Biography of Anne Hyde Queen Consort England 1637-1671

Paternal Family Tree: Hyde

Maternal Family Tree: Anne Denman 1581-1661

1661 Coronation of Charles II

1668 Buckingham Shrewsbury Duel

1701 Death of King James II

On 03 Nov 1600 [her father] Edward Hyde 1st Earl Clarendon was created 1st Baron Hyde of Hindon in Wiltshire.

In 1629 [her father] Edward Hyde 1st Earl Clarendon (age 19) and Anne Ayloffe were married. She died six months later.

On 14 Oct 1633 [her future husband] King James II of England Scotland and Ireland was born to King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland (age 32) and [her future mother-in-law] Henrietta Maria Bourbon Queen Consort England (age 23) at St James's Palace [Map]. He was created 1st Duke York at birth by his father.

In 1634 [her father] Edward Hyde 1st Earl Clarendon (age 24) and [her mother] Frances Aylesbury Countess Clarendon (age 16) were married.

On 12 Mar 1637 Anne Hyde Queen Consort England was born to Edward Hyde 1st Earl Clarendon (age 28) and Frances Aylesbury Countess Clarendon (age 19).

On 02 May 1641 William Orange Nassau II Prince Orange (age 14) and [her future sister-in-law] Mary Stewart Princess Orange (age 9) were married. She the daughter of King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland (age 40) and Henrietta Maria Bourbon Queen Consort England (age 31).

On 03 Sep 1660 King James II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 26) and Anne Hyde Queen Consort England (age 23) were married in secret. She by marriage Duchess York. She gave birth to their son Charles Stewart seven weeks later. She the daughter of Edward Hyde 1st Earl Clarendon (age 51) and Frances Aylesbury Countess Clarendon (age 43). He the son of King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland and Henrietta Maria Bourbon Queen Consort England (age 50).

Evelyn's Diary. 07 Oct 1660. There dined with me a French count, with Sir George Tuke, who came to take leave of me, being sent over to the [her mother-in-law] Queen-Mother (age 50), to break the marriage of the [her husband] Duke (age 26) with the daughter (age 23) of [her father] Chancellor Hyde (age 51). The Queen (age 50) would fain have undone it; but it seems matters were reconciled, on great offers of the Chancellor's (age 51) to befriend the Queen (age 50), who was much in debt, and was now to have the settlement of her affairs go through his hands.

Pepy's Diary. 07 Oct 1660. Lord's Day. To White Hall on foot, calling at my father's (age 59) to change my long black cloak for a short one (long cloaks being now quite out); but he being gone to church, I could not get one, and therefore I proceeded on and came to my Lord before he went to chapel and so went with him, where I heard Dr. Spurstow preach before the King a poor dry sermon; but a very good anthem of Captn. Cooke's afterwards. Going out of chapel I met with Jack Cole, my old friend (whom I had not seen a great while before), and have promised to renew acquaintance in London together. To my Lord's and dined with him; he all dinner time talking French to me, and telling me the story how the Duke of York hath got my [her father] Lord Chancellor's (age 51) daughter (age 23)1 with child, and that she, do lay it to him, and that for certain he did promise her marriage, and had signed it with his blood, but that he by stealth had got the paper out of her cabinet. And that the King would have him to marry her, but that he will not. So that the thing is very bad for the Duke, and them all; but my Lord do make light of it, as a thing that he believes is not a new thing for the Duke to do abroad. Discoursing concerning what if the Duke should marry her, my Lord told me that among his father's many old sayings that he had wrote in a book of his, this is one-that he that do get a wench with child and marry her afterwards is as if a man should--in his hat and then clap it on his head. I perceive my Lord is grown a man very indifferent in all matters of religion, and so makes nothing of these things. After dinner to the Abbey, where I heard them read the church-service, but very ridiculously, that indeed I do not in myself like it at all. A poor cold sermon of Dr. Lamb's, one of the prebends, in his habit, came afterwards, and so all ended, and by my troth a pitiful sorry devotion that these men pay. So walked home by land, and before supper I read part of the Marian persecution in Mr. Fuller (age 52). So to supper, prayers, and to bed.

Note 1. Anne Hyde, born March 12th, 1637, daughter of Edward, first Earl of Clarendon. She was attached to the court of the Princess of Orange, daughter of Charles I., 1654, and contracted to James, Duke of York, at Breda, November 24th, 1659. The marriage was avowed in London September 3rd, 1660. She joined the Church of Rome in 1669, and died March 31st, 1671.

Note 2. The Duke of York married Anne Hyde, and he avowed the marriage September 3rd, so that Pepys was rather behindhand in his information.

On 22 Oct 1660 [her son] Charles Stewart was born to [her husband] King James II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 27) and Anne Hyde Queen Consort England (age 23) at Worcester House Worcester Park Sutton, Surrey.

Evelyn's Diary. 22 Dec 1660. The marriage of the [her father] Chancellor's (age 51) daughter (age 23) being now newly owned, I went to see her, she being Sir Richard Browne's (age 55) intimate acquaintance when she waited on the [her sister-in-law] Princess of Orange (age 29); she was now at her father's, at Worcester House, in the Strand. We all kissed her hand, as did also my Lord Chamberlain (age 58) (Manchester) and Countess of Northumberland (age 37). This was a strange change-can it succeed well?-I spent the evening at St. James's, whither the Princess Henrietta (age 16) was retired during the fatal sickness of her sister, the Princess of Orange (age 29), now come over to salute the King (age 30) her brother. The Princess (age 16) gave my wife (age 25) an extraordinary compliment and gracious acceptance, for the "Character" she had presented her the day before, and which was afterward printed.

On 24 Dec 1660 [her sister-in-law] Mary Stewart Princess Orange (age 29) died of smallpox.

Around 1661 Peter Lely (age 42). Portrait of Anne Hyde Queen Consort England (age 23).

Coronation of Charles II

Pepy's Diary. 20 Apr 1661. That being done (which was very pleasant to see their habits), I carried my Lady back, and I found my Lord angry, for that his page had let my Lord's new beaver be changed for an old hat; then I went away, and with Mr. Creed to the Exchange [Map] and bought some things, as gloves and bandstrings, &c. So back to the Cockpitt [Map], and there, by the favour of one Mr. Bowman, he and I got in, and there saw the King and Duke of York (age 27) and his Duchess (age 24) (which is a plain woman, and like her mother, my Lady Chancellor). And so saw "The Humersome Lieutenant" acted before the King (age 30), but not very well done.

Pepy's Diary. 06 May 1661. Up by four o'clock and took coach. Mr. Creed rode, and left us that we know not whither he went. We went on, thinking to be at home before the officers rose, but finding we could not we staid by the way and eat some cakes, and so home, where I was much troubled to see no more work done in my absence than there was, but it could not be helped. I sent my wife to my father's, and I went and sat till late with my Lady Batten, both the Sir Williams being gone this day to pay off some ships at Deptford. So home and to bed without seeing of them. I hear to-night that the Duke of York's (age 27) [her son] son (deceased) is this day dead, which I believe will please every body; and I hear that the Duke and his Lady (age 24) themselves are not much troubled at it.

Pepy's Diary. 15 Aug 1661. Thence to the Opera, which begins again to-day with "The Witts", never acted yet with scenes; and the King and Duke (age 27) and Duchess (age 24) were there (who dined to-day with Sir H. Finch (age 39), reader at the Temple [Map], in great state); and indeed it is a most excellent play, and admirable scenes. So home and was overtaken by Sir W. Pen (age 40) in his coach, who has been this afternoon with my Lady Batten, &c., at the Theatre [Map].

Pepy's Diary. 27 Aug 1661. Hence my wife and I to the Theatre [Map], and there saw "The Joviall Crew", where the King, Duke (age 27) and Duchess (age 24), and Madame Palmer (age 20), were; and my wife, to her great content, had a full sight of them all the while. The play full of mirth.

Around 1662 Peter Lely (age 43). Portrait of Anne Hyde Queen Consort England (age 24). One of the Windsor Beauties.

Evelyn's Diary. 11 Feb 1662. I saw a comedy acted before the Duchess of York (age 24) at the Cockpit [Map]. the King (age 31) was not at it.

Pepy's Diary. 07 Mar 1662. Early to White Hall to the chappell, where by Mr. Blagrave's means I got into his pew, and heard Dr. Creeton, the great Scotchman, preach before the King (age 31), and Duke (age 28) and Duchess (age 24), upon the words of Micah:-"Roule yourselves in dust". He made a most learned sermon upon the words; but, in his application, the most comical man that ever I heard in my life. Just such a man as Hugh Peters; saying that it had been better for the poor Cavalier never to have come with the King (age 31) into England again; for he that hath the impudence to deny obedience to the lawful magistrate, and to swear to the oath of allegiance, &c., was better treated now-a-days in Newgate, than a poor Royalist, that hath suffered all his life for the King (age 31), is at White Hall among his friends. He discoursed much against a man's lying with his wife in Lent, saying that he might be as incontinent during that time with his own wife as at another time in another man's bed.

Pepy's Diary. 13 Apr 1662. Thence to Graye's Inn walkes; and there met Mr. Pickering and walked with him two hours till 8 o'clock till I was quite weary. His discourse most about the pride of the Duchess of York (age 25); and how all the ladies envy my Baroness Castlemaine's (age 21). He intends to go to Portsmouth, Hampshire [Map] to meet the Queen (age 23) this week; which is now the discourse and expectation of the town.

On 30 Apr 1662 [her daughter] Mary Stewart II Queen England Scotland and Ireland was born to [her husband] King James II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 28) and Anne Hyde Queen Consort England (age 25) at St James's Palace [Map].

Pepy's Diary. 01 May 1662. Sir G. Carteret (age 52), Sir W. Pen (age 41), and myself, with our clerks, set out this morning from Portsmouth, Hampshire [Map] very early, and got by noon to Petersfield, Hampshire; several officers of the Yard accompanying us so far. Here we dined and were merry. At dinner comes my Lord Carlingford (age 59) from London, going to Portsmouth, Hampshire [Map]: tells us that the Duchess of York (age 25) is brought to bed of a girl, [[her daughter] Mary, afterwards Queen of England.] at which I find nobody pleased; and that Prince Rupert (age 42) and the Duke of Buckingham (age 34) are sworn of the Privy Councell. He himself made a dish with eggs of the butter of the sparagus, which is very fine meat, which I will practise hereafter.

Pepy's Diary. 18 Jun 1662.That done he and I walked to Lilly's (age 43), the painter's, where we saw among other rare things, the Duchess of York (age 25), her whole body, sitting instate in a chair, in white sattin, and another of the King (age 32), that is not finished; most rare things. I did give the fellow something that showed them us, and promised to come some other time, and he would show me Baroness Castlemaine's (age 21), which I could not then see, it being locked up!

Evelyn's Diary. 01 Sep 1662. Being invited by Lord Berkeley (age 34), I went to Durdans, where dined his Majesty (age 32), the Queen (age 23), [her daughter] Duke, Duchess (age 25), Prince Rupert (age 42), Prince Edward, and abundance of noblemen. I went, after dinner, to visit my brother (age 45) of Woodcot, my sister having been delivered of a son a little before, but who had now been two days dead.

Pepy's Diary. 01 Sep 1662. Up betimes at my lodging and to my office and among my workmen, and then with Sir W. Batten (age 61) and Sir W. Pen (age 41) by coach to St. James's, this being the first day of our meeting there by the Duke's (age 28) order; but when we come, we found him going out by coach with his Duchess (age 25), and he told us he was to go abroad with the Queen (age 23) to-day (to Durdans, it seems, to dine with my Lord Barkeley (age 34), where I have been very merry when I was a little boy); so we went and staid a little at Mr. Coventry's (age 34) chamber, and I to my Lord Sandwich's (age 37), who is gone to wait upon the King (age 32) and Queen (age 23) today.

Pepy's Diary. 03 Nov 1662. Thence to my Lord Sandwich (age 37), from whom I receive every day more and more signs of his confidence and esteem of me. Here I met with Pierce the chyrurgeon, who tells me that my Baroness Castlemaine's (age 21) is with child; but though it be the King's, yet her Lord (age 28) being still in town, and sometimes seeing of her, though never to eat or lie together, it will be laid to him. He tells me also how the Duke of York (age 29) is smitten in love with my Lady Chesterfield (age 22)1 (a virtuous lady, daughter to my Lord of Ormond (age 52)); and so much, that the Duchess of York (age 25) hath complained to the King (age 32) and her [her father] father (age 53) about it, and my Lady Chesterfield (age 22) is gone into the country for it. At all which I am sorry; but it is the effect of idleness, and having nothing else to employ their great spirits upon.

Note 1. Lady Elizabeth Butler (age 22), daughter of James Butler (age 52), first Duke of Ormond, second wife of Philip Stanhope (age 28), second Earl of Chesterfield. She died July, 1665 (see "Memoires de Grammont", chap. viii.). Peter Cunningham thinks that this banishment was only temporary, for, according to the Grammont Memoirs, she was in town when the Russian ambassador was in London, December, 1662, and January, 1662- 63. "It appears from the books of the Lord Steward's office... that Lord Chesterfield (age 28) set out for the country on the 12th May, 1663, and, from his 'Short Notes' referred to in the Memoirs before his Correspondence, that he remained at Bretby, in Derbyshire, with his wife, throughout the summer of that year" ("Story of Nell Gwyn", 1852, p. 189).

Pepy's Diary. 31 Dec 1662. By and by comes the King (age 32) and Queen (age 24), the Duke and Duchess, and all the great ones: and after seating themselves, the King (age 32) takes out the Duchess of York (age 25); and the Duke, the Duchess of Buckingham; the Duke of Monmouth (age 13), my Baroness Castlemaine's (age 22); and so other lords other ladies: and they danced the Bransle1.

Note 1. Branle. Espece de danse de plusieurs personnes, qui se tiennent par la main, et qui se menent tour-a-tour. "Dictionnaire de l'Academie. A country dance mentioned by Shakespeare and other dramatists under the form of brawl, which word continued to be used in the eighteenth century. "My grave Lord Keeper led the brawls; The seals and maces danced before him". Gray, 'A Long Story.'

Pepy's Diary. 01 Jan 1663. Lay with my wife at my Lord's lodgings, where I have been these two nights, till 10 o'clock with great pleasure talking, then I rose and to White Hall, where I spent a little time walking among the courtiers, which I perceive I shall be able to do with great confidence, being now beginning to be pretty well known among them. Then to my wife again, and found Mrs. Sarah with us in the chamber we lay in. Among other discourse, Mrs. Sarah tells us how the King (age 32) sups at least four or [five] times every week with my Baroness Castlemaine's (age 22); and most often stays till the morning with her, and goes home through the garden all alone privately, and that so as the very centrys take notice of it and speak of it. She tells me, that about a month ago she [Baroness Castlemaine (age 22)] quickened at my Lord Gerard's (age 45) at dinner, and cried out that she was undone; and all the lords and men were fain to quit the room, and women called to help her. In fine, I find that there is nothing almost but bawdry at Court from top to bottom, as, if it were fit, I could instance, but it is not necessary; only they say my Lord Chesterfield (age 29), groom of the stole to the Queen (age 24), is either gone or put away from the Court upon the score of his lady's (age 22) having smitten the Duke of York (age 29), so as that he is watched by the Duchess of York (age 25), and his lady (age 22) is retired into the country upon it. How much of this is true, God knows, but it is common talk.

Pepy's Diary. 05 Jan 1663. Thence to my Lord's lodging, where Mr. Hunt and Mr. Creed dined with us, and were very merry. And after dinner he and I to White Hall, where the Duke (age 29) and the Commissioners for Tangier met, but did not do much: my Lord Sandwich (age 37) not being in town, nobody making it their business. So up, and Creed and I to my wife again, and after a game or two at cards, to the Cockpitt [Map], where we saw "Claracilla", a poor play, done by the King's house (but neither the King (age 32) nor Queen (age 24) were there, but only the Duke (age 29) and Duchess (age 25), who did show some impertinent and, methought, unnatural dalliances there, before the whole world, such as kissing, and leaning upon one another); but to my very little content, they not acting in any degree like the Duke's people.

Pepy's Diary. 25 Jan 1663. Thence to my Lord, who had his ague fit last night, but is now pretty well, and I staid talking with him an hour alone in his chamber, about sundry publique and private matters. Among others, he wonders what the project should be of the Duke's (age 29) going down to Portsmouth, Hampshire [Map] just now with his Lady (age 25), at this time of the year: it being no way, we think, to increase his popularity, which is not great; nor yet safe to do it, for that reason, if it would have any such effect.

Pepy's Diary. 23 Feb 1663. So to bed. This day I was told that my Baroness Castlemaine's (age 22) hath all the King's Christmas presents, made him by the peers, given to her, which is a most abominable thing; and that at the great ball she was much richer in jewells than the Queen (age 24) and Duchess (age 25) put both together.

Pepy's Diary. 15 May 1663. After dinner I went up to Sir Thomas Crew (age 39), who lies there not very well in his head, being troubled with vapours and fits of dizziness: and there I sat talking with him all the afternoon from one discourse to another, the most was upon the unhappy posture of things at this time; that the King (age 32) do mind nothing but pleasures, and hates the very sight or thoughts of business; that my Baroness Castlemaine's (age 22) rules him, who, he says, hath all the tricks of Aretin1 that are to be practised to give pleasure. In which he is too able .... but what is the unhappiness in that, as the Italian proverb says, "lazzo dritto non vuolt consiglio [Translation: An erection seeks no advice]". If any of the sober counsellors give him good advice, and move him in anything that is to his good and honour, the other part, which are his counsellers of pleasure, take him when he is with my Baroness Castlemaine's (age 22), and in a humour of delight, and then persuade him that he ought not to hear nor listen to the advice of those old dotards or counsellors that were heretofore his enemies: when, God knows! it is they that now-a-days do most study his honour. It seems the present favourites now are my Lord Bristol (age 50), Duke of Buckingham (age 35), Sir H. Bennet (age 45), my Lord Ashley (age 41), and Sir Charles Barkeley (age 33); who, among them, have cast my [her father] Chancellor (age 54) upon his back, past ever getting up again; there being now little for him to do, and he waits at Court attending to speak to the King (age 32) as others do: which I pray God may prove of good effects, for it is feared it will be the same with my Lord Treasurer (age 56) shortly. But strange to hear how my Lord Ashley (age 41), by my Lord Bristol's (age 50) means (he being brought over to the Catholique party against the Bishopps, whom he hates to the death, and publicly rails against them; not that he is become a Catholique, but merely opposes the Bishopps; and yet, for aught I hear, the Bishopp of London (age 64) keeps as great with the King (age 32) as ever) is got into favour, so much that, being a man of great business and yet of pleasure, and drolling too, he, it is thought, will be made Lord Treasurer (age 56) upon the death or removal of the good old man. My Lord Albemarle (age 54), I hear, do bear through and bustle among them, and will not be removed from the King's good opinion and favour, though none of the Cabinett; but yet he is envied enough. It is made very doubtful whether the King (age 32) do not intend the making of the Duke of Monmouth (age 14) legitimate2; but surely the Commons of England will never do it, nor the Duke of York (age 29) suffer it, whose lady (age 26), I am told, is very troublesome to him by her jealousy.

Note 1. An allusion to Aretin's infamous letters and sonnets accompanying the as infamous "Postures" engraved by Marc Antonio from the designs of Julio Romano (Steinman's "Memoir of Barbara, Duchess of Cleveland", privately printed, 1871).

Note 2. Thomas Ross, Monmouth's tutor, put the idea into his head that Charles II had married his mother. The report was sedulously spread abroad, and obtained some kind of credence, until, in June, 1678, the King (age 32) set the matter at rest by publishing a declaration, which was entered in the Council book and registered in Chancery. The words of the declaration are: "That to avoid any dispute which might happen in time to come concerning the succession of the Crown, he (Charles) did declare, in the presence of Almighty God, that he never gave, nor made any contract of marriage, nor was married to Mrs. Barlow, alias Waters, the Duke of Monmouth's (age 14) mother, nor to any other woman whatsoever, but to his present wife, Queen (age 24) Catherine, then living".

Pepy's Diary. 15 May 1663. But it is wonderful that Sir Charles Barkeley (age 33) should be so great still, not [only] with the King (age 32), but Duke also; who did so stiffly swear that he had lain with her1. And another one Armour that he rode before her on horseback in Holland I think.... No care is observed to be taken of the main chance, either for maintaining of trade or opposing of factions, which, God knows, are ready to break out, if any of them (which God forbid!) should dare to begin; the King (age 32) and every man about him minding so much their pleasures or profits.

Note 1. The conspiracy of Sir Charles Berkeley (age 33), Monsieur Blanfort aka Lord Arran, Jermyn, Talbot, and Killigrew to traduce Anne Hyde (age 26) was peculiarly disgraceful, and the conduct of all the actors in the affair of the marriage, from Lord Clarendon downwards, was far from creditable (see Lister's "Life of Clarendon", ii. 68-79).

Pepy's Diary. 10 Jul 1663. Up to the Lobby, and there sent out for Mr. Coventry (age 35) and Sir W. Batten (age 62), and told them if they thought convenient I would go to Chatham, Kent [Map] today, Sir John Minnes (age 64) being already there at a Pay, and I would do such and such business there, which they thought well of, and so I went home and prepared myself to go after, dinner with Sir W. Batten (age 62). Sir W. Batten (age 62) and Mr. Coventry (age 35) tell me that my Lord Bristoll (age 50) hath this day impeached my [her father] Chancellor (age 54) in the House of Lords of High Treason. The chief of the articles are these:

Note 1st. That he should be the occasion of the peace made with Holland lately upon such disadvantageous terms, and that he was bribed to it.

Note 2d. That Dunkirke was also sold by his advice chiefly, so much to the damage of England.

Note 3d. That he had £6000 given him for the drawing-up or promoting of the Irish declaration lately, concerning the division of the lands there.

Note 4th. He did carry on the design of the Portugall match, so much to the prejudice of the Crown of England, notwithstanding that he knew the Queen (age 24) is not capable of bearing children.

Note 5th. That the Duke's (age 29) marrying of his daughter (age 26) was a practice of his, thereby to raise his family; and that it was done by indirect courses.

Note 6th. That the breaking-off of the match with Parma, in which he was employed at the very time when the match with Portugall was made up here, which he took as a great slur to him, and so it was; and that, indeed, is the chief occasion of all this fewde.

Note 7th. That he hath endeavoured to bring in Popery, and wrote to the Pope for a cap for a subject of the King (age 33) of England's (my Lord Aubigny (age 43) ); and some say that he lays it to the Chancellor (age 54), that a good Protestant Secretary (Sir Edward Nicholas) was laid aside, and a Papist, Sir H. Bennet (age 45), put in his room: which is very strange, when the last of these two is his own creature, and such an enemy accounted to the Chancellor (age 54), that they never did nor do agree; and all the world did judge the Chancellor (age 54) to be falling from the time that Sir H. Bennet (age 45) was brought in. Besides my Lord Bristoll (age 50) being a Catholique himself, all this is very strange.

On 12 Jul 1663 [her son] James Stewart 1st Duke Cambridge was born to [her husband] King James II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 29) and Anne Hyde Queen Consort England (age 26) at St James's Palace [Map].

Pepy's Diary. 13 Jul 1663. Thence by water to Whitehall, and so walked to St. James's, but missed Mr. Coventry (age 35). I met the [her mother-in-law] Queen-Mother (age 53) walking in the Pell Mell [Map], led by my Lord St. Alban's (age 58). And finding many coaches at the Gate, I found upon enquiry that the Duchess (age 26) is brought to bed of a boy; and hearing that the King (age 33) and Queen (age 24) are rode abroad with the Ladies of Honour to the Park, and seeing a great crowd of gallants staying here to see their return, I also staid walking up and down, and among others spying a man like Mr. Pembleton (though I have little reason to think it should be he, speaking and discoursing long with my Lord D'Aubigne (age 43)), yet how my blood did rise in my face, and I fell into a sweat from my old jealousy and hate, which I pray God remove from me.

Pepy's Diary. 15 Jul 1663. Thence home to dinner, whither Captain Grove came and dined with me, he going into the country to-day; among other discourse he told me of discourse very much to my honour, both as to my care and ability, happening at the Duke of Albemarle's (age 54) table the other day, both from the Duke (age 29), and the Duchess (age 26) themselves; and how I paid so much a year to him whose place it was of right, and that Mr. Coventry (age 35) did report thus of me; which was greatly to my content, knowing how against their minds I was brought into the Navy.

Pepy's Diary. 30 Sep 1663. This evening Mr. Coventry (age 35) is come to St. James's, but I did not go see him, and tomorrow the King (age 33), Queen (age 24), Duke (age 29) and his Lady (age 26), and the whole Court comes to towne from their progresse. Myself and family well, only my father sicke in the country. All the common talke for newes is the Turke's advance in Hungary, &c.

Pepy's Diary. 17 Oct 1663. Thence to the Dolphin Tavern, and there Mr. Gauden did give us a great dinner. Here we had some discourse of the Queen's (age 24) being very sick, if not dead, the Duke (age 30) and Duchess of York (age 26) being sent for betimes this morning to come to White Hall to her.

Pepy's Diary. 19 Oct 1663. Back to St. James's, and there dined with my Lord Barkeley (age 61) and his lady (age 25), where Sir G. Carteret (age 53), Sir W. Batten (age 62), and myself, with two gentlemen more; my Lady, and one of the ladies of honour to the Duchesse (age 26) (no handsome woman, but a most excellent hand).

Pepy's Diary. 07 Dec 1663. I took coach and back again to Whitehall, but there could not find him. But here I met Dr. Clerke, and did tell him my story of my health; how my pain comes to me now-a-days. He did write something for me which I shall take when there is occasion. I then fell to other discourse of Dr. Knapp, who tells me he is the King's physician, and is become a solicitor for places for people, and I am mightily troubled with him. He tells me he is the most impudent fellow in the world, that gives himself out to be the King's physician, but it is not so, but is cast out of the Court. From thence I may learn what impudence there is in the world, and how a man may be deceived in persons: Anon the King (age 33) and Duke (age 30) and Duchesse (age 26) came to dinner in the Vane-roome, where I never saw them before; but it seems since the tables are done, he dines there all together. The [her mother-in-law] Queene (age 54) is pretty well, and goes out of her chamber to her little chappell in the house.

Pepy's Diary. 28 Dec 1663. The Duchesse of York (age 26) is fallen sicke of the meazles.

Pepy's Diary. 31 Dec 1663. The Duchesse of York (age 26), at this time, sicke of the meazles, but is growing well again. The Turke very far entered into Germany, and all that part of the world at a losse what to expect from his proceedings. Myself, blessed be God! in a good way, and design and resolution of sticking to my business to get a little money with doing the best service I can to the King (age 33) also; which God continue! So ends the old year.

Pepy's Diary. 20 Jul 1664. Up, and a while to my office, and then home with Deane (age 30) till dinner, discoursing upon the business of my [her father] Chancellor's (age 55) timber in Clarendon Parke, and how to make a report therein without offending him; which at last I drew up, and hope it will please him. But I would to God neither I nor he ever had had any thing to have done with it! Dined together with a good pig, and then out by coach to White Hall, to the Committee for Fishing; but nothing done, it being a great day to-day there upon drawing at the Lottery of Sir Arthur Slingsby (age 41). I got in and stood by the two Queenes [Note. Catherine of Braganza Queen Consort England (age 25) and [her mother-in-law] Henrietta Maria Bourbon Queen Consort England (age 54) ] and the Duchesse of Yorke (age 27), and just behind my Baroness Castlemayne (age 23), whom I do heartily adore; and good sport it was to see how most that did give their ten pounds did go away with a pair of globes only for their lot, and one gentlewoman, one Mrs. Fish, with the only blanke. And one I staid to see drew a suit of hangings valued at £430, and they say are well worth the money, or near it. One other suit there is better than that; but very many lots of three and fourscore pounds. I observed the King (age 34) and Queenes (age 54) did get but as poor lots as any else. But the wisest man I met with was Mr. Cholmley (age 31), who insured as many as would, from drawing of the one blank for 12d.; in which case there was the whole number of persons to one, which I think was three or four hundred. And so he insured about 200 for 200 shillings, so that he could not have lost if one of them had drawn it, for there was enough to pay the £10; but it happened another drew it, and so he got all the money he took.

Pepy's Diary. 18 Oct 1664. Thence I with Mr. Gray in his coach to White Hall, but the King (age 34) and Duke being abroad, we returned to Somersett House [Map]. In discourse I find him a very worthy and studious gentleman in the business of trade, and among-other things he observed well to me, how it is not the greatest wits, but the steady man, that is a good merchant: he instanced in Ford and Cocke, the last of whom he values above all men as his oracle, as Mr. Coventry (age 36) do Mr. Jolliffe. He says that it is concluded among merchants, that where a trade hath once been and do decay, it never recovers again, and therefore that the manufacture of cloath of England will never come to esteem again; that, among other faults, Sir Richard Ford (age 50) cannot keepe a secret, and that it is so much the part of a merchant to be guilty of that fault that the Duke of Yoke is resolved to commit no more secrets to the merchants of the Royall Company; that Sir Ellis Layton is, for a speech of forty words, the wittiest man that ever he knew in his life, but longer he is nothing, his judgment being nothing at all, but his wit most absolute. At Somersett House [Map] he carried me in, and there I saw the [her mother-in-law] Queene's (age 54) new rooms, which are most stately and nobly furnished; and there I saw her, and the Duke of Yorke (age 31) and Duchesse (age 27) were there. The Duke (age 31) espied me, and came to me, and talked with me a very great while about our contract this day with Sir W. Warren, and among other things did with some contempt ask whether we did except Polliards, which Sir W. Batten (age 63) did yesterday (in spite, as the Duke I believe by my Lord Barkely (age 62) do well enough know) among other things in writing propose.

Around 1665 Peter Lely (age 46). Portrait of Anne Hyde Queen Consort England (age 27).

Pepy's Diary. 23 Jan 1665. Up, and with Sir W. Batten (age 64) and Sir W. Pen (age 43) to White Hall; but there finding the Duke (age 31) gone to his lodgings at St. James's for all together, his Duchesse (age 27) being ready to lie in, we to him, and there did our usual business. And here I met the great newes confirmed by the Duke's own relation, by a letter from Captain Allen (age 53). First, of our own loss of two ships, the Phoenix and Nonesuch, in the Bay of Gibraltar: then of his, and his seven ships with him, in the Bay of Cales, or thereabouts, fighting with the 34 Dutch Smyrna fleete; sinking the King Salamon, a ship worth a £150,000 or more, some say £200,000, and another; and taking of three merchant-ships. Two of our ships were disabled, by the Dutch unfortunately falling against their will against them; the Advice, Captain W. Poole, and Antelope, Captain Clerke: The Dutch men-of-war did little service. Captain Allen (age 53) did receive many shots at distance before he would fire one gun, which he did not do till he come within pistol-shot of his enemy. The Spaniards on shore at Cales did stand laughing at the Dutch, to see them run away and flee to the shore, 34 or thereabouts, against eight Englishmen at most. I do purpose to get the whole relation, if I live, of Captain Allen (age 53) himself. In our loss of the two ships in the Bay of Gibraltar, it is observable how the world do comment upon the misfortune of Captain Moone of the Nonesuch (who did lose, in the same manner, the Satisfaction), as a person that hath ill-luck attending him; without considering that the whole fleete was ashore. Captain Allen (age 53) led the way, and Captain Allen (age 53) himself writes that all the masters of the fleete, old and young, were mistaken, and did carry their ships aground. But I think I heard the Duke (age 31) say that Moone, being put into the Oxford, had in this conflict regained his credit, by sinking one and taking another. Captain Seale of the Milford hath done his part very well, in boarding the King Salamon, which held out half an hour after she was boarded; and his men kept her an hour after they did master her, and then she sunk, and drowned about 17 of her men.

On 06 Feb 1665 [her daughter] Queen Anne of England Scotland and Ireland was born to [her husband] King James II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 31) and Anne Hyde Queen Consort England (age 27) at St James's Palace [Map] at 11:39pm being their fourth child and second daughter. She was baptised Anglican in the Chapel Royal with her elder sister [her daughter] Mary Stewart II Queen England Scotland and Ireland (age 2) being Godparent as well as Anne Scott Duchess Monmouth and Buccleuch (age 13) and Archbishop Gilbert Sheldon (age 66).

Pepy's Diary. 17 May 1665. Thence home, and after dinner to the office, where late, and so home to supper and to bed. Sir J. Minnes (age 66) and I had an angry bout this afternoon with Commissioner Pett (age 54) about his neglecting his duty and absenting himself, unknown to us, from his place at Chatham, Kent [Map], but a most false man I every day find him more and more, and in this very full of equivocation. The fleete we doubt not come to Harwich [Map] by this time. Sir W. Batten (age 64) is gone down this day thither, and the Duchesse of Yorke (age 28) went down yesterday to meet the Duke (age 31).

Pepy's Diary. 27 Jul 1665. So dispatched all my business, having assurance of continuance of all hearty love from Sir W. Coventry (age 37), and so we staid and saw the King (age 35) and [her mother-in-law] Queene (age 55) set out toward Salisbury, and after them the Duke (age 31) and Duchesse (age 28), whose hands I did kiss. And it was the first time I did ever, or did see any body else, kiss her hand, and it was a most fine white and fat hand. But it was pretty to see the young pretty ladies dressed like men, in velvet coats, caps with ribbands, and with laced bands, just like men. Only the Duchesse (age 28) herself it did not become.

John Reresby's Diary 05 Aug 1665. 05 Aug 1665. The Duchess (age 28) in her return lay at Welbeck [Map], the old Duke of Newcastle (age 72) being alive, where she was splendidly entertained, the [her husband] Duke of York (age 31) having directed that the same respect should be paid her wherever she passed as if he were present. The Duke of Buckingham (age 37) and my Lord Ogle (age 35) had a quarrel there.

John Reresby's Diary 05 Aug 1665. 05 Aug 1665. [her husband] His royal highness (age 31) and his duchess (age 28) came down to York, where they stayed till September the 23rd, when the Duke (age 31) went for Oxford, where the [her brother-in-law] King (age 35) was to meet the Parliament. The Duchess (age 28) went not till some time after. Most of the gentry attended at York whilst their liighnesses were there. The Duke passed his time in shooting and other exercises, the Duchess (age 28) in receiving the ladies, which she did very obligingly. One evening having a little snake (which I kept in bran in a box) in my hand as I was in the presence, one of the maids of honour seeing of it was frightened. The Duchess (age 28), hearing the noise, and what was the occasion, desired to see the snake, and took it into her hand without any fear. This Duchess (age 28) was [her father] Chancellor Hyde's (age 56) daughter, and she was a very handsome woman, and had a great deal of wit; therefore it was not without reason that Mr. Sydney (age 24), the handsomest youth of his time, of the Duke's bedchamber, was so much in love with her, as appeared to us all, and the Duchess (age 28) not unkind to him, but very innocently. He was afterwards banished the Court for another reason, as was reported.

On 03 Sep 1665 [her husband] King James II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 31) and Anne Hyde Queen Consort England (age 28) were married again since there first marriage had taken place in secret.

Pepy's Diary. 17 Nov 1665. As an infinite secret, my Lord tells me, the factions are high between the King (age 35) and the Duke (age 32), and all the Court are in an uproare with their loose amours; the Duke of Yorke (age 32) being in love desperately with Mrs. Stewart (age 18). Nay, that the Duchesse (age 28) herself is fallen in love with her new Master of the Horse, one Harry Sidney (age 24), and another, Harry Savill (age 23). So that God knows what will be the end of it. And that the Duke (age 32) is not so obsequious as he used to be, but very high of late; and would be glad to be in the head of an army as Generall; and that it is said that he do propose to go and command under the King of Spayne (age 4), in Flanders.

Around 1666 Peter Lely (age 47). Portrait of [her husband] King James II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 32) and Anne Hyde Queen Consort England (age 28). See Samuel Pepys' Diary 1666 March 24.

Pepy's Diary. 09 Jan 1666. After dinner Pierce and I up to my chamber, where he tells me how a great difference hath been between the Duke (age 32) and Duchesse (age 28), he suspecting her to be naught with Mr. Sidney (age 24)1. But some way or other the matter is made up; but he was banished the Court, and the Duke for many days did not speak to the Duchesse at all. He tells me that my Lord Sandwich (age 40) is lost there at Court, though the King (age 35) is particularly his friend. But people do speak every where slightly of him; which is a sad story to me, but I hope it may be better again. And that Sir G. Carteret (age 56) is neglected, and hath great enemies at work against him. That matters must needs go bad, while all the town, and every boy in the streete, openly cries, "the King (age 35) cannot go away till my Baroness Castlemaine's (age 25) be ready to come along with him"; she being lately put to bed And that he visits her and Mrs. Stewart (age 18) every morning before he eats his breakfast. All this put together makes me very sad, but yet I hope I shall do pretty well among them for all this, by my not meddling with either of their matters. He and Ferrers gone I paid uncle Thomas his last quarter's money, and then comes Mr. Gawden and he and I talked above stairs together a good while about his business, and to my great joy got him to declare that of the £500 he did give me the other day, none of it was for my Treasurershipp for Tangier (I first telling him how matters stand between Povy (age 52) and I, that he was to have half of whatever was coming to me by that office), and that he will gratify me at 2 per cent. for that when he next receives any money. So there is £80 due to me more than I thought of. He gone I with a glad heart to the office to write, my letters and so home to supper and bed, my wife mighty full of her worke she hath to do in furnishing her bedchamber.

Note 1. "This Duchess (age 28) was [her father] Chancellor Hyde's (age 56) daughter, and she was a very handsome woman, and had a great deal of wit; therefore it was not without reason that Mr. Sydney (age 24), the handsomest youth of his time, of the Duke's bedchamber, was so much in love with her, as appeared to us all, and the Duchess not unkind to him, but very innocently. He was afterwards banished the Court for another reason, as was reported" (Sir John Reresby's Memoirs, August 5th, 1664, ed. Cartwright, pp. 64,65). "'How could the Duke of York (age 32) make my mother a Papist?' said the Princess Mary to Dr. Bumet. 'The Duke caught a man in bed with her,' said the Doctor, 'and then had power to make her do anything.' The Prince, who sat by the fire, said, 'Pray, madam, ask the Doctor a few more questions'" (Spence's "Anecdotes", ed. Singer, 329).

Pepy's Diary. 24 Mar 1666. After dinner I to White Hall to a Committee for Tangier, where the Duke of Yorke (age 32) was, and I acquitted myself well in what I had to do. After the Committee up, I had occasion to follow the Duke into his lodgings, into a chamber where the Duchesse (age 29) was sitting to have her picture drawn by Lilly (age 47), who was there at work. But I was well pleased to see that there was nothing near so much resemblance of her face in his work, which is now the second, if not the third time, as there was of my wife's at the very first time. Nor do I think at last it can be like, the lines not being in proportion to those of her face.

On 04 Jul 1666 [her son] Charles Stewart 1st Duke Kendal was born to [her husband] James Duke of York (age 32) and Anne Hyde Duchess of York (age 29) at St James's Palace [Map].

Pepy's Diary. 11 Jul 1666. Up, and by water to Sir G. Downing's (age 41), there to discourse with him about the reliefe of the prisoners in Holland; which I did, and we do resolve of the manner of sending them some. So I away by coach to St. James's, and there hear that the Duchesse (age 29) is lately brought to bed of a [her son] boy.

Pepy's Diary. 12 Jul 1666. But was up again by five o'clock, and was forced to rise, having much business, and so up and dressed myself (enquiring, was told that Mrs. Tooker was gone hence to live at London) and away with Poundy to the Tower [Map], and thence, having shifted myself, but being mighty drowsy for want of sleep, I by coach to St. James's, to Goring House [Map], there to wait on my Lord Arlington (age 48) to give him an account of my night's worke, but he was not up, being not long since married: so, after walking up and down the house below,-being the house I was once at Hartlib's sister's wedding, and is a very fine house and finely furnished,-and then thinking it too much for me to lose time to wait my Lord's rising, I away to St. James's, and there to Sir W. Coventry (age 38), and wrote a letter to my Lord Arlington (age 48) giving him an account of what I have done, and so with Sir W. Coventry (age 38) into London, to the office. And all the way I observed him mightily to make mirth of the Duke of Albemarle (age 57) and his people about him, saying, that he was the happiest man in the world for doing of great things by sorry instruments. And so particularized in Sir W. Clerke (deceased), and Riggs, and Halsey, and others. And then again said that the only quality eminent in him was, that he did persevere; and indeed he is a very drudge, and stands by the King's business. And this he said, that one thing he was good at, that he never would receive an excuse if the thing was not done; listening to no reasoning for it, be it good or bad. But then I told him, what he confessed, that he would however give the man, that he employs, orders for removing of any obstruction that he thinks he shall meet with in the world, and instanced in several warrants that he issued for breaking open of houses and other outrages about the business of prizes, which people bore with either for affection or fear, which he believes would not have been borne with from the King (age 36), nor Duke (age 32), nor any man else in England, and I thinke he is in the right, but it is not from their love of him, but from something else I cannot presently say. Sir W. Coventry (age 38) did further say concerning Warcupp, his kinsman, that had the simplicity to tell Sir W. Coventry (age 38), that the Duke (age 32) did intend to go to sea and to leave him his agent on shore for all things that related to the sea. But, says Sir W. Coventry (age 38), I did believe but the Duke of Yorke (age 32) would expect to be his agent on shore for all sea matters. And then he begun to say what a great man Warcupp was, and something else, and what was that but a great lyer; and told me a story, how at table he did, they speaking about antipathys, say, that a rose touching his skin any where, would make it rise and pimple; and, by and by, the dessert coming, with roses upon it, the Duchesse (age 29) bid him try, and they did; but they rubbed and rubbed, but nothing would do in the world, by which his lie was found at then.

Pepy's Diary. 26 Aug 1666. Thence to discourse of the times; and he tells me he believes both my Lord Arlington (age 48) and Sir W. Coventry (age 38), as well as my Lord Sandwich (age 41) and Sir G. Carteret (age 56), have reason to fear, and are afeard of this Parliament now coming on. He tells me that Bristoll's (age 53) faction is getting ground apace against my [her father] Chancellor (age 57). He told me that my old Lord Coventry was a cunning, crafty man, and did make as many bad decrees in Chancery as any man; and that in one case, that occasioned many years' dispute, at last when the King (age 36) come in, it was hoped by the party grieved, to get my Chancellor (age 57) to reverse a decree of his. Sir W. Coventry (age 38) took the opportunity of the business between the Duke of Yorke (age 32) and the Duchesse (age 29), and said to my Chancellor (age 57), that he had rather be drawn up Holborne to be hanged, than live to see his father pissed upon (in these very terms) and any decree of his reversed. And so the Chancellor (age 57) did not think fit to do it, but it still stands, to the undoing of one Norton, a printer, about his right to the printing of the Bible, and Grammar, &c.

Pepy's Diary. 15 Oct 1666. By and by the House rose, and then we parted, and I with Sir G. Carteret (age 56), and walked in the Exchequer Court, discoursing of businesses. Among others, I observing to him how friendly Sir W. Coventry (age 38) had carried himself to him in these late inquiries, when, if he had borne him any spleen, he could have had what occasion he pleased offered him, he did confess he found the same thing, and would thanke him for it. I did give him some other advices, and so away with him to his lodgings at White Hall to dinner, where my Baroness Carteret (age 64) is, and mighty kind, both of them, to me. Their son and my Lady Jemimah will be here very speedily. She tells me the ladies are to go into a new fashion shortly, and that is, to wear short coats, above their ancles; which she and I do not like, but conclude this long trayne to be mighty graceful. But she cries out of the vices of the Court, and how they are going to set up plays already; and how, the next day after the late great fast, the Duchesse of York (age 29) did give the King (age 36) and [her mother-in-law] Queene (age 56) a play. Nay, she told me that they have heretofore had plays at Court the very nights before the fast for the death of the late King: She do much cry out upon these things, and that which she believes will undo the whole nation; and I fear so too.

Pepy's Diary. 15 Oct 1666. Thence he and I together to Westminster Hall [Map], in our way talking of matters and passages of state, the viciousness of the Court; the contempt the King (age 36) brings himself into thereby; his minding nothing, but doing all things just as his people about him will have it; the Duke of York (age 33) becoming a slave to this whore Denham (age 26), and wholly minds her; that there really was amours between the Duchesse (age 29) and Sidney (age 25); a that there is reason to fear that, as soon as the Parliament have raised this money, the King (age 36) will see that he hath got all that he can get, and then make up a peace.

Pepy's Diary. 29 Oct 1666. By and by the King (age 36) and [her mother-in-law] Queene (age 56), Duke (age 33) and Duchesse (age 29), and all the great ladies of the Court; which, indeed, was a fine sight. But the play being "Love in a Tub", a silly play, and though done by the Duke's people, yet having neither Betterton (age 31) nor his wife (age 29), and the whole thing done ill, and being ill also, I had no manner of pleasure in the play. Besides, the House, though very fine, yet bad for the voice, for hearing. The sight of the ladies, indeed, was exceeding noble; and above all, my Baroness Castlemayne (age 25). The play done by ten o'clock. I carried them all home, and then home myself, and well satisfied with the sight, but not the play, we with great content to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 04 Nov 1666. Lord's Day. Comes my taylor's man in the morning, and brings my vest home, and coate to wear with it, and belt, and silver-hilted sword. So I rose and dressed myself, and I like myself mightily in it, and so do my wife. Then, being dressed, to church; and after church pulled my Lady Pen (age 42) and Mrs. Markham into my house to dinner, and Sir J. Minnes (age 67) he got Mrs. Pegg along with him. I had a good dinner for them, and very merry; and after dinner to the waterside, and so, it being very cold, to White Hall, and was mighty fearfull of an ague, my vest being new and thin, and the coat cut not to meet before upon my breast. Here I waited in the gallery till the Council was up, and among others did speak with Mr. Cooling, my Lord Camberlain's secretary, who tells me my Lord Generall is become mighty low in all people's opinion, and that he hath received several slurs from the King (age 36) and Duke of York (age 33). The people at Court do see the difference between his and the Prince's (age 46) management, and my Lord Sandwich's (age 41). That this business which he is put upon of crying out against the Catholiques and turning them out of all employment, will undo him, when he comes to turn-out the officers out of the Army, and this is a thing of his own seeking. That he is grown a drunken sot, and drinks with nobody but Troutbecke, whom nobody else will keep company with. Of whom he told me this story: That once the Duke of Albemarle (age 57) in his drink taking notice as of a wonder that Nan Hide (age 29) should ever come to be Duchesse of York (age 29), "Nay", says Troutbecke, "ne'er wonder at that; for if you will give me another bottle of wine, I will tell you as great, if not greater, a miracle". And what was that, but that our dirty Besse (meaning his Duchesse (age 47)) should come to be Duchesse of Albemarle? Here we parted, and so by and by the Council rose, and out comes Sir G. Carteret (age 56) and Sir W. Coventry (age 38), and they and my Lord Bruncker (age 46) and I went to Sir G. Carteret's (age 56) lodgings, there to discourse about some money demanded by Sir W. Warren, and having done that broke up. And Sir G. Carteret (age 56) and I alone together a while, where he shows a long letter, all in cipher, from my Lord Sandwich (age 41) to him. The contents he hath not yet found out, but he tells me that my Lord is not sent for home, as several people have enquired after of me. He spoke something reflecting upon me in the business of pursers, that their present bad behaviour is what he did foresee, and had convinced me of, and yet when it come last year to be argued before the Duke of York (age 33) I turned and said as the rest did. I answered nothing to it, but let it go, and so to other discourse of the ill state of things, of which all people are full of sorrow and observation, and so parted, and then by water, landing in Southwarke [Map], home to the Tower, and so home, and there began to read "Potter's Discourse upon 1666", which pleases me mightily, and then broke off and to supper and to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 15 Nov 1666. Presently after the King (age 36) was come in, he took the [her mother-in-law] Queene (age 56), and about fourteen more couple there was, and began the Bransles. As many of the men as I can remember presently, were, the King (age 36), Duke of York (age 33), Prince Rupert (age 46), Duke of Monmouth (age 17), Duke of Buckingham (age 38), Lord Douglas (age 20), Mr. [George] Hamilton (age 59), Colonell Russell (age 46), Mr. Griffith, Lord Ossory (age 32), Lord Rochester (age 19); and of the ladies, the Queene (age 56), Duchess of York (age 29), Mrs. Stewart (age 19), Duchess of Monmouth (age 15), Lady Essex Howard, Mrs. Temples (age 17), Swedes Embassadress, Lady Arlington (age 32); Lord George Barkeley's daughter (age 16) [Note. Assumed Elizabeth], and many others I remember not; but all most excellently dressed in rich petticoats and gowns, and dyamonds, and pearls.

In 1667 [her daughter] Henrietta Fitzjames Countess Newcastle was born to [her husband] James Duke of York (age 33) and Anne Hyde Duchess of York (age 29).

On 06 Jan 1667 Margaret Brooke Lady Denham (age 27) died. She was rumoured to have been poisoned by her husband John Denham (age 52) by giving her a poisoned cup of chocolate. In any case rumour named several other possible poisoners, including her former lover [her husband] James (age 33), his wife Anne Hyde (age 29) and his sister-in-law, Lady Rochester (age 21).

Pepy's Diary. 08 Jan 1667. So home and to supper, and then saw the catalogue of my books, which my brother had wrote out, now perfectly alphabeticall, and so to bed. Sir Richard Ford (age 53) did this evening at Sir W. Batten's (age 66) tell us that upon opening the body of my Lady Denham (deceased) it is said that they found a vessel about her matrix which had never been broke by her husband (age 52), that caused all pains in her body. Which if true is excellent invention to clear both the Duchesse (age 29) from poison or the Duke (age 33) from lying with her.

Pepy's Diary. 27 Jan 1667. Here we met with Mr. May (age 45), and he and we to talk of several things, of building, and such like matters; and so walked to White Hall, and there I skewed my cozen Roger (age 49) the Duchesse of York (age 29) sitting in state, while her own [her mother] mother (age 49) stands by her; he had a desire, and I shewed him my Baroness Castlemayne (age 26), whom he approves to be very handsome, and wonders that she cannot be as good within as she is fair without. Her little black boy came by him; and, a dog being in his way, the little boy called to the dog: "Pox of this dog!"-"Now", says he, blessing himself, "would I whip this child till the blood come, if it were my child!" and I believe he would. But he do by no means like the liberty of the Court, and did come with expectation of finding them playing at cards to-night, though Sunday; for such stories he is told, but how true I know not1.

Note 1. There is little reason to doubt that it was such as Evelyn describes it at a later time. "I can never forget the inexpressible luxury and prophaneness, gaming, and all dissoluteness, and, as it were, total forgetfulness of God (it being Sunday evening) which this day se'nnight I was witness of; the King (age 36) sitting and toying with his concubines, Portsmouth (age 17), Cleveland (age 26), Mazarin (age 20), &c. A French boy singing love songs in that glorious gallery, whilst about twenty of the great courtiers and other dissolute persons were at basset round a large table, a bank of at least £2,000 in gold before them; upon which two gentlemen who were with me made reflexions with astonishment. Six days after was all in the dust". B.

Pepy's Diary. 17 Feb 1667. This evening, going to the Queen's (age 28) side to see the ladies, I did find the [her mother-in-law] Queene (age 57), the Duchesse of York (age 29), and another or two, at cards, with the room full of great ladies and men; which I was amazed at to see on a Sunday, having not believed it; but, contrarily, flatly denied the same a little while since to my cozen Roger Pepys (age 49)? I did this day, going by water, read the answer to "The Apology for Papists", which did like me mightily, it being a thing as well writ as I think most things that ever I read in my life, and glad I am that I read it.

Pepy's Diary. 10 Apr 1667. So away, and by coach going home saw Sir G. Carteret (age 57) going towards White Hall. So 'light and by water met him, and with him to the King's little chapel; and afterwards to see the King (age 36) heal the King's Evil, wherein no pleasure, I having seen it before; and then to see him and the [her mother-in-law] Queene (age 57) and Duke of York (age 33) and his wife (age 30), at dinner in the Queene's (age 57) lodgings; and so with Sir G. Carteret (age 57) to his lodgings to dinner; where very good company; and after dinner he and I to talk alone how things are managed, and to what ruin we must come if we have not a peace. He did tell me one occasion, how Sir Thomas Allen (age 34), which I took for a man of known courage and service on the King's side, was tried for his life in Prince Rupert's (age 47) fleete, in the late times, for cowardice, and condemned to be hanged, and fled to Jersey; where Sir G. Carteret (age 57) received him, not knowing the reason of his coming thither: and that thereupon Prince Rupert (age 47) wrote to the Queen-Mother (age 57) his dislike of Sir G. Carteret's (age 57) receiving a person that stood condemned; and so Sir G. Carteret (age 57) was forced to bid him betake himself to some other place. This was strange to me.

Pepy's Diary. 15 Apr 1667. Lay long in bed, and by and by called up by Sir H. Cholmly (age 34), who tells me that my Lord Middleton (age 59) is for certain chosen Governor of Tangier; a man of moderate understanding, not covetous, but a soldier of fortune, and poor. Here comes Mr. Sanchy with an impertinent business to me of a ticket, which I put off. But by and by comes Dr. Childe (age 61) by appointment, and sat with me all the morning making me bases and inward parts to several songs that I desired of him, to my great content. Then dined, and then abroad by coach, and I set him down at Hatton Garden, and I to the King's house by chance, where a new play: so full as I never saw it; I forced to stand all the while close to the very door till I took cold, and many people went away for want of room. The King (age 36), and [her mother-in-law] Queene (age 57), and Duke of York (age 33) and Duchess (age 30) there, and all the Court, and Sir W. Coventry (age 39). The play called "The Change of Crownes"; a play of Ned Howard's (age 42), the best that ever I saw at that house, being a great play and serious; only Lacy (age 52) did act the country-gentleman come up to Court, who do abuse the Court with all the imaginable wit and plainness about selling of places, and doing every thing for money. The play took very much.

Pepy's Diary. 14 May 1667. After dinner comes Fist, and he and I to our report again till 9 o'clock, and then by coach to my [her father] Chancellor's (age 58), where I met Mr. Povy (age 53), expecting the coming of the rest of the Commissioners for Tangier. Here I understand how the two Dukes, both the only sons of the Duke of York (age 33), are sick even to danger, and that on Sunday last they were both so ill, as that the poor Duchess (age 30) was in doubt which would die first: the [her son] Duke of Cambridge (age 3) of some general disease; the other little Duke (age 18), whose title I know not, of the convulsion fits, of which he had four this morning. Fear that either of them might be dead, did make us think that it was the occasion that the Duke of York (age 33) and others were not come to the meeting of the Commission which was designed, and my Chancellor (age 58) did expect.

Pepy's Diary. 24 Jun 1667. That at a certain time Mr. Povy (age 53) did carry him an account of the state of the Duke of York's (age 33) estate, showing in faithfullness how he spent more than his estate would bear, by above £20,000 per annum, and asked my Lord's opinion of it; to which he answered that no man that loved the King (age 37) or kingdom durst own the writing of that paper; at which Povy (age 53) was startled, and reckoned himself undone for this good service, and found it necessary then to show it to the Duke of York's (age 33) Commissioners; who read, examined, and approved of it, so as to cause it to be put into form, and signed it, and gave it the Duke. Now the end of the [her father] Chancellor (age 58) was, for fear that his daughter's (age 30) ill housewifery should be condemned.

Pepy's Diary. 24 Jun 1667. In the evening comes Mr. Povy (age 53) about business; and he and I to walk in the garden an hour or two, and to talk of State matters. He tells me his opinion that it is out of possibility for us to escape being undone, there being nothing in our power to do that is necessary for the saving us: a lazy Prince (age 47), no Council, no money, no reputation at home or abroad. He says that to this day the King (age 37) do follow the women as much as ever he did; that the Duke of York (age 33) hath not got Mrs. Middleton (age 22), as I was told the other day: but says that he wants not her, for he hath others, and hath always had, and that he [Povy (age 53)] hath known them brought through the Matted Gallery at White Hall into his [the Duke's] closet; nay, he hath come out of his wife's (age 30) bed, and gone to others laid in bed for him: that Mr. Bruncker (age 47) is not the only pimp, but that the whole family is of the same strain, and will do anything to please him: that, besides the death of the two Princes lately, the family is in horrible disorder by being in debt by spending above £60,000 per. annum, when he hath not £40,000: that the Duchesse (age 30) is not only the proudest woman in the world, but the most expensefull; and that the Duke of York's (age 33) marriage with her hath undone the Kingdom, by making the [her father] Chancellor (age 58) so great above reach, who otherwise would have been but an ordinary man, to have been dealt with by other people; and he would have been careful of managing things well, for fear of being called to account; whereas, now he is secure, and hath let things run to rack, as they now appear.

Pepy's Diary. 30 Jul 1667. But it is a pretty thing he told us how the King (age 37), once speaking of the Duke of York's (age 33) being mastered by his wife (age 30), said to some of the company by, that he would go no more abroad with this Tom Otter (meaning the Duke of York (age 33)) and his wife. Tom Killigrew (age 55), being by, answered, "Sir", says he, "pray which is the best for a man, to be a Tom Otter to his wife or to his mistress?" meaning the King's being so to my Baroness Castlemayne (age 26). Thus he went on; and speaking then of my Lord Sandwich (age 42), whom he professed to love exceedingly, says Creed, "I know not what, but he is a man, methinks, that I could love for himself, without other regards".... [Missing text 'and by your favour," says he, "by God, there is nothing to be beloved propter se but a cunt.']

On 08 Aug 1667 [her mother] Frances Aylesbury Countess Clarendon (age 50) died. She was buried in the Hyde Vault, Crypt, Westminster Abbey.

Pepy's Diary. 03 Sep 1667. All the morning, business at the office, dined at home, then in the afternoon set my wife down at the Exchange [Map], and I to St. James's, and there attended the Duke of York (age 33) about the list of ships that we propose to sell: and here there attended Mr. Wren the first time, who hath not yet, I think, received the Duke of York's (age 33) seal and papers. At our coming hither, we found the Duke (age 33) and Duchesse (age 30) all alone at dinner, methought melancholy; or else I thought so, from the late occasion of the [her father] Chancellor's (age 58) fall, who, they say, however, takes it very contentedly.

Pepy's Diary. 14 Sep 1667. At noon comes Mr. Pierce and dined with me to advise about several matters of his relating to the office and his purse, and here he told me that the King (age 37) and Duke of York (age 33) and the whole Court is mighty joyful at the Duchesse of York's (age 30) being brought to bed this day, or yesterday, of a [her son] son; which will settle men's minds mightily.

On 15 Sep 1667 [her son] Edgar Stewart 1st Duke Cambridge was born to [her husband] James Duke of York (age 33) and Anne Hyde Duchess of York (age 30).

Pepy's Diary. 08 Dec 1667. At noon to dinner, where W. How with us, and after dinner, he being gone, I to my chamber again till almost night, and then took boat, the tide serving, and so to White Hall, where I saw the Duchesse of York (age 30), in a fine dress of second mourning for her [her mother] mother, being black, edged with ermine, go to make her first visit to the [her mother-in-law] Queene (age 58) since the Duke of York (age 34) was sick; and by and by, she being returned, the Queene (age 58) come and visited her. But it was pretty to observe that Sir W. Coventry (age 39) and I, walking an hour and more together in the Matted Gallery, he observed, and so did I, how the Duchesse, as soon as she spied him, turned her head a one side. Here he and I walked thus long, which we have not done a great while before. Our discourse was upon everything: the unhappiness of having our matters examined by people that understand them not; that it was better for us in the Navy to have men that do understand the whole, and that are not passionate; that we that have taken the most pains are called upon to answer for all crimes, while those that, like Sir W. Batten and Sir J. Minnes (age 68), did sit and do nothing, do lie still without any trouble; that, if it were to serve the King (age 37) and kingdom again in a war, neither of us could do more, though upon this experience we might do better than we did; that the commanders, the gentlemen that could never be brought to order, but undid all, are now the men that find fault and abuse others; that it had been much better for the King (age 37) to have given Sir J. Minnes (age 68) and Sir W. Batten £1000 a-year to have sat still, than to have had them in his business this war: that the serving a Prince that minds not his business is most unhappy for them that serve him well, and an unhappiness so great that he declares he will never have more to do with a war, under him. That he hath papers which do flatly contradict the Duke of Albemarle's (age 59) Narrative; and that he hath been with the Duke of Albemarle (age 59) and shewed him them, to prevent his falling into another like fault: that the Duke of Albemarle (age 59) seems to be able to answer them; but he thinks that the Duke of Albemarle (age 59) and the Prince are contented to let their Narratives sleep, they being not only contradictory in some things (as he observed about the business of the Duke of Albemarle's (age 59) being to follow the Prince upon dividing the fleete, in case the enemy come out), but neither of them to be maintained in others. That the business the other night of my Lord Anglesey (age 53) at the Council was happily got over for my Lord, by his dexterous silencing it, and the rest, not urging it further; forasmuch as, had the Duke of Buckingham (age 39) come in time enough, and had got it by the end, he, would have toused him in it; Sir W. Coventry (age 39) telling me that my Lord Anglesey (age 53) did, with such impudence, maintain the quarrel against the Commons and some of the Lords, in the business of my [her father] Lord Clarendon (age 58), that he believes there are enough would be glad but of this occasion to be revenged of him. He tells me that he hears some of the Thomsons (age 60) are like to be of the Commission for the Accounts, and Wildman (age 46), which he much wonders at, as having been a false fellow to every body, and in prison most of the time since the King's coming in. But he do tell me that the House is in such a condition that nobody can tell what to make of them, and, he thinks, they were never in before; that every body leads, and nobody follows; and that he do now think that, since a great many are defeated in their expectation of being of the Commission, now they would put it into such hands as it shall get no credit from: for, if they do look to the bottom and see the King's case, they think they are then bound to give the King (age 37) money; whereas, they would be excused from that, and therefore endeavour to make this business of the Accounts to signify little. I spoke with him about my Lord Sandwich's (age 42) business, in which he is very friendly, and do say that the unhappy business of the prizes is it that hath brought all this trouble upon him, and the only thing that made any thing else mentioned, and it is true. So having discoursed with him, I spent some time with Sir Stephen Fox (age 40) about the business of our adjusting the new method of the Excise between the Guards household and Tangier, the Lords Commissioners of the Treasury being now resolved to bring all their management into a course of payment by orders, and not by tallies, and I am glad of it, and so by water home late, and very dark, and when come home there I got my wife to read, and then come Captain Cocke (age 50) to me; and there he tells me, to my great satisfaction, that Sir Robert Brookes (age 30) did dine with him today; and that he told him, speaking of me, that he would make me the darling of the House of Commons, so much he is satisfied concerning me. And this Cocke (age 50) did tell me that I might give him thanks for it; and I do think it may do me good, for he do happen to be held a considerable person, of a young man, both for sobriety and ability. Then to discourse of business of his own about some hemp of his that is come home to receive it into the King's stores, and then parted, and by and by my wife and I to supper, she not being well, her flux being great upon her, and so to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 05 Jan 1668. Thence after dinner away with Sir G. Carteret (age 58) to White Hall, setting down my Lord Brereton (age 36) at my Lord Brouncker's (age 48), and there up and down the house, and on the Queen's (age 29) side, to see the ladies, and there saw the Duchesse of York (age 30), whom few pay the respect they used, I think, to her; but she bears all out, with a very great deal of greatness; that is the truth of it. And so, it growing night, I away home by coach, and there set my wife to read, and then comes Pelling, and he and I to sing a little, and then sup and so to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 27 Jan 1668. So to White Hall, and there a Committee of Tangier, but little done there, only I did get two or three little jobs done to the perfecting two or three papers about my Tangier accounts. Here Mr. Povy (age 54) do tell me how he is like to lose his £400 a-year pension of the Duke of York (age 34), which he took in consideration of his place which was taken from him. He tells me the Duchesse (age 30) is a devil against him, and do now come like Queen Elizabeth, and sits with the Duke of York's (age 34) Council, and sees what they do; and she crosses out this man's wages and prices, as she sees fit, for saving money; but yet, he tells me, she reserves £5000 a-year for her own spending; and my Lady Peterborough (age 46), by and by, tells me that the Duchesse (age 30) do lay up, mightily, jewells.

Buckingham Shrewsbury Duel

Pepy's Diary. 05 Feb 1668. Thence to other discourse, among others, he mightily commends my Lord Hinchingbroke's (age 20) match and Lady (age 23), though he buys her £10,000 dear, by the jointure and settlement his father (age 42) makes her; and says that the Duke of York (age 34) and Duchess of York (age 30) did come to see them in bed together, on their wedding-night, and how my Lord had fifty pieces of gold taken out of his pocket that night, after he was in bed. He tells me that an Act of Comprehension is likely to pass this Parliament, for admitting of all persuasions in religion to the public observation of their particular worship, but in certain places, and the persons therein concerned to be listed of this, or that Church; which, it is thought, will do them more hurt than good, and make them not own, their persuasion. He tells me that there is a pardon passed to the Duke of Buckingham (age 40), my Lord of Shrewsbury (age 45), and the rest, for the late duell and murder1 which he thinks a worse fault than any ill use my late [her father] Chancellor (age 58) ever put the Great Seal to, and will be so thought by the Parliament, for them to be pardoned without bringing them to any trial: and that my Lord Privy-Seal (age 62) therefore would not have it pass his hand, but made it go by immediate warrant; or at least they knew that he would not pass it, and so did direct it to go by immediate warrant, that it might not come to him. He tells me what a character my Lord Sandwich (age 42) hath sent over of Mr. Godolphin (age 33), as the worthiest man, and such a friend to him as he may be trusted in any thing relating to him in the world; as one whom, he says, he hath infallible assurances that he will remaine his friend which is very high, but indeed they say the gentleman is a fine man.

Note 1. The royal pardon was thus announced in the "Gazette" of February 24th, 1668: "This day his Majesty was pleased to declare at the Board, that whereas, in contemplation of the eminent services heretofore done to his Majesty by most of the persons who were engaged in the late duel, or rencounter, wherein William Jenkins was killed, he Both graciously pardon the said offence: nevertheless, He is resolved from henceforth that on no pretence whatsoever any pardon shall be hereafter granted to any person whatsoever for killing of any man, in any duel or rencounter, but that the course of law shall wholly take place in all such cases". The warrant for a pardon to George, Duke of Buckingham (age 40), is dated January 27th, 1668; and on the following day was issued, "Warrant for a grant to Francis, Earl of Shrewsbury (age 45), of pardon for killing William Jenkins, and for all duels, assaults, or batteries on George, Duke of Buckingham (age 40), Sir John Talbot, Sir Robert Holmes, or any other, whether indicted or not for the same, with restitution of lands, goods, &c". (Calendar of State Papers, 1667-68, pp. 192,193).

Pepy's Diary. 21 Aug 1668. After dinner I by coach to my bookseller's in Duck Lane [Map], and there did spend a little time and regarder su moher, and so to St. James's, where did a little ordinary business; and by and by comes Monsieur Colbert (age 43), the French Embassador, to make his first visit to the Duke of York (age 34), and then to the Duchess (age 31): and I saw it: a silly piece of ceremony, he saying only a few formal words. A comely man, and in a black suit and cloak of silk, which is a strange fashion, now it hath been so long left off: This day I did first see the Duke of York's (age 34) room of pictures of some Maids of Honour, done by Lilly (age 49): good, but not like1.

Note 1. The set of portraits known as "King Charles's Beauties", formerly in Windsor Castle, but now at Hampton Court [Map]. B.

Pepy's Diary. 23 Oct 1668. So home, and there all alone to dinner, my wife and W. Hewer (age 26) being gone to Deptford, Kent [Map] to see her mother, and so I to the office all the afternoon. In the afternoon comes my cozen, Sidney Pickering (age 18), to bring my wife and me his sister's Favour for her wedding, which is kindly done, and he gone, I to business again, and in the evening home, made my wife read till supper time, and so to bed. This day Pierce do tell me, among other news, the late frolick and debauchery of Sir Charles Sidly (age 29) and Buckhurst (age 25), running up and down all the night with their arses bare, through the streets; and at last fighting, and being beat by the watch and clapped up all night; and how the King (age 38) takes their parts; and my Lord Chief Justice Keeling (age 61) hath laid the constable by the heels to answer it next Sessions: which is a horrid shame. How the King (age 38) and these gentlemen did make the fiddlers of Thetford, this last progress, to sing them all the bawdy songs they could think of. How Sir W. Coventry (age 40) was brought the other day to the Duchesse of York (age 31) by the Duke (age 35), to kiss her hand; who did acknowledge his unhappiness to occasion her so much sorrow, declaring his intentions in it, and praying her pardon; which she did give him upon his promise to make good his pretences of innocence to her family, by his faithfulness to his master, the Duke of York (age 35). That the Duke of Buckingham (age 40) is now all in all, and will ruin Coventry (age 40), if he can: and that W. Coventry (age 40) do now rest wholly upon the Duke of York (age 35) for his standing, which is a great turn. He tells me that my Baroness Castlemayne (age 27), however, is a mortal enemy to the Duke of Buckingham (age 40), which I understand not; but, it seems, she is disgusted with his greatness, and his ill usage of her. That the King (age 38) was drunk at Saxam with Sidly (age 29), Buckhurst (age 25), &c., the night that my Lord Arlington (age 50) come thither, and would not give him audience, or could not which is true, for it was the night that I was there, and saw the King (age 38) go up to his chamber, and was told that the King (age 38) had been drinking. He tells me, too, that the Duke of York (age 35) did the next day chide Bab. May (age 40) for his occasioning the King's giving himself up to these gentlemen, to the neglecting of my Lord Arlington (age 50): to which he answered merrily, that, by God, there was no man in England that had heads to lose, durst do what they do, every day, with the King (age 38), and asked the Duke of York's (age 35) pardon: which is a sign of a mad world. God bless us out of it!

Pepy's Diary. 30 Oct 1668. Up betimes; and Mr. Povy (age 54) comes to even accounts with me, which we did, and then fell to other talk. He tells, in short, how the King (age 38) is made a child of, by Buckingham (age 40) and Arlington (age 50), to the lessening of the Duke of York (age 35), whom they cannot suffer to be great, for fear of my [her father] Chancellor's (age 59) return, which, therefore, they make the King (age 38) violent against. That he believes it is impossible these two great men can hold together long: or, at least, that the ambition of the former is so great, that he will endeavour to master all, and bring into play as many as he can. That Anglesey (age 54) will not lose his place easily, but will contend in law with whoever comes to execute it. That the Duke of York (age 35), in all things but in his cod-piece, is led by the nose by his wife (age 31). That W. Coventry (age 40) is now, by the Duke of York (age 35), made friends with the Duchess (age 31); and that he is often there, and waits on her. That he do believe that these present great men will break in time, and that W. Coventry (age 40) will be a great man again; for he do labour to have nothing to do in matters of the State, and is so usefull to the side that he is on, that he will stand, though at present he is quite out of play. That my Baroness Castlemayne (age 27) hates the Duke of Buckingham (age 40). That the Duke of York (age 35) hath expressed himself very kind to my Lord Sandwich (age 43), which I am mighty glad of. That we are to expect more changes if these men stand. This done, he and I to talk of my coach, and I got him to go see it, where he finds most infinite fault with it, both as to being out of fashion and heavy, with so good reason that I am mightily glad of his having corrected me in it; and so I do resolve to have one of his build, and with his advice, both in coach and horses, he being the fittest man in the world for it, and so he carried me home, and said the same to my wife. So I to the office and he away, and at noon I home to dinner, and all the afternoon late with Gibson at my chamber about my present great business, only a little in the afternoon at the office about Sir D. Gawden's accounts, and so to bed and slept heartily, my wife and I at good peace, but my heart troubled and her mind not at ease, I perceive, she against and I for the girle, to whom I have not said anything these three days, but resolve to be mighty strange in appearance to her. This night W. Batelier come and took his leave of us, he setting out for France to-morrow.

Pepy's Diary. 02 Dec 1668. Up, and at the office all the morning upon some accounts of Sir Prince, and at noon abroad with W. Hewer (age 26), thinking to have found Mr. Wren (age 39) at Captain Cox's, to have spoke something to him about doing a favour for Will's uncle Steventon, but missed him. And so back home and abroad with my wife, the first time that ever I rode in my own coach, which do make my heart rejoice, and praise God, and pray him to bless it to me and continue it. So she and I to the King's playhouse, and there sat to avoid seeing Knepp in a box above where Mrs. Williams happened to be, and there saw "The Usurper"; a pretty good play, in all but what is designed to resemble Cromwell and Hugh Peters, which is mighty silly. The play done, we to White Hall; where my wife staid while I up to the Duchesse's (age 31) and Queen's (age 30) side, to speak with the Duke of York (age 35): and here saw all the ladies, and heard the silly discourse of the King (age 38), with his people about him, telling a story of my Lord Rochester's (age 21) having of his clothes stole, while he was with a wench; and his gold all gone, but his clothes found afterwards stuffed into a feather bed by the wench that stole them. I spoke with the Duke of York (age 35), just as he was set down to supper with the King (age 38), about our sending of victuals to Sir Thomas Allen's (age 35) fleet hence to Cales [Cadiz] to meet him. And so back to my wife in my coach, and so with great content and joy home, where I made my boy to make an end of the Reall Character, which I begun a great while ago, and do please me infinitely, and indeed is a most worthy labour, and I think mighty easy, though my eyes make me unable to attempt any thing in it. To-day I hear that Mr. Ackworth's cause went for him at Guildhall [Map], against his accusers, which I am well enough pleased with.

Pepy's Diary. 04 Jan 1669. Thence up and down the house, and to the Duke of York's (age 35) side, and there in the Duchess's (age 31) presence; and was mightily complimented by my Lady Peterborough (age 47), in my Lord Sandwich's (age 43) presence, whom she engaged to thank me for my kindness to her and her Lord.

Pepy's Diary. 16 Jan 1669. Up, and to the office all the morning, dined at home with my people, and so all the afternoon till night at the office busy, and so home to supper and to bed. This morning Creed, and in the afternoon comes Povy (age 55), to advise with me about my answer to the Lords [Commissioners] of Tangier, about the propositions for the Treasurership there, which I am not much concerned for. But the latter, talking of publick things, told me, as Mr. Wren (age 40) also did, that the Parliament is likely to meets again, the King (age 38) being frighted with what the Speaker hath put him in mind of-his promise not to prorogue, but only to adjourne them. They speak mighty freely of the folly of the King (age 38) in this foolish woman's business, of my Lady Harvy (age 30). Povy (age 55) tells me that Sir W. Coventry (age 41) was with the King (age 38) alone, an hour this day; and that my Baroness Castlemayne (age 28) is now in a higher command over the King (age 38) than ever-not as a mistress, for she scorns him, but as a tyrant, to command him: and says that the Duchess of York (age 31) and the Duke of York (age 35) are mighty great with her, which is a great interest to my [her father] Chancellor's' (age 59) family; and that they do agree to hinder all they can the proceedings of the Duke of Buckingham (age 40) and Arlington (age 51): and so we are in the old mad condition, or rather worse than any; no man knowing what the French intend to do the next summer.

Pepy's Diary. 04 Mar 1669. Up, and a while at the office, but thinking to have Mr. Povy's (age 55) business to-day at the Committee for Tangier, I left the Board and away to White Hall, where in the first court I did meet Sir Jeremy Smith, who did tell me that Sir W. Coventry (age 41) was just now sent to the Tower, about the business of his challenging the Duke of Buckingham (age 41), and so was also Harry Saville (age 27) to the Gate-house; which, as [he is] a gentleman, and of the Duke of York's (age 35) bedchamber, I heard afterwards that the Duke of York (age 35) is mightily incensed at, and do appear very high to the King (age 38) that he might not be sent thither, but to the Tower [Map], this being done only in contempt to him. This news of Sir W. Coventry (age 41) did strike me to the heart, and with reason, for by this and my Lord of Ormond's (age 58) business, I do doubt that the Duke of Buckingham (age 41) will be so flushed, that he will not stop at any thing, but be forced to do any thing now, as thinking it not safe to end here; and, Sir W. Coventry (age 41) being gone, the King (age 38) will have never a good counsellor, nor the Duke of York (age 35) any sure friend to stick to him; nor any good man will be left to advise what is good. This, therefore, do heartily trouble me as any thing that ever I heard. So up into the House, and met with several people; but the Committee did not meet; and the whole House I find full of this business of Sir W. Coventry's (age 41), and most men very sensible of the cause and effects of it. So, meeting with my Lord Bellassis (age 54), he told me the particulars of this matter; that it arises about a quarrel which Sir W. Coventry (age 41) had with the Duke of Buckingham (age 41) about a design between the Duke and Sir Robert Howard, to bring him into a play at the King's house, which W. Coventry (age 41) not enduring, did by H. Saville (age 27) send a letter to the Duke of Buckingham (age 41), that he had a desire to speak with him. Upon which, the Duke of Buckingham (age 41) did bid Holmes (age 47), his champion ever since my Lord Shrewsbury's business1, go to him to know the business; but H. Saville (age 27) would not tell it to any but himself, and therefore did go presently to the Duke of Buckingham (age 41), and told him that his uncle Coventry (age 41) was a person of honour, and was sensible of his Grace's liberty taken of abusing him, and that he had a desire of satisfaction, and would fight with him. But that here they were interrupted by my Lord Chamberlain's (age 67) coming in, who was commanded to go to bid the Duke of Buckingham (age 41) to come to the King (age 38), Holmes (age 47) having discovered it. He told me that the King (age 38) did last night, at the Council, ask the Duke of Buckingham (age 41), upon his honour, whether he had received any challenge from W. Coventry (age 41)? which he confessed that he had; and then the King (age 38) asking W. Coventry (age 41), he told him that he did not owne what the Duke of Buckingham (age 41) had said, though it was not fit for him to give him a direct contradiction. But, being by the King (age 38) put upon declaring, upon his honour, the matter, he answered that he had understood that many hard questions had upon this business been moved to some lawyers, and that therefore he was unwilling to declare any thing that might, from his own mouth, render him obnoxious to his Majesty's displeasure, and, therefore, prayed to be excused: which the King (age 38) did think fit to interpret to be a confession, and so gave warrant that night for his commitment to the Tower. Being very much troubled at this, I away by coach homewards, and directly to the Tower, where I find him in one Mr. Bennet's house, son to Major Bayly, one of the Officers of the Ordnance, in the Bricke Tower [Map]2 where I find him busy with my Lord Halifax (age 35) and his brother (age 50); so I would not stay to interrupt them, but only to give him comfort, and offer my service to him, which he kindly and cheerfully received, only owning his being troubled for the King (age 38) his master's displeasure, which, I suppose, is the ordinary form and will of persons in this condition. And so I parted, with great content, that I had so earlily seen him there; and so going out, did meet Sir Jer. Smith going to meet me, who had newly been with Sir W. Coventry (age 41). And so he and I by water to Redriffe [Map], and so walked to Deptford, Kent [Map], where I have not been, I think, these twelve months: and there to the Treasurer's house, where the Duke of York (age 35) is, and his Duchess (age 31); and there we find them at dinner in the great room, unhung; and there was with them my Lady Duchess of Monmouth (age 31), the Countess of Falmouth (age 24), Castlemayne (age 28), Henrietta Hide (age 23) (my Lady Hinchingbroke's (age 24) sister), and my Lady Peterborough (age 47). And after dinner Sir Jer. Smith and I were invited down to dinner with some of the Maids of Honour, namely, Mrs. Ogle (age 17), Blake (age 16), and Howard (age 18), which did me good to have the honour to dine with, and look on; and the Mother of the Maids, and Mrs. Howard (age 43), the mother of the Maid of Honour of that name, and the Duke's housekeeper here. Here was also Monsieur Blancfort (age 28), Sir Richard Powell, Colonel Villers (age 48), Sir Jonathan Trelawny (age 46), and others. And here drank most excellent, and great variety, and plenty of wines, more than I have drank, at once, these seven years, but yet did me no great hurt. Having dined and very merry, and understanding by Blancfort (age 28) how angry the Duke of York (age 35) was, about their offering to send Saville to the Gate-house, among the rogues; and then, observing how this company, both the ladies and all, are of a gang, and did drink a health to the union of the two brothers, and talking of others as their enemies, they parted, and so we up; and there I did find the Duke of York (age 35) and Duchess (age 31), with all the great ladies, sitting upon a carpet, on the ground, there being no chairs, playing at "I love my love with an A, because he is so and so: and I hate him with an A, because of this and that:" and some of them, but particularly the Duchess (age 31) herself, and my Baroness Castlemayne (age 28), were very witty. This done, they took barge, and I with Sir J. Smith to Captain Cox's; and there to talk, and left them and other company to drink; while I slunk out to Bagwell's; and there saw her, and her mother, and our late maid Nell, who cried for joy to see me, but I had no time for pleasure then nor could stay, but after drinking I back to the yard, having a month's mind para have had a bout with Nell, which I believe I could have had, and may another time.

Note 1. Charles II wrote to his sister (age 24) (Henrietta, Duchess of Orléans), on March 7th, 1669: "I am not sorry that Sir Will. Coventry has given me this good occasion by sending my Lord of Buckingham (age 41) a challenge to turne him out of the Councill. I do intend to turn him allso out of the Treasury. The truth of it is, he has been a troublesome man in both places and I am well rid of him" (Julia Cartwright's "Madame", 1894, p. 283).

Note 2. The Brick Tower [Map] stands on the northern wall, a little to the west of Martin tower, with which it communicates by a secret passage. It was the residence of the Master of the Ordnance, and Raleigh was lodged here for a time.

Pepy's Diary. 02 Apr 1669. Up, and by water to White Hall, and there with the Office attended the Duke of York (age 35), and staid in White Hall till about noon, and so with W. Hewer (age 27) to the Cocke (age 52), and there he and I dined alone with great content, he reading to me, for my memory's sake, my late collections of the history of the Navy, that I might represent the same by and by to the Duke of York (age 35); and so, after dinner, he and I to White Hall, and there to the Duke of York's (age 35) lodgings, whither he, by and by, by his appointment come: and alone with him an hour in his closet, telling him mine and W. Coventry's (age 41) advice touching the present posture of the Navy, as the Duke of Buckingham (age 41) and the rest do now labour to make changes therein; and that it were best for him to suffer the King (age 38) to be satisfied with the bringing in of a man or two which they desire. I did also give the Duke of York (age 35) a short account of the history of the Navy, as to our Office, wherewith he was very well satisfied: but I do find that he is pretty stiff against their bringing in of men against his mind, as the Treasures were, and particularly against Child's' coming in, because he is a merchant. After much discourse with him, we parted; and [he to] the Council, while I staid waiting for his telling me when I should be ready to give him a written account of the administration of the Navy. This caused me to wait the whole afternoon, till night. In the mean time, stepping to the Duchess of York's (age 32) side to speak with Lady Peterborough (age 47); I did see the [her daughter] young Duchess (age 6)1, a little child in hanging sleeves; dance most finely, so as almost to ravish me, her ears were so good: taught by a Frenchman that did heretofore teach the King (age 38), and all the King's children, and the [her mother-in-law] Queen-Mother (age 59) herself, who do still dance well.

Note 1. The Princess Mary (age 6), afterwards Queen of England.

Pepy's Diary. 18 Apr 1669. Lord's Day. Up, and all the morning till 2 o'clock at my Office, with Gibson and Tom, about drawing up fair my discourse of the Administration of the Navy, and then, Mr. Spong being come to dine with me, I in to dinner, and then out to my Office again, to examine the fair draught; and so borrowing Sir J. Minnes's (age 70) coach, he going with Colonel Middleton, I to White Hall, where we all met and did sign it and then to my Lord Arlington's (age 51), where the King (age 38), and the Duke of York (age 35), and Prince Rupert (age 49), as also Ormond and the two Secretaries, with my Lord Ashly (age 47) and Sir T. Clifton (age 38) was. And there, by and by, being called in, Mr. Williamson (age 35) did read over our paper, which was in a letter to the Duke of York (age 35), bound up in a book with the Duke of York's (age 35) Book of Instructions. He read it well; and, after read, we were bid to withdraw, nothing being at all said to it. And by and by we were called in again, and nothing said to that business; but another begun, about the state of this year's action, and our wants of money, as I had stated the same lately to our Treasurers; which I was bid, and did largely, and with great content, open. And having so done, we all withdrew, and left them to debate our supply of money; to which, being called in, and referred to attend on the Lords of the Treasury, we all departed. And I only staid in the House till the Council rose; and then to the Duke of York (age 35), who in the Duchess's chamber come to me, and told me that the book was there left with my Lord Arlington (age 51), for any of the Lords to view that had a mind, and to prepare and present to the King (age 38) what they had to say in writing, to any part of it, which is all we can desire, and so that rested. The Duke of York (age 35) then went to other talk; and by and by comes the Prince of Tuscany (age 26) to visit him, and the Duchess (age 32); and I find that he do still remain incognito, and so intends to do all the time he stays here, for avoiding trouble to the King (age 38) and himself, and expence also to both.

Pepy's Diary. 28 Apr 1669. Up, and was called upon by Sir H. Cholmly (age 36) to discourse about some accounts of his, of Tangier: and then other talk; and I find by him that it is brought almost effect ([through] the late endeavours of the Duke of York (age 35) and Duchess (age 32), the [her mother-in-law] Queen-Mother (age 59), and my Lord St. Albans (age 64), together with some of the contrary faction, my Lord Arlington (age 51)), that for a sum of money we shall enter into a league with the King of France (age 30), wherein, he says, my [her father] Chancellor (age 60)1 is also concerned; and that he believes that, in the doing hereof, it is meant that he [Clarendon] shall come again, and that this sum of money will so help the King (age 38) that he will not need the Parliament; and that, in that regard it will be forwarded by the Duke of Buckingham (age 41) and his faction, who dread the Parliament. But hereby we must leave the Dutch, and that I doubt will undo us; and Sir H. Cholmly (age 36) says he finds W. Coventry (age 41) do think the like. Baroness Castlemayne (age 28) is instrumental in this matter, and, he say never more great with the King (age 38) than she is now. But this a thing that will make the Parliament and kingdom mad, and will turn to our ruine: for with this money the King (age 38) shall wanton away his time in pleasures, and think nothing of the main till it be too late. He gone, I to the office, where busy till noon, and then home to dinner, where W. Batelier dined with us, and pretty merry, and so I to the office again. This morning Mr. Sheres sent me, in two volumes, Mariana his History of Spaine, in Spanish, an excellent book; and I am much obliged for it to him.

Note 1. Clarendon (age 60); then an exile in France.

After 1670. Daubigny Turberville (age 58) went to Wayford and married, but had no children. He began practice at Wayford and Crookhorn (Crewkerne), but got so busy that he moved to London. The city air not suiting him he finally settled in Salisbury; "thence he made several journeys to London. Once he was sent for by the Dutchess of York (age 32) to cure the [her daughter] Princess of Denmnark (age 4) (Queen Anne), then a child, labouring under a dangerous inflammation in her eyes, and a breaking out in her face the cure for which had been attempted in vain by the Court fysicians." These despised Turberville, looking on him as a country quack. He had a quarrel with them, refused to meet them in consultation and won the day. The [her husband] Duke (age 36) and Duchess (age 32) asked him to undertake the case, which he did successfully. The Duke ordered him a fee of £600, but he appears to have received only half that amount. "Many years afterwards he was called up again by one of the greatest and ancientest Peers of this Kingdom. to whom, after having attentively inspected his eye, he spoke after this manner: 'My Lord, I might bear you in hand,' a western frase, signifying to delay or keep in expectation, 'and feed you with promises, or at least hopes, that 1 should cure vou in some competent time, and so cause your Lordship to be at great expence to no purpose; I cannot cure you, and I believe no man in England can.' The Earl answered, 'Such and such will undertake it for a hundred pounds.' To which the doctor replied, 'I have so great an honour for your Lordship, and so much wish for your welfare, that I will joyfully give a hundred guineas out of my own purse to the person who shall restore your sight in that eye. I confess I am not able to cure it, but I can reduce it to a better figure.' Source. THE BRITISH JOURNAL OF OPHTHALMOLOGY SEPTEMBER, 1926.

On 09 Feb 1671 [her daughter] Catherine Stewart was born to [her husband] James Duke of York (age 37) and Anne Hyde Duchess of York (age 33). She was baptised by Bishop Nathaniel Crew 3rd Baron Crew (age 38).

On 31 Mar 1671 Anne Hyde Queen Consort England (age 34) died.

On 20 Sep 1673 [her former husband] King James II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 39) and Mary of Modena Queen Consort England Scotland and Ireland (age 14) were married. The difference in their ages was 24 years. He the son of King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland and Henrietta Maria Bourbon Queen Consort England.

Evelyn's Diary. 23 Oct 1677. Saw again the Prince of Orange (age 26); his marriage with the [her daughter] Lady Mary (age 15), eldest daughter to the [her former husband] Duke of York (age 44), by Mrs. Hyde, the late Duchess, was now declared.

Evelyn's Diary. 29 May 1682. I gave notice to the Bishop of Rochester (age 57) of what Maimburg had published about the motives of the late Duchess of York's perversion, in his "History of Calvinism;" and did myself write to the Bishop of Winchester (age 84) about it, who being concerned in it, I urged him to set forth his vindication.

Evelyn's Diary. 06 Jan 1686. Passed the Privie Seale, amongst others, the creation of Mrs. Sedley J (concubine to) Countesse of Dorchester (age 28), which the Queene took very grievously (age 27), so as for two dinners, standing neere her I observed she hardly eate one morsel, nor spake one word to the [her former husband] King (age 52), or to any about her, tho' at other times she us'd to be extreamly pleasant, full of discourse and good humour. The Roman Catholics were also very angry, because they had so long valu'd the sanctity of their religion and proselytes. Dryden (age 54) the famous playwriter, and his two sonns, and Mrs. Nelly (age 35) (Misse to ye late) were said to go to masse; such proselytes were no greate losse to the church. This night was burnt to the ground my Lord Mountague's palace in Bloomsbury, than wch for painting and furniture there was nothing more glorious in England. This happen'd by the negligence of a servant, airing, as they call it, some of the goods by the fire in a moist season; indeede so wet and mild a winter had scarce ben seene in man's memory. At this Seale there also pass'd the creation of Sr H. Walgrave (age 25) to be a Peere. He had married one of the [her daughter] King's natural daughters (age 19) by Mrs. Churchill. These two Seales my brother Commissioners pass'd in the morning before I came to towne, at. wch I was not displeas'd. We likewise pass'd Privy Seales for 5.2/6,000 upon severall accounts, pensions, guards, wardrobes, pri vie purse, &c. besides divers pardons, and one more wch I must not forget (and wch by Providence I was not present at) one Mr. Lytcott to be Secretary to the Ambassador to Rome. We being three Commissioners, any two were a quorum.

Evelyn's Diary. 23 Oct 1686. Went with the Countess of Sunderland (age 40) to Cranbourne, a lodge and walk of my Lord Godolphin's (age 41) in Windsor park. There was one room in the house spared in the pulling down the old one, because the late Duchess of York was born in it; the rest was built and added to it by Sir George Carteret, Treasurer of the Navy; and since, the whole was purchased by my Lord Godolphin (age 41), who spoke to me to go see it, and advise what trees were fit to be cut down to improve the dwelling, being environed with old rotten pollards, which corrupt the air. It stands on a knoll which though insensibly rising, gives it a prospect over the Keep of Windsor, about three miles N. E. of it. The ground is clayey and moist; the water stark naught; the park is pretty; the house tolerable, and gardens convenient. After dinner, we came back to London, having two coaches both going and coming, of six horses apiece, which we changed at Hounslow.

1701 Death of King James II

On 16 Sep 1701 [her former husband] King James II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 67) died at Château de Saint-Germain-en-Laye, Saint-Germain-en-Laye, Yvelines. He was buried in the Church of the English Benedictines.

Grammont. But before we enter into the particulars of this adventure, let us take a retrospect of the amours of his royal highness, prior to the declaration of his marriage, and particularly of what immediately preceded this declaration. It is allowable sometimes to drop the thread of a narrative, when real facts, not generally known, give such a variety upon the digression as to render it excusable: let us see then how those things happened.

The Duke of York's marriage with the [her father] chancellor's daughter was deficient in none of those circumstances which render contracts of this nature valid in the eye of heaven: the mutual inclination, the formal ceremony, witnesses, and every essential point of matrimony, had been observed.

Though the bride was no perfect beauty, yet, as there were none at the court of Holland who eclipsed her, the duke, during the first endearments of matrimony, was so far from repenting of it, that he seemed only to wish for the king's restoration, that he might have an opportunity of declaring it with splendour; but when he saw himself enjoying a rank which placed him so near the throne; when the possession of Miss Hyde afforded him no new charms; when England, so abounding in beauties, displayed all that was charming and lovely in the court of the king his brother; and when he considered he was the only prince, who, from such superior elevation, had descended so low, he began to reflect upon it. On the one hand, his marriage appeared to him particularly ill suited in every respect: he recollected that Jermyn had not engaged him in an intimacy with Miss Hyde, until he had convinced him, by several different circumstances, of the facility of succeeding: he looked upon his marriage as an infringement of that duty and obedience he owed to the king; the indignation with which the court, and even the whole kingdom, would receive the account of his marriage, presented itself to his imagination, together with the impossibility of obtaining the king's consent to such an act, which for a thousand reasons he would be obliged to refuse. On the other hand, the tears and despair of poor Miss Hyde presented themselves; and still more than that, he felt a remorse of conscience, the scruples of which began from that time to rise up against him.

In the midst of this perplexity he opened his heart to Lord Falmouth, and consulted with him what method he ought to pursue. He could not have applied to a better man for his own interests, nor to a worse for Miss Hyde's; for at first, Falmouth maintained not only that he was not married, but that it was even impossible that he could ever have formed such a thought; that any marriage was invalid for him, which was made without the king's consent, even if the party was a suitable match: but that it was a mere jest, even to think of the daughter of an insignificant lawyer, whom the favour of his sovereign had lately made a peer of the realm, without any noble blood, and chancellor, without any capacity; that as for his scruples, he had only to give ear to some gentlemen whom he could introduce, who would thoroughly inform him of Miss Hyde's conduct, before he became acquainted with her; and provided he did not tell them that he really was married, he would soon have sufficient grounds to come to a determination.

Grammont. The Princess Royal was the first who was taken with him: Miss Hyde seemed to be following the steps of her mistress: this immediately brought him into credit, and his reputation was established in England before his arrival. Prepossession in the minds of women is sufficient to find access to their hearts: Jermyn found them in dispositions so favourable for him, that he had nothing to do but to speak.

It was in vain they perceived that a reputation so lightly established, was still more weakly sustained: the prejudice remained: the Countess of Castlemaine, a woman lively and discerning, followed the delusive shadow; and though undeceived in a reputation which promised so much, and performed so little, she nevertheless continued in her infatuation: she even persisted in it, until she was upon the point of embroiling herself with the king; so great was this first instance of her constancy.

Grammont. Mrs. Hyde was one of the first of the beauties who were prejudiced with a blind prepossession in favour of Jermyn: she had just married a [her brother] man whom she loved: by this marriage she became sister-in-law to the duchess, brilliant by her own native lustre, and full of pleasantry and wit. However, she was of opinion, that so long as she was not talked of on account of Jermyn, all her other advantages would avail nothing for her glory: it was, therefore, to receive this finishing stroke, that she resolved to throw herself into his arms.

She was of a middle size, had a skin of a dazzling whiteness, fine hands, and a foot surprisingly beautiful, even in England: long custom had given such a languishing tenderness to her looks, that she never opened her eyes but like a Chinese; and, when she ogled, one would have thought she was doing something else.

Jermyn accepted of her at first; but, being soon puzzled what to do with her, he thought it best to sacrifice her to Lady Castlemaine. The sacrifice was far from being displeasing to her: it was much to her glory to have carried off Jermyn from so many competitors; but this was of no consequence in the end.

Grammont. The Duke of York consented, and Lord Falmouth having assembled both his counsel and his witnesses, conducted them to his royal highness's cabinet, after having instructed them how to act: these gentlemen were the Earl of Arran, Jermyn, Talbot, and Killegrew, all men of honour; but who infinitely preferred the Duke of York's interest to Miss Hyde's reputation, and who, besides, were greatly dissatisfied, as well as the whole court, at the insolent authority of the prime minister. The duke having told them, after a sort of preamble, that although they could not be ignorant of his affection for Miss Hyde, yet they might be unacquainted with the engagements his tenderness for her had induced him to contract; that he thought himself obliged to perform all the promises he had made her; but as the innocence of persons of her age was generally exposed to court scandal, and as certain reports, whether false or true, had been spread abroad on the subject of her conduct, he conjured them as his friends, and charged them upon their duty, to tell him sincerely every thing they knew upon the subject, since he was resolved to make their evidence the rule of his conduct towards her. They all appeared rather reserved at first, and seemed not to dare to give their opinions upon an affair of so serious and delicate a nature; but the Duke of York having renewed his entreaties, each began to relate the particulars of what he knew, and perhaps of more than he knew, of poor Miss Hyde; nor did they omit any circumstance necessary to strengthen the evidence. For instance, the Earl of Arran, who spoke first, deposed, that in the gallery at Honslaerdyk, where the Countess of Ossory, his sister-in-law, and Jermyn, were playing at nine-pins, Miss Hyde, pretending to be sick, retired to a chamber at the end of the gallery; that he, the deponent, had followed her, and having cut her lace, to give a greater probability to the pretence of the vapours, he had acquitted himself to the best of his abilities, both to assist and to console her.

Talbot said, that she had made an appointment with him in the [her father] chancellor's cabinet, while he was in council; and, that not paying so much attention to what was upon the table, as to what they were engaged in, they had spilled a bottle full of ink upon a despatch of four pages, and that the king's monkey, which was blamed for this accident, had been a long time in disgrace.

Jermyn mentioned many places where he had received long and favourable audiences: however, all these articles of accusation amounted only to some delicate familiarities, or at most, to what is generally denominated the innocent part of an intrigue; but Killegrew, who wished to surpass these trivial depositions, boldly declared that he had had the honour of being upon the most intimate terms with her: he was of a sprightly and witty humour, and had the art of telling a story in the most entertaining manner, by the graceful and natural turn he could give it: he affirmed that he had found the critical minute in a certain closet built over the water, for a purpose very different from that of giving ease to the pains of love: that three or four swans had been witnesses to his happiness, and might perhaps have been witnesses to the happiness of many others, as the lady frequently repaired to that place, and was particularly delighted with it.

Grammont. It was in the height of the rejoicings they were making for this new queen, in all the splendour of a brilliant court, that the Chevalier de Grammont arrived to contribute to its magnificence and diversions.

Accustomed as he was to the grandeur of the court of France, he was surprised at the politeness and splendour of the court of England. The king was inferior to none, either in shape or air; his wit was pleasant; his disposition easy and affable; his soul, susceptible of opposite impressions, was compassionate to the unhappy, inflexible to the wicked, and tender even to excess; he showed great abilities in urgent affairs, but was incapable of application to any that were not so: his heart was often the dupe, but oftener the slave, of his engagements.

The character of the Duke of York was entirely different he had the reputation of undaunted courage, an inviolable attachment for his word, great economy in his affairs, hauteur, application, arrogance, each in their turn: a scrupulous observer of the rules of duty and the laws of justice; he was accounted a faithful friend, and an implacable enemy.

His morality and justice, struggling for some time with prejudice, had at last triumphed, by his acknowledging for his wife Miss Hyde, maid of honour to the Princess Royal, whom he had secretly married in Holland. Her [her father] father, from that time prime minister of England, supported by this new interest, soon rose to the head of affairs, and had almost ruined them: not that he wanted capacity, but he was too self-sufficient.

Grammont. The Duke of York found this last accusation greatly out of bounds, being convinced he himself had sufficient proofs of the contrary: he therefore returned thanks to these officious informers for their frankness, ordered them to be silent for the future upon what they had been telling him, and immediately passed into the king's apartment.

As soon as he had entered the cabinet, Lord Falmouth, who had followed him, related what had passed to the Earl of Ossory, whom he met in the presence chamber: they strongly suspected what was the subject of the conversation of the two brothers, as it was long; and the Duke of York appeared to be in such agitation when he came out, that they no longer doubted that the result had been unfavourable for poor Miss Hyde. Lord Falmouth began to be affected for her disgrace, and to relent that he had been concerned in it, when the Duke of York told him and the Earl of Ossory to meet him in about an hour's time at the [her father] chancellor's.

They were rather surprised that he should have the cruelty himself to announce such a melancholy piece of news: they found his royal highness at the appointed hour in Miss Hyde's chamber: a few tears trickled down her cheeks, which she endeavoured to restrain. The chancellor, leaning against the wall, appeared to them to be puffed up with something, which they did not doubt was rage and despair. The Duke of York said to them, with that serene and pleasant countenance with which men generally announce good news: "As you are the two men of the court whom I most esteem, I am desirous you should first have the honour of paying your compliments to the Duchess of York: there she is."

Surprise was of no use, and astonishment was unseasonable on the present occasion: they were, however, so greatly possessed with both surprise and astonishment, that in order to conceal it, they immediately fell on their knees to kiss her hand, which she gave to them with as much majesty as if she had been used to it all her life.

Grammont. The next day the news was made public, and the whole court was eager to pay her that respect, from a sense of duty, which in the end became very sincere.

The petits-maîtres who had spoken against her, seeing their intentions disappointed, were not a little embarrassed. Women are seldom accustomed to forgive injuries of this nature; and, if they promise themselves the pleasure of revenge, when they gain the power, they seldom forget it: in the present case, however, the fears of these petits-maîtres were their only punishment.

The Duchess of York, being fully informed of all that was said in the cabinet concerning her, instead of shewing the least resentment, studied to distinguish, by all manner of kindness and good offices, those who had attacked her in so sensible a part; nor did she ever mention it to them, but in order to praise their zeal, and to tell them, "that nothing was a greater proof of the attachment of a man of honour, than his being more solicitous for the interest of his friend, or master, than for his own reputation:" a remarkable example of prudence and moderation, not only for the fair sex, but even for those who value themselves most upon their philosophy among the men.

The Duke of York, having quieted his conscience by the declaration of his marriage, thought that he was entitled, by this generous effort, to give way a little to his inconstancy: he therefore immediately seized upon whatever he could first lay his hands upon: this was Lady Carnegy, had been in several other hands. She was still tolerably handsome, and her disposition, naturally inclined to tenderness, did not oblige her new lover long to languish. Every thing coincided with their wishes for some time: Lord Carnegy, her husband, was in Scotland; but his father dying suddenly, he as suddenly returned with the title of Southesk, which his wife detested; but which she took more patiently than she received the news of his return. Some private intimation had been given him of the honour that was done him in his absence; nevertheless, he did not shew his jealousy at first; but, as he was desirous to be satisfied of the reality of the fact, he kept a strict watch over his wife's actions. The Duke of York and her ladyship had, for some time, been upon such terms of intimacy, as not to pass their time in frivolous amusements; however, the husband's return obliged them to maintain some decorum: he therefore never went to her house, but in form, that is to say, always accompanied by some friend or other, to give his amours at least the appearance of a visit.

Royal Descendants of Anne Hyde Queen Consort England 1637-1671

Mary Stewart II Queen England Scotland and Ireland x 1

Queen Anne of England Scotland and Ireland x 1

Diana Spencer Princess Wales x 1

Ancestors of Anne Hyde Queen Consort England 1637-1671

Great x 1 Grandfather: Lawrence Hyde

GrandFather: Henry Hyde

Great x 2 Grandfather: Nicholas Sibell

Great x 1 Grandmother: Anne Sibell

Father: Edward Hyde 1st Earl Clarendon

Great x 1 Grandfather: Edward Langford

GrandMother: Mary Langford

Anne Hyde Queen Consort England

Great x 1 Grandfather: William Aylesbury

GrandFather: Thomas Aylesbury 1st Baronet

Mother: Frances Aylesbury Countess Clarendon

GrandMother: Anne Denman