall to business next week again for a great while.

Pepy's Diary. 27 Jun 1662. So to my Lord, who rose as soon as he heard I was there; and in his nightgown and shirt stood talking with me alone two hours, I believe, concerning his greatest matters of state and interest. Among other things, that his greatest design is, first, to get clear of all debts to the King (age 32) for the Embassy money, and then a pardon. Then, to get his land settled; and then to, discourse and advise what is best for him, whether to keep his sea employment longer or no. For he do discern that the Duke would be willing to have him out, and that by Coventry's means. And here he told me, how the terms at Argier were wholly his; and that he did plainly tell Lawson (age 47) and agree with him, that he would have the honour of them, if they should ever be agreed to; and that accordingly they did come over hither entitled, "Articles concluded on by Sir J. Lawson (age 47), according to instructions received from His Royal Highness James Duke of York (age 28), &c., and from His Excellency the Earle of Sandwich". (Which however was more than needed; but Lawson tells my Lord in his letter, that it was not he, but the Council of Warr that would have "His Royal Highness" put into the title, though he did not contribute one word to it.) But the Duke of York (age 28) did yesterday propose them to the Council, to be printed with this title: "Concluded on, by Sir J. Lawson (age 47), Knt". and my Lord quite left out. Here I find my Lord very politique; for he tells me, that he discerns they design to set up Lawson as much as they can and that he do counterplot them by setting him up higher still; by which they will find themselves spoiled of their design, and at last grow jealous of Lawson. This he told me with much pleasure; and that several of the Duke's servants, by name my Lord Barkeley (age 60), Mr. Talbot (age 32), and others, had complained to my Lord, of Coventry, and would have him out. My Lord do acknowledge that his greatest obstacle is Coventry. He did seem to hint such a question as this: "Hitherto I have been supported by the King (age 32) and Chancellor against the Duke; but what if it should come about, that it should be the Duke and Chancellor against the King (age 32)?" which, though he said it in these plain words, yet I could not fully understand it; but may more here after. My Lord did also tell me, that the Duke himself at Portsmouth, Hampshire [Map] did thank my Lord for all his pains and care; and that he perceived it must be the old Captains that must do the business; and that the new ones would spoil all. And that my Lord did very discreetly tell the Duke (though quite against his judgement and inclination), that, however, the King's new captains ought to be borne with a little and encouraged. By which he will oblige that party, and prevent, as much as may be, their envy; but he says that certainly things will go to rack if ever the old captains should be wholly out, and the new ones only command.

Pepy's Diary. 22 Nov 1662. Thence to the office, where I sat all the morning, then dined; Mr. Moore with me, at home, my wife busy putting her furniture in order. Then he and I out, and he home and I to my cozen Roger Pepys (age 45) to advise about treating with my uncle Thomas, and thence called at the Wardrobe on Mr. Moore again, and so home, and after doing much business at my office I went home and caused a new fashion knocker to be put on my door, and did other things to the putting my house in order, and getting my outward door painted, and the arch. This day I bought the book of country dances against my wife's woman Gosnell comes, who dances finely; and there meeting Mr. Playford (age 39) he did give me his Latin songs of Mr. Deering's, which he lately printed. This day Mr. Moore told me that for certain the Queen-Mother (age 52) is married to my Lord St. Albans (age 57), and he is like to be made Lord Treasurer (age 55). Newes that Sir J. Lawson (age 47) hath made up a peace now with Tunis and Tripoli, as well as Argiers, by which he will come home very highly honoured.

Pepy's Diary. 30 Nov 1662. Thence home and to supper, and then, cold as it is, to my office, to make up my monthly accounts, and I do find that, through the fitting of my house this month, I have spent in that and kitchen £50 this month; so that now I am worth but £660, or thereabouts. This being done and fitted myself for the Duke to-morrow, I went home, and to prayers and to bed. This day I first did wear a muffe, being my wife's last year's muffe1, and now I have bought her a new one, this serves me very well. Thus ends this month; in great frost; myself and family all well, but my mind much disordered about my uncle's law business, being now in an order of being arbitrated between us, which I wish to God it were done. I am also somewhat uncertain what to think of my going about to take a woman-servant into my house, in the quality of a woman for my wife. My wife promises it shall cost me nothing but her meat and wages, and that it shall not be attended with any other expenses, upon which termes I admit of it; for that it will, I hope, save me money in having my wife go abroad on visits and other delights; so that I hope the best, but am resolved to alter it, if matters prove otherwise than I would have them. Publique matters in an ill condition of discontent against the height and vanity of the Court, and their bad payments: but that which troubles most, is the Clergy, which will never content the City, which is not to be reconciled to Bishopps: the more the pity that differences must still be. Dunkirk newly sold, and the money brought over; of which we hope to get some to pay the Navy: which by Sir J. Lawson's (age 47) having dispatched the business in the Straights, by making peace with Argier, [The ancient name for Algiers.] Tunis, and Tripoli (and so his fleet will also shortly come home), will now every day grow less, and so the King's charge be abated; which God send!

Note 1. The fashion of men wearing muffs appears to have been introduced from France in this reign.

Pepy's Diary. 05 Jan 1663. Up and to the Duke (age 29), who himself told me that Sir J. Lawson (age 48) was come home to Portsmouth, Hampshire [Map] from the Streights, who is now come with great renown among all men, and, I perceive, mightily esteemed at Court by all. The Duke (age 29) did not stay long in his chamber; but to the King's chamber, whither by and by the Russia Embassadors (age 18) come; who, it seems, have a custom that they will not come to have any treaty with our or any King's Commissioners, but they will themselves see at the time the face of the King (age 32) himself, be it forty days one after another; and so they did to-day only go in and see the King (age 32); and so out again to the Council-chamber. The Duke (age 29) returned to his chamber, and so to his closett, where Sir G. Carteret (age 53), Sir J. Minnes (age 63), Sir W. Batten (age 62), Mr. Coventry (age 35), and myself attended him about the business of the Navy; and after much discourse and pleasant talk he went away.

Pepy's Diary. 06 Jan 1663. So to my office, however, to set down my last three days' journall, and writing to my Lord Sandwich (age 37) to give him an account of Sir J. Lawson's (age 48) being come home, and to my father about my sending him some wine and things this week, for his making an entertainment of some friends in the country, and so home. This night making an end wholly of Christmas, with a mind fully satisfied with the great pleasures we have had by being abroad from home, and I do find my mind so apt to run to its old want of pleasures, that it is high time to betake myself to my late vows, which I will to-morrow, God willing, perfect and bind myself to, that so I may, for a great while, do my duty, as I have well begun, and increase my good name and esteem in the world, and get money, which sweetens all things, and whereof I have much need.

Pepy's Diary. 12 Jan 1663. Thence to Sir G. Carteret (age 53), and with him in his coach to White Hall, and first I to see my Lord Sandwich (age 37) (being come now from Hinchingbrooke), and after talking a little with him, he and I to the Duke's chamber, where Mr. Coventry (age 35) and he and I into the Duke's closett and Sir J. Lawson (age 48) discoursing upon business of the Navy, and particularly got his consent to the ending some difficulties in Mr. Creed's accounts.

Pepy's Diary. 12 Jan 1663. Up, and to Sir W. Batten's (age 62) to bid him and Sir J. Minnes (age 63) adieu, they going this day towards Portsmouth, Hampshire [Map], and then to Sir W. Pen's (age 41) to see Sir J. Lawson (age 48), who I heard was there, where I found him the same plain man that he was, after all his success in the Straights, with which he is come loaded home.

Pepy's Diary. 12 Jan 1663. So I went to the Committee, where we spent all this night attending to Sir J. Lawson's (age 48) description of Tangier and the place for the Mole1, of which he brought a very pretty draught. Concerning the making of the Mole, Mr. Cholmely (age 30) did also discourse very well, having had some experience in it. Being broke up, I home by coach to Mr. Bland's, and there discoursed about sending away of the merchant ship which hangs so long on hand for Tangier.

Note 1. The construction of this Mole or breakwater turned out a very costly undertaking. In April, 1663, it was found that the charge for one year's work was £13,000. In March, 1665, £36,000 had been spent upon it. The wind and sea exerted a very destructive influence over this structure, although it was very strongly built, and Colonel Norwood reported in 1668 that a breach had been made in the Mole, which cost a considerable sum to repair.

Pepy's Diary. 23 Jan 1663. Thence to the 'Change [Map], and so home with him by coach, and I to see how my wife do, who is pretty well again, and so to dinner to Sir W. Batten's (age 62) to a cod's head, and so to my office, and after stopping to see Sir W. Pen (age 41), where was Sir J. Lawson (age 48) and his lady and daughter, which is pretty enough, I came back to my office, and there set to business pretty late, finishing the margenting my Navy-Manuscript. So home and to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 24 Jan 1663. So to dinner at home, and then down to Redriffe [Map], to see a ship hired for Tangier, what readiness she was in, and found her ready to sail. Then home, and so by coach to Mr. Povy's (age 49), where Sir Wm. Compton (age 38), Mr. Bland, Gawden, Sir J. Lawson (age 48) and myself met to settle the victualling of Tangier for the time past, which with much ado we did, and for a six months' supply more.

Pepy's Diary. 25 Jan 1663. Thence to walk in the Park, which we did two hours, it being a pleasant sunshine day though cold. Our discourse upon the rise of most men that we know, and observing them to be the results of chance, not policy, in any of them, particularly Sir J. Lawson's (age 48), from his declaring against Charles Stuart in the river of Thames, and for the Rump.

Pepy's Diary. 26 Jan 1663. Thence by coach to White Hall, and met upon the Tangier Commission, our greatest business the discoursing of getting things ready for my Lord Rutherford to go about the middle of March next, and a proposal of Sir J. Lawson's (age 48) and Mr. Cholmely's (age 30) concerning undertaking the Mole, which is referred to another time.

Pepy's Diary. 02 Feb 1663. Thence Mr. Povey and I walked to White Hall, it being a great frost still, and after a turn in the Park seeing them slide1, we met at the Committee for Tangier, a good full Committee, and agreed how to proceed in the dispatching of my Lord Rutherford, and treating about this business of Mr. Cholmely (age 30) and Sir J. Lawson's (age 48) proposal for the Mole.

Note 1. TT. Ice-skating.

Pepy's Diary. 21 Feb 1663. Well, at last they went away, and I by advice took occasion to go abroad, and walked through the street to show myself among the neighbours, that they might not think worse than the business is. Being met by Captn. Taylor and Bowry, whose ship we have hired for Tangier, they walked along with me to Cornhill [Map] talking about their business, and after some difference about their prices we agreed, and so they would have me to a tavern, and there I drank one glass of wine and discoursed of something about freight of a ship that may bring me a little money, and so broke up, and I home to Sir W. Batten's (age 62) again, where Sir J. Lawson (age 48), Captain Allen, Spragg, and several others, and all our discourse about the disgrace done to our office to be liable to this trouble, which we must get removed.

Pepy's Diary. 14 Mar 1663. So home to dinner, where Creed dined with me, and walked a good while in the garden with me after dinner, talking, among other things, of the poor service which Sir J. Lawson (age 48) did really do in the Streights, for which all this great fame and honour done him is risen.

Pepy's Diary. 30 Mar 1663. So to my office where all the morning and at the Glass-house, and after dinner by coach with Sir W. Pen (age 41) I carried my wife and her woman to Westminster, they to visit Mrs. Ferrers and Clerke, we to the Duke, where we did our usual business, and afterwards to the Tangier Committee, where among other things we all of us sealed and signed the Contract for building the Mole with my Lord Tiviott, Sir J. Lawson (age 48), and Mr. Cholmley. A thing I did with a very ill will, because a thing which I did not at all understand, nor any or few of the whole board. We did also read over the propositions for the Civill government and Law Merchant of the town, as they were agreed on this morning at the Glasshouse by Sir R. Ford (age 49) and Sir W. Rider, who drew them, Mr. Povy (age 49) and myself as a Committee appointed to prepare them, which were in substance but not in the manner of executing them independent wholly upon the Governor consenting to.

Pepy's Diary. 16 Apr 1663. Up betimes and to my office, met to pass Mr. Pitt's (anon Sir J. Lawson's (age 48) Secretary and Deputy Treasurer) accounts for the voyage last to the Streights, wherein the demands are strangely irregular, and I dare not oppose it alone for making an enemy and do no good, but only bring a review upon my Lord Sandwich (age 37), but God knows it troubles my heart to see it, and to see the Comptroller (age 64), whose duty it is, to make no more matter of it. At noon home for an hour to dinner, and so to the office public and private till late at night, so home to supper and bed with my father.

Pepy's Diary. 06 Oct 1663. Slept pretty well, and my wife waked to ring the bell to call up our mayds to the washing about 4 o'clock, and I was and she angry that our bell did not wake them sooner, but I will get a bigger bell. So we to sleep again till 8 o'clock, and then I up in some ease to the office, where we had a full board, where we examined Cocke's (age 46) second account, when Mr. Turner had drawn a bill directly to be paid the balance thereof, as Mr. Cocke (age 46) demanded, and Sir J. Minnes (age 64) did boldly assert the truth of it, and that he had examined it, when there is no such thing, but many vouchers, upon examination, missing, and we saw reason to strike off several of his demands, and to bring down his 5 per cent. commission to 3 per cent. So we shall save the King (age 33) some money, which both the Comptroller (age 64) and his clerke had absolutely given away. There was also two occasions more of difference at the table; the one being to make out a bill to Captain Smith for his salary abroad as commander-in-chief in the Streights. Sir J. Minnes (age 64) did demand an increase of salary for his being Vice-Admiral in the Downes, he having received but 40s. without an increase, when Sir J. Lawson (age 48), in the same voyage, had £3, and others have also had increase, only he, because he was an officer of the board, was worse used than any body else, and particularly told Sir W. Batten (age 62) that he was the opposer formerly of his having an increase, which I did wonder to hear him so boldly lay it to him. So we hushed up the dispute, and offered, if he would, to examine precedents, and report them, if there was any thing to his advantage to be found, to the Duke (age 29). The next was, Mr. Chr. Pett (age 43) and Deane (age 29) were summoned to give an account of some knees1 which Pett reported bad, that were to be served in by Sir W. Warren, we having contracted that none should be served but such as were to be approved of by our officers. So that if they were bad they were to be blamed for receiving them.

Note 1. "Naturally grown timber or bars of iron bent to a right angle or to fit the surfaces and to secure bodies firmly together as hanging knees secure the deck beams to the sides".-Smyth's Sailor's Word- Book. There are several kinds of knees.

Pepy's Diary. 09 Nov 1663. So to our discourse, and among and above other things we were taken up in talking upon Sir J. Lawson's (age 48) coming home, he being come to Portsmouth, Hampshire [Map]; and Captain Berkely is come to towne with a letter from the Duana of Algier to the King (age 33), wherein they do demand again the searching of our ships and taking out of strangers, and their goods; and that what English ships are taken without the Duke's pass they will detain (though it be flat contrary to the words of the peace) as prizes, till they do hear from our King, which they advise him may be speedy. And this they did the very next day after they had received with great joy the Grand Seignor's confirmation of the Peace from Constantinople by Captain Berkely; so that there is no command nor certainty to be had of these people. The King (age 33) is resolved to send his will by a fleete of ships; and it is thought best and speediest to send these very ships that are now come home, five sail of good ships, back again after cleaning, victualling, and paying them. But it is a pleasant thing to think how their Basha, Shavan Aga, did tear his hair to see the soldiers order things thus; for (just like his late predecessor) when they see the evil of war with England, then for certain they complain to the Grand Seignor of him, and cut his head off: this he is sure of, and knows as certain.

Pepy's Diary. 12 Dec 1663. Up and to the office where all the morning, and among other things got Sir G. Carteret (age 53) to put his letters to Captain Taylor's bill by which I am in hopes to get £5, which joys my heart. We had this morning a great dispute between Mr. Gauden, Victualler of the Navy, and Sir J. Lawson (age 48), and the rest of the Commanders going against Argier, about their fish and keeping of Lent; which Mr. Gauden so much insists upon to have it observed, as being the only thing that makes up the loss of his dear bargain all the rest of the year.

Pepy's Diary. 07 Jan 1664. At noon, all of us to dinner to Sir W. Pen's (age 42), where a very handsome dinner, Sir J. Lawson (age 49) among others, and his lady and his [his daughter] daughter, a very pretty lady and of good deportment, with looking upon whom I was greatly pleased, the rest of the company of the women were all of our own house, of no satisfaction or pleasure at all. My wife was not there, being not well enough, nor had any great mind. But to see how Sir W. Pen (age 42) imitates me in everything, even in his having his chimney piece in his dining room the same with that in my wife's closett, and in every thing else I perceive wherein he can. But to see again how he was out in one compliment: he lets alone drinking any of the ladies' healths that were there, my Lady Batten and Lawson, till he had begun with my Baroness Carteret (age 62), who was absent, and that was well enough, and then Mr. Coventry's (age 36) mistresse, at which he was ashamed, and would not have had him have drunk it, at least before the ladies present, but his policy, as he thought, was such that he would do it.

Pepy's Diary. 11 Jan 1664. Thence after dinner to White Hall, where the Duke (age 30) being busy at the Guinny business, the Duke of Albemarle (age 55), Sir W. Rider, Povy (age 50), Sir J. Lawson (age 49) and I to the Duke of Albemarle's (age 55) lodgings, and there did some business, and so to the Court again, and I to the Duke of York's (age 30) lodgings, where the Guinny company are choosing their assistants for the next year by ballotting.

Pepy's Diary. 13 Jan 1664. So to the 'Change [Map], and thence with Sir W. Rider to the Trinity House, Deptford [Map] to dinner, and then home and to my office till night, and then with Mr. Bland to Sir T. Viner's (age 75) about pieces of eight for Sir J. Lawson (age 49), and so back to my office, and there late upon business, and so home to supper and to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 16 Jan 1664. At noon I to the 'Change [Map] about some pieces of eight for Sir J. Lawson (age 49). There I hear that Collonell Turner (age 55) is found guilty of felony at the Sessions in Mr. Tryan's business, which will save his life.

Pepy's Diary. 03 May 1664. I met also upon the 'Change [Map] with Mr. Cutler, and he told me how for certain Lawson (age 49) hath proclaimed warr again with Algiers, though they had at his first coming given back the ships which they had taken, and all their men; though they refused afterwards to make him restitution for the goods which they had taken out of them.

Pepy's Diary. 12 Oct 1664. At noon to the Coffeehouse, where very good discourse. For newes, all say De Ruyter (age 57) is gone to Guinny before us. Sir J. Lawson (age 49) is come to Portsmouth, Hampshire [Map]; and our fleete is hastening all speed: I mean this new fleete. Prince Rupert (age 44) with his is got into the Downes.

Pepy's Diary. 17 Oct 1664. Rose very well and not weary, and with Sir W. Batten (age 63) to St. James's; there did our business. I saw Sir J. Lawson (age 49) since his return from sea first this morning, and hear that my Lord Sandwich (age 39) is come from Portsmouth, Hampshire [Map] to town.

Pepy's Diary. 24 Oct 1664. Thence to a Committee at White Hall of Tangier where I had the good lucke to speak something to very good purpose about the Mole at Tangier, which was well received even by Sir J. Lawson (age 49) and Mr. Cholmely (age 32), the undertakers, against whose interest I spoke; that I believe I shall be valued for it.

Calendars. 13 Nov 1664. 93. William Coventry (age 36) to [Sec. Bennet (age 46)]. Hopes the wind will change, and bring the Charles and the other ships out of the river; will not then fear what Opdam can do, though the men are raw, and need a little time at sea. The Ruby and Happy Return have brought some supernumeraries, but 500 more are wanted; 200 are expected from Plymouth, but till some runaways are hanged, the ships cannot be kept well manned. Sends a list of some fit to be made examples of in the several counties where they were pressed, with the names of those who pressed them. The Dutch ship named before is brought in, and two others are stayed at Cowes, Isle of Wight by virtue of the embargo, the order in Council making no exception for foreigners, The King's pleasure should be known therein, as the end, which is to gather seamen, does not seem to require the stopping of foreigners. Prize officers must- be sent speedily to [Portsmouth], Dover, and Deal. Those at Deal, Kent [Map] should have men in readiness to carry prizes up the river, that the men belonging to the fleet be not scattered. Persons should also be hastened to 'take care of the sick and wounded. The Duke (age 31) intends to appoint Erwin captain of the ship hired to go to St. Helena; he is approved by the East India Company, which is important, trade being intermixed with convoy, and they find fault if a commander of the King's ships bring home any little matter privately bought. The Duke has divided the fleet into squadrons, assigning to each a vice and rear adiniral; Sir John Lawson (age 49) and Sir William Berkeley to his own, Mennes (age 65) and Sansum to Prince Rupert's (age 44), Sir George Aiscue (age 48) [Ayscough] and Teddeman to the Earl of Sandwich. Hopes in a few days to be in much better order, if good men can be got. Will send a list of the squadrons. The Guernsey is damaged by running aground. Rear-Admiral Teddeman, with 4 or 5 ships, has gone to course in the Channel, and if he meet any refractory Dutchmen, will teach them their duty. The King's declaration for encouraging seamen has much revived the men, and added to their courage. [Four pages.]

Calendars. 14 Nov 1664. 104. William Coventry (age 36) to [Sec. Bennet. (age 46)] Believes nothing short of hanging will secure the pressed men. Lord St. John's news can hardly be believed, but the report will do no harm, for if the Dutch begin so roughly, seamen will be unwilling to go on merchantmen, and so cannot live without going on men-of-war. Hears that Taylor was objected to by the Committee [for Maritime Affairs] as a [Navy] Commissioner; he was chosen without contradiction by Sir John Mennes (age 65), Sir John Lawson (age 49), and Sir William Penn (age 43), and the warrants sent for him and others to the Attorney-General, as was usual in Lord Northumberland's time. Thinks the King will not easily consent to his rejection, as he is a man of great abilities and dispatch, and was formerly laid aside at Chatham [Map], on the Duchess of Albemarle's (age 45) earnest interposition for another. He is a fanatic, it is true, but all hands will be needed for the work cut out; there is less danger of them in harbour than at sea, and profit will convert most of them. The weather is bad; wonders the Scotchmen have not got to the Hope. The new ship is nearly ready, but has no guns; some spare ones should be sent in some man-of-war. [Two pages.]

Pepy's Diary. 12 Dec 1664. This day (to see how things are ordered in the world), I had a command from the Earle of Sandwich, at Portsmouth, Hampshire [Map], not to be forward with Mr. Cholmly (age 32) and Sir J. Lawson (age 49) about the Mole at Tangier, because that what I do therein will (because of his friendship to me known) redound against him, as if I had done it upon his score. So I wrote to my Lord my mistake, and am contented to promise never to pursue it more, which goes against my mind with all my heart.

In or before 1665 Admiral John Lawson (age 50) and Isabella Jefferson were married.

Around 1665 Peter Lely (age 46). Portrait of Admiral John Lawson (age 50). One of the Flagmen of Lowestoft.

Pepy's Diary. 02 Jan 1665. Then to the Hall, and there agreed with Mrs. Martin, and to her lodgings which she has now taken to lie in, in Bow Streete, pitiful poor things, yet she thinks them pretty, and so they are for her condition I believe good enough. Here I did 'ce que je voudrais avec' her most freely, and it having cost 2s. in wine and cake upon her, I away sick of her impudence, and by coach to my Lord Bruncker's (age 45), by appointment, in the Piazza, in Covent-Guarding; where I occasioned much mirth with a ballet I brought with me, made from the seamen at sea to their ladies in town; saying Sir W. Pen (age 43), Sir G. Ascue (age 49), and Sir J. Lawson (age 50) made them. Here a most noble French dinner and banquet, the best I have seen this many a day and good discourse.

Pepy's Diary. 15 Jan 1665. At four o'clock with Sir W. Pen (age 43) in his coach to my Chancellor's (age 55), where by and by Mr. Coventry (age 37), Sir W. Pen (age 43), Sir J. Lawson (age 50), Sir G. Ascue (age 49), and myself were called in to the King (age 34), there being several of the Privy Council, and my Chancellor (age 55) lying at length upon a couch (of the goute I suppose); and there Sir W. Pen (age 43) begun, and he had prepared heads in a paper, and spoke pretty well to purpose, but with so much leisure and gravity as was tiresome; besides, the things he said were but very poor to a man in his trade after a great consideration, but it was to purpose, indeed to dissuade the King (age 34) from letting these Turkey ships to go out: saying (in short) the King (age 34) having resolved to have 130 ships out by the spring, he must have above 20 of them merchantmen. Towards which, he in the whole River could find but 12 or 14, and of them the five ships taken up by these merchants were a part, and so could not be spared. That we should need 30,000 [sailors] to man these 130 ships, and of them in service we have not above 16,000; so we shall need 14,000 more. That these ships will with their convoys carry above 2,000 men, and those the best men that could be got; it being the men used to the Southward that are the best men for warr, though those bred in the North among the colliers are good for labour. That it will not be safe for the merchants, nor honourable for the King (age 34), to expose these rich ships with his convoy of six ships to go, it not being enough to secure them against the Dutch, who, without doubt, will have a great fleete in the Straights. This, Sir J. Lawson (age 50) enlarged upon. Sir G. Ascue (age 49) he chiefly spoke that the warr and trade could not be supported together, and, therefore, that trade must stand still to give way to them. This Mr. Coventry (age 37) seconded, and showed how the medium of the men the King (age 34) hath one year with another employed in his Navy since his coming, hath not been above 3,000 men, or at most 4,000 men; and now having occasion of 30,000, the remaining 26,000 must be found out of the trade of the nation. He showed how the cloaths, sending by these merchants to Turkey, are already bought and paid for to the workmen, and are as many as they would send these twelve months or more; so the poor do not suffer by their not going, but only the merchant, upon whose hands they lit dead; and so the inconvenience is the less. And yet for them he propounded, either the King (age 34) should, if his Treasure would suffer it, buy them, and showed the losse would not be so great to him: or, dispense with the Act of Navigation, and let them be carried out by strangers; and ending that he doubted not but when the merchants saw there was no remedy, they would and could find ways of sending them abroad to their profit. All ended with a conviction (unless future discourse with the merchants should alter it) that it was not fit for them to go out, though the ships be loaded. The King (age 34) in discourse did ask me two or three questions about my newes of Allen's loss in the Streights, but I said nothing as to the business, nor am not much sorry for it, unless the King (age 34) had spoke to me as he did to them, and then I could have said something to the purpose I think. So we withdrew, and the merchants were called in.

Pepy's Diary. 20 Feb 1665. Thence I to the House of Lords and spoke with my Lord Bellasses (age 50), and so to the 'Change [Map], and there did business, and so to the Sun taverne, haling in the morning had some high words with Sir J. Lawson (age 50) about his sending of some bayled goods to Tangier, wherein the truth is I did not favour him, but being conscious that some of my profits may come out by some words that fell from him, and to be quiet, I have accommodated it. Here we dined merry; but my club and the rest come to 7s. 6d., which was too much.

Sinking of The London

Pepy's Diary. 08 Mar 1665. Though a bitter cold day, yet I rose, and though my pain and tenderness in my testicle remains a little, yet I do verily think that my pain yesterday was nothing else, and therefore I hope my disease of the stone may not return to me, but void itself in pissing, which God grant, but I will consult my physitian. This morning is brought me to the office the sad newes of "The London", in which Sir J. Lawson's (age 50) men were all bringing her from Chatham, Kent [Map] to the Hope, and thence he was to go to sea in her; but a little a'this side the buoy of the Nower, she suddenly blew up. About 24 [men] and a woman that were in the round-house and coach saved; the rest, being above 300, drowned: the ship breaking all in pieces, with 80 pieces of brass ordnance. She lies sunk, with her round-house above water. Sir J. Lawson (age 50) hath a great loss in this of so many good chosen men, and many relations among them. I went to the 'Change [Map], where the news taken very much to heart.

Pepy's Diary. 19 Mar 1665. Being very glad of this news Mr. Povy (age 51) and I in his coach to Hyde Parke, being the first day of the tour there. Where many brave ladies; among others, Castlemayne (age 24) lay impudently upon her back in her coach asleep, with her mouth open. There was also my Lady Kerneguy (age 26)1, once my Lady Anne Hambleton, that is said to have given the Duke a clap upon his first coming over. Here I saw Sir J. Lawson's (age 50) daughter and husband, a fine couple, and also Mr. Southwell (age 29) and his new lady (age 17), very pretty.

Note 1. Daughter (age 26) of William, Duke of Hamilton, wife of Lord Carnegy (age 16), who became Earl of Southesk on his father's death. She is frequently mentioned in the "Memoires de Grammont", and in the letters of the second Earl of Chesterfield. B.

Pepy's Diary. 20 Mar 1665. So to White Hall to the Committee of Tangier, where there were present, my Lord of Albemarle (age 56), my Lord Peterborough (age 43), Sandwich, Barkeley (age 63), FitzHarding (age 35), Secretary Bennet (age 47), Sir Thomas Ingram (age 50), Sir John Lawson (age 50), Povy (age 51) and I Where, after other business, Povy (age 51) did declare his business very handsomely; that he was sorry he had been so unhappy in his accounts, as not to give their Lordships the satisfaction he intended, and that he was sure his accounts are right, and continues to submit them to examination, and is ready to lay down in ready money the fault of his account; and that for the future, that the work might be better done and with more quiet to him, he desired, by approbation of the Duke (age 31), he might resign his place to Mr. Pepys. Whereupon, Secretary Bennet (age 47) did deliver the Duke's (age 31) command, which was received with great content and allowance beyond expectation; the Secretary repeating also the Duke's character of me. And I could discern my Lord FitzHarding (age 35) was well pleased with me, and signified full satisfaction, and whispered something seriously of me to the Secretary. And there I received their constitution under all their hands presently; so that I am already confirmed their Treasurer, and put into a condition of striking of tallys1 and all without one harsh word or word of dislike, but quite the contrary; which is a good fortune beyond all imagination. Here we rose, and Povy (age 51) and Creed and I, all full of joy, thence to dinner, they setting me down at Sir J. Winter's, by promise, and dined with him; and a worthy fine man he seems to be, and of good discourse, our business was to discourse of supplying the King (age 34) with iron for anchors, if it can be judged good enough, and a fine thing it is to see myself come to the condition of being received by persons of this rank, he being, and having long been, Secretary to the Queene-Mother (age 26).

Note 1. The practice of striking tallies at the Exchequer was a curious survival of an ancient method of keeping accounts. The method adopted is described in Hubert Hall's "Antiquities and Curiosities of the Exchequer", 1891. The following account of the use of tallies, so frequently alluded to in the Diary, was supplied by Lord Braybrooke. Formerly accounts were kept, and large sums of money paid and received, by the King's Exchequer, with little other form than the exchange or delivery of tallies, pieces of wood notched or scored, corresponding blocks being kept by the parties to the account; and from this usage one of the head officers of the Exchequer was called the tallier, or teller. These tallies were often negotiable; Adam Smith, in his "Wealth of Nations", book ii., ch. xi., says that "in 1696 tallies had been at forty, and fifty, and sixty per cent. discount, and bank-notes at twenty per cent". The system of tallies was discontinued in 1824; and the destruction of the old Houses of Parliament, in the night of October 16th, 1834, is thought to have been occasioned by the overheating of the flues, when the furnaces were employed to consume the tallies rendered useless by the alteration in the mode of keeping the Exchequer accounts.

Pepy's Diary. 30 Mar 1665. At noon home to dinner, and thence to the Tangier Committee, where, Lord! to see how they did run into the giving of Sir J. Lawson (age 50) (who is come to towne to-day to get this business done) £4000 about his Mole business, and were going to give him 4s. per yarde more, which arises in the whole Mole to £36,000, is a strange thing, but the latter by chance was stopped, the former was given.

Pepy's Diary. 12 May 1665. He gone, come Mr. Povy (age 51), Dr. Twysden (age 58), and Mr. Lawson about settling my security in the paying of the £4000 ordered to Sir J. Lawson (age 50). So a little abroad and then home, and late at my office and closet settling this day's disordering of my papers, then to supper and to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 17 May 1665. Up, and by appointment to a meeting of Sir John Lawson and Mr. Cholmly's atturney and Mr. Povy (age 51) at the Swan [Map] taverne at Westminster to settle their business about my being secured in the payment of money to Sir J. Lawson (age 50) in the other's absence.

Battle of Lowestoft

Pepy's Diary. 05 Jun 1665. Thence home to dinner, after 'Change [Map], where great talke of the Dutch being fled and we in pursuit of them, and that our ship Charity1 is lost upon our Captain's, Wilkinson, and Lieutenant's yielding, but of this there is no certainty, save the report of some of the sicke men of the Charity, turned adrift in a boat out of the Charity and taken up and brought on shore yesterday to Sole Bay [Map], and the newes hereof brought by Sir Henry Felton.

Note 1. Sir William Coventry (age 37) and Sir William Pen (age 44) to the Navy Commissioners, June 4th: "Engaged yesterday with the Dutch; they began to stand away at 3 p.m. Chased them all the rest of the day and night; 20 considerable ships are destroyed and taken; we have only lost the Great Charity. The Earl of Marlborough (deceased), Rear-Admiral Sansum, and Captain Kirby are slain, and Sir John Lawson (age 50) wounded" (Calendar of State Papers, Domestic, 1664-65, p. 406).

Pepy's Diary. 08 Jun 1665. VICTORY OVER THE DUTCH, JUNE 3RD, 1665.

This day they engaged; the Dutch neglecting greatly the opportunity of the wind they had of us, by which they lost the benefit of their fire-ships. The Earl of Falmouth (deceased), Muskerry, and Mr. Richard Boyle killed on board the Duke's ship, the Royall Charles, with one shot: their blood and brains flying in the Duke's (age 31) face; and the head of Mr. Boyle striking down the Duke (age 31), as some say. Earle of Marlborough (deceased), Portland (deceased), Rear-Admirall Sansum (to Prince Rupert (age 45)) killed, and Capt. Kirby and Ableson. Sir John Lawson (age 50) wounded on the knee; hath had some bones taken out, and is likely to be well again. Upon receiving the hurt, he sent to the Duke (age 31) for another to command the Royall Oake. The Duke (age 31) sent Jordan1 out of the St. George, who did brave things in her. Capt. Jer. Smith of the Mary was second to the Duke (age 31), and stepped between him and Captain Seaton of the Urania (76 guns and 400 men), who had sworn to board the Duke (age 31); killed him, 200 men, and took the ship; himself losing 99 men, and never an officer saved but himself and lieutenant. His master indeed is saved, with his leg cut off: Admirall Opdam blown up, Trump killed, and said by Holmes; all the rest of their admiralls, as they say, but Everson (whom they dare not trust for his affection to the Prince of Orange), are killed: we having taken and sunk, as is believed, about 24 of their best ships; killed and taken near 8 or 10,000 men, and lost, we think, not above 700. A great[er] victory never known in the world. They are all fled, some 43 got into the Texell, and others elsewhere, and we in pursuit of the rest.

Note 1. Afterwards Sir Joseph Jordan, commander of the "Royal Sovereign", and Vice-Admiral of the Red, 1672. He was knighted on July 1st, 1665. B.

On 25 Jun 1665 Admiral John Lawson (age 50) died in Scarborough [Map] from wounds received at the Battle of Lowestoft. He was buried at St Dunstan's in the East Parish.

Pepy's Diary. 16 Jun 1665. By and by saw Mr. Coventry (age 37), which rejoiced my very heart. Anon he and I, from all the rest of the company, walked into the Matted Gallery; where after many expressions of love, we fell to talk of business. Among other things, how my Lord Sandwich (age 39), both in his counsells and personal service, hath done most honourably and serviceably. Sir J. Lawson (age 50) is come to Greenwich, Kent [Map]; but his wound in his knee yet very bad. Jonas Poole, in the Vantguard, did basely, so as to be, or will be, turned out of his ship. Captain Holmes (age 43)1 expecting upon Sansum's death to be made Rear-admirall to the Prince (age 45) (but Harman (age 40)2 is put in) hath delivered up to the Duke (age 31) his commission, which the Duke (age 31) took and tore. He, it seems, had bid the Prince, who first told him of Holmes's intention, that he should dissuade him from it; for that he was resolved to take it if he offered it. Yet Holmes would do it, like a rash, proud coxcombe. But he is rich, and hath, it seems, sought an occasion of leaving the service. Several of our captains have done ill. The great ships are the ships do the business, they quite deadening the enemy. They run away upon sight of "The Prince3".

Note 1. Captain Robert Holmes (age 43) (afterwards knighted). Sir William Coventry (age 37), in a letter to Lord Arlington (age 47) (dated from "The Royal Charles", Southwold Bay, June 13th), writes: "Capt. Holmes asked to be rear admiral of the white squadron in place of Sansum who was killed, but the Duke gave the place to Captain Harman (age 40), on which he delivered up his commission, which the Duke received, and put Captain Langhorne in his stead" (Calendar of State Papers, Domestic, 1664-65, p. 423).

Note 2. John Harman (age 40), afterwards knighted. He had served with great reputation in several naval fights, and was desperately wounded in 1673, while.

Note 3. "The Prince" was Lord Sandwich's (age 39) ship; the captain was Roger Cuttance. It was put up at Chatham, Kent [Map] for repair at this date.

Great Plague of London

Pepy's Diary. 17 Jun 1665. To the office late, and then home to bed. It struck me very deep this afternoon going with a hackney coach from my Lord Treasurer's (age 58) down Holborne, the coachman I found to drive easily and easily, at last stood still, and come down hardly able to stand, and told me that he was suddenly struck very sicke, and almost blind, he could not see; so I 'light and went into another coach, with a sad heart for the poor man and trouble for myself, lest he should have been struck with the plague, being at the end of the towne that I took him up; but God have mercy upon us all! Sir John Lawson (age 50), I hear, is worse than yesterday: the King (age 35) went to see him to-day most kindly. It seems his wound is not very bad; but he hath a fever, a thrush, and a hickup, all three together, which are, it seems, very bad symptoms.

Pepy's Diary. 19 Jun 1665. Thence with Sir W. Pen (age 44) from the office down to Greenwich, Kent [Map] to see Sir J. Lawson (age 50), who is better, but continues ill; his hickupp not being yet gone, could have little discourse with him. So thence home and to supper, a while to the office, my head and mind mightily vexed to see the multitude of papers and business before [me] and so little time to do it in. So to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 23 Jun 1665. How poorly Sir John Lawson (age 50) performed, notwithstanding all that was said of him; and how his ship turned out of the way, while Sir J. Lawson (age 50) himself was upon the deck, to the endangering of the whole fleete. It therefore troubles my Lord that Mr. Coventry (age 37) should not mention a word of him in his relation. I did, in answer, offer that I was sure the relation was not compiled by Mr. Coventry (age 37), but by L'Estrange, out of several letters, as I could witness; and that Mr. Coventry's (age 37) letter that he did give the Duke of Albemarle (age 56) did give him as much right as the Prince (age 45), for I myself read it first and then copied it out, which I promised to show my Lord, with which he was somewhat satisfied. From that discourse my Lord did begin to tell me how much he was concerned to dispose of his children, and would have my advice and help; and propounded to match my Lady Jemimah to Sir G. Carteret's (age 55) eldest son, which I approved of, and did undertake the speaking with him about it as from myself, which my Lord liked. So parted, with my head full of care about this business.

Pepy's Diary. 25 Jun 1665. After dinner, before I went to White Hall, I went down to Greenwich, Kent [Map] by water, thinking to have visited Sir J. Lawson (age 50), where, when I come, I find that he is dead, and died this morning, at which I was much surprized; and indeed the nation hath a great loss; though I cannot, without dissembling, say that I am sorry for it, for he was a man never kind to me at all.

Pepy's Diary. 02 Jul 1665. I hear this night that Sir J. Lawson (deceased) was buried late last night at St. Dunstan's by us, without any company at all, and that the condition of his family is but very poor, which I could be contented to be sorry for, though he never was the man that ever obliged me by word or deed.

Pepy's Diary. 06 Jul 1665. So home to the office, and thence to Sir W. Batten (age 64), and spent the evening at supper; and, among other discourse, the rashness of Sir John Lawson (deceased), for breeding up his [his daughter] daughter so high and proud, refusing a man of great interest, Sir W. Barkeley (age 26), to match her with a melancholy fellow, Colonell Norton's' (age 49) son, of no interest nor good nature nor generosity at all, giving her £6000, when the other would have taken her with two; when he himself knew that he was not worth the money himself in all the world, he did give her that portion, and is since dead, and left his wife and two daughters beggars, and the other gone away with £6000, and no content in it, through the ill qualities of her father-in-law and husband, who, it seems, though a pretty woman, contracted for her as if he had been buying a horse; and, worst of all, is now of no use to serve the mother and two little sisters in any stead at Court, whereas the other might have done what he would for her: so here is an end of this family's pride, which, with good care, might have been what they would, and done well.

Pepy's Diary. 25 Oct 1665. By and by comes down my Lord, and then he and I an houre together alone upon private discourse. He tells me that Mr. Coventry (age 37) and he are not reconciled, but declared enemies: the only occasion of it being, he tells me, his ill usage from him about the first fight, wherein he had no right done him, which, methinks, is a poor occasion, for, in my conscience, that was no design of Coventry's. But, however, when I asked my Lord whether it were not best, though with some condescension, to be friends with him, he told me it was not possible, and so I stopped. He tells me, as very private, that there are great factions at the Court between the King's party and the Duke of Yorke's (age 32), and that the King (age 35), which is a strange difficulty, do favour my Lord in opposition to the Duke's party; that my Chancellor (age 56), being, to be sure, the patron of the Duke's, it is a mystery whence it should be that Mr. Coventry (age 37) is looked upon by him [Clarendon] as an enemy to him; that if he had a mind himself to be out of this employment, as Mr. Coventry (age 37), he believes, wishes, and himself and I do incline to wish it also, in many respects, yet he believes he shall not be able, because of the King (age 35), who will keepe him in on purpose, in opposition to the other party; that Prince Rupert (age 45) and he are all possible friends in the world; that Coventry (age 37) hath aggravated this business of the prizes, though never so great plundering in the world as while the Duke and he were at sea; and in Sir John Lawson's time he could take and pillage, and then sink a whole ship in the Streights, and Coventry (age 37) say nothing to it; that my Lord Arlington (age 47) is his fast friend; that the Chancellor (age 56) is cold to him, and though I told him that I and the world do take my Chancellor (age 56), in his speech the other day, to have said as much as could be wished, yet he thinks he did not.

Pepy's Diary. 04 Jul 1666. He told me that our very commanders, nay, our very flag-officers, do stand in need of exercising among themselves, and discoursing the business of commanding a fleete; he telling me that even one of our flag-men in the fleete did not know which tacke lost the wind, or which kept it, in the last engagement. He says it was pure dismaying and fear that made them all run upon the Galloper, not having their wits about them; and that it was a miracle they were not all lost. He much inveighs upon my discoursing of Sir John Lawson's saying heretofore, that sixty sail would do as much as one hundred; and says that he was a man of no counsel at all, but had got the confidence to say as the gallants did, and did propose to himself to make himself great by them, and saying as they did; but was no man of judgement in his business, but hath been out in the greatest points that have come before them. And then in the business of fore-castles, which he did oppose, all the world sees now the use of them for shelter of men. He did talk very rationally to me, insomuch that I took more pleasure this night in hearing him discourse, than I ever did in my life in any thing that he said. He gone I to the office again, and so after some business home to supper and to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 30 Jul 1666. Thence abroad to pay several debts at the end of the month, and so to Sir W. Coventry (age 38), at St. James's, where I find him in his new closett, which is very fine, and well supplied with handsome books. I find him speak very slightly of the late victory: dislikes their staying with the fleete up their coast, believing that the Dutch will come out in fourteen days, and then we with our unready fleete, by reason of some of the ships being maymed, shall be in bad condition to fight them upon their owne coast: is much dissatisfied with the great number of men, and their fresh demands of twenty-four victualling ships, they going out but the other day as full as they could stow. I asked him whether he did never desire an account of the number of supernumeraries, as I have done several ways, without which we shall be in great errour about the victuals; he says he has done it again and again, and if any mistake should happen they must thanke themselves. He spoke slightly of the Duke of Albemarle (age 57), saying, when De Ruyter (age 59) come to give him a broadside-"Now", says he, chewing of tobacco the while, "will this fellow come and give, me two broadsides, and then he will run"; but it seems he held him to it two hours, till the Duke himself was forced to retreat to refit, and was towed off, and De Ruyter (age 59) staid for him till he come back again to fight. One in the ship saying to the Duke, "Sir, methinks De Ruyter (age 59) hath given us more: than two broadsides";-"Well", says the Duke, "but you shall find him run by and by", and so he did, says Sir W. Coventry (age 38); but after the Duke himself had been first made to fall off. The Resolution had all brass guns, being the same that Sir J. Lawson had in her in the Straights. It is observed that the two fleetes were even in number to one ship.

Pepy's Diary. 29 Aug 1666. Thence took leave, and found Sir W. Pen (age 45) talking to Orange Moll, of the King's house, who, to our great comfort, told us that they begun to act on the 18th of this month. So on to St. James's, in the way Sir W. Pen (age 45) telling me that Mr. Norton, that married Sir J. Lawson's [his daughter] daughter, is dead. She left £800 a year jointure, a son to inherit the whole estate. She freed from her father-in-law's (age 50) tyranny, and is in condition to helpe her mother, who needs it; of which I am glad, the young lady being very pretty.

Pepy's Diary. 22 Mar 1667. So home and to the office, where did business, and so home to my chamber, and then to supper and to bed. Landing at the Tower [Map] to-night I met on Tower Hill [Map] with Captain Cocke (age 50) and spent half an hour walking in the dusk of the evening with him, talking of the sorrowful condition we are in, that we must be ruined if the Parliament do not come and chastize us, that we are resolved to make a peace whatever it cost, that the King (age 36) is disobliging the Parliament in this interval all that may be, yet his money is gone and he must have more, and they likely not to give it, without a great deal of do. God knows what the issue of it will be. But the considering that the Duke of York (age 33), instead of being at sea as Admirall, is now going from port to port, as he is at this day at Harwich [Map], and was the other day with the King (age 36) at Sheernesse [Map], and hath ordered at Portsmouth, Hampshire [Map] how fortifications shall be made to oppose the enemy, in case of invasion, [which] is to us a sad consideration, and as shameful to the nation, especially after so many proud vaunts as we have made against the Dutch, and all from the folly of the Duke of Albemarle (age 58), who made nothing of beating them, and Sir John Lawson he always declared that we never did fail to beat them with lesser numbers than theirs, which did so prevail with the King (age 36) as to throw us into this war.

Pepy's Diary. 10 Apr 1690. This morning many or most of the commanders in the Fleet came on board and dined here, so that some of them and I dined together in the Round-house, where we were very merry. Hither came the Vice-Admiral to us, and sat and talked and seemed a very good-natured man. At night as I was all alone in my cabin, in a melancholy fit playing on my viallin, my Lord and Sir R. Stayner came into the coach and supped there, and called me out to supper with them. After that up to the Lieutenant's cabin, where he and I and Sir Richard sat till 11 o'clock talking, and so to bed. This day my Lord Goring returned from France, and landed at Dover, Kent [Map].

Pepy's Diary. 12 Apr 1690. This day, the weather being very bad, we had no strangers on board. In the afternoon came the Vice-Admiral on board, with whom my Lord consulted, and I sent a packet to London at night with several letters to my friends, as to my wife about my getting of money for her when she should need it, to Mr. Bowyer that he tell me when the Messieurs of the offices be paid, to Mr. Moore about the business of my office, and making even with him as to matter of money. At night after I had despatched my letters, to bed.

[his daughter] Isabella Lawson was born to Admiral John Lawson and Isabella Jefferson.

Pepy's Diary. Sir J. Lawson demanded, who are the undertakers, and so I left them to go on to agree, for I understood it not.