Biography of Barbara Villiers 1st Duchess of Cleveland 1640-1709

Paternal Family Tree: Villiers

Maternal Family Tree: Elizabeth Dinley 1495-1550

1643 First Battle of Newbury

1661 Coronation of Charles II

1668 Buckingham Shrewsbury Duel

1668 Bawdy House Riots

1685 Death and Burial of Charles II

1715 Battle of Preston

On 29 Dec 1630 Oliver St John 1st Viscount Grandison (age 71) died. His great nephew [her father] William Villiers 2nd Viscount Grandison (age 16) succeeded 2nd Viscount Grandison. [her mother] Mary Bayning Countess Anglesey (age 7) by marriage Viscountess Grandison.

Before 27 Nov 1640 [her father] William Villiers 2nd Viscount Grandison (age 26) and [her mother] Mary Bayning Countess Anglesey (age 17) were married. She the heiress of a fortune of £180,000.

On 27 Nov 1640 Barbara Villiers 1st Duchess of Cleveland was born to William Villiers 2nd Viscount Grandison (age 26) and Mary Bayning Countess Anglesey (age 17) at St Margaret's Church, Westminster [Map].

First Battle of Newbury

On 20 Sep 1643 the First Battle of Newbury was fought at Newbury, Berkshire [Map] with King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland (age 42) commanding the Royalist army and Robert Devereux 3rd Earl Essex (age 52) commanding the victorious Parliamentary army. For King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland (age 42) John Byron 1st Baron Byron (age 44) fought with distinction.

Henry Bertie was killed.

Robert Dormer 1st Earl Carnarvon (age 33) was killed. His son Charles Dormer 2nd Earl Carnarvon (age 10) succeeded 2nd Earl Carnarvon, 3rd Baron Dormer of Wyng in Buckinghamshire, 3rd Baronet Dormer of Wyng in Buckinghamshire.

[her father] William Villiers 2nd Viscount Grandison (age 29) was killed. His brother [her uncle] John Villiers 3rd Viscount Grandison succeeded 3rd Viscount Grandison.

[her uncle] Edward Villiers (age 23) fought.

Lucius Carey 2nd Viscount Falkland (age 33) was killed. His son Lucius Carey 3rd Viscount Falkland (age 11) succeeded 3rd Viscount Falkland.

Richard Neville (age 28) served under the Earl Carnarvon (age 33). Carnarvon was killed and Neville took up the command as a Colonel of Horse.

Major General Charles Fleetwood (age 25) was wounded.

After 20 Sep 1643 [her step-father] Charles Villiers 2nd Earl Anglesey and [her mother] Mary Bayning Countess Anglesey (age 20) were married. She by marriage Countess Anglesey. He a cousin of her first husband. He the son of Christopher Villiers 1st Earl Anglesey and Elizabeth Sheldon Countess Anglesey (age 35).

On 14 Apr 1659 Roger Palmer 1st Earl Castlemaine (age 25) and Barbara Villiers 1st Duchess of Cleveland (age 18) were married. She the daughter of William Villiers 2nd Viscount Grandison and Mary Bayning Countess Anglesey (age 36).

Pepy's Diary. 26 Jun 1660. My Lord dined at his lodgings all alone to-day. I went to Secretary Nicholas (age 67)1 to carry him my Lord's resolutions about his title, which he had chosen, and that is Portsmouth2. I met with Mr. Throgmorton, a merchant, who went with me to the old Three Tuns, at Charing Cross, who did give me five pieces of gold for to do him a small piece of service about a convoy to Bilbo, which I did. In the afternoon, one Mr. Watts came to me, a merchant, to offer me £500 if I would desist from the Clerk of the Acts place. I pray God direct me in what I do herein. Went to my house, where I found my father, and carried him and my wife to Whitefriars, and myself to Puddlewharf [Map], to the Wardrobe, to Mr. Townsend, who went with me to Backwell, the goldsmith's, and there we chose £100 worth of plate for my Lord to give Secretary Nicholas. Back and staid at my father's (age 59), and so home to bed.

Note 1. Sir Edward Nicholas (age 67), Secretary of State to Charles I and II. He was dismissed from his office through the intrigues of Lady Castlemaine (age 19) in 1663. He died 1669, aged seventy-seven.

Note 2. Montagu changed his mind, and ultimately took his title from the town of Sandwich, Kent [Map], leaving that of Portsmouth for the use of a King's (age 30) mistress (age 10).

Pepy's Diary. 13 Jul 1660. Up early, the first day that I put on my black camlett coat with silver buttons. To Mr. Spong, whom I found in his night-down writing of my patent, and he had done as far as he could "for that &c". by 8 o'clock. It being done, we carried it to Worcester House to the Chancellor, where Mr. Kipps (a strange providence that he should now be in a condition to do me a kindness, which I never thought him capable of doing for me), got me the Chancellor's receipt to my bill; and so carried it to Mr. Beale (age 28) for a dockett; but he was very angry, and unwilling to do it, because he said it was ill writ (because I had got it writ by another hand, and not by him); but by much importunity I got Mr. Spong to go to his office and make an end of my patent; and in the mean time Mr. Beale (age 28) to be preparing my dockett, which being done, I did give him two pieces, after which it was strange how civil and tractable he was to me. From thence I went to the Navy office, where we despatched much business, and resolved of the houses for the Officers and Commissioners, which I was glad of, and I got leave to have a door made me into the leads. From thence, much troubled in mind about my patent, I went to Mr. Beale (age 28) again, who had now finished my patent and made it ready for the Seal, about an hour after I went to meet him at the Chancellor's. So I went away towards Westminster, and in my way met with Mr. Spong, and went with him to Mr. Lilly (age 41) and ate some bread and cheese, and drank with him, who still would be giving me council of getting my patent out, for fear of another change, and my Lord Montagu's fall. After that to Worcester House, where by Mr. Kipps's means, and my pressing in General Montagu's name to the Chancellor, I did, beyond all expectation, get my seal passed; and while it was doing in one room, I was forced to keep Sir G. Carteret (age 50) (who by chance met me there, ignorant of my business) in talk, while it was a doing. Went home and brought my wife with me into London, and some money, with which I paid Mr. Beale (age 28) £9 in all, and took my patent of him and went to my wife again, whom I had left in a coach at the door of Hinde Court, and presented her with my patent at which she was overjoyed; so to the Navy office, and showed her my house, and were both mightily pleased at all things there, and so to my business. So home with her, leaving her at her mother's door. I to my Lord's, where I dispatched an order for a ship to fetch Sir R. Honywood home, for which I got two pieces of my Lady Honywood by young Mr. Powell. Late writing letters; and great doings of music at the next house, which was Whally's; the King and Dukes there with Madame Palmer (age 19)1, a pretty woman that they have a fancy to, to make her husband a cuckold. Here at the old door that did go into his lodgings, my Lord, I, and W. Howe, did stand listening a great while to the music. After that home to bed. This day I should have been at Guildhall to have borne witness for my brother Hawly against Black Collar, but I could not, at which I was troubled. To bed with the greatest quiet of mind that I have had a great while, having ate nothing but a bit of bread and cheese at Lilly's (age 41) to-day, and a bit of bread and butter after I was a-bed.

Note 1. Barbara Villiers (age 19), only child of [her father] William, second Viscount Grandison, born November, 1640, married April 14th, 1659, to [her husband] Roger Palmer (age 26), created Earl of Castlemaine, 1661. She became the King's (age 30) mistress soon after the Restoration, and was in 1670 made Lady Nonsuch, Countess of Southampton, and Duchess of Cleveland. She had six children by the King, one of them being created [her illegitimate son] Duke of Grafton, and the eldest son succeeding her as [her illegitimate son] Duke of Cleveland. She subsequently married [her future husband] Beau Fielding (age 10), whom she prosecuted for bigamy. She died October 9th, 1709, aged sixty-nine. Her life was written by G. Steinman Steinman, and privately printed 1871, with addenda 1874, and second addenda 1878.

Pepy's Diary. 14 Oct 1660. To White Hall chappell, where one Dr. Crofts (age 57) made an indifferent sermon, and after it an anthem, ill sung, which made the King laugh. Here I first did see the Princess Royal since she came into England. Here I also observed, how the Duke of York and Mrs. Palmer (age 19) did talk to one another very wantonly through the hangings that parts the King's (age 30) closet and the closet where the ladies sit. To my Lord's, where I found my wife, and she and I did dine with my Lady (my Lord dining with my Lord Chamberlain (age 58)), who did treat my wife with a good deal of respect. In the evening we went home through the rain by water in a sculler, having borrowed some coats of Mr. Sheply. So home, wet and dirty, and to bed.

On 25 Feb 1661 [her illegitimate daughter] Anne Fitzroy Countess Sussex was born illegitimately to King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 30) and Barbara Villiers 1st Duchess of Cleveland (age 20) at Westminster [Map].

Coronation of Charles II

Pepy's Diary. 20 Apr 1661. But my pleasure was great to see the manner of it, and so many great beauties, but above all Mrs. Palmer (age 20), with whom the King do discover a great deal of familiarity. So Mr. Creed and I (the play being done) went to Mrs. Harper's, and there sat and drank, it being about twelve at night. The ways being now so dirty, and stopped up with the rayles which are this day set up in the streets, I would not go home, but went with him to his lodging at Mr. Ware's, and there lay all night.

Pepy's Diary. 23 Jul 1661. Put on my mourning. Made visits to Sir W. Pen (age 40) and Batten. Then to Westminster, and at the Hall staid talking with Mrs. Michell a good while, and in the afternoon, finding myself unfit for business, I went to the Theatre [Map], and saw "Brenoralt", I never saw before. It seemed a good play, but ill acted; only I sat before Mrs. Palmer (age 20), the King's mistress, and filled my eyes with her, which much pleased me.

Pepy's Diary. 27 Aug 1661. Hence my wife and I to the Theatre [Map], and there saw "The Joviall Crew", where the King, Duke (age 27) and Duchess (age 24), and Madame Palmer (age 20), were; and my wife, to her great content, had a full sight of them all the while. The play full of mirth.

Pepy's Diary. 07 Sep 1661. At the office all the morning. At noon Mr. Moore dined with me, and then in comes Wm. Joyce to answer a letter of mine I wrote this morning to him about a maid of his that my wife had hired, and she sent us word that she was hired to stay longer with her master, which mistake he came to clear himself of; and I took it very kindly. So I having appointed the young ladies at the Wardrobe to go with them to a play to-day, I left him and my brother Tom (age 27) who came along with him to dine, and my wife and I took them to the Theatre [Map], where we seated ourselves close by the King, and Duke of York (age 27), and Madame Palmer (age 20), which was great content; and, indeed, I can never enough admire her beauty. And here was "Bartholomew Fayre", with the puppet-show, acted to-day, which had not been these forty years (it being so satyricall against Puritanism, they durst not till now, which is strange they should already dare to do it, and the King do countenance it), but I do never a whit like it the better for the puppets, but rather the worse.

On 11 Dec 1661 [her husband] Roger Palmer 1st Earl Castlemaine (age 27) was created 1st Earl Castlemaine, 1st Baron Limerick by King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 31) in gratitude for allowing his wife Barbara Villiers 1st Duchess of Cleveland (age 21) to become the King's mistress. Barbara Villiers 1st Duchess of Cleveland (age 21) by marriage Countess Castlemaine.

Pepy's Diary. 05 Feb 1662. At noon Sir W. Pen (age 40) dined with me, and after dinner he and I and my wife to the Theatre [Map], and went in, but being very early we went out again to the next door, and drank some Rhenish wine and sugar, and so to the House again, and there saw "Rule a wife and have a wife" very well done. And here also I did look long upon my Baroness Castlemaine's (age 21), who, notwithstanding her late sickness, continues a great beauty.

Pepy's Diary. 13 Apr 1662. Thence to Graye's Inn walkes; and there met Mr. Pickering and walked with him two hours till 8 o'clock till I was quite weary. His discourse most about the pride of the Duchess of York (age 25); and how all the ladies envy my Baroness Castlemaine's (age 21). He intends to go to Portsmouth, Hampshire [Map] to meet the Queen (age 23) this week; which is now the discourse and expectation of the town.

Pepy's Diary. 10 May 1662. At noon to the Wardrobe; there dined. My Lady told me how my Baroness Castlemaine's (age 21) do speak of going to lie in at Hampton Court [Map]; which she and all our ladies are much troubled at, because of the King's being forced to show her countenance in the sight of the Queen (age 23) when she comes.

Pepy's Diary. 14 May 1662. All the morning at Westminster and elsewhere about business, and dined at the Wardrobe; and after dinner, sat talking an hour or two alone with my Lady. She is afeard that my Baroness Castlemaine's (age 21) will keep still with the King (age 31), and I am afeard she will not, for I love her well.

Pepy's Diary. 21 May 1662. But we went to the Theatre [Map] to "French Dancing Master", and there with much pleasure gazed upon her (Baroness Castlemaine (age 21)); but it troubles us to see her look dejectedly and slighted by people already. The play pleased us very well; but Lacy's part, the Dancing Master, the best in the world.

Pepy's Diary. 21 May 1662. My wife and I by water to Westminster, and after she had seen her father (of whom lately I have heard nothing at all what he does or her mother), she comes to me to my Lord's lodgings, where she and I staid walking in White Hall garden. And in the Privy-garden saw the finest smocks and linnen petticoats of my Baroness Castlemaine's (age 21), laced with rich lace at the bottom, that ever I saw; and did me good to look upon them.

Pepy's Diary. 21 May 1662. So to Wilkinson's, she and I and Sarah to dinner, where I had a good quarter of lamb and a salat. Here Sarah told me how the King (age 31) dined at my Baroness Castlemaine's (age 21), and supped, every day and night the last week; and that the night that the bonfires were made for joy of the Queen's (age 23) arrivall, the King (age 31) was there; but there was no fire at her door, though at all the rest of the doors almost in the street; which was much observed: and that the King (age 31) and she did send for a pair of scales and weighed one another; and she, being with child, was said to be heaviest. But she is now a most disconsolate creature, and comes not out of doors, since the King's going.

Pepy's Diary. 31 May 1662. The Queen (age 23) is brought a few days since to Hampton Court [Map]; and all people say of her to be a very fine and handsome lady, and very discreet; and that the King (age 32) is pleased enough with her which, I fear, will put Madam Castlemaine's (age 21) nose out of joynt. The Court is wholly now at Hampton.

Pepy's Diary. 18 Jun 1662.That done he and I walked to Lilly's (age 43), the painter's, where we saw among other rare things, the Duchess of York (age 25), her whole body, sitting instate in a chair, in white sattin, and another of the King (age 32), that is not finished; most rare things. I did give the fellow something that showed them us, and promised to come some other time, and he would show me Baroness Castlemaine's (age 21), which I could not then see, it being locked up!

On 18 Jun 1662 [her illegitimate son] Charles Fitzroy 1st Duke Southampton 2nd Duke Cleveland was born illegitimately to King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 32) and Barbara Villiers 1st Duchess of Cleveland (age 21).

Pepy's Diary. 06 Jul 1662. So home to dinner, where my brother Tom (age 28) dined with me, and so my wife and I to church again in the afternoon, and that done I walked to the Wardrobe and spent my time with Mr. Creed and Mr. Moore talking about business; so up to supper with my Lady [Sandwich], who tells me, with much trouble, that my Baroness Castlemaine's (age 21) is still as great with the King (age 32), and that the King (age 32) comes as often to her as ever he did, at which, God forgive me, I am well pleased.

Pepy's Diary. 16 Jul 1662. This day I was told that my Baroness Castlemaine's (age 21) (being quite fallen out with her [her husband] husband (age 28)) did yesterday go away from him, with all her plate, jewels, and other best things; and is gone to Richmond to a [her uncle] brother (age 42) of her's1; which, I am apt to think, was a design to get out of town, that the King (age 32) might come at her the better. But strange it is how for her beauty I am willing to construe all this to the best and to pity her wherein it is to her hurt, though I know well enough she is a whore.

Note 1. Note this is a mistake for her uncle Edward Villiers (age 42).

Pepy's Diary. 26 Jul 1662. Thence to Mrs. Sarah, and there looked over my Lord's lodgings, which are very pretty; and White Hall garden and the Bowling-ally (where lords and ladies are now at bowles), in brave condition. Mrs. Sarah told me how the falling out between my Baroness Castlemaine's (age 21) and her Lord was about christening of the child lately1, which he would have, and had done by a priest: and, some days after, she had it again christened by a minister; the King (age 32), and Lord of Oxford, and Duchesse of Suffolk, being witnesses: and christened with a proviso, that it had not already been christened. Since that she left her Lord, carrying away every thing in the house; so much as every dish, and cloth, and servant but the porter. He is gone discontented into France, they say, to enter a monastery; and now she is coming back again to her house in Kingstreet. But I hear that the Queen (age 23) did prick her out of the list presented her by the King (age 32);2 desiring that she might have that favour done her, or that he would send her from whence she come: and that the King (age 32) was angry and the Queen (age 23) discontented a whole day and night upon it; but that the King (age 32) hath promised to have nothing to do with her hereafter. But I cannot believe that the King (age 32) can fling her off so, he loving her too well: and so I writ this night to my Lady to be my opinion; she calling her my lady, and the lady I admire. Here I find that my Lord hath lost the garden to his lodgings, and that it is turning into a tennis-court. Hence by water to the Wardrobe to see how all do there, and so home to supper and to bed.

Note 1. The [her illegitimate son] boy was born in June at Baroness Castlemaine's (age 21) house in King Street. By the direction of Lord Castlemaine, who had become a Roman Catholic, the child was baptized by a priest, and this led to a final separation between husband and wife. Some days afterwards the child was again baptized by the rector of St. Margaret's, Westminster [Map], in presence of the godparents, the King (age 32), Aubrey De Vere (age 35), Earl of Oxford, and [her aunt] Barbara, Countess of Suffolk (age 40), first Lady of the Bedchamber to the Queen (age 23) and Baroness Castlemaine's (age 21) aunt. The entry in the register of St. Margaret's [Map] is as follows: "1662 June 18 Charles Palmer Ld Limbricke, s. to ye right honorble Roger Earl of Castlemaine by Barbara" (Steinman's "Memoir of Barbara, Duchess of Cleveland", 1871, p. 33). The child was afterwards called Charles Fitzroy, and was created Duke of Southampton in 1674. He succeeded his mother in the dukedom of Cleveland in 1709, and died 1730.

Note 2. By the King's command Lord Clarendon (age 53), much against his inclination, had twice visited his royal mistress with a view of inducing her, by persuasions which he could not justify, to give way to the King's determination to have Baroness Castlemaine's (age 21) of her household.... Lord Clarendon (age 53) has given a full account of all that transpired between himself, the King (age 32) and the Queen (age 23), on this very unpleasant business ('Continuation of Life of Clarendon,' 1759, ff. 168-178). Steinman's Memoir of Duchess of Cleveland, p. 35. The day at length arrived when Baroness Castlemaine's (age 21) was to be formally admitted a Lady of the Bedchamber. The royal warrant, addressed to the Lord Chamberlain (age 60), bears date June 1, 1663, and includes with that of her ladyship, the names of the Duchess of Buckingham (age 23), the Countesses of Chesterfield and Bath (age 22), and the Countess Mareshall. A separate warrant of the same day directs his lordship to admit the Countess of Suffolk as Groom of the Stole and first Lady of the Bedchamber, to which undividable offices she had, with the additional ones of Mistress of the Robes and Keeper of the Privy Purse, been nominated by a warrant dated April 2, 1662, wherein the reception of her oath is expressly deferred until the Queen's (age 23) household shall be established. We here are furnished with the evidence that Charles would not sign the warrants for the five until Catherine had withdrawn her objection to his favourite one. Addenda to Steinman's Memoir of Duchess of Cleveland (privately printed), 1874, p. i.

Pepy's Diary. 23 Aug 1662. Anon come the King (age 32) and Queen (age 23) in a barge under a canopy with 10,000 barges and boats, I think, for we could see no water for them, nor discern the King (age 32) nor Queen (age 23). And so they landed at White Hall Bridge, and the great guns on the other side went off: But that which pleased me best was, that my Baroness Castlemaine's (age 21) stood over against us upon a piece of White Hall, where I glutted myself with looking on her. But methought it was strange to see her [her husband] Lord (age 28) and her upon the same place walking up and down without taking notice one of another, only at first entry he put off his hat, and she made him a very civil salute, but afterwards took no notice one of another; but both of them now and then would take their child, which the nurse held in her armes, and dandle it.

Pepy's Diary. 07 Sep 1662. After I had talked an hour or two with her I went and gave Mr. Hunt a short visit, he being at home alone, and thence walked homewards, and meeting Mr. Pierce, the chyrurgeon, he took me into Somersett House [Map]; and there carried me into the Queen-Mother's (age 52) presence-chamber, where she was with our own Queen (age 23) sitting on her left hand (whom I did never see before); and though she be not very charming, yet she hath a good, modest, and innocent look, which is pleasing. Here I also saw Madam Castlemaine (age 21), and, which pleased me most, Mr. Crofts (age 13), the King's (age 32) bastard, a most pretty spark of about 15 years old, who, I perceive, do hang much upon my Baroness Castlemaine's (age 21), and is always with her; and, I hear, the Queens (age 23) both of them are mighty kind to him1.

Note 1. James (age 13), the son of Charles II (age 32) by Lucy Walter, daughter of William Walter, of Roch Castle, co. Pembroke. He was born April 9th, 1649, and landed in England with the Queen-Mother (age 52), July 28th, 1662, when he bore the name of Crofts, after Lord Crofts (age 51), his governor. He was created Duke of Monmouth, February 14th, 1663, and married Lady Anne Scott (age 11), daughter and heiress of Francis, second Earl of Buccleuch, on April 20th following. In 1673 he took the name of Scott, and was created Duke of Buccleuch.

Pepy's Diary. 07 Sep 1662. By and by in comes the King (age 32), and anon the Duke and his Duchess; so that, they being all together, was such a sight as I never could almost have happened to see with so much ease and leisure. They staid till it was dark, and then went away; the King (age 32) and his Queen (age 23), and my Baroness Castlemaine's (age 21) and young Crofts, in one coach and the rest in other, coaches. Here were great store of great ladies, but very few handsome. The King (age 32) and Queen (age 23) were very merry; and he would have made the Queen-Mother (age 52) believe that his Queen (age 23) was with child, and said that she said so. And the young Queen (age 23) answered, "You lye;" which was the first English word that I ever heard her say which made the King (age 32) good sport; and he would have taught her to say in English, "Confess and be hanged".

Pepy's Diary. 21 Sep 1662. Thence to the Park, where by appointment I met my brother Tom (age 28) and Mr. Cooke, and there spoke about Tom's business, and to good satisfaction. The Queen (age 23) coming by in her coach, going to her chappell at St. James's' (the first time it hath been ready for her), I crowded after her, and I got up to the room where her closet is; and there stood and saw the fine altar, ornaments, and the fryers in their habits, and the priests come in with their fine copes and many other very fine things. I heard their musique too; which may be good, but it did not appear so to me, neither as to their manner of singing, nor was it good concord to my ears, whatever the matter was. The Queene (age 52) very devout: but what pleased me best was to see my dear Baroness Castlemaine's (age 21), who, tho' a Protestant, did wait upon the Queen (age 23) to chappell.

Pepy's Diary. 06 Oct 1662. At Woolwich, Kent [Map] we mustered the yard, and then to the Hart to dinner, and then to the Rope-yard [Map], where I did vex Sir W. Pen (age 41) I know to appear so well acquainted, I thought better than he, in the business of hemp; thence to Deptford, and there looked over several businesses, and wakened the officers there; so walked to Redriffe [Map], and thence, landing Sir W. Pen (age 41) at the Tower, I to White Hall with Mr. Coventry (age 34), and so to my Lord Sandwich's (age 37) lodgings, but my Lord was not within, being at a ball this night with the King (age 32) at my Baroness Castlemaine's (age 21) at next door.

Pepy's Diary. 16 Oct 1662. Thence with Mr. Creed to Westminster Hall [Map], and by and by thither comes Captn. Ferrers, upon my sending for him, and we three to Creed's chamber, and there sat a good while and drank chocolate. Here I am told how things go at Court; that the young men get uppermost, and the old serious lords are out of favour; that Sir H. Bennet (age 44), being brought into Sir Edward Nicholas's place, Sir Charles Barkeley (age 32) is made Privy Purse; a most vicious person, and one whom Mr. Pierce, the surgeon, to-day (at which I laugh to myself), did tell me that he offered his wife £300 per annum to be his mistress. He also told me that none in Court hath more the King's ear now than Sir Charles Barkeley (age 32), and Sir H. Bennet (age 44), and my Baroness Castlemaine's (age 21), whose interest is now as great as ever and that Mrs. Haslerigge1, the great beauty, is got with child, and now brought to bed, and lays it to the King (age 32) or the Duke of York (age 29)2. He tells me too that my Lord St. Albans' is like to be Lord Treasurer: all which things do trouble me much. Here I staid talking a good while, and so by water to see Mr. Moore, who is out of bed and in a way to be well, and thence home, and with ComMr. Pett (age 52) by water to view Wood's masts that he proffers to sell, which we found bad, and so to Deptford, Kent [Map] to look over some businesses, and so home and I to my office, all our talk being upon Sir J. M. and Sir W. B.'s base carriage against him at their late being at Chatham, Kent [Map], which I am sorry to hear, but I doubt not but we shall fling Sir W. B. upon his back ere long.

Note 1. TT. Not clear which Mrs Haselbrigge this refers to. There are two possible Mrs Haselrigge's but neither appear to have married their resppective Haselrigge husbands before 1664: Elizabeth Fenwick (age 37) and Bridget Rolle.

Note 2. The child was owned by neither of the royal brothers. B.

Pepy's Diary. 20 Oct 1662. And then to see in what pomp his table was laid for himself to go to dinner; and here, among other pictures, saw the so much desired by me picture of my Baroness Castlemaine's (age 21), which is a most blessed picture; and that that I must have a copy of.

Pepy's Diary. 24 Oct 1662. This noon came to see me and sat with me a little after dinner Mr. Pierce, the chyrurgeon, who tells me how ill things go at Court: that the King (age 32) do show no countenance to any that belong to the Queen (age 23); nor, above all, to such English as she brought over with her, or hath here since, for fear they should tell her how he carries himself to Mrs. Palmer (age 21); insomuch that though he has a promise, and is sure of being made her chyrurgeon, he is at a loss what to do in it, whether to take it or no, since the King's mind is so altered in favour to all her dependants, whom she is fain to let go back into Portugall (though she brought them from their friends against their wills with promise of preferment), without doing any thing for them. But he tells me that her own physician did tell him within these three days that the Queen (age 23) do know how the King (age 32) orders things, and how he carries himself to my Baroness Castlemaine's (age 21) and others, as well as any body; but though she hath spirit enough, yet seeing that she do no good by taking notice of it, for the present she forbears it in policy; of which I am very glad. But I pray God keep us in peace; for this, with other things, do give great discontent to all people.

Pepy's Diary. 27 Oct 1662. For Dunkirk; he wonders any wise people should be so troubled thereat, and scorns all their talk against it, for that he says it was not Dunkirk, but the other places, that did and would annoy us, though we had that, as much as if we had it not. He also took notice of the new Ministers of State, Sir H. Bennet (age 44) and Sir Charles Barkeley (age 32), their bringing in, and the high game that my Baroness Castlemaine's (age 21) plays at Court (which I took occasion to mention as that that the people do take great notice of), all which he confessed.

Pepy's Diary. 31 Oct 1662. And all I do impute almost wholly to my late temperance, since my making of my vowes against wine and plays, which keeps me most happily and contentfully to my business; which God continue! Public matters are full of discontent, what with the sale of Dunkirk, and my Baroness Castlemaine's (age 21), and her faction at Court; though I know not what they would have more than to debauch the King (age 32), whom God preserve from it! And then great plots are talked to be discovered, and all the prisons in town full of ordinary people, taken from their meeting-places last. Sunday. But for certain some plots there hath been, though not brought to a head.

Pepy's Diary. 03 Nov 1662. Thence to my Lord Sandwich (age 37), from whom I receive every day more and more signs of his confidence and esteem of me. Here I met with Pierce the chyrurgeon, who tells me that my Baroness Castlemaine's (age 21) is with child; but though it be the King's, yet her [her husband] Lord (age 28) being still in town, and sometimes seeing of her, though never to eat or lie together, it will be laid to him. He tells me also how the Duke of York (age 29) is smitten in love with my Lady Chesterfield (age 22)1 (a virtuous lady, daughter to my Lord of Ormond (age 52)); and so much, that the Duchess of York (age 25) hath complained to the King (age 32) and her father (age 53) about it, and my Lady Chesterfield (age 22) is gone into the country for it. At all which I am sorry; but it is the effect of idleness, and having nothing else to employ their great spirits upon.

Note 1. Lady Elizabeth Butler (age 22), daughter of James Butler (age 52), first Duke of Ormond, second wife of Philip Stanhope (age 28), second Earl of Chesterfield. She died July, 1665 (see "Memoires de Grammont", chap. viii.). Peter Cunningham thinks that this banishment was only temporary, for, according to the Grammont Memoirs, she was in town when the Russian ambassador was in London, December, 1662, and January, 1662- 63. "It appears from the books of the Lord Steward's office... that Lord Chesterfield (age 28) set out for the country on the 12th May, 1663, and, from his 'Short Notes' referred to in the Memoirs before his Correspondence, that he remained at Bretby, in Derbyshire, with his wife, throughout the summer of that year" ("Story of Nell Gwyn", 1852, p. 189).

Pepy's Diary. 17 Nov 1662. To the Duke's to-day, but he is gone a-hunting, and therefore I to my Lord Sandwich's (age 37), and having spoke a little with him about his businesses, I to Westminster Hall [Map] and there staid long doing many businesses, and so home by the Temple [Map] and other places doing the like, and at home I found my wife dressing by appointment by her woman [Mrs. Gosnell.] that I think is to be, and her other sister being here to-day with her and my wife's brother, I took Mr. Creed, that came to dine, to an ordinary behind the Change [Map], and there dined together, and after dinner home and there spent an hour or two till almost dark, talking with my wife, and making Mrs. Gosnell sing; and then, there being no coach to be got, by water to White Hall; but Gosnell not being willing to go through bridge, we were forced to land and take water, again, and put her and her sister ashore at the Temple. I am mightily pleased with her humour and singing. At White Hall by appointment, Mr. Creed carried my wife and I to the Cockpitt [Map], and we had excellent places, and saw the King (age 32), Queen (age 23), Duke of Monmouth (age 13), his son, and my Baroness Castlemaine's (age 21), and all the fine ladies; and "The Scornful Lady", well performed. They had done by eleven o'clock, and it being fine moonshine, we took coach and home, but could wake nobody at my house, and so were fain to have my boy get through one of the windows, and so opened the door and called up the maids, and went to supper and to bed, my mind being troubled at what my wife tells me, that her woman will not come till she hears from her mother, for I am so fond of her that I am loth now not to have her, though I know it will be a great charge to me which I ought to avoid, and so will make it up in other things. So to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 15 Dec 1662. Thence walked a good while up and down the gallerys; and among others, met with Dr. Clerke, who in discourse tells me, that Sir Charles Barkeley's (age 32) greatness is only his being pimp to the King (age 32), and to my Baroness Castlemaine's (age 22). And yet for all this, that the King (age 32) is very kind to the Queen (age 24); who, he says, is one of the best women in the world. Strange how the King (age 32) is bewitched to this pretty Castlemaine (age 22).

Pepy's Diary. 23 Dec 1662. By and by comes James Pearce Surgeon, who among other things tells me that my Baroness Castlemaine's (age 22) interest at Court increases, and is more and greater than the Queen's (age 24); that she hath brought in Sir H. Bennet (age 44), and Sir Charles Barkeley (age 32); but that the Queen (age 24) is a most good lady, and takes all with the greatest meekness that may be. He tells me too that Mr. Edward Montagu (age 27) is quite broke at Court with his repute and purse; and that he lately was engaged in a quarrell against my Lord Chesterfield (age 28): but that the King (age 32) did cause it to be taken up. He tells me, too, that the King (age 32) is much concerned in the Chancellor's (age 53) sickness, and that the Chancellor (age 53) is as great, he thinks, as ever he was with the King (age 32). He also tells me what the world says of me, "that Mr. Coventry (age 34) and I do all the business of the office almost:" at which I am highly proud. He being gone I fell to business, which was very great, but got it well over by nine at night, and so home, and after supper to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 31 Dec 1662. By and by comes the King (age 32) and Queen (age 24), the Duke and Duchess, and all the great ones: and after seating themselves, the King (age 32) takes out the Duchess of York (age 25); and the Duke, the Duchess of Buckingham; the Duke of Monmouth (age 13), my Baroness Castlemaine's (age 22); and so other lords other ladies: and they danced the Bransle1.

Note 1. Branle. Espece de danse de plusieurs personnes, qui se tiennent par la main, et qui se menent tour-a-tour. "Dictionnaire de l'Academie. A country dance mentioned by Shakespeare and other dramatists under the form of brawl, which word continued to be used in the eighteenth century. "My grave Lord Keeper led the brawls; The seals and maces danced before him". Gray, 'A Long Story.'

Pepy's Diary. 31 Dec 1662. After that, the King (age 32) led a lady a single Coranto [swift and lively] and then the rest of the lords, one after another, other ladies very noble it was, and great pleasure to see. Then to country dances; the King (age 32) leading the first, which he called for; which was, says he, "Cuckolds all awry", the old dance of England. Of the ladies that danced, the Duke of Monmouth's (age 13) mistress, and my Baroness Castlemaine's (age 22), and a daughter of Sir Harry de Vicke's, were the best. The manner was, when the King (age 32) dances, all the ladies in the room, and the Queen (age 24) herself, stand up: and indeed he dances rarely, and much better that the Duke of York (age 29). Having staid here as long as I thought fit, to my infinite content, it being the greatest pleasure I could wish now to see at Court, I went out, leaving them dancing, and to Mrs. Pierce's, where I found the company had staid very long for my coming, but all gone but my wife, and so I took her home by coach and so to my Lord's again, where after some supper to bed, very weary and in a little pain from my riding a little uneasily to-night in the coach.

Pepy's Diary. 31 Dec 1662. By my last year's diligence in my office, blessed be God! I am come to a good degree of knowledge therein; and am acknowledged so by all-the world, even the Duke himself, to whom I have a good access and by that, and my being Commissioner with him for Tangier, he takes much notice of me; and I doubt not but, by the continuance of the same endeavours, I shall in a little time come to be a man much taken notice of in the world, specially being come to so great an esteem with Mr. Coventry (age 34). The only weight that lies heavy upon my mind is the ending the business with my uncle Thomas about my-dead uncle's estate, which is very ill on our side, and I fear when all is done I must be forced to maintain my father myself, or spare a good deal towards it out of my own purse, which will be a very great pull back to me in my fortune. But I must be contented and bring it to an issue one way or other. Publique matters stand thus: the King (age 32) is bringing, as is said, his family, and Navy, and all other his charges, to a less expence. In the mean time, himself following his pleasures more than with good advice he would do; at least, to be seen to all the world to do so. His dalliance with my Baroness Castlemaine's (age 22) being publique, every day, to his great reproach; and his favouring of none at Court so much as those that are the confidants of his pleasure, as Sir H. Bennet (age 44) and Sir Charles Barkeley (age 32); which, good God! put it into his heart to mend, before he makes himself too much contemned by his people for it! The Duke of Monmouth (age 13) is in so great splendour at Court, and so dandled by the King (age 32), that some doubt, if the King (age 32) should have no child by the Queen (age 24) (which there is yet no appearance of), whether he would not be acknowledged for a lawful son; and that there will be a difference follow upon it between the Duke of York (age 29) and him; which God prevent!

Pepy's Diary. 01 Jan 1663. Lay with my wife at my Lord's lodgings, where I have been these two nights, till 10 o'clock with great pleasure talking, then I rose and to White Hall, where I spent a little time walking among the courtiers, which I perceive I shall be able to do with great confidence, being now beginning to be pretty well known among them. Then to my wife again, and found Mrs. Sarah with us in the chamber we lay in. Among other discourse, Mrs. Sarah tells us how the King (age 32) sups at least four or [five] times every week with my Baroness Castlemaine's (age 22); and most often stays till the morning with her, and goes home through the garden all alone privately, and that so as the very centrys take notice of it and speak of it. She tells me, that about a month ago she [Baroness Castlemaine (age 22)] quickened at my Lord Gerard's (age 45) at dinner, and cried out that she was undone; and all the lords and men were fain to quit the room, and women called to help her. In fine, I find that there is nothing almost but bawdry at Court from top to bottom, as, if it were fit, I could instance, but it is not necessary; only they say my Lord Chesterfield (age 29), groom of the stole to the Queen (age 24), is either gone or put away from the Court upon the score of his lady's (age 22) having smitten the Duke of York (age 29), so as that he is watched by the Duchess of York (age 25), and his lady (age 22) is retired into the country upon it. How much of this is true, God knows, but it is common talk.

Pepy's Diary. 25 Jan 1663. By and by comes in my Lady Wright, and so I went away, end after talking with Captn. Ferrers, who tells me of my Baroness Castlemaine's (age 22) and Sir Charles Barkeley (age 33) being the great favourites at Court, and growing every day more and more; and that upon a late dispute between my Lord Chesterfield (age 29), that is the Queen's (age 24) Lord Chamberlain, and Mr. Edward Montagu (age 28), her Master of the Horse, who should have the precedence in taking the Queen's (age 24) upperhand abroad out of the house, which Mr. Montagu challenges, it was given to my Lord Chesterfield (age 29). So that I perceive he goes down the wind in honour as well as every thing else, every day.

Pepy's Diary. 01 Feb 1663. This day Creed and I walking in White Hall garden did see the King (age 32) coming privately from my Baroness Castlemaine's (age 22); which is a poor thing for a Prince to do; and I expressed my sense of it to Creed in terms which I should not have done, but that I believe he is trusty in that point.

Pepy's Diary. 08 Feb 1663. Another story was how my Baroness Castlemaine's (age 22), a few days since, had Mrs. Stuart (age 15) to an entertainment, and at night began a frolique that they two must be married, and married they were, with ring and all other ceremonies of church service, and ribbands and a sack-posset in bed, and flinging the stocking; but in the close, it is said that my Baroness Castlemaine (age 22), who was the bridegroom, rose, and the King (age 32) came and took her place with pretty Mrs. Stuart (age 15). This is said to be very true.

Pepy's Diary. 08 Feb 1663. Another story was how Captain Ferrers and W. Howe both have often, through my Baroness Castlemaine's (age 22) window, seen her go to bed and Sir Charles Barkeley (age 33) in the chamber all the while with her. But the other day Captn. Ferrers going to Sir Charles to excuse his not being so timely at his arms the other day, Sir Charles swearing and cursing told him before a great many other gentlemen that he would not suffer any man of the King's Guards to be absent from his lodging a night without leave. Not but that, says he, once a week or so I know a gentleman must go..., and I am not for denying it to any man, but however he shall be bound to ask leave to lie abroad, and to give account of his absence, that we may know what guard the King (age 32) has to depend upon. The little Duke of Monmouth (age 13), it seems, is ordered to take place of all Dukes, and so to follow Prince Rupert (age 43) now, before the Duke of Buckingham (age 35), or any else.

Pepy's Diary. 17 Feb 1663. Coming home I brought Mr. Pickering as far as the Temple [Map], who tells me the story is very true of a child being dropped at the ball at Court; and that the King (age 32) had it in his closett a week after, and did dissect it; and making great sport of it, said that in his opinion it must have been a month and three hours old; and that, whatever others think, he hath the greatest loss (it being a boy, as he says), that hath lost a subject by the business. He tells me, too, that the other story, of my Baroness Castlemaine's (age 22) and Stuart's (age 15) marriage, is certain, and that it was in order to the King's coming to Stuart, as is believed generally. He tells me that Sir H. Bennet (age 45) is a Catholique, and how all the Court almost is changed to the worse since his coming in, they being afeard of him. And that the Queen-Mother's (age 53) Court is now the greatest of all; and that our own Queen (age 24) hath little or no company come to her, which I know also to be very true, and am sorry to see it.

Pepy's Diary. 23 Feb 1663. So to bed. This day I was told that my Baroness Castlemaine's (age 22) hath all the King's Christmas presents, made him by the peers, given to her, which is a most abominable thing; and that at the great ball she was much richer in jewells than the Queen (age 24) and Duchess (age 25) put both together.

Pepy's Diary. 23 Feb 1663. By and by took coach, and to the Duke's house, where we saw it well acted, though the play hath little good in it, being most pleased to see the little girl dance in boy's apparel, she having very fine legs, only bends in the hams, as I perceive all women do. The play being done, we took coach and to Court, and there got good places, and saw "The Wilde Gallant", performed by the King's house, but it was ill acted, and the play so poor a thing as I never saw in my life almost, and so little answering the name, that from beginning to end, I could not, nor can at this time, tell certainly which was the Wild Gallant. The King (age 32) did not seem pleased at all, all the whole play, nor any body else, though Mr. Clerke (age 40) whom we met here did commend it to us. My Baroness Castlemaine's (age 22) was all worth seeing tonight, and little Steward (age 15). Mrs. Wells (age 21) do appear at Court again, and looks well; so that, it may be, the late report of laying the dropped child to her was not true.

Pepy's Diary. 01 Mar 1663. Lord's Day. Up and walked to White Hall, to the Chappell, where preached one Dr. Lewes, said heretofore to have been a great witt; but he read his sermon every word, and that so brokenly and so low, that nobody could hear at any distance, nor I anything worth hearing that sat near. But, which was strange, he forgot to make any prayer before sermon, which all wonder at, but they impute it to his forgetfulness. After sermon a very fine anthem; so I up into the house among the courtiers, seeing the fine ladies, and, above all, my Baroness Castlemaine's (age 22), who is above all, that only she I can observe for true beauty. The King (age 32) and Queen (age 24) being set to dinner I went to Mr. Fox's (age 35), and there dined with him. Much genteel company, and, among other things, I hear for certain that peace is concluded between the King (age 32) of France and the Pope; and also I heard the reasons given by our Parliament yesterday to the King (age 32) why they dissent from him in matter of Indulgence, which are very good quite through, and which I was glad to hear.

Pepy's Diary. 07 Mar 1663. So I left him, and Creed and I to Westminster Hall [Map], and there walked a good while. He told me how for some words of my Baroness Gerard's1 against my Baroness Castlemaine's (age 22) to the Queen (age 24), the King (age 32) did the other day affront her in going out to dance with her at a ball, when she desired it as the ladies do, and is since forbid attending the Queen (age 24) by the King (age 32); which is much talked of, my Lord her husband being a great favourite.

Note 1. Jane, wife of Lord Gerard (age 45) (see ante, January 1st, 1662-63). The King (age 32) had previously put a slight upon Baroness Gerard, probably at the instigation of Baroness Castlemaine's (age 22), as the two ladies were not friends. On the 4th of January of this same year Baroness Gerard had given a supper to the King (age 32) and Queen (age 24), when the King (age 32) withdrew from the party and proceeded to the house of Baroness Castlemaine's (age 22), and remained there throughout the evening (see Steinman's "Memoir of Barbara, Duchess of Cleveland", 1871, p. 47).

Pepy's Diary. 04 Apr 1663. After dinner to Hide Park; my aunt, Mrs. Wight and I in one coach, and all the rest of the women in Mrs. Turner's (age 40); Roger being gone in haste to the Parliament about the carrying this business of the Papists, in which it seems there is great contest on both sides, and my uncle and father staying together behind. At the Park was the King (age 32), and in another coach my Baroness Castlemaine's (age 22), they greeting one another at every tour1. Here about an hour, and so leaving all by the way we home and found the house as clean as if nothing had been done there to-day from top to bottom, which made us give the cook 12d. a piece, each of us.

Note 1. The company drove round and round the Ring in Hyde Park. The following two extracts illustrate this, and the second one shows how the circuit was called the Tour: "Here (1697) the people of fashion take the diversion of the Ring. In a pretty high place, which lies very open, they have surrounded a circumference of two or three hundred paces diameter with a sorry kind of balustrade, or rather with postes placed upon stakes but three feet from the ground; and the coaches drive round this. When they have turned for some time round one way they face about and turn t'other: so rowls the world!"-Wilson's Memoirs, 1719, p. 126.

Pepy's Diary. 25 Apr 1663. Lastly, I did hear that the Queen (age 24) is much grieved of late at the King's neglecting her, he having not supped once with her this quarter of a year, and almost every night with my Baroness Castlemaine's (age 22); who hath been with him this St. George's feast at Windsor, and came home with him last night; and, which is more, they say is removed as to her bed from her own home to a chamber in White Hall, next to the King's own; which I am sorry to hear, though I love her much.

Pepy's Diary. 29 Apr 1663. Up betimes, and after having at my office settled some accounts for my Lord Sandwich (age 37), I went forth, and taking up my father at my brother's, took coach and towards Chelsey, 'lighting at an alehouse near the Gatehouse at Westminster to drink our morning draught, and so up again and to Chelsey, where we found my Lord all alone at a little table with one joynt of meat at dinner; we sat down and very merry talking, and mightily extolling the manner of his retirement, and the goodness of his diet, which indeed is so finely dressed: the mistress of the house, Mrs. Becke, having been a woman of good condition heretofore, a merchant's wife, and hath all things most excellently dressed; among others, her cakes admirable, and so good that my Lord's words were, they were fit to present to my Baroness Castlemaine's (age 22). From ordinary discourse my Lord fell to talk of other matters to me, of which chiefly the second part of the fray, which he told me a little while since of, between Mr. Edward Montagu (age 28) and himself, which is that after that he had since been with him three times and no notice taken at all of any difference between them, and yet since that he hath forborn coming to him almost two months, and do speak not only slightly of my Lord every where, but hath complained to my Chancellor (age 54) of him, and arrogated all that ever my Lord hath done to be only by his direction and persuasion. Whether he hath done the like to the King (age 32) or no, my Lord knows not; but my Lord hath been with the King (age 32) since, and finds all things fair; and my Chancellor (age 54) hath told him of it, but with so much contempt of Mr. Montagu, as my Lord knows himself very secure against any thing the fool can do; and notwithstanding all this, so noble is his nature, that he professes himself ready to show kindness and pity to Mr. Montagu on any occasion. My Lord told me of his presenting Sir H. Bennet (age 45) with a gold cupp of £100, which he refuses, with a compliment; but my Lord would have been glad he had taken it, that he might have had some obligations upon him which he thinks possible the other may refuse to prevent it; not that he hath any reason to doubt his kindness.

Pepy's Diary. 29 Apr 1663. The Queen (age 24), my Lord tells me, he thinks he hath incurred some displeasure with, for his kindness to his neighbour, my Baroness Castlemaine's (age 22). My Lord tells me he hath no reason to fall for her sake, whose wit, management, nor interest, is not likely to hold up any man, and therefore he thinks it not his obligation to stand for her against his own interest. The Duke and Mr. Coventry (age 35) my Lord says he is very well with, and fears not but they will show themselves his very good friends, specially at this time, he being able to serve them, and they needing him, which he did not tell me wherein. Talking of the business of Tangier, he tells me that my Lord Tiviott is gone away without the least respect paid to him, nor indeed to any man, but without his commission; and (if it be true what he says) having laid out seven or eight thousand pounds in commodities for the place; and besides having not only disobliged all the Commissioners for Tangier, but also Sir Charles Barkeley (age 33) the other day, who, speaking in behalf of Colonel Fitz-Gerald, that having been deputy-governor there already, he ought to have expected and had the governorship upon the death or removal of the former governor. And whereas it is said that he and his men are Irish, which is indeed the main thing that hath moved the King (age 32) and Council to put in Tiviott to prevent the Irish having too great and the whole command there under Fitz-Gerald; he further said that there was never an Englishman fit to command Tangier; my Lord Tiviott answered yes, that there were many more fit than himself or Fitz-Gerald either. So that Fitz-Gerald being so great with the Duke of York (age 29), and being already made deputy-governor, independent of my Lord Tiviott, and he being also left here behind him for a while, my Lord Sandwich (age 37) do think that, putting all these things together, the few friends he hath left, and the ill posture of his affairs, my Lord Tiviott is not a man of the conduct and management that either people take him to be, or is fit for the command of the place. And here, speaking of the Duke of York (age 29) and Sir Charles Barkeley (age 33), my Lord tells me that he do very much admire the good management, and discretion, and nobleness of the Duke, that whatever he may be led by him or Mr. Coventry (age 35) singly in private, yet he did not observe that in publique matters, but he did give as ready hearing and as good acceptance to any reasons offered by any other man against the opinions of them, as he did to them, and would concur in the prosecution of it. Then we came to discourse upon his own sea accompts, and came to a resolution what and how to proceed in them; wherein he resolved, though I offered him a way of evading the greatest part of his debt honestly, by making himself debtor to the Parliament, before the King's time, which he might justly do, yet he resolved to go openly and nakedly in it, and put himself to the kindness of the King (age 32) and Duke, which humour, I must confess, and so did tell him (with which he was not a little pleased) had thriven very well with him, being known to be a man of candid and open dealing, without any private tricks or hidden designs as other men commonly have in what they do.

Pepy's Diary. 01 May 1663. That being done, and all things agreed on, we went down, and after a glass of wine we all took horse, and I, upon a horse hired of Mr. Game, saw him out of London, at the end of Bishopsgate Street, and so I turned and rode, with some trouble, through the fields, and then Holborn, &c., towards Hide Park, whither all the world, I think, are going, and in my going, almost thither, met W. Howe coming galloping upon a little crop black nag; it seems one that was taken in some ground of my Lord's, by some mischance being left by his master, a thief; this horse being found with black cloth ears on, and a false mayne, having none of his own; and I back again with him to the Chequer, at Charing Cross, and there put up my own dull jade, and by his advice saddled a delicate stone-horse of Captain Ferrers's, and with that rid in state to the Park, where none better mounted than I almost, but being in a throng of horses, seeing the King's riders showing tricks with their managed horses, which were very strange, my stone-horse was very troublesome, and begun to, fight with other horses, to the dangering him and myself, and with much ado I got out, and kept myself out of harm's way. Here I saw nothing good, neither the King (age 32), nor my Baroness Castlemaine's (age 22), nor any great ladies or beauties being there, there being more pleasure a great deal at an ordinary day; or else those few good faces that there were choked up with the many bad ones, there being people of all sorts in coaches there, to some thousands, I think. Going thither in the highway, just by the Park gate, I met a boy in a sculler boat, carried by a dozen people at least, rowing as hard as he could drive, it seems upon some wager.

Pepy's Diary. 11 May 1663. Thence to the Tangier Committee, where we should have concluded in sending Captain Cuttance and the rest to Tangier to deliberate upon the design of the Mole before they begin to work upon it, but there being not a committee (my Lord intending to be there but was taken up at my Baroness Castlemayne's (age 22)) I parted and went homeward, after a little discourse with Mr. Pierce the surgeon, who tells me that my Baroness Castlemaine's (age 22) hath now got lodgings near the King's chamber at Court; and that the other day Dr. Clerke and he did dissect two bodies, a man and a woman; before the King (age 32), with which the King (age 32) was highly pleased.

Pepy's Diary. 14 May 1663. Then abroad to the Temple [Map], and up and down about business, and met Mr. Moore; and with him to an alehouse in Holborn; where in discourse he told me that he fears the King (age 32) will be tempted to endeavour the setting the Crown upon the little Duke (age 14), which may cause troubles; which God forbid, unless it be his due! He told me my Lord do begin to settle to business again, which I am glad of, for he must not sit out, now he has done his own business by getting his estate settled, and that the King (age 32) did send for him the other day to my Baroness Castlemaine's (age 22), to play at cards, where he lost £50; for which I am sorry, though he says my Lord was pleased at it, and said he would be glad at any time to lose £50 for the King (age 32) to send for him to play, which I do not so well like.

Pepy's Diary. 15 May 1663. After dinner I went up to Sir Thomas Crew (age 39), who lies there not very well in his head, being troubled with vapours and fits of dizziness: and there I sat talking with him all the afternoon from one discourse to another, the most was upon the unhappy posture of things at this time; that the King (age 32) do mind nothing but pleasures, and hates the very sight or thoughts of business; that my Baroness Castlemaine's (age 22) rules him, who, he says, hath all the tricks of Aretin1 that are to be practised to give pleasure. In which he is too able .... but what is the unhappiness in that, as the Italian proverb says, "lazzo dritto non vuolt consiglio [Translation: An erection seeks no advice]". If any of the sober counsellors give him good advice, and move him in anything that is to his good and honour, the other part, which are his counsellers of pleasure, take him when he is with my Baroness Castlemaine's (age 22), and in a humour of delight, and then persuade him that he ought not to hear nor listen to the advice of those old dotards or counsellors that were heretofore his enemies: when, God knows! it is they that now-a-days do most study his honour. It seems the present favourites now are my Lord Bristol (age 50), Duke of Buckingham (age 35), Sir H. Bennet (age 45), my Lord Ashley (age 41), and Sir Charles Barkeley (age 33); who, among them, have cast my Chancellor (age 54) upon his back, past ever getting up again; there being now little for him to do, and he waits at Court attending to speak to the King (age 32) as others do: which I pray God may prove of good effects, for it is feared it will be the same with my Lord Treasurer (age 56) shortly. But strange to hear how my Lord Ashley (age 41), by my Lord Bristol's (age 50) means (he being brought over to the Catholique party against the Bishopps, whom he hates to the death, and publicly rails against them; not that he is become a Catholique, but merely opposes the Bishopps; and yet, for aught I hear, the Bishopp of London (age 64) keeps as great with the King (age 32) as ever) is got into favour, so much that, being a man of great business and yet of pleasure, and drolling too, he, it is thought, will be made Lord Treasurer (age 56) upon the death or removal of the good old man. My Lord Albemarle (age 54), I hear, do bear through and bustle among them, and will not be removed from the King's good opinion and favour, though none of the Cabinett; but yet he is envied enough. It is made very doubtful whether the King (age 32) do not intend the making of the Duke of Monmouth (age 14) legitimate2; but surely the Commons of England will never do it, nor the Duke of York (age 29) suffer it, whose lady (age 26), I am told, is very troublesome to him by her jealousy.

Note 1. An allusion to Aretin's infamous letters and sonnets accompanying the as infamous "Postures" engraved by Marc Antonio from the designs of Julio Romano (Steinman's "Memoir of Barbara, Duchess of Cleveland", privately printed, 1871).

Note 2. Thomas Ross, Monmouth's tutor, put the idea into his head that Charles II had married his mother. The report was sedulously spread abroad, and obtained some kind of credence, until, in June, 1678, the King (age 32) set the matter at rest by publishing a declaration, which was entered in the Council book and registered in Chancery. The words of the declaration are: "That to avoid any dispute which might happen in time to come concerning the succession of the Crown, he (Charles) did declare, in the presence of Almighty God, that he never gave, nor made any contract of marriage, nor was married to Mrs. Barlow, alias Waters, the Duke of Monmouth's (age 14) mother, nor to any other woman whatsoever, but to his present wife, Queen (age 24) Catherine, then living".

Pepy's Diary. 18 May 1663. Thence for an hour Creed and I walked to White Hall, and into the Park, seeing the Queen (age 24) and Maids of Honour passing through the house going to the Park. But above all, Mrs. Stuart (age 15) is a fine woman, and they say now a common mistress to the King (age 32)1, as my Baroness Castlemaine's (age 22) is; which is a great pity.

Note 1. The King (age 32) said to 'la belle' Stuart (age 15), who resisted all his importunities, that he hoped he should live to see her "ugly and willing" (Lord Dartmouth's note to Burnet's "Own Time", vol. i., p. 436, ed. 1823).

Pepy's Diary. 04 Jun 1663. By and by comes Will Howe to see us, and walked with me an hour in the garden, talking of my Lord's falling to business again, which I am glad of, and his coming to lie at his lodgings at White Hall again. The match between Sir J. Cutts and my Lady Jemimah, he says, is likely to go on; for which I am glad. In the Hall to-day James Pearce Surgeon tells me that the Queen (age 24) begins to be brisk, and play like other ladies, and is quite another woman from what she was, of which I am glad. It may be, it may make the King (age 33) like her the better, and forsake his two mistresses, my Baroness Castlemaine's (age 22) and Stewart. He gone we sat at the office till night, and then home, where my wife is come, and has been with her father all the afternoon, and so home, and she and I to walk in the garden, giving ear to her discourse of her father's affairs, and I found all well, so after putting things in order at my office, home to supper and to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 13 Jun 1663. Thence to see Mrs. Hunt, which we did and were much made of; and in our way saw my Baroness Castlemaine's (age 22), who, I fear, is not so handsome as I have taken her for, and now she begins to decay something. This is my wife's opinion also, for which I am sorry.

Pepy's Diary. 30 Jun 1663. Thus, by God's blessing, ends this book of two years; I being in all points in good health and a good way to thrive and do well. Some money I do and can lay up, but not much, being worth now above £700, besides goods of all sorts. My wife in the country with Ashwell, her woman, with my father; myself at home with W. Hewer (age 21) and my cooke-maid Hannah, my boy Wayneman being lately run away from me. In my office, my repute and understanding good, especially with the Duke (age 29) and Mr. Coventry (age 35); only the rest of the officers do rather envy than love me, I standing in most of their lights, specially Sir W. Batten (age 62), whose cheats I do daily oppose to his great trouble, though he appears mighty kind and willing to keep friendship with me, while Sir J. Minnes (age 64), like a dotard, is led by the nose by him. My wife and I, by my late jealousy, for which I am truly to be blamed, have not the kindness between us which we used and ought to have, and I fear will be lost hereafter if I do not take course to oblige her and yet preserve my authority. Publique matters are in an ill condition; Parliament sitting and raising four subsidys for the King (age 33), which is but a little, considering his wants; and yet that parted withal with great hardness. They being offended to see so much money go, and no debts of the publique's paid, but all swallowed by a luxurious Court: which the King (age 33) it is believed and hoped will retrench in a little time, when he comes to see the utmost of the revenue which shall be settled on him: he expecting to have his £1,200,000 made good to him, which is not yet done by above £150,000, as he himself reports to the House. My differences with my uncle Thomas at a good quiett, blessed be God! and other matters. The town full of the great overthrow lately given to the Spaniards by the Portugalls, they being advanced into the very middle of Portugall. The weather wet for two or three months together beyond belief, almost not one fair day coming between till this day, which has been a very pleasant day and the first pleasant day this summer. The charge of the Navy intended to be limited to £200,000 per annum, the ordinary charge of it, and that to be settled upon the Customs. The King (age 33) yet greatly taken up with Madam Castlemaine (age 22) and Mrs. Stewart (age 15), which God of Heaven put an end to! Myself very studious to learn what I can of all things necessary for my place as an officer of the Navy, reading lately what concerns measuring of timber and knowledge of the tides. I have of late spent much time with Creed, being led to it by his business of his accounts, but I find him a fellow of those designs and tricks, that there is no degree of true friendship to be made with him, and therefore I must cast him off, though he be a very understanding man, and one that much may be learned of as to cunning and judging of other men. Besides, too, I do perceive more and more that my time of pleasure and idleness of any sort must be flung off to attend to getting of some money and the keeping of my family in order, which I fear by my wife's liberty may be otherwise lost.

Pepy's Diary. 03 Jul 1663. Up and he home, and I with Sir J. Minnes (age 64) and Sir W. Batten (age 62) by coach to Westminster, to St. James's, thinking to meet Sir G. Carteret (age 53), and to attend the Duke (age 29), but he not coming we broke up, and so to Westminster Hall [Map], and there meeting with Mr. Moore he tells me great news that my Baroness Castlemaine's (age 22) is fallen from Court, and this morning retired. He gives me no account of the reason of it, but that it is so: for which I am sorry: and yet if the King (age 33) do it to leave off not only her but all other mistresses, I should be heartily glad of it, that he may fall to look after business. I hear my Lord Digby (age 50) is condemned at Court for his speech, and that my Chancellor (age 54) grows great again.

Pepy's Diary. 04 Jul 1663. Thence with Creed to the King's Head ordinary; but, coming late, dined at the second table very well for 12d.; and a pretty gentleman in our company, who confirms my Baroness Castlemaine's (age 22) being gone from Court, but knows not the reason; he told us of one wipe the Queen (age 24) a little while ago did give her, when she came in and found the Queen (age 24) under the dresser's hands, and had been so long:

Pepy's Diary. 04 Jul 1663. Thence with Creed to hire a coach to carry us to Hide Park, to-day there being a general muster of the King's Guards, horse and foot: but they demand so high, that I, spying Mr. Cutler the merchant, did take notice of him, and he going into his coach, and telling me that he was going to shew a couple of Swedish strangers the muster, I asked and went along with him; where a goodly sight to see so many fine horses and officers, and the King (age 33), Duke (age 29), and others come by a-horseback, and the two Queens (age 24) in the Queen-Mother's (age 53) coach, my Baroness Castlemaine's (age 22) not being there.And after long being there, I 'light, and walked to the place where the King (age 33), Duke, &c., did stand to see the horse and foot march by and discharge their guns, to show a French Marquisse (for whom this muster was caused) the goodness of our firemen; which indeed was very good, though not without a slip now and then; and one broadside close to our coach we had going out of the Park, even to the nearness as to be ready to burn our hairs. Yet methought all these gay men are not the soldiers that must do the King's business, it being such as these that lost the old King all he had, and were beat by the most ordinary fellows that could be.

Pepy's Diary. 09 Jul 1663. Dined at home, and Mr. Moore in the afternoon comes to me and concluded not to go. Sir W. Batten (age 62) and I sat a little this afternoon at the office, and thence I by water to Deptford, and there mustered the Yard, purposely, God forgive me, to find out Bagwell (age 26), a carpenter, whose wife is a pretty woman, that I might have some occasion of knowing him and forcing her to come to the office again, which I did so luckily that going thence he and his wife did of themselves meet me in the way to thank me for my old kindness, but I spoke little to her, but shall give occasion for her coming to me. Her husband went along with me to show me Sir W. Pen's (age 42) lodging, which I knew before, but only to have a time of speaking to him and sounding him. So left and I went in to Sir W. Pen (age 42), who continues ill, and worse, I think, than before. He tells me my Baroness Castlemaine (age 22) was at Court, for all this talk this week, which I am glad to hear; but it seems the King (age 33) is stranger than ordinary to her.

Pepy's Diary. 10 Jul 1663. Up late and by water to Westminster Hall [Map], where I met Pierce the chirurgeon, who tells me that for certain the King (age 33) is grown colder to my Baroness Castlemaine's (age 22) than ordinary, and that he believes he begins to love the Queen (age 24), and do make much of her, more than he used to do.

Pepy's Diary. 13 Jul 1663. By and by the King (age 33) and Queen (age 24), who looked in this dress (a white laced waistcoat and a crimson short pettycoat, and her hair dressed ci la negligence) mighty pretty; and the King (age 33) rode hand in hand with her. Here was also my Baroness Castlemaine (age 22) rode among the rest of the ladies; but the King (age 33) took, methought, no notice of her; nor when they 'light did any body press (as she seemed to expect, and staid for it) to take her down, but was taken down by her own gentleman. She looked mighty out of humour, and had a yellow plume in her hat (which all took notice of), and yet is very handsome, but very melancholy: nor did any body speak to her, or she so much as smile or speak to any body. I followed them up into White Hall, and into the Queen's (age 24) presence, where all the ladies walked, talking and fiddling with their hats and feathers, and changing and trying one another's by one another's heads, and laughing. But it was the finest sight to me, considering their great beautys and dress, that ever I did see in all my life. But, above all, Mrs. Stewart (age 16) in this dress, with her hat cocked and a red plume, with her sweet eye, little Roman nose, and excellent taille, is now the greatest beauty I ever saw, I think, in my life; and, if ever woman can, do exceed my Baroness Castlemaine's (age 22), at least in this dress nor do I wonder if the King (age 33) changes, which I verily believe is the reason of his coldness to my Baroness Castlemaine's (age 22). Here late, with much ado I left to look upon them, and went away, and by water, in a boat with other strange company, there being no other to be had, and out of him into a sculler half to the bridge, and so home and to Sir W. Batten (age 62), where I staid telling him and Sir J. Minnes (age 64) and Mrs. Turner (age 40), with great mirth, my being frighted at Chatham, Kent [Map] by young Edgeborough, and so home to supper and to bed, before I sleep fancying myself to sport with Mrs. Stewart (age 16) with great pleasure.

Pepy's Diary. 22 Jul 1663. Thence to my Lord Crew's. My Lord not being come home, I met and staid below with Captain Ferrers, who was come to wait upon my Lady Jemimah to St. James's, she being one of the four ladies that hold up the mantle at the christening this afternoon of the Duke's (age 29) child (a boy). In discourse of the ladies at Court, Captain Ferrers tells me that my Baroness Castlemaine's (age 22) is now as great again as ever she was; and that her going away was only a fit of her own upon some slighting words of the King (age 33), so that she called for her coach at a quarter of an hour's warning, and went to Richmond; and the King (age 33) the next morning, under pretence of going a-hunting, went to see her and make friends, and never was a-hunting at all. After which she came back to Court, and commands the King (age 33) as much as ever, and hath and doth what she will. No longer ago than last night, there was a private entertainment made for the King (age 33) and Queen (age 24) at the Duke of Buckingham's (age 35), and she: was not invited: but being at my [her aunt] Lady Suffolk's (age 41), her aunt's (where my Lady Jemimah and Lord Sandwich (age 37) dined) yesterday, she was heard to say, "Well; much good may it do them, and for all that I will be as merry as they:" and so she went home and caused a great supper to be prepared. And after the King (age 33) had been with the Queen (age 24) at Wallingford House, he came to my Baroness Castlemaine's (age 22), and was there all night, and my Lord Sandwich (age 37) with him, which was the reason my Lord lay in town all night, which he has not done a great while before. He tells me he believes that, as soon as the King (age 33) can get a husband for Mrs. Stewart (age 16) however, my Baroness Castlemaine's (age 22) nose will be out of joynt; for that she comes to be in great esteem, and is more handsome than she. I found by his words that my Lord Sandwich (age 37) finds some pleasure in the country where he now is, whether he means one of the daughters of the house or no I know not, but hope the contrary, that he thinks he is very well pleased with staying there, but yet upon breaking up of the Parliament, which the King (age 33) by a message to-day says shall be on Monday next, he resolves to go.

Pepy's Diary. 31 Jul 1663. And I am sorry to hear what he tells me that Sir Charles Barkeley (age 33) hath still such power over the King (age 33), as to be able to fetch him from the Council-table to my Baroness Castlemaine's (age 22) when he pleases. He tells me also, as a friend, the great injury that he thinks I do myself by being so severe in the Yards, and contracting the ill-will of the whole Navy for those offices, singly upon myself. Now I discharge a good conscience therein, and I tell him that no man can (nor do he say any say it) charge me with doing wrong; but rather do as many good offices as any man. They think, he says, that I have a mind to get a good name with the King (age 33) and Duke, who he tells me do not consider any such thing; but I shall have as good thanks to let all alone, and do as the rest. But I believe the contrary; and yet I told him I never go to the Duke (age 29) alone, as others do, to talk of my own services. However, I will make use of his council, and take some course to prevent having the single ill-will of the office.

Pepy's Diary. 31 Jul 1663. But he tells me my Lord hath lost much honour in standing so long and so much for that coxcomb Pickering, and at last not carrying it for him; but hath his name struck out by the King (age 33) and Queen (age 24) themselves after he had been in ever since the Queen's (age 24) coming. But he tells me he believes that either Sir H. Bennet (age 45), my Baroness Castlemaine (age 22), or Sir Charles Barkeley (age 33) had received some money for the place, and so the King (age 33) could not disappoint them, but was forced to put out this fool rather than a better man.

Pepy's Diary. 11 Aug 1663. Up and to my office, whither, by and by, my brother Tom (age 29) came, and I did soundly rattle him for his neglecting to see and please the Joyces as he has of late done. I confess I do fear that he do not understand his business, nor will do any good in his trade, though he tells me that he do please every body and that he gets money, but I shall not believe it till I see a state of his accounts, which I have ordered him to bring me before he sees me any more. We met and sat at the office all the morning, and at noon I to the 'Change [Map], where I met James Pearce Surgeon, who tells me that the King (age 33) comes to towne this day, from Tunbridge [Map], to stay a day or two, and then fetch the Queen (age 24) from thence, who he says is grown a very debonnaire lady, and now hugs him, and meets him gallopping upon the road, and all the actions of a fond and pleasant lady that can be, that he believes has a chat now and then of Mrs. Stewart (age 16), but that there is no great danger of her, she being only an innocent, young, raw girl; but my Baroness Castlemaine's (age 22), who rules the King (age 33) in matters of state, and do what she list with him, he believes is now falling quite out of favour.

Pepy's Diary. 22 Sep 1663. This day the King (age 33) and Queen (age 24) are to come to Oxford, Oxfordshire [Map]. I hear my Baroness Castlemaine (age 22) is for certain gone to Oxford, Oxfordshire [Map] to meet him, having lain within here at home this week or two, supposed to have miscarried; but for certain is as great in favour as heretofore;1 at least Mrs. Sarah at my Lord's, who hears all from their own family, do say so.

Note 1. According to Collins, [her illegitimate son] Henry Fitzroy, Baroness Castlemaine's (age 22) second son by Charles II, was born on September 20th, 1663. He was the first Duke of Grafton. B.

On 28 Sep 1663 [her illegitimate son] Henry Fitzroy 1st Duke Grafton was born illegitimately to King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 33) and Barbara Villiers 1st Duchess of Cleveland (age 22).

Pepy's Diary. 13 Oct 1663. My Baroness Castlemaine's (age 22), I hear, is in as great favour as ever, and the King (age 33) supped with her the very first night he came from Bath: and last night and the night before supped with her; when there being a chine of beef to roast, and the tide rising into their kitchen that it could not be roasted there, and the cook telling her of it, she answered, "Zounds! she must set the house on fire but it should be roasted!" So it was carried to Mrs. Sarah's husband's, and there it was roasted.

Pepy's Diary. 20 Oct 1663. Thence home, and took my wife by coach to White Hall, and she set down at my Lord's lodgings, I to a Committee of Tangier, and thence with her homeward, calling at several places by the way. Among others at Paul's Churchyard, and while I was in Kirton's shop, a fellow came to offer kindness or force to my wife in the coach, but she refusing, he went away, after the coachman had struck him, and he the coachman. So I being called, went thither, and the fellow coming out again of a shop, I did give him a good cuff or two on the chops, and seeing him not oppose me, I did give him another; at last found him drunk, of which I was glad, and so left him, and home, and so to my office awhile, and so home to supper and to bed. This evening, at my Lord's lodgings, Mrs. Sarah talking with my wife and I how the Queen (age 24) do, and how the King (age 33) tends her being so ill. She tells us that the Queen's (age 24) sickness is the spotted fever; that she was as full of the spots as a leopard which is very strange that it should be no more known; but perhaps it is not so. And that the King (age 33) do seem to take it much to heart, for that he hath wept before her; but, for all that; that he hath not missed one night since she was sick, of supping with my Baroness Castlemaine's (age 22); which I believe is true, for she [Sarah] says that her husband hath dressed the suppers every night; and I confess I saw him myself coming through the street dressing of a great supper to-night, which Sarah says is also for the King (age 33) and her; which is a very strange thing.

Pepy's Diary. 09 Nov 1663. Thence to Westminster Hall [Map], where I met with Mr. Pierce, chyrurgeon; and among other things he asked me seriously whether I knew anything of my Lord's being out of favour with the King (age 33); and told me, that for certain the King (age 33) do take mighty notice of my Lord's living obscurely in a corner not like himself, and becoming the honour that he is come to. I was sorry to hear, and the truth is, from my Lord's discourse among his people (which I am told) of the uncertainty of princes' favours, and his melancholy keeping from Court, I am doubtful of some such thing; but I seemed wholly strange to him in it, but will make my use of it. He told me also how loose the Court is, nobody looking after business, but every man his lust and gain; and how the King (age 33) is now become besotted upon Mrs. Stewart (age 16), that he gets into corners, and will be with her half an houre together kissing her to the observation of all the world; and she now stays by herself and expects it, as my Baroness Castlemaine's (age 22) did use to do; to whom the King (age 33), he says, is still kind, so as now and then he goes to have a chat with her as he believes; but with no such fondness as he used to do. But yet it is thought that this new wench is so subtle, that she lets him not do any thing than is safe to her, but yet his doting is so great that, Pierce tells me, it is verily thought if the Queene (age 53) had died, he would have married her.

Pepy's Diary. 22 Dec 1663. This day I hear for certain that my Baroness Castlemaine's (age 23) is turned Papist, which the Queene (age 54) for all do not much like, thinking that she do it not for conscience sake. I heard to-day of a great fray lately between Sir H. Finch's (age 41) coachman, who struck with his whip a coachman of the King's to the losse of one of his eyes; at which the people of the Exchange [Map] seeming to laugh and make sport with some words of contempt to him, my Lord Chamberlin (age 61) did come from the King (age 33) to shut up the 'Change [Map], and by the help of a justice, did it; but upon petition to the King (age 33) it was opened again.

Around 1664 Peter Lely (age 45). Portrait of Barbara Villiers 1st Duchess of Cleveland (age 23) and her son Charles Fitzroy 1st Duke Southampton as Madonna and Child.

Pepy's Diary. 20 Jan 1664. Home to dinner, and after dinner my wife and I by water, which we have not done together many a day, that is not since last summer, but the weather is now very warm, and left her at Axe Yard [Map], and I to White Hall, and meeting Mr. Pierce walked with him an hour in the Matted Gallery; among other things he tells me that my Baroness Castlemaine (age 23) is not at all set by by the King (age 33), but that he do doat upon Mrs. Stewart (age 16) only; and that to the leaving of all business in the world, and to the open slighting of the Queene (age 54); that he values not who sees him or stands by him while he dallies with her openly; and then privately in her chamber below, where the very sentrys observe his going in and out; and that so commonly, that the Duke (age 30) or any of the nobles, when they would ask where the King (age 33) is, they will ordinarily say, "Is the King (age 33) above, or below?" meaning with Mrs. Stewart (age 16): that the King (age 33) do not openly disown my Baroness Castlemaine (age 23), but that she comes to Court; but that my Lord FitzHarding (age 34) and the Hambletons1, and sometimes my Lord Sandwich (age 38), they say, have their snaps at her. But he says my Lord Sandwich (age 38) will lead her from her lodgings in the darkest and obscurest manner, and leave her at the entrance into the Queene's (age 54) lodgings, that he might be the least observed; that the Duke of Monmouth (age 14) the King (age 33) do still doat on beyond measure, insomuch that the King (age 33) only, the Duke of York (age 30), and Prince Rupert (age 44), and the Duke of Monmouth (age 14), do now wear deep mourning, that is, long cloaks, for the Duchesse of Savoy; so that he mourns as a Prince of the Blood, while the Duke of York (age 30) do no more, and all the nobles of the land not so much; which gives great offence, and he says the Duke of York (age 30) do consider. But that the Duke of York (age 30) do give himself up to business, and is like to prove a noble Prince; and so indeed I do from my heart think he will. He says that it is believed, as well as hoped, that care is taken to lay up a hidden treasure of money by the King (age 33) against a bad day, pray God it be so! but I should be more glad that the King (age 33) himself would look after business, which it seems he do not in the least.

Note 1. The three brothers, George Hamilton, James Hamilton (age 34), and the Count Antoine Hamilton (age 18), author of the "Memoires de Grammont"..

Pepy's Diary. 26 Jan 1664. At noon to the 'Change [Map], after being at the Coffee-house, where I sat by Tom Killigrew (age 51), who told us of a fire last night in my Baroness Castlemaine's (age 23) lodging, where she bid £40 for one to adventure the fetching of a cabinet out, which at last was got to be done; and the fire at last quenched without doing much wrong.

Pepy's Diary. 01 Feb 1664. Thence to Westminster Hall [Map], and there met with diverse people, it being terme time. Among others I spoke with Mrs. Lane, of whom I doubted to hear something of the effects of our last meeting about a fortnight or three weeks ago, but to my content did not. Here I met with Mr. Pierce, who tells me of several passages at Court, among others how the King (age 33), coming the other day to his Theatre to see "The Indian Queen" (which he commends for a very fine thing), my Baroness Castlemaine (age 23) was in the next box before he came; and leaning over other ladies awhile to whisper to the King (age 33), she rose out of the box and went into the King's, and set herself on the King's right hand, between the King (age 33) and the Duke of York (age 30); which, he swears, put the King (age 33) himself, as well as every body else, out of countenance; and believes that she did it only to show the world that she is not out of favour yet, as was believed.

Pepy's Diary. 22 Feb 1664. This evening came Mr. Alsopp the King's brewer, with whom I spent an houre talking and bewailing the posture of things at present; the King (age 33) led away by half-a-dozen men, that none of his serious servants and friends can come at him. These are Lauderdale (age 47), Buckingham (age 36), Hamilton, Fitz-Harding (age 34) (to whom he hath, it seems, given £2,000 per annum in the best part of the King's estate); and that that the old Duke of Buckingham could never get of the King (age 33). Progers is another, and Sir H. Bennett (age 46). He loves not the Queen (age 25) at all, but is rather sullen to her; and she, by all reports, incapable of children. He is so fond of the Duke of Monmouth (age 14), that every body admires it; and he says the Duke hath said, that he would be the death of any man that says the King (age 33) was not married to his mother: though Alsopp says, it is well known that she was a common whore before the King (age 33) lay with her. But it seems, he says, that the King (age 33) is mighty kind to these his bastard children; and at this day will go at midnight to my Baroness Castlemaine's (age 23) nurses, and take the child and dance it in his arms: that he is not likely to have his tables up again in his house1, for the crew that are about him will not have him come to common view again, but keep him obscurely among themselves. He hath this night, it seems, ordered that the Hall (which there is a ball to be in to-night before the King (age 33)) be guarded, as the Queen-Mother's (age 54) is, by his Horse Guards; whereas heretofore they were by the Lord Chamberlain or Steward, and their people. But it is feared they will reduce all to the soldiery, and all other places taken away; and what is worst of all, that he will alter the present militia, and bring all to a flying army.

Note 1. The tables at which the King (age 33) dined in public.-B.

Pepy's Diary. 07 Mar 1664. Up betimes, and the Duke (age 30) being gone abroad to-day, as we heard by a messenger, I spent the morning at my office writing fair my yesterday's work till almost 2 o'clock (only Sir G. Carteret (age 54) coming I went down a little way by water towards Deptford, Kent [Map], but having more mind to have my business done I pretended business at the 'Change [Map], and so went into another boat), and then, eating a bit, my wife and I by coach to the Duke's house, where we saw "The Unfortunate Lovers" but I know not whether I am grown more curious than I was or no, but I was not much pleased with it, though I know not where to lay the fault, unless it was that the house was very empty, by reason of a new play at the other house. Yet here was my Baroness Castlemayne (age 23) in a box, and it was pleasant to hear an ordinary lady hard by us, that it seems did not know her before, say, being told who she was, that "she was well enough".

Pepy's Diary. 17 Apr 1664. Thence to the Hall again, and after meeting with several persons, and talking there, I to Mrs. Hunt's (where I knew my wife and my aunt Wight (age 45) were about business), and they being gone to walk in the parke I went after them with Mrs. Hunt, who staid at home for me, and finding them did by coach, which I had agreed to wait for me, go with them all and Mrs. Hunt and a kinswoman of theirs, Mrs. Steward, to Hide Parke, where I have not been since last year; where I saw the King (age 33) with his periwigg, but not altered at all; and my Baroness Castlemayne (age 23) in a coach by herself, in yellow satin and a pinner on; and many brave persons. And myself being in a hackney and full of people, was ashamed to be seen by the world, many of them knowing me.

Pepy's Diary. 02 May 1664. There by Captain Ferrers meeting with an opportunity of my Lord's coach, to carry us to the Parke anon, we directed it to come to the play-house door; and so we walked, my wife and I and Madamoiselle. I paid for her going in, and there saw "The Labyrinth", the poorest play, methinks, that ever I saw, there being nothing in it but the odd accidents that fell out, by a lady's being bred up in man's apparel, and a man in a woman's. Here was Mrs. Stewart (age 16), who is indeed very pretty, but not like my Baroness Castlemayne (age 23), for all that.

Pepy's Diary. 29 May 1664. Thence after sermon among the ladies on the Queene's (age 54) side; where I saw Mrs. Stewart (age 16), very fine and pretty, but far beneath my Baroness Castlemayne (age 23).

Pepy's Diary. 31 May 1664. I was told to-day, that upon Sunday night last, being the King's birth-day, the King (age 34) was at my Baroness Castlemayne's (age 23) lodgings (over the hither-gates at Lambert's lodgings) dancing with fiddlers all night almost; and all the world coming by taking notice of it, which I am sorry to hear.

Pepy's Diary. 10 Jul 1664. Lord's Day. Up and by water, towards noon, to Somersett House [Map], and walked to my Lord Sandwich's (age 38), and there dined with my Lady and the children. And after some ordinary discourse with my Lady, after dinner took our leaves and my wife hers, in order to her going to the country to-morrow. But my Lord took not occasion to speak one word of my father or mother about the children at all, which I wonder at, and begin I will not. Here my Lady showed us my Baroness Castlemayne's (age 23) picture, finely done; given my Lord; and a most beautiful picture it is.

Pepy's Diary. 20 Jul 1664. Up, and a while to my office, and then home with Deane (age 30) till dinner, discoursing upon the business of my Chancellor's (age 55) timber in Clarendon Parke, and how to make a report therein without offending him; which at last I drew up, and hope it will please him. But I would to God neither I nor he ever had had any thing to have done with it! Dined together with a good pig, and then out by coach to White Hall, to the Committee for Fishing; but nothing done, it being a great day to-day there upon drawing at the Lottery of Sir Arthur Slingsby (age 41). I got in and stood by the two Queenes [Note. Catherine of Braganza Queen Consort England (age 25) and Henrietta Maria Bourbon Queen Consort England (age 54) ] and the Duchesse of Yorke (age 27), and just behind my Baroness Castlemayne (age 23), whom I do heartily adore; and good sport it was to see how most that did give their ten pounds did go away with a pair of globes only for their lot, and one gentlewoman, one Mrs. Fish, with the only blanke. And one I staid to see drew a suit of hangings valued at £430, and they say are well worth the money, or near it. One other suit there is better than that; but very many lots of three and fourscore pounds. I observed the King (age 34) and Queenes (age 54) did get but as poor lots as any else. But the wisest man I met with was Mr. Cholmley (age 31), who insured as many as would, from drawing of the one blank for 12d.; in which case there was the whole number of persons to one, which I think was three or four hundred. And so he insured about 200 for 200 shillings, so that he could not have lost if one of them had drawn it, for there was enough to pay the £10; but it happened another drew it, and so he got all the money he took.

Pepy's Diary. 17 Aug 1664. Thence to White Hall, and after long staying there was no Committee of the Fishery as was expected. Here I walked long with Mr. Pierce, who tells me the King (age 34) do still sup every night with my Baroness Castlemayne (age 23), who he believes has lately slunk a great belly away, for from very big she is come to be down again.

On 05 Sep 1664 [her illegitimate daughter] Charlotte Fitzroy Countess Lichfield was born illegitimately to King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 34) and Barbara Villiers 1st Duchess of Cleveland (age 23).

Pepy's Diary. 19 Sep 1664. So by coach home and to my office, where late, and so to supper and to bed. I met with James Pearce Surgeon to-day, who, speaking of Dr. Frazier's (age 54) being so earnest to have such a one (one Collins) go chyrurgeon to the Prince's (age 44) person will have him go in his terms and with so much money put into his hands, he tells me (when I was wondering that Frazier (age 54) should order things with the Prince in that confident manner) that Frazier (age 54) is so great with my Baroness Castlemayne (age 23), and Stewart (age 17), and all the ladies at Court, in helping to slip their calfes when there is occasion, and with the great men in curing of their claps that he can do what he please with the King (age 34), in spite of any man, and upon the same score with the Prince; they all having more or less occasion to make use of him.

Pepy's Diary. 11 Oct 1664. So home and to my office, and then to supper and then to my office again till late, and so home, with my head and heart full of business, and so to bed. My wife tells me the sad news of my Baroness Castlemayne's (age 23) being now become so decayed, that one would not know her; at least far from a beauty, which I am sorry for.

Pepy's Diary. 03 Feb 1665. So home, and among other letters found one from Jane, that is newly gone, telling me how her mistresse won't pay her her Quarter's wages, and withal tells me how her mistress will have the boy sit 3 or 4 hours together in the dark telling of stories, but speaks of nothing but only her indiscretion in undervaluing herself to do it, but I will remedy that, but am vexed she should get some body to write so much because of making it publique. Then took coach and to visit my Lady Sandwich (age 40), where she discoursed largely to me her opinion of a match, if it could be thought fit by my Lord, for my Lady Jemimah, with Sir G. Carteret's (age 55) eldest son; but I doubt he hath yet no settled estate in land. But I will inform myself, and give her my opinion. Then Mrs. Pickering (age 23) (after private discourse ended, we going into the other room) did, at my Lady's command, tell me the manner of a masquerade1 before the King (age 34) and Court the other day. Where six women (my Baroness Castlemayne (age 24) and Duchesse of Monmouth being two of them) and six men (the Duke of Monmouth (age 15) and Lord Arran (age 25) and Monsieur Blanfort, being three of them) in vizards, but most rich and antique dresses, did dance admirably and most gloriously. God give us cause to continue the mirthe! So home, and after awhile at my office to supper and to bed.

Note 1. The masquerade at Court took place on the 2nd, and is referred to by Evelyn, who was present, in his Diary. Some amusing incidents connected with the entertainment are related in the "Grammont Memoirs (chapter vii.).

Pepy's Diary. 21 Feb 1665. So to the office, and after office my Lord Brunckerd (age 45) carried me to Lincolne's Inne Fields, and there I with my Lady Sandwich (age 40) (good lady) talking of innocent discourse of good housewifery and husbands for her daughters, and the luxury and looseness of the times and other such things till past 10 o'clock at night, and so by coach home, where a little at my office, and so to supper and to bed. My Lady tells me how my [her husband] Lord Castlemayne (age 31) is coming over from France, and is believed will be made friends with his Lady (age 24) again. What mad freaks the Mayds of Honour at Court have: that Mrs. Jenings (age 18), one of the Duchesses mayds, the other day dressed herself like an orange wench, and went up and down and cried oranges; till falling down, or by such accident, though in the evening, her fine shoes were discerned, and she put to a great deale of shame; that such as these tricks being ordinary, and worse among them, thereby few will venture upon them for wives: my Baroness Castlemayne (age 24) will in merriment say that her daughter (not above a year old or two) will be the first mayde in the Court that will be married. This day my Lord Sandwich (age 39) writ me word from the Downes, that he is like to be in towne this week.

Pepy's Diary. 19 Mar 1665. Being very glad of this news Mr. Povy (age 51) and I in his coach to Hyde Parke, being the first day of the tour there. Where many brave ladies; among others, Castlemayne (age 24) lay impudently upon her back in her coach asleep, with her mouth open. There was also my Lady Kerneguy (age 26)1, once my Lady Anne Hambleton, that is said to have given the Duke a clap upon his first coming over. Here I saw Sir J. Lawson's (age 50) daughter and husband, a fine couple, and also Mr. Southwell (age 29) and his new lady (age 17), very pretty.

Note 1. Daughter (age 26) of William, Duke of Hamilton, wife of Lord Carnegy (age 16), who became Earl of Southesk on his father's death. She is frequently mentioned in the "Memoires de Grammont", and in the letters of the second Earl of Chesterfield. B.

Pepy's Diary. 31 Mar 1665. So to Povy (age 51), and with him spent the afternoon very busy, till I was weary of following this and neglecting my navy business. So at night called my wife at my Lady's, and so home. To my office and there made up my month's account, which, God be praised! rose to £1300. Which I bless God for. So after 12 o'clock home to supper and to bed. I find Creed mightily transported by my Lord of Falmouth's (age 35) kind words to him, and saying that he hath a place in his intention for him, which he believes will be considerable. A witty man he is in every respect, but of no good nature, nor a man ordinarily to be dealt with. My Baroness Castlemayne (age 24) is sicke again, people think, slipping her filly.

Pepy's Diary. 03 Apr 1665. Thence home and to the office a while, and then home to supper and to bed. All the pleasure of the play was, the King (age 34) and my Baroness Castlemayne (age 24) were there; and pretty witty Nell (age 15), [Nell Gwynne] at the King's house, and the younger Marshall sat next us; which pleased me mightily.

Pepy's Diary. 02 Jun 1665. Up to Court about these two, and for the former was led up to my Baroness Castlemayne's (age 24) lodgings, where the King (age 35) and she and others were at supper, and there I read the letter and returned; and then to Sir G. Carteret (age 55) about Hater, and shall have him released to-morrow, upon my giving bail for his appearance, which I have promised to do. Sir G. Carteret (age 55) did go on purpose to the King (age 35) to ask this, and it was granted.

Pepy's Diary. 15 Aug 1665. Up by 4 o'clock and walked to Greenwich, Kent [Map], where called at Captain Cocke's (age 48) and to his chamber, he being in bed, where something put my last night's dream into my head, which I think is the best that ever was dreamt, which was that I had my Baroness Castlemayne (age 24) in my armes and was admitted to use all the dalliance I desired with her, and then dreamt that this could not be awake, but that it was only a dream; but that since it was a dream, and that I took so much real pleasure in it, what a happy thing it would be if when we are in our graves (as Shakespeere resembles it) we could dream, and dream but such dreams as this, that then we should not need to be so fearful of death, as we are this plague time. Here I hear that news is brought Sir G. Carteret (age 55) that my Lord Hinchingbrooke is not well, and so cannot meet us at Cranborne to-night. So I to Sir G. Carteret's (age 55); and there was sorry with him for our disappointment. So we have put off our meeting there till Saturday next. Here I staid talking with Sir G. Carteret (age 55), he being mighty free with me in his business, and among other things hath ordered Rider and Mr. Cutler to put into my hands copper to the value of £5,000 (which Sir G. Carteret's (age 55) share it seems come to in it), which is to raise part of the money he is to layout for a purchase for my Lady Jemimah.

On 28 Dec 1665 [her illegitimate son] George Fitzroy 1st Duke Northumberland was born illegitimately to King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 35) and Barbara Villiers 1st Duchess of Cleveland (age 25) at Merton College, Oxford University.

In 1666 William Chiffinch (age 64) assisted the Duchess of Cleveland (age 25) in her plan to cause King Charles II (age 35) to surprise his latest favourite, 'La Belle Stuart' (age 18) in company of the Duke of Richmond (age 26).

Around 1666 Peter Lely (age 47). Portrait of Barbara Villiers 1st Duchess of Cleveland (age 25). One of the Windsor Beauties.

Pepy's Diary. 09 Jan 1666. After dinner Pierce and I up to my chamber, where he tells me how a great difference hath been between the Duke (age 32) and Duchesse (age 28), he suspecting her to be naught with Mr. Sidney (age 24)1. But some way or other the matter is made up; but he was banished the Court, and the Duke for many days did not speak to the Duchesse at all. He tells me that my Lord Sandwich (age 40) is lost there at Court, though the King (age 35) is particularly his friend. But people do speak every where slightly of him; which is a sad story to me, but I hope it may be better again. And that Sir G. Carteret (age 56) is neglected, and hath great enemies at work against him. That matters must needs go bad, while all the town, and every boy in the streete, openly cries, "the King (age 35) cannot go away till my Baroness Castlemaine's (age 25) be ready to come along with him"; she being lately put to bed And that he visits her and Mrs. Stewart (age 18) every morning before he eats his breakfast. All this put together makes me very sad, but yet I hope I shall do pretty well among them for all this, by my not meddling with either of their matters. He and Ferrers gone I paid uncle Thomas his last quarter's money, and then comes Mr. Gawden and he and I talked above stairs together a good while about his business, and to my great joy got him to declare that of the £500 he did give me the other day, none of it was for my Treasurershipp for Tangier (I first telling him how matters stand between Povy (age 52) and I, that he was to have half of whatever was coming to me by that office), and that he will gratify me at 2 per cent. for that when he next receives any money. So there is £80 due to me more than I thought of. He gone I with a glad heart to the office to write, my letters and so home to supper and bed, my wife mighty full of her worke she hath to do in furnishing her bedchamber.

Note 1. "This Duchess (age 28) was Chancellor Hyde's (age 56) daughter, and she was a very handsome woman, and had a great deal of wit; therefore it was not without reason that Mr. Sydney (age 24), the handsomest youth of his time, of the Duke's bedchamber, was so much in love with her, as appeared to us all, and the Duchess not unkind to him, but very innocently. He was afterwards banished the Court for another reason, as was reported" (Sir John Reresby's Memoirs, August 5th, 1664, ed. Cartwright, pp. 64,65). "'How could the Duke of York (age 32) make my mother a Papist?' said the Princess Mary to Dr. Bumet. 'The Duke caught a man in bed with her,' said the Doctor, 'and then had power to make her do anything.' The Prince, who sat by the fire, said, 'Pray, madam, ask the Doctor a few more questions'" (Spence's "Anecdotes", ed. Singer, 329).

Pepy's Diary. 26 Feb 1666. Called up about five in the morning, and my Lord up, and took leave, a little after six, very kindly of me and the whole company. Then I in, and my wife up and to visit my Lady Slaving in her bed, and there sat three hours, with Lady Jemimah with us, talking and laughing, and by and by my Baroness Carteret (age 64) comes, and she and I to talke, I glad to please her in discourse of Sir G. Carteret (age 56), that all will do well with him, and she is much pleased, he having had great annoyance and fears about his well doing, and I fear hath doubted that I have not been a friend to him, but cries out against my Baroness Castlemaine's (age 25), that makes the King (age 35) neglect his business and seems much to fear that all will go to wracke, and I fear with great reason; exclaims against the Duke of Albemarle (age 57), and more the Duchesse (age 46) for a filthy woman, as indeed she is.

Pepy's Diary. 21 Apr 1666. Thence with my Lord Bruncker (age 46) in his coach to Hide Parke, the first time I have been there this year. There the King (age 35) was; but I was sorry to see my Baroness Castlemaine's (age 25), for the mourning forceing all the ladies to go in black, with their hair plain and without any spots, I find her to be a much more ordinary woman than ever I durst have thought she was; and, indeed, is not so pretty as Mrs. Stewart (age 18), whom I saw there also.

Pepy's Diary. 10 Jun 1666. He tells me further, how the Duke of Yorke (age 32) is wholly given up to his new mistresse, my Lady Denham (age 26), going at noon-day with all his gentlemen with him to visit her in Scotland Yard; she declaring she will not be his mistresse, as Mrs. Price (age 29), to go up and down the Privy-stairs, but will be owned publicly; and so she is. Mr. Bruncker (age 39), it seems, was the pimp to bring it about, and my Baroness Castlemaine's (age 25), who designs thereby to fortify herself by the Duke; there being a falling-out the other day between the King (age 36) and her: on this occasion, the Queene (age 56), in ordinary talke before the ladies in her drawing-room, did say to my Baroness Castlemaine's (age 25) that she feared the King (age 36) did take cold, by staying so late abroad at her house. She answered before them all, that he did not stay so late abroad with her, for he went betimes thence (though he do not before one, two, or three in the morning), but must stay somewhere else. The King (age 36) then coming in and overhearing, did whisper in the eare aside, and told her she was a bold impertinent woman, and bid her to be gone out of the Court, and not come again till he sent for, her; which she did presently, and went to a lodging in the Pell Mell [Map], and kept there two or three days, and then sent to the King (age 36) to know whether she might send for her things away out of her house. The King (age 36) sent to her, she must first come and view them: and so she come, and the King (age 36) went to her, and all friends again. He tells me she did, in her anger, say she would be even with the King (age 36), and print his letters to her. So putting all together, we are and are like to be in a sad condition. We are endeavouring to raise money by borrowing it of the City; but I do not think the City will lend a farthing.

Pepy's Diary. 26 Sep 1666. Thence away by coach, and called away my wife at Unthanke's, where she tells me she hath bought a gowne of 15s. per yard; the same, before her face, my Baroness Castlemayne (age 25) this day bought also, which I seemed vexed for, though I do not grudge it her, but to incline her to have Mercer again, which I believe I shall do, but the girle, I hear, has no mind to come to us again, which vexes me.

Pepy's Diary. 26 Sep 1666. So home, not agreeing for silk for a petticoat for her which she desired, but home to dinner and then back to White Hall, leaving my wife by the way to buy her petticoat of Bennet, and I to White Hall waiting all day on the Duke of Yorke (age 32) to move the King (age 36) for getting Lanyon some money at Plymouth, Devon [Map] out of some oyle prizes brought in thither, but could get nothing done, but here Mr. Dugdale I hear the great loss of books in St. Paul's Church-yarde [Map], and at their Hall also, which they value about £150,000; some booksellers being wholly undone, among others, they say, my poor Kirton. And Mr. Crumlu all his books and household stuff burned; they trusting St. Fayth's [Map], and the roof of the church falling, broke the arch down into the lower church, and so all the goods burned. A very great loss. His father hath lost above £1000 in books; one book newly printed, a Discourse, it seems, of Courts. Here I had the hap to see my Lady Denham (age 26): and at night went into the dining-room and saw several fine ladies; among others, Castlemayne (age 25), but chiefly Denham (age 26) again; and the Duke of Yorke (age 32) taking her aside and talking to her in the sight of all the world, all alone; which was strange, and what also I did not like.

Pepy's Diary. 03 Oct 1666. They gone, and my heart eased of a great deale of fear and pain, and reckoning myself to come off with victory, because not overcome in anything or much foiled, I away to Sir W. Coventry's (age 38) chamber, but he not within, then to White Hall, and there among the ladies, and saw my Baroness Castlemaine's (age 25) never looked so ill, nor Mrs. Stewart (age 19) neither, as in this plain, natural dress. I was not pleased with either of them.

Pepy's Diary. 15 Oct 1666. He tells me that Baroness Castlemayne (age 25) is concluded to be with child again; and that all the people about the King (age 36) do make no scruple of saying that the King (age 36) do lie with Mrs. Stewart (age 19), who, he says, is a most excellent-natured lady. This day the King (age 36) begins to put on his vest, and I did see several persons of the House of Lords and Commons too, great courtiers, who are in it; being a long cassocke close to the body, of black cloth, and pinked with white silke under it, and a coat over it, and the legs ruffled with black riband like a pigeon's leg; and, upon the whole, I wish the King (age 36) may keep it, for it is a very fine and handsome garment1.

Note 1. Evelyn describes the new fashion as "a comely dress after ye Persian mode" (see "Diary", October 18th, 1666). He adds that he had described the "comelinesse and usefulnesse" of the Persian clothing in his pamphlet entitled "Tyrannus, or the Mode". "I do not impute to this discourse the change which soone happen'd, but it was an identity I could not but take notice of". Rugge, in his "Diurnal", thus describes the new Court costume "1666, Oct. 11. In this month His Majestie and whole Court changed the fashion of their clothes-viz. a close coat of cloth, pinkt with a white taffety under the cutts. This in length reached the calf of the leg, and upon that a sercoat cutt at the breast, which hung loose and shorter than the vest six inches. The breeches the Spanish cut, and buskins some of cloth, some of leather, but of the same colour as the vest or garment; of never the like fashion since William the Conqueror". It is represented in a portrait of Lord Arlington, by Sir P. Lely, formerly belonging to Lord de Clifford, and engraved in Lodge's "Portraits". Louis XIV. ordered his servants to wear the dress. See November 22.

Pepy's Diary. 21 Oct 1666. This afternoon walking with Sir H. Cholmly (age 34) long in the gallery, he told me, among many other things, how Harry Killigrew (age 29) is banished the Court lately, for saying that my Baroness Castlemayne (age 25) was a little lecherous girle when she was young.... This she complained to the King (age 36) of, and he sent to the Duke of York (age 33), whose servant he is, to turn him away. The Duke of York (age 33) hath done it, but takes it ill of my Lady that he was not complained to first. She attended him to excute it, but ill blood is made by it. He told me how Mr. Williamson (age 33) stood in a little place to have come into the House of Commons, and they would not choose him; they said, "No courtier". And which is worse, Bab May (age 38) went down in great state to Winchelsea [Map] with the Duke of York's (age 33) letters, not doubting to be chosen; and there the people chose a private gentleman in spite of him, and cried out they would have no Court pimp to be their burgesse; which are things that bode very ill. This afternoon I went to see and sat a good while with Mrs. Martin, and there was her sister Doll, with whom, contrary to all expectation, I did what I would, and might have done anything else.

Pepy's Diary. 29 Oct 1666. By and by the King (age 36) and Queene (age 56), Duke (age 33) and Duchesse (age 29), and all the great ladies of the Court; which, indeed, was a fine sight. But the play being "Love in a Tub", a silly play, and though done by the Duke's people, yet having neither Betterton (age 31) nor his wife (age 29), and the whole thing done ill, and being ill also, I had no manner of pleasure in the play. Besides, the House, though very fine, yet bad for the voice, for hearing. The sight of the ladies, indeed, was exceeding noble; and above all, my Baroness Castlemayne (age 25). The play done by ten o'clock. I carried them all home, and then home myself, and well satisfied with the sight, but not the play, we with great content to bed.

Before 07 Nov 1666. William Faithorne "The Elder" (age 50). Portrait of Barbara Villiers 1st Duchess of Cleveland (age 25). See Samuel Pepys' Diary 1666 November 07.

Pepy's Diary. 07 Nov 1666. Thence to Westminster Hall [Map], and, it being fast day, there was no shops open, but meeting with Doll Lane, did go with her to the Rose taverne, and there drank and played with her a good while. She went away, and I staid a good while after, and was seen going out by one of our neighbours near the office and two of the Hall people that I had no mind to have been seen by, but there was no hurt in it nor can be alleged from it. Therefore I am not solicitous in it, but took coach and called at Faythorne's (age 50), to buy some prints for my wife to draw by this winter, and here did see my Baroness Castlemayne's (age 25) picture, done by him from Lilly's (age 48), in red chalke and other colours, by which he hath cut it in copper to be printed. The picture in chalke is the finest thing I ever saw in my life, I think; and did desire to buy it; but he says he must keep it awhile to correct his copper-plate by, and when that is done he will sell it me.

Pepy's Diary. 15 Nov 1666. After the Bransles, then to a Corant, and now and then a French dance; but that so rare that the Corants grew tiresome, that I wished it done. Only Mrs. Stewart (age 19) danced mighty finely, and many French dances, specially one the King (age 36) called the New Dance, which was very pretty; but upon the whole matter, the business of the dancing of itself was not extraordinary pleasing. But the clothes and sight of the persons was indeed very pleasing, and worth my coming, being never likely to see more gallantry while I live, if I should come twenty times. About twelve at night it broke up, and I to hire a coach with much difficulty, but Pierce had hired a chair for my wife, and so she being gone to his house, he and I, taking up Barker at Unthanke's, to his house, whither his wife was come home a good while ago and gone to bed. So away home with my wife, between displeased with the dull dancing, and satisfied at the clothes and persons. My Baroness Castlemayne (age 25), without whom all is nothing, being there, very rich, though not dancing. And so after supper, it being very cold, to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 25 Nov 1666. Here staid till the Council rose, walking in the gallery. All the talke being of Scotland, where the highest report, I perceive, runs but upon three or four hundred in armes; but they believe that it will grow more, and do seem to apprehend it much, as if the King of France (age 28) had a hand in it. My Lord Lauderdale (age 50) do make nothing of it, it seems, and people do censure him for it, he from the beginning saying that there was nothing in it, whereas it do appear to be a pure rebellion; but no persons of quality being in it, all do hope that it cannot amount to much. Here I saw Mrs. Stewart (age 19) this afternoon, methought the beautifullest creature that ever I saw in my life, more than ever I thought her so, often as I have seen her; and I begin to think do exceed my Baroness Castlemayne (age 25), at least now.

Pepy's Diary. 01 Dec 1666. However, I was not much sorry for it, but by coach home, in the evening, calling at Faythorne's (age 50), buying three of my Baroness Castlemayne's (age 26) heads, printed this day, which indeed is, as to the head, I think, a very fine picture, and like her.

Pepy's Diary. 12 Dec 1666. He tells me how the King (age 36) hath lately paid about £30,0001 to clear debts of my Baroness Castlemayne's (age 26); and that she and her [her husband] husband (age 32) are parted for ever, upon good terms, never to trouble one another more.

Note 1. Two thousand pounds of this sum went to Alderman Edward Bakewell (age 48) for two diamond rings, severally charged £1000 and £900, bought March 14th, 1665-66 (Second addenda to Steinman's "Memoir of the Duchess of Cleveland", privately printed, 1878, p. 4.).

Pepy's Diary. 12 Dec 1666. They talked for certain, that now the King (age 36) do follow Mrs. Stewart (age 19) wholly, and my Baroness Castlemayne (age 26) not above once a week; that the Duke of York (age 33) do not haunt my Lady Denham (age 26) so much; that she troubles him with matters of State, being of my Lord Bristoll's (age 54) faction, and that he avoids; that she is ill still.

Pepy's Diary. 16 Dec 1666. Then after dinner by water to Westminster to see Mrs. Martin, whom I found up in her chamber and ready to go abroad. I sat there with her and her husband and others a pretty while, and then away to White Hall, and there walked up and down to the Queen's (age 28) side, and there saw my dear Baroness Castlemayne (age 26), who continues admirable, methinks, and I do not hear but that the King (age 36) is the same to her still as ever.

Pepy's Diary. 21 Dec 1666. So home to dinner, and spent all the afternoon in putting some things, pictures especially, in order, and pasting my Baroness Castlemayne's (age 26) print on a frame, which I have made handsome, and is a fine piece.

Pepy's Diary. 21 Jan 1667. So down to the Hall, and thence with our company to Exeter House [Map], and then did the business I have said before, we doing nothing the first time of going, it being too early. At home find Lovett, to whom I did give my Baroness Castlemayne's (age 26) head to do. He is talking of going into Spayne to get money by his art, but I doubt he will do no good, he being a man of an unsettled head.

Pepy's Diary. 27 Jan 1667. Here we met with Mr. May (age 45), and he and we to talk of several things, of building, and such like matters; and so walked to White Hall, and there I skewed my cozen Roger (age 49) the Duchesse of York (age 29) sitting in state, while her own mother (age 49) stands by her; he had a desire, and I shewed him my Baroness Castlemayne (age 26), whom he approves to be very handsome, and wonders that she cannot be as good within as she is fair without. Her little black boy came by him; and, a dog being in his way, the little boy called to the dog: "Pox of this dog!"-"Now", says he, blessing himself, "would I whip this child till the blood come, if it were my child!" and I believe he would. But he do by no means like the liberty of the Court, and did come with expectation of finding them playing at cards to-night, though Sunday; for such stories he is told, but how true I know not1.

Note 1. There is little reason to doubt that it was such as Evelyn describes it at a later time. "I can never forget the inexpressible luxury and prophaneness, gaming, and all dissoluteness, and, as it were, total forgetfulness of God (it being Sunday evening) which this day se'nnight I was witness of; the King (age 36) sitting and toying with his concubines, Portsmouth (age 17), Cleveland (age 26), Mazarin (age 20), &c. A French boy singing love songs in that glorious gallery, whilst about twenty of the great courtiers and other dissolute persons were at basset round a large table, a bank of at least £2,000 in gold before them; upon which two gentlemen who were with me made reflexions with astonishment. Six days after was all in the dust". B.

Pepy's Diary. 04 Feb 1667. Soon as dined, my wife and I out to the Duke's playhouse, and there saw "Heraclius", an excellent play, to my extraordinary content; and the more from the house being very full, and great company; among others, Mrs. Steward (age 19), very fine, with her locks done up with puffes, as my wife calls them: and several other great ladies had their hair so, though I do not like it; but my wife do mightily-but it is only because she sees it is the fashion. Here I saw my Lord Rochester (age 19) and his lady, Mrs. Mallet (age 16), who hath after all this ado married him; and, as I hear some say in the pit, it is a great act of charity, for he hath no estate. But it was pleasant to see how every body rose up when my Lord John Butler (age 24), the Duke of Ormond's (age 56) son, come into the pit towards the end of the play, who was a servant [lover] to Mrs. Mallet (age 16), and now smiled upon her, and she on him. I had sitting next to me a woman, the likest my Baroness Castlemayne (age 26) that ever I saw anybody like another; but she is a whore, I believe, for she is acquainted with every fine fellow, and called them by their name, Jacke, and Tom, and before the end of the play frisked to another place. Mightily pleased with the play, we home by coach, and there a little to the office, and then to my chamber, and there finished my Catalogue of my books with my own hand, and so to supper and to bed, and had a good night's rest, the last night's being troublesome, but now my heart light and full of resolution of standing close to my business.

Pepy's Diary. 05 Feb 1667. Dined at home, and after dinner come Mrs. Daniel and her sister and staid and talked a little, and then I to the office, and after setting my things in order at the office I abroad with my wife and little Betty Michell, and took them against my vowes, but I will make good my forfeit, to the King's house, to show them a play, "The Chances". A good play I find it, and the actors most good in it; and pretty to hear Knipp sing in the play very properly, "All night I weepe"; and sung it admirably. The whole play pleases me well: and most of all, the sight of many fine ladies-among others, my Baroness Castlemayne (age 26) and Mrs. Middleton (age 22): the latter of the two hath also a very excellent face and body, I think.

Pepy's Diary. 22 Mar 1667. Up and by coach to Sir Ph. Warwicke (age 57) about business for Tangier about money, and then to Sir Stephen Fox (age 39) to give him account of a little service I have done him about money coming to him from our office, and then to Lovett's and saw a few baubling things of their doing which are very pretty, but the quality of the people, living only by shifts, do not please me, that it makes me I do no more care for them, nor shall have more acquaintance with them after I have got my Baroness Castlemayne's (age 26) picture home.

Pepy's Diary. 19 Apr 1667. At noon to dinner betimes, and then my wife and I by coach to the Duke's house, calling at Lovett's, where I find my Baroness Castlemayne's (age 26) picture not yet done, which has lain so many months there, which vexes me, but I mean not to trouble them more after this is done.

Pepy's Diary. 26 Apr 1667. That now the Countesse Castlemayne (age 26) do carry all before her: and among other arguments to prove Mrs. Stewart (age 19) to have been honest to the last, he says that the King's keeping in still with my Baroness Castlemayne (age 26) do show it; for he never was known to keep two mistresses in his life, and would never have kept to her had he prevailed any thing with Mrs. Stewart (age 19).

Pepy's Diary. 01 May 1667. Thence Sir W. Pen (age 46) and I in his coach, Tiburne way, into the Park, where a horrid dust, and number of coaches, without pleasure or order. That which we, and almost all went for, was to see my Lady Newcastle (age 44); which we could not, she being followed and crowded upon by coaches all the way she went, that nobody could come near her; only I could see she was in a large black coach, adorned with silver instead of gold, and so white curtains, and every thing black and white, and herself in her cap, but other parts I could not make [out]. But that which I did see, and wonder at with reason, was to find Pegg Pen (age 16) in a new coach, with only her husband's (age 26) pretty sister (age 18) with her, both patched and very fine, and in much the finest coach in the park, and I think that ever I did see one or other, for neatness and richness in gold, and everything that is noble. My Baroness Castlemayne (age 26), the King (age 36), my Lord St. Albans (age 62), nor Mr. Jermyn, have so neat a coach, that ever I saw.

Pepy's Diary. 08 May 1667. Thence with Sir H. Cholmly (age 34) to find out Creed from one lodging to another, which he hath changed so often that there is no finding him, but at last do come to his lodging that he is entering into this day, and do find his goods unlading at the door, by Scotland Yard, and there I set down Sir H. Cholmly (age 34), and I away to the 'Change [Map], where spoke about several things, and then going home did meet Mr. Andrews (age 35) our neighbour, and did speak with him to enquire about the ground behind our house, of which I have a mind to buy enough to make a stable and coach-house; for I do see that my condition do require it, as well as that it is more charge to my purse to live as I do than to keep one, and therefore I am resolved before winter to have one, unless some extraordinary thing happens to hinder me. He promises me to look after it for me, and so I home to dinner, where I find my wife's flageolette master, and I am so pleased with her proceeding, though she hath lost time by not practising, that I am resolved for the encouragement of the man to learn myself a little for a month or so, for I do foresee if God send my wife and I to live, she will become very good company for me. He gone, comes Lovett with my little print of my dear Baroness Castlemayne (age 26) varnished, and the frame prettily done like gold, which pleases me well. He dined with me, but by his discourse I do still see that he is a man of good wit but most strange experience, and acquaintance with all manner of subtleties and tricks, that I do think him not fit for me to keep any acquaintance with him, lest he some time or other shew me a slippery trick.

Pepy's Diary. 21 May 1667. Thence I home; but, Lord! how it went against my heart to go away from the very door of the Duke's play-house, and my Baroness Castlemayne's (age 26) coach, and many great coaches there, to see "The Siege of Rhodes". I was very near making a forfeit, but I did command myself, and so home to my office, and there did much business to my good content, much better than going to a play, and then home to my wife, who is not well with her cold, and sat and read a piece of Grand Cyrus in English by her, and then to my chamber and to supper, and so to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 21 Jun 1667. So I to my office, and there all the afternoon. This day comes news from Harwich [Map] that the Dutch fleete are all in sight, near 100 sail great and small, they think, coming towards them; where, they think, they shall be able to oppose them; but do cry out of the falling back of the seamen, few standing by them, and those with much faintness. The like they write from Portsmouth, Hampshire [Map], and their letters this post are worth reading. Sir H. Cholmly (age 34) come to me this day, and tells me the Court is as mad as ever; and that the night the Dutch burned our ships the King (age 37) did sup with my Baroness Castlemayne (age 26), at the Duchess of Monmouth's (age 16), and there were all mad in hunting of a poor moth. All the Court afraid of a Parliament; but he thinks nothing can save us but the King's giving up all to a Parliament. Busy at the office all the afternoon, and did much business to my great content.

Pepy's Diary. 23 Jun 1667. The King of France (age 28), it is believed, is engaged for this year1 so that we shall be safe as to him. The great misery the City and kingdom is like to suffer for want of coals in a little time is very visible, and, is feared, will breed a mutiny; for we are not in any prospect to command the sea for our colliers to come, but rather, it is feared, the Dutch may go and burn all our colliers at Newcastle [Map]; though others do say that they lie safe enough there. No news at all of late from Bredagh what our Treaters do.

Note 1. Louis XIV (age 28) was at this time in Flanders, with his Queen (age 28), his mistresses, and all his Court. Turenne commanded under him. Whilst Charles was hunting moths at Baroness Castlemaine's (age 26), and the English fleet was burning, Louis was carrying on the campaign with vigour. Armentieres was taken on the 28th May; Charleroi on the 2nd June, St. Winox on the 6th, Fumes on the 12th, Ath on the 16th, Toumay on the 24th; the Escarpe on the 6th July, Courtray on the 18th, Audenarde on the 31st; and Lisle on the 27th August. B.

Pepy's Diary. 24 Jun 1667. He tells me, speaking of the horrid effeminacy of the King (age 37), that the King (age 37) hath taken ten times more care and pains in making friends between my Baroness Castlemayne (age 26) and Mrs. Stewart (age 19), when they have fallen out, than ever he did to save his kingdom; nay, that upon any falling out between my Baroness Castlemayne's (age 26) nurse and her woman, my Lady hath often said she would make the King (age 37) to make them friends, and they would be friends and be quiet; which the King (age 37) hath been fain to do: that the King (age 37) is, at this day, every night in Hyde Park with the Duchesse of Monmouth (age 16), or with my Baroness Castlemaine's (age 26): that he [Povy (age 53)] is concerned of late by my Lord Arlington (age 49) in the looking after some buildings that he is about in Norfolke, where my Lord is laying out a great deal of money; and that he, Mr. Povy (age 53), considering the unsafeness of laying out money at such a time as this, and, besides, the enviousness of the particular county, as well as all the Kingdom, to find him building and employing workmen, while all the ordinary people of the country are carried down to the seasides for securing the land, he thought it becoming him to go to my Lord Arlington (age 49) (Sir Thomas Clifford (age 36) by), and give it as his advice to hold his hands a little; but my Lord would not, but would have him go on, and so Sir Thomas Clifford (age 36) advised also, which one would think, if he were a statesman worth a fart should be a sign of his foreseeing that all shall do well. But I do forbear concluding any such thing from them. He tells me that there is not so great confidence between any two men of power in the nation at this day, that he knows of, as between my Lord Arlington (age 49) and Sir Thomas Clifford (age 36); and that it arises by accident only, there being no relation nor acquaintance between them, but only Sir Thomas Clifford's (age 36) coming to him, and applying himself to him for favours, when he come first up to town to be a Parliament-man. He tells me that he do not think there is anything in the world for us possibly to be saved by but the King of France's (age 28) generousnesse to stand by us against the Dutch, and getting us a tolerable peace, it may be, upon our giving him Tangier and the islands he hath taken, and other things he shall please to ask. He confirms me in the several grounds I have conceived of fearing that we shall shortly fall into mutinys and outrages among ourselves, and that therefore he, as a Treasurer, and therefore much more myself, I say, as being not only a Treasurer but an officer of the Navy, on whom, for all the world knows, the faults of all our evils are to be laid, do fear to be seized on by some rude hands as having money to answer for, which will make me the more desirous to get off of this Treasurership as soon as I can, as I had before in my mind resolved.

Pepy's Diary. 07 Jul 1667. Lord's Day. Up, and to my chamber, there to settle some papers, and thither comes Mr. Moore to me and talked till church time of the news of the times about the peace and the bad consequences of it if it be not improved to good purpose of fitting ourselves for another war. He tells me he heard that the discontented Parliament-men are fearful that the next sitting the King (age 37) will put for a general excise, by which to raise him money, and then to fling off the Parliament, and raise a land-army and keep them all down like slaves; and it is gotten among them, that Bab. May (age 39), the Privy-purse, hath been heard to say that £300 a-year is enough for any country gentleman; which makes them mad, and they do talk of 6 or £800,000 gone into the Privy-purse this war, when in King James's time it arose but to £5,000, and in King Charles's but £10,000 in a year. He tells me that a goldsmith in town told him that, being with some plate with my Baroness Castlemayne (age 26) lately, she directed her woman (the great beauty), "Wilson", says she, "make a note for this, and for that, to the Privy-purse for money". He tells me a little more of the baseness of the courses taken at Court in the case of Mr. Moyer, who is at liberty, and is to give £500 for his liberty; but now the great ones are divided, who shall have the money, the Duke of Albemarle (age 58) on one hand, and another Lord on the other; and that it is fain to be decided by having the person's name put into the King's warrant for his liberty, at whose intercession the King (age 37) shall own that he is set at liberty; which is a most lamentable thing, that we do professedly own that we do these things, not for right and justice sake, but only to gratify this or that person about the King (age 37). God forgive us all!

Pepy's Diary. 12 Jul 1667. And so Sir H. Cholmly (age 34) tells me they did all argue for peace, and so he do believe that the King (age 37) hath agreed to the three points Mr. Coventry (age 39) brought over, which I have mentioned before, and is gone with them back. He tells me further that the Duke of Buckingham (age 39) was before the Council the other day, and there did carry it very submissively and pleasingly to the King (age 37); but to my Lord Arlington (age 49), who do prosecute the business, he was most bitter and sharp, and very slighting. As to the letter about his employing a man to cast the King's nativity, says he to the King (age 37), "Sir", says he, "this is none of my hand, and I refer it to your Majesty whether you do not know this hand". the King (age 37) answered, that it was indeed none of his, and that he knew whose it was, but could not recall it presently. "Why", says he, "it is my sister of Richmond's (age 45), some frolick or other of hers of some certain person; and there is nothing of the King's name in it, but it is only said to be his by supposition, as is said". the King (age 37), it seems, seemed not very much displeased with what the Duke (age 39) had said; but, however, he is still in the Tower, and no discourse of his being out in haste, though my Baroness Castlemayne (age 26) hath so far solicited for him that the King (age 37) and she are quite fallen out: he comes not to her, nor hath for some three or four days; and parted with very foul words, the King (age 37) calling her a whore, and a jade that meddled with things she had nothing to do with at all: and she calling him fool; and told him if he was not a fool, he would not suffer his businesses to be carried on by fellows that did not understand them, and cause his best subjects, and those best able to serve him, to be imprisoned; meaning the Duke of Buckingham (age 39).

Pepy's Diary. 12 Jul 1667. To dinner, and very good discourse with my Lord. And after dinner Sir Thomas Crew (age 43) and I alone, and he tells me how I am mightily in esteem with the Parliament; there being harangues made in the House to the Speaker (age 50), of Mr. Pepys's readiness and civility to show them every thing, which I am at this time very glad of. He tells me the news of the King (age 37) and my Baroness Castlemayne (age 26) which I have wrote already this day, and the design of the Parliament to look into things very well before they give any more money, and I pray God they may.

Pepy's Diary. 13 Jul 1667. And yesterday Sir Thomas Crew (age 43) told me that Lacy (age 52) lies a-dying of the pox, and yet hath his whore by him, whom he will have to look on, he says, though he can do no more; nor would receive any ghostly advice from a Bishop, an old acquaintance of his, that went to see him. He says there is a strangeness between the King (age 37) and my Baroness Castlemayne (age 26), as I was told yesterday.

Pepy's Diary. 17 Jul 1667. Home, and to dinner, and by and by comes Mr. Pierce, who is interested in the Panther, for some advice, and then comes Creed, and he and I spent the whole afternoon till eight at night walking and talking of sundry things public and private in the garden, but most of all of the unhappy state of this nation at this time by the negligence of the King (age 37) and his Council. The Duke of Buckingham (age 39) is, it seems, set at liberty, without any further charge against him or other clearing of him, but let to go out; which is one of the strangest instances of the fool's play with which all publick things are done in this age, that is to be apprehended. And it is said that when he was charged with making himself popular-as indeed he is, for many of the discontented Parliament, Sir Robert Howard (age 41) and Sir Thomas Meres, and others, did attend at the Council-chamber when he was examined-he should answer, that whoever was committed to prison by my Chancellor (age 58) or my Lord Arlington (age 49), could not want being popular. But it is worth considering the ill state a Minister of State is in, under such a Prince as ours is; for, undoubtedly, neither of those two great men would have been so fierce against the Duke of Buckingham (age 39) at the Council-table the other day, had they [not] been assured of the King's good liking, and supporting them therein: whereas, perhaps at the desire of my Baroness Castlemayne (age 26), who, I suppose, hath at last overcome the King (age 37), the Duke of Buckingham (age 39) is well received again, and now these men delivered up to the interest he can make for his revenge. He told me over the story of Mrs. Stewart (age 20), much after the manner which I was told it long since, and have entered it in this book, told me by Mr. Evelyn (age 46); only he says it is verily believed that the King (age 37) did never intend to marry her to any but himself, and that the Duke of York (age 33) and Chancellor (age 58) were jealous of it; and that Mrs. Stewart (age 20) might be got with child by the King (age 37), or somebody else, and the King (age 37) own a marriage before his contract, for it is but a contract, as he tells me, to this day, with the Queene (age 57), and so wipe their noses of the Crown; and that, therefore, the Duke of York (age 33) and Chancellor (age 58) did do all they could to forward the match with my Lord Duke of Richmond (age 28), that she might be married out of the way; but, above all, it is a worthy part that this good lady hath acted.

Pepy's Diary. 27 Jul 1667. At the office all the morning; and at noon to the 'Change [Map], where I met Fenn; and he tells me that Sir John Coventry (age 31) do bring the confirmation of the peace; but I do not find the 'Change [Map] at all glad of it, but rather the worse, they looking upon it as a peace made only to preserve the King (age 37) for a time in his lusts and ease, and to sacrifice trade and his kingdoms only to his own pleasures: so that the hearts of merchants are quite down. He tells me that the King (age 37) and my Baroness Castlemayne (age 26) are quite broke off, and she is gone away, and is with child, and swears the King (age 37) shall own it; and she will have it christened in the Chapel at White Hall so, and owned for the King's, as other Kings have done; or she will bring it into White Hall gallery, and dash the brains of it out before the King's face1.

Note 1. Charles owned only four children by Baroness Castlemaine's (age 26) - [her illegitimate daughter] Anne, Countess of Sussex (age 6), and the Dukes of [her illegitimate son] Southampton (age 5), [her illegitimate son] Grafton (age 3), and [her illegitimate son] Northumberland (age 1). The last of these was born in 1665. The paternity of all her other children was certainly doubtful. See pp. 50,52.

Pepy's Diary. 29 Jul 1667. But presently comes down the House of Commons, the King (age 37) having made then a very short and no pleasing speech to them at all, not at all giving them thanks for their readiness to come up to town at this busy time; but told them that he did think he should have had occasion for them, but had none, and therefore did dismiss them to look after their own occasions till October; and that he did wonder any should offer to bring in a suspicion that he intended to rule by an army, or otherwise than by the laws of the land, which he promised them he would do; and so bade them go home and settle the minds of the country in that particular; and only added, that he had made a peace which he did believe they would find reasonable, and a good peace, but did give them none of the particulars thereof. Thus they are dismissed again to their general great distaste, I believe the greatest that ever Parliament was, to see themselves so fooled, and the nation in certain condition of ruin, while the King (age 37), they see, is only governed by his lust, and women, and rogues about him. The Speaker, they found, was kept from coming in the morning to the House on purpose, till after the King (age 37) was come to the House of Lords, for fear they should be doing anything in the House of Commons to the further dissatisfaction of the King (age 37) and his courtiers. They do all give up the Kingdom for lost that I speak to; and do hear what the King (age 37) says, how he and the Duke of York (age 33) do do what they can to get up an army, that they may need no more Parliaments: and how my Baroness Castlemayne (age 26) hath, before the late breach between her and the King (age 37), said to the King (age 37) that he must rule by an army, or all would be lost, and that Bab. May (age 39) hath given the like advice to the King (age 37), to crush the English gentlemen, saying that £300 a-year was enough for any man but them that lived at Court. I am told that many petitions were provided for the Parliament, complaining of the wrongs they have received from the Court and courtiers, in city and country, if the Parliament had but sat: and I do perceive they all do resolve to have a good account of the money spent before ever they give a farthing more: and the whole kingdom is everywhere sensible of their being abused, insomuch that they forced their Parliament-men to come up to sit; and my cozen Roger (age 50) told me that (but that was in mirth) he believed, if he had not come up, he should have had his house burned. The Kingdom never in so troubled a condition in this world as now; nobody pleased with the peace, and yet nobody daring to wish for the continuance of the war, it being plain that nothing do nor can thrive under us. Here I saw old good Mr. Vaughan (age 63), and several of the great men of the Commons, and some of them old men, that are come 200 miles, and more, to attend this session-of Parliament; and have been at great charge and disappointments in their other private business; and now all to no purpose, neither to serve their country, content themselves, nor receive any thanks from the King (age 37). It is verily expected by many of them that the King (age 37) will continue the prorogation in October, so as, if it be possible, never to have [this] Parliament more. My Lord Bristoll (age 54) took his place in the House of Lords this day, but not in his robes; and when the King (age 37) come in, he withdrew but my Lord of Buckingham (age 39) was there as brisk as ever, and sat in his robes; which is a monstrous thing, that a man proclaimed against, and put in the Tower [Map], and all, and released without any trial, and yet not restored to his places.

Pepy's Diary. 29 Jul 1667. By and by he is informed that Sir H. Bellasses's (age 28) coach was coming: so Tom Porter went down out of the Coffee-house where he stayed for the tidings, and stopped the coach, and bade Sir H. Bellasses come out. "Why", says H. Bellasses, "you will not hurt me coming out, will you?"-"No", says Tom Porter. So out he went, and both drew: and H. Bellasses having drawn and flung away his scabbard, Tom Porter asked him whether he was ready? The other answering him he was, they fell to fight, some of their acquaintance by. They wounded one another, and H. Bellasses so much that it is feared he will die: and finding himself severely wounded, he called to Tom Porter, and kissed him, and bade him shift for himself; "for", says he, "Tom, thou hast hurt me; but I will make shift to stand upon my legs till thou mayest withdraw, and the world not take notice of you, for I would not have thee troubled for what thou hast done". And so whether he did fly or no I cannot tell: but Tom Porter shewed H. Bellasses that he was wounded too: and they are both ill, but H. Bellasses to fear of life. And this is a fine example; and H. Bellasses a Parliament-man too, and both of them most extraordinary friends! Among other discourse, my cozen Roger (age 50) told us a thing certain, that the Archbishop of Canterbury (age 69); that now is, do keep a wench, and that he is as very a wencher as can be; and tells us it is a thing publickly known that Sir Charles Sidley (age 28) had got away one of the Archbishop's wenches from him, and the Archbishop sent to him to let him know that she was his kinswoman, and did wonder that he would offer any dishonour to one related to him. To which Sir Charles Sidley is said to answer, "A pox take his Grace! pray tell his Grace that I believe he finds himself too old, and is afraid that I should outdo him among his girls, and spoil his trade". But he makes no more of doubt to say that the Archbishop is a wencher, and known to be so, which is one of the most astonishing things that I have heard of, unless it be, what for certain he says is true, that my Baroness Castlemayne (age 26) hath made a Bishop lately, namely,-her uncle, Dr. Glenham, who, I think they say, is Bishop of Carlisle; a drunken, swearing rascal, and a scandal to the Church; and do now pretend to be Bishop of Lincoln, in competition with Dr. Raynbow (age 59), who is reckoned as worthy a man as most in the Church for piety and learning: which are things so scandalous to consider, that no man can doubt but we must be undone that hears of them.

Pepy's Diary. 29 Jul 1667. After dinner comes W. How and a son of Mr. Pagett's to see me, with whom I drank, but could not stay, and so by coach with cozen Roger (age 50) (who before his going did acquaint me in private with an offer made of his marrying of Mrs. Elizabeth Wiles, whom I know; a kinswoman of Mr. Honiwood's, an ugly old maid, but a good housewife; and is said to have £2500 to her portion; but if I can find that she hath but £2000, which he prays me to examine, he says he will have her, she being one he hath long known intimately, and a good housewife, and discreet woman; though I am against it in my heart, she being not handsome at all) and it hath been the very bad fortune of the Pepyses that ever I knew, never to marry an handsome woman, excepting Ned Pepys and Creed, set the former down at the Temple [Map] resolving to go to Cambridge to-morrow, and Creed and I to White Hall to the Treasury chamber there to attend, but in vain, only here, looking out of the window into the garden, I saw the King (age 37) (whom I have not had any desire to see since the Dutch come upon the coast first to Sheerness, for shame that I should see him, or he me, methinks, after such a dishonour) come upon the garden; with him two or three idle Lords; and instantly after him, in another walk, my Baroness Castlemayne (age 26), led by Bab. May (age 39): at which I was surprised, having but newly heard the stories of the King (age 37) and her being parted for ever. So I took Mr. Povy (age 53), who was there, aside, and he told me all, how imperious this woman is, and hectors the King (age 37) to whatever she will. It seems she is with child, and the King (age 37) says he did not get it: with that she made a slighting "puh" with her mouth, and went out of the house, and never come in again till the King (age 37) went to Sir Daniel Harvy's to pray her; and so she is come to-day, when one would think his mind should be full of some other cares, having but this morning broken up such a Parliament, with so much discontent, and so many wants upon him, and but yesterday heard such a sermon against adultery. But it seems she hath told the King (age 37), that whoever did get it, he should own it; and the bottom of the quarrel is this:-She is fallen in love with young Jermin who hath of late lain with her oftener than the King (age 37), and is now going to marry my Lady Falmouth; the King (age 37) he is mad at her entertaining Jermin, and she is mad at Jermin's going to marry from her: so they are all mad; and thus the Kingdom is governed! and they say it is labouring to make breaches between the Duke of Richmond and his lady that the King (age 37) may get her to him. But he tells me for certain that nothing is more sure than that the King (age 37), and Duke of York (age 33), and the Chancellor (age 58), are desirous and labouring all they can to get an army, whatever the King (age 37) says to the Parliament; and he believes that they are at last resolved to stand and fall all three together: so that he says match of the Duke of York (age 33) with the Chancellor's (age 58) daughter hath undone the nation. He tells me also that the King (age 37) hath not greater enemies in the world than those of his own family; for there is not an officer in the house almost but curses him for letting them starve, and there is not a farthing of money to be raised for the buying them bread. Having done talking with him I to Westminster Hall [Map], and there talked and wandered up and down till the evening to no purpose, there and to the Swan [Map], and so till the evening, and so home, and there to walk in the garden with my wife, telling her of my losing £300 a year by my place that I am to part with, which do a little trouble me, but we must live with somewhat more thrift, and so home to supper and to play on the flageolet, which do do very prettily, and so to bed. Many guns were heard this afternoon, it seems, at White Hall and in the Temple [Map] garden very plain; but what it should be nobody knows, unless the Dutch be driving our ships up the river. To-morrow we shall know.

Pepy's Diary. 30 Jul 1667. But it is a pretty thing he told us how the King (age 37), once speaking of the Duke of York's (age 33) being mastered by his wife (age 30), said to some of the company by, that he would go no more abroad with this Tom Otter (meaning the Duke of York (age 33)) and his wife. Tom Killigrew (age 55), being by, answered, "Sir", says he, "pray which is the best for a man, to be a Tom Otter to his wife or to his mistress?" meaning the King's being so to my Baroness Castlemayne (age 26). Thus he went on; and speaking then of my Lord Sandwich (age 42), whom he professed to love exceedingly, says Creed, "I know not what, but he is a man, methinks, that I could love for himself, without other regards".... [Missing text 'and by your favour," says he, "by God, there is nothing to be beloved propter se but a cunt.']

Pepy's Diary. 30 Jul 1667. After dinner by coach to White Hall, calling on two or three tradesmen and paying their bills, and so to White Hall, to the Treasury-chamber, where I did speak with the Lords, and did my business about getting them to assent to 10 per cent. interest on the 11 months tax, but find them mightily put to it for money. Here I do hear that there are three Lords more to be added to them; my Lord Bridgewater (age 44), my Lord Anglesey (age 53), and my Lord Camberlaine. Having done my business, I to Creed's chamber, and thence out with Creed to White Hall with him; in our way, meeting with Mr. Cooling, my Lord Camberlain's secretary, on horseback, who stopped to speak with us, and he proved very drunk, and did talk, and would have talked all night with us, I not being able to break loose from him, he holding me so by the hand. But, Lord! to see his present humour, how he swears at every word, and talks of the King (age 37) and my Baroness Castlemayne (age 26) in the plainest words in the world. And from him I gather that the story I learned yesterday is true-that the King (age 37) hath declared that he did not get the child of which she is conceived at this time, he having not as he says lain with her this half year. But she told him, "God damn me, but you shall own it!" It seems, he is jealous of Jermin, and she loves him so, that the thoughts of his marrying of my Lady Falmouth puts her into fits of the mother; and he, it seems, hath lain with her from time to time, continually, for a good while; and once, as this Cooling says, the King (age 37) had like to have taken him a-bed with her, but that he was fain to creep under the bed into her closet.... [Missing text ' He says that for a good while the King's greatest pleasure hath been with his fingers, being able to do no more.']

Pepy's Diary. 07 Aug 1667. This afternoon Mr. Pierce, the surgeon, comes to me about business, and tells me that though the King (age 37) and my Baroness Castlemayne (age 26) are friends again, she is not at White Hall, but at Sir D. Harvy's (age 35), whither the King (age 37) goes to her; and he says she made him ask her forgiveness upon his knees, and promised to offend her no more so: that, indeed, she did threaten to bring all his bastards to his closet-door, and hath nearly hectored him out of his wits.

Pepy's Diary. 08 Aug 1667. After dinner to the office a while, and then with my wife to the Temple [Map], where I light and sent her to her tailor's. I to my bookseller's; where, by and by, I met Mr. Evelyn (age 46), and talked of several things, but particularly of the times: and he tells me that wise men do prepare to remove abroad what they have, for that we must be ruined, our case being past relief, the Kingdom so much in debt, and the King (age 37) minding nothing but his lust, going two days a-week to see my Baroness Castlemayne (age 26) at Sir D. Harvy's (age 35).

Pepy's Diary. 26 Aug 1667. Then to the office, where we sat upon a particular business all the morning: and my Lord Anglesey (age 53) with us: who, and my Lord Bruncker (age 47), do bring us news how my Chancellor's (age 58) seal is to be taken away from him to-day. The thing is so great and sudden to me, that it put me into a very great admiration what should be the meaning of it; and they do not own that they know what it should be: but this is certain, that the King (age 37) did resolve it on Saturday, and did yesterday send the Duke of Albemarle (age 58), the only man fit for those works, to him for his purse: to which the Chancellor (age 58) answered, that he received it from the King (age 37), and would deliver it to the King's own hand, and so civilly returned the Duke of Albemarle (age 58) without it; and this morning my Chancellor (age 58) is to be with the King (age 37), to come to an end in the business. After sitting, we rose, and my wife being gone abroad with Mrs. Turner (age 44) to her washing at the whitster's, I dined at Sir W. Batten's (age 66), where Mr. Boreman was, who come from White Hall; who tells us that he saw my Chancellor (age 58) come in his coach with some of his men, without his Seal, to White Hall to his chamber; and thither the King (age 37) and Duke of York (age 33) come and staid together alone, an hour or more: and it is said that the King (age 37) do say that he will have the Parliament meet, and that it will prevent much trouble by having of him out of their enmity, by his place being taken away; for that all their enmity will be at him. It is said also that my Chancellor (age 58) answers, that he desires he may be brought to his trial, if he have done any thing to lose his office; and that he will be willing, and is most desirous, to lose that, and his head both together. Upon what terms they parted nobody knows but the Chancellor (age 58) looked sad, he says. Then in comes Sir Richard Ford (age 53), and says he hears that there is nobody more presses to reconcile the King (age 37) and Chancellor (age 58) than the Duke of Albemarle (age 58) and Duke of Buckingham (age 39): the latter of which is very strange, not only that he who was so lately his enemy should do it, but that this man, that but the other day was in danger of losing his own head, should so soon come to be a mediator for others: it shows a wise Government. They all say that he [Clarendon] is but a poor man, not worth above £3000 a-year in land; but this I cannot believe: and all do blame him for having built so great a house, till he had got a better estate. Having dined, Sir J. Minnes (age 68) and I to White Hall, where we could be informed in no more than we were told before, nobody knowing the result of the meeting, but that the matter is suspended. So I walked to the King's playhouse, there to meet Sir W. Pen (age 46), and saw "The Surprizall", a very mean play, I thought: or else it was because I was out of humour, and but very little company in the house. But there Sir W. Pen (age 46) and I had a great deal of discourse with Moll; who tells us that Nell (age 17) is already left by my Lord Buckhurst (age 24), and that he makes sport of her, and swears she hath had all she could get of him; and Hart1, her great admirer, now hates her; and that she is very poor, and hath lost my Baroness Castlemayne (age 26), who was her great friend also but she is come to the House, but is neglected by them all2. Thence with Sir W. Pen (age 46) home, and I to the office, where late about business, and then home to supper, and so to bed.

Note 1. Charles Hart, great-nephew of Shakespeare, a favourite actor. He is credited with being Nell Gwyn's (age 17) first lover (or Charles I, as the wits put it), and with having brought her on the stage. He died of stone, and was buried at Stanmore Magna, Middlesex, where he had a country house.

Note 2. Lord Buckhurst's (age 24) liaison with Nell Gwyn probably came to an end about this time. We learn from Pepys that in January, 1667-68, the King (age 37) sent several times for Nelly (age 17) (see January 11th, 1667-68). Nell's eldest son by Charles II, Charles Beauclerc, was not born till May 8th, 1670. He was created Earl of Burford in 1676 and Duke of St. Albans in 1684.

Pepy's Diary. 27 Aug 1667. Thence home, and there did business, and so in the evening home to supper and to bed. This day Mr. Pierce, the surgeon, was with me; and tells me how this business of my Chancellor's (age 58) was certainly designed in my Baroness Castlemayne's (age 26) chamber; and that, when he went from the King (age 37) on Monday morning, she was in bed, though about twelve o'clock, and ran out in her smock into her aviary looking into White Hall garden; and thither her woman brought her her nightgown; and stood joying herself at the old man's going away: and several of the gallants of White Hall, of which there were many staying to see the Chancellor (age 58) return, did talk to her in her birdcage; among others, Blancford, telling her she was the bird of paradise1. 28th. Up; and staid undressed till my tailor's boy did mend my vest, in order to my going to the christening anon. Then out and to White Hall, to attend the Council, by their order, with an answer to their demands touching our advice for the paying off of the seamen, when the ships shall come in, which answer is worth seeing, shewing the badness of our condition. There, when I come, I was forced to stay till past twelve o'clock, in a crowd of people in the lobby, expecting the hearing of the great cause of Alderman Barker against my Lord Deputy of Ireland, for his ill usage in his business of land there; but the King (age 37) and Council sat so long, as they neither heard them nor me. So when they rose, I into the House, and saw the King (age 37) and Queen (age 28) at dinner, and heard a little of their viallins' musick, and so home, and there to dinner, and in the afternoon with my Lady Batten, Pen, and her daughter, and my wife, to Mrs. Poole's, where I mighty merry among the women, and christened the child, a girl, Elizabeth, which, though a girl, yet my Lady Batten would have me to give the name. After christening comes Sir W. Batten (age 66), Sir W. Pen (age 46), and Mr. Lowther, and mighty merry there, and I forfeited for not kissing the two godmothers presently after the christening, before I kissed the mother, which made good mirth; and so anon away, and my wife and I took coach and went twice round Bartholomew fayre; which I was glad to see again, after two years missing it by the plague, and so home and to my chamber a little, and so to supper and to bed.

Note 1. Clarendon refers to this scene in the continuation of his Life (ed. 1827, vol. iii., p. 291), and Lister writes: "Baroness Castlemaine (age 26) rose hastily from her noontide bed, and came out into her aviary, anxious to read in the saddened air of her distinguished enemy some presage of his fall" ("Life of Clarendon", vol. ii., p. 412).

Pepy's Diary. 30 Aug 1667. By and by comes newes that my Lady Viner (age 36) was come to see Mrs. Lowther, which I was glad of, and all the pleasure I had here was to see her, which I did, and saluted her, and find she is pretty, though not so eminently so as people talked of her, and of very pretty carriage and discourse. I sat with them and her an hour talking and pleasant, and then slunk away alone without taking leave, leaving my wife there to come home with them, and I to Bartholomew fayre, to walk up and down; and there, among other things, find my Baroness Castlemayne (age 26) at a puppet-play, "Patient Grizill"1, and the street full of people expecting her coming out. I confess I did wonder at her courage to come abroad, thinking the people would abuse her; but they, silly people! do not know her work she makes, and therefore suffered her with great respect to take coach, and she away, without any trouble at all, which I wondered at, I confess. I only walked up and down, and, among others, saw Tom Pepys, the turner, who hath a shop, and I think lives in the fair when the fair is not. I only asked how he did as he stood in the street, and so up and down sauntering till late and then home, and there discoursed with my wife of our bad entertainment to-day, and so to bed. I met Captain Cocke (age 50) to-day at the Council Chamber and took him with me to Westminster, who tells me that there is yet expectation that the Chancellor (age 58) will lose the Seal, and that he is sure that the King (age 37) hath said it to him who told it him, and he fears we shall be soon broke in pieces, and assures me that there have been high words between the Duke of York (age 33) and Sir W. Coventry (age 39), for his being so high against the Chancellor (age 58); so as the Duke of York (age 33) would not sign some papers that he brought, saying that he could not endure the sight of him: and that Sir W. Coventry (age 39) answered, that what he did was in obedience to the King's commands; and that he did not think any man fit to serve a Prince, that did not know how to retire and live a country life. This is all I hear.

Note 1. The well-known story, first told by Boccaccio, then by Petrarca, afterwards by Chaucer, and which has since become proverbial. Tom Warton, writing about 1770, says, "I need not mention that it is to this day represented in England, on a stage of the lowest species, and of the highest antiquity: I mean at a puppet show" ("Hist. of English Poetry", sect. xv.). B.

Pepy's Diary. 01 Sep 1667. Lord's Day. Up, and betimes by water from the Tower, and called at the Old Swan [Map] for a glass of strong water, and sent word to have little Michell and his wife come and dine with us to-day; and so, taking in a gentleman and his lady that wanted a boat, I to Westminster. Setting them on shore at Charing Cross [Map], I to Mrs. Martin's, where I had two pair of cuffs which I bespoke, and there did sit and talk with her.... [Missing text: "and no mas, ella having aquellos [ those ] upon her"] and here I did see her little girle my goddaughter, which will be pretty, and there having staid a little I away to Creed's chamber, and when he was ready away to White Hall, where I met with several people and had my fill of talk. Our new Lord-keeper, Bridgeman (age 61), did this day, the first time, attend the King (age 37) to chapel with his Seal. Sir H. Cholmly (age 35) tells me there are hopes that the women will also have a rout, and particularly that my Baroness Castlemayne (age 26) is coming to a composition with the King (age 37) to be gone; but how true this is, I know not. Blancfort (age 26) is made Privy-purse to the Duke of York (age 33); the Attorney-general (age 69) is made Chief justice, in the room of my Lord Bridgeman (age 61); the Solicitor-general (age 45) is made Attorney-general; and Sir Edward Turner (age 50) made Solicitor-general.

Pepy's Diary. 01 Sep 1667. It is pretty to see how strange every body looks, nobody knowing whence this arises; whether from my Baroness Castlemayne (age 26), Bab. May (age 39), and their faction; or from the Duke of York (age 33), notwithstanding his great appearance of defence of the Chancellor (age 58); or from Sir William Coventry (age 39), and some few with him. But greater changes are yet expected.

Pepy's Diary. 02 Sep 1667. I took a coach and went homewards; but then turned again, and to White Hall, where I met with many people; and, among other things, do learn that there is some fear that Mr. Bruncker is got into the King's favour, and will be cherished there; which will breed ill will between the King (age 37) and Duke of York (age 33), he lodging at this time in White Hall since he was put away from the Duke of York (age 33): and he is great with Bab. May (age 39), my Baroness Castlemayne (age 26), and that wicked crew. But I find this denied by Sir G. Carteret (age 57), who tells me that he is sure he hath no kindness from the King (age 37); that the King (age 37) at first, indeed, did endeavour to persuade the Duke of York (age 33) from putting him away; but when, besides this business of his ill words concerning his Majesty in the business of the Chancellor (age 58), he told him that he hath had, a long time, a mind to put him away for his ill offices, done between him and his wife, the King (age 37) held his peace, and said no more, but wished him to do what he pleased with him; which was very noble.

Pepy's Diary. 02 Sep 1667. This day is kept in the City as a publick fast for the fire this day twelve months: but I was not at church, being commanded, with the rest, to attend the Duke of York (age 33); and, therefore, with Sir J. Minnes (age 68) to St. James's, where we had much business before the Duke of York (age 33), and observed all things to be very kind between the Duke of York (age 33) and W. Coventry (age 39), which did mightily joy me. When we had done, Sir W. Coventry (age 39) called me down with him to his chamber, and there told me that he is leaving the Duke of York's (age 33) service, which I was amazed at. But he tells me that it is not with the least unkindness on the Duke of York's (age 33) side, though he expects, and I told him he was in the right, it will be interpreted otherwise, because done just at this time; "but", says he, "I did desire it a good while since, and the Duke of York (age 33) did, with much entreaty, grant it, desiring that I would say nothing of it, that he might have time and liberty to choose his successor, without being importuned for others whom he should not like:" and that he hath chosen Mr. Wren, which I am glad of, he being a very ingenious man; and so Sir W. Coventry (age 39) says of him, though he knows him little; but particularly commends him for the book he writ in answer to "Harrington's (age 56) Oceana", which, for that reason, I intend to buy. He tells me the true reason is, that he, being a man not willing to undertake more business than he can go through, and being desirous to have his whole time to spend upon the business of the Treasury, and a little for his own ease, he did desire this of the Duke of York (age 33). He assures me that the kindness with which he goes away from the Duke of York (age 33) is one of the greatest joys that ever he had in the world. I used some freedom with him, telling him how the world hath discoursed of his having offended the Duke of York (age 33), about the late business of the Chancellor (age 58). He do not deny it, but says that perhaps the Duke of York (age 33) might have some reason for it, he opposing him in a thing wherein he was so earnest but tells me, that, notwithstanding all that, the Duke of York (age 33) does not now, nor can blame him; for he tells me that he was the man that did propose the removal of the Chancellor (age 58); and that he did still persist in it, and at this day publickly owns it, and is glad of it; but that the Duke of York (age 33) knows that he did first speak of it to the Duke of York (age 33), before he spoke to any mortal creature besides, which was fair dealing: and the Duke of York (age 33) was then of the same mind with him, and did speak of it to the King (age 37); though since, for reasons best known to himself, he was afterwards altered. I did then desire to know what was the great matter that grounded his desire of the Chancellor's (age 58) removal? He told me many things not fit to be spoken, and yet not any thing of his being unfaithful to the King (age 37); but, 'instar omnium', he told me, that while he was so great at the Council-board, and in the administration of matters, there was no room for any body to propose any remedy to what was amiss, or to compass any thing, though never so good for the Kingdom, unless approved of by the Chancellor (age 58), he managing all things with that greatness which now will be removed, that the King (age 37) may have the benefit of others' advice. I then told him that the world hath an opinion that he hath joined himself with my Baroness Castlemayne's (age 26) faction in this business; he told me, he cannot help it, but says they are in an errour: but for first he will never, while he lives, truckle under any body or any faction, but do just as his own reason and judgment directs; and, when he cannot use that freedom, he will have nothing to do in public affairs but then he added, that he never was the man that ever had any discourse with my Baroness Castlemayne (age 26), or with others from her, about this or any public business, or ever made her a visit, or at least not this twelvemonth, or been in her lodgings but when called on any business to attend the King (age 37) there, nor hath had any thing to do in knowing her mind in this business. He ended all with telling me that he knows that he that serves a Prince must expect, and be contented to stand, all fortunes, and be provided to retreat, and that that he is most willing to do whenever the King (age 37) shall please. And so we parted, he setting me down out of his coach at Charing Cross [Map], and desired me to tell Sir W. Pen (age 46) what he had told me of his leaving the Duke of York's (age 33) service, that his friends might not be the last that know it.

Pepy's Diary. 05 Sep 1667. So home and to the office, where busy late, then home to supper and to bed. This morning was told by Sir W. Batten (age 66), that he do hear from Mr. Grey, who hath good intelligence, that our Queen (age 28) is to go into a nunnery, there to spend her days; and that my Baroness Castlemayne (age 26) is going into France, and is to have a pension of £4000 a-year. This latter I do more believe than the other, it being very wise in her to do it, and save all she hath, besides easing the King (age 37) and kingdom of a burden and reproach.

Pepy's Diary. 08 Sep 1667. And here it comes into my head to set down what Mr. Rawlinson (age 53), whom I met in Fenchurch Street [Map] on Friday last, looking over his ruines there, told me, that he was told by one of my Chancellor's (age 58) gentlemen lately (----byname), that a grant coming to him to be sealed, wherein the King (age 37) hath given her [Baroness Castlemaine (age 26)], or somebody by her means, a place which he did not like well of, he did stop the grant; saying, that he thought this woman would sell everything shortly: which she hearing of, she sent to let him know that she had disposed of this place, and did not doubt, in a little time, to dispose of his. This Rawlinson do tell me my Chancellor's (age 58) own gentleman did tell him himself.

Pepy's Diary. 08 Sep 1667. He tells me he do believe that my Baroness Castlemayne (age 26) is compounding with the King (age 37) for a pension, and to leave the Court; but that her demands are mighty high: but he believes the King (age 37) is resolved, and so do every body else I speak with, to do all possible to please the Parliament; and he do declare that he will deliver every body up to them to give an account of their actions: and that last Friday, it seems, there was an Act of Council passed, to put out all Papists in office, and to keep out any from coming in.

Pepy's Diary. 10 Sep 1667. Thence I into St. James's Park, and there met Mr. Povy (age 53); and he and I to walk an hour or more in the Pell Mell [Map], talking of the times. He tells me, among other things, that this business of the Chancellor (age 58) do breed a kind of inward distance between the King (age 37) and the Duke of York (age 33), and that it cannot be avoided; for though the latter did at first move it through his folly, yet he is made to see that he is wounded by it, and is become much a less man than he was, and so will be: but he tells me that they are, and have always been, great dissemblers one towards another; and that their parting heretofore in France is never to be thoroughly reconciled between them. He tells me that he believes there is no such thing like to be, as a composition with my Baroness Castlemayne (age 26), and that she shall be got out of the way before the Parliament comes; for he says she is as high as ever she was, though he believes the King (age 37) is as weary of her as is possible, and would give any thing to remove her, but he is so weak in his passion that he dare not do it; that he do believe that my Chancellor (age 58) will be doing some acts in the Parliament which shall render him popular; and that there are many people now do speak kindly of him that did not before; but that, if he do do this, it must provoke the King (age 37), and that party that removed him. He seems to doubt what the King of France (age 29) will do, in case an accommodation shall be made between Spain and him for Flanders, for then he will have nothing more easy to do with his army than to subdue us. Parted with him at White Hall, and, there I took coach and took up my wife and Mercer, and so home and I to the office, where ended my letters, and then to my chamber with my boy to lay up some papers and things that lay out of order against to-morrow, to make it clear against the feast that I am to have. Here Mr. Pelling come to sit with us, and talked of musique and the musicians of the town, and so to bed, after supper.

Pepy's Diary. 11 Sep 1667. But here come Mr. Moore, and sat and discoursed with me of publique matters: the sum of which is, that he do doubt that there is more at the bottom than the removal of the Chancellor (age 58); that is, he do verily believe that the King (age 37) do resolve to declare the Duke of Monmouth (age 18) legitimate, and that we shall soon see it. This I do not think the Duke of York (age 33) will endure without blows; but his poverty, and being lessened by having the Chancellor (age 58) fallen and Sir W. Coventry (age 39) gone from him, will disable him from being able to do any thing almost, he being himself almost lost in the esteem of people; and will be more and more, unless my Chancellor (age 58), who is already begun to be pitied by some people, and to be better thought of than was expected, do recover himself in Parliament. He would seem to fear that this difference about the Crowne (if there be nothing else) will undo us. He do say that, that is very true; that my Lord [Chancellor (age 58)] did lately make some stop of some grants of £2000 a-year to my [her uncle] Lord Grandison (age 50), which was only in his name, for the use of my Baroness Castlemaine's (age 26) children; and that this did incense her, and she did speak very scornful words, and sent a scornful message to him about it.

Pepy's Diary. 16 Nov 1667. Thence, it being too soon, I to Westminster Hall [Map], it being now about 7 at night, and there met Mr. Gregory, my old acquaintance, an understanding gentleman; and he and I walked an hour together, talking of the bad prospect of the times; and the sum of what I learn from him is this: That the King (age 37) is the most concerned in the world against the Chancellor (age 58), and all people that do not appear against him, and therefore is angry with the Bishops, having said that he had one Bishop on his side (Crofts ), and but one: that Buckingham (age 39) and Bristoll (age 55) are now his only Cabinet Council1 and that, before the Duke of York (age 34) fell sick, Buckingham (age 39) was admitted to the King (age 37) of his Cabinet, and there stayed with him several hours, and the Duke of York (age 34) shut out. That it is plain that there is dislike between the King (age 37) and Duke of York (age 34), and that it is to be feared that the House will go so far against the Chancellor (age 58), that they must do something to undo the Duke of York (age 34), or will not think themselves safe. That this Lord Vaughan (age 28), that is so great against the Chancellor (age 58), is one of the lewdest fellows of the age, worse than Sir Charles Sidly (age 28); and that he was heard to swear, God damn him, he would do my Lord Clarendon's (age 58) business. That he do find that my Lord Clarendon (age 58) hath more friends in both Houses than he believes he would have, by reason that they do see what are the hands that pull him down; which they do not like. That Harry Coventry (age 48) was scolded at by the King (age 37) severely the other day; and that his answer was that, if he must not speak what he thought in this business in Parliament, he must not come thither. And he says that by this very business Harry Coventry (age 48) hath got more fame and common esteem than any gentleman in England hath at this day, and is an excellent and able person. That the King (age 37), who not long ago did say of Bristoll (age 55), that he was a man able in three years to get himself a fortune in any kingdom in the world, and lose all again in three months, do now hug him, and commend his parts every where, above all the world. How fickle is this man [the King (age 37)], and how unhappy we like to be! That he fears some furious courses will be taken against the Duke of York (age 34); and that he hath heard that it was designed, if they cannot carry matters against the Chancellor (age 58), to impeach the Duke of York (age 34) himself, which God forbid! That Sir Edward Nicholas (age 74), whom he served while Secretary, is one of the best men in the world, but hated by the Queen-Mother (age 57), for a service he did the old King against her mind and her favourites; and that she and my Baroness Castlemayne (age 26) did make the King (age 37) to lay him aside: but this man says that he is one of the most perfect heavenly and charitable men in the whole world.

Note 1. The term Cabinet Council, as stated by Clarendon, originated thus, in 1640: "The bulk and burden of the state affairs lay principally upon the shoulders of the Archbishop of Canterbury, the Earl of Strafford, and the Lord Cottington; some others being joined to them, as the Earl of Northumberland for ornament, the Bishop of London for his place, the two Secretaries, Sir H. Vane and Sir Francis Windebank, for service and communication of intelligence: only the Marquis of Hamilton, indeed, by his skill and interest, bore as great a part as he had a mind to do, and had the skill to meddle no further than he had a mind. These persons made up the committee of state, which was reproachfully after called the junto, and enviously then in the Court the Cabinet Council" ("History of the Rebellion", vol. i., p. 211, edit. 1849).

Pepy's Diary. 24 Dec 1667. Up, and all the morning at the office, and at noon with my clerks to dinner, and then to the office again, busy at the office till six at night, and then by coach to St. James's, it being about six at night; my design being to see the ceremonys, this night being the eve of Christmas, at the Queen's (age 29) chapel. But it being not begun I to Westminster Hall [Map], and there staid and walked, and then to the Swan [Map], and there drank and talked, and did banter a little Frank, and so to White Hall, and sent my coach round, I through the Park to chapel, where I got in up almost to the rail, and with a great deal of patience staid from nine at night to two in the morning, in a very great crowd; and there expected, but found nothing extraordinary, there being nothing but a high masse. The Queen (age 29) was there, and some ladies. But, Lord! what an odde thing it was for me to be in a crowd of people, here a footman, there a beggar, here a fine lady, there a zealous poor papist, and here a Protestant, two or three together, come to see the shew. I was afeard of my pocket being picked very much.... Their musique very good indeed, but their service I confess too frivolous, that there can be no zeal go along with it, and I do find by them themselves that they do run over their beads with one hand, and point and play and talk and make signs with the other in the midst of their masse. But all things very rich and beautiful; and I see the papists have the wit, most of them, to bring cushions to kneel on, which I wanted, and was mightily troubled to kneel. All being done, and I sorry for my coming, missing of what I expected; which was, to have had a child born and dressed there, and a great deal of do: but we broke up, and nothing like it done: and there I left people receiving the Sacrament: and the Queen (age 29) gone, and ladies; only my Baroness Castlemayne (age 27), who looked prettily in her night-clothes, and so took my coach, which waited, and away through Covent Garden [Map], to set down two gentlemen and a lady, who come thither to see also, and did make mighty mirth in their talk of the folly of this religion. And so I stopped, having set them down and drank some burnt wine at the Rose Tavern door, while the constables come, and two or three Bellmen went by,

Pepy's Diary. 26 Dec 1667. Up and to Westminster, and there to the Swan [Map], and by chance met Mr. Spicer and another 'Chequer clerk, and there made them drink, and there talked of the credit the 'Chequer is now come to and will in a little time, and so away homeward, and called at my bookseller's, and there bought Mr. Harrington's (age 56) works, "Oceana", &c., and two other books, which cost me £4, and so home, and there eat a bit, and then with my wife to the King's playhouse, and there saw "The Surprizall"; which did not please me to-day, the actors not pleasing me; and especially Nell's (age 17) acting of a serious part, which she spoils. Here met with Sir W. Pen (age 46), and sat by him, and home by coach with him, and there to my office a while, and then home to supper and to bed. I hear this day that Mrs. Stewart (age 20) do at this day keep a great court at Somerset House [Map], with her husband the Duke of Richmond (age 28), she being visited for her beauty's sake by people, as the Queen (age 29) is, at nights; and they say also that she is likely to go to Court again, and there put my Baroness Castlemayne's (age 27) nose out of joynt. God knows that would make a great turn. This day I was invited to have gone to my cozen Mary Pepys' burial, my uncle Thomas' daughter, but could not.

Pepy's Diary. 14 Jan 1668. Thence by coach to Mrs. Pierce's, where my wife and Deb. is; and there they fell to discourse of the last night's work at Court, where the ladies and Duke of Monmouth (age 18) and others acted "The Indian Emperour"; wherein they told me these things most remark able: that not any woman but the Duchesse of Monmouth (age 16) and Mrs. Cornwallis (age 18) did any thing but like fools and stocks, but that these two did do most extraordinary well: that not any man did any thing well but Captain O'Bryan, who spoke and did well, but, above all things, did dance most incomparably. That she did sit near the players of the Duke's house; among the rest, Mis Davis (age 20), who is the most impertinent slut, she says, in the world; and the more, now the King (age 37) do show her countenance; and is reckoned his mistress, even to the scorne of the whole world; the King (age 37) gazing on her, and my Baroness Castlemayne (age 27) being melancholy and out of humour, all the play, not smiling once. The King (age 37), it seems, hath given her a ring of £700, which she shews to every body, and owns that the King (age 37) did give it her; and he hath furnished a house for her in Suffolke Street most richly, which is a most infinite shame. It seems she is a bastard of Colonell Howard, my Lord Berkshire (age 80), and that he do pimp to her for the King (age 37), and hath got her for him; but Pierce says that she is a most homely jade as ever she saw, though she dances beyond any thing in the world. She tells me that the Duchesse of Richmond (age 20) do not yet come to the Court, nor hath seen the King (age 37), nor will not, nor do he own his desire of seeing her; but hath used means to get her to Court, but they do not take.

Buckingham Shrewsbury Duel

Pepy's Diary. 17 Jan 1668. Up, and by coach to White Hall to attend the Council there, and here I met first by Mr. Castle (age 39) the shipwright, whom I met there, and then from the whole house the discourse of the duell yesterday between the Duke of Buckingham (age 39), Holmes, and one Jenkins, on one side, and my Lord of Shrewsbury (age 45), Sir John Talbot (age 37), and one Bernard Howard (age 27), on the other side: and all about my Lady Shrewsbury (age 25)1, who is a whore, and is at this time, and hath for a great while been, a whore to the Duke of Buckingham (age 39). And so her husband (age 45) challenged him, and they met yesterday in a close near Barne-Elmes, and there fought: and my Lord Shrewsbury (age 45) is run through the body, from the right breast through the shoulder: and Sir John Talbot (age 37) all along up one of his armes; and Jenkins killed upon the place, and the rest all, in a little measure, wounded. This will make the world think that the King (age 37) hath good councillors about him, when the Duke of Buckingham (age 39), the greatest man about him, is a fellow of no more sobriety than to fight about a whore. And this may prove a very bad accident to the Duke of Buckingham (age 39), but that my Baroness Castlemayne (age 27) do rule all at this time as much as ever she did, and she will, it is believed, keep all matters well with the Duke of Buckingham (age 39): though this is a time that the King (age 37) will be very backward, I suppose, to appear in such a business. And it is pretty to hear how the King (age 37) had some notice of this challenge a week or two ago, and did give it to my Lord Generall (age 59) to confine the Duke (age 39), or take security that he should not do any such thing as fight: and the Generall trusted to the King (age 37) that he, sending for him, would do it, and the King (age 37) trusted to the Generall; and so, between both, as everything else of the greatest moment do, do fall between two stools. The whole House full of nothing but the talk of this business; and it is said that my Lord Shrewsbury's (age 45) case is to be feared, that he may die too; and that may make it much the worse for the Duke of Buckingham (age 39): and I shall not be much sorry for it, that we may have some sober man come in his room to assist in the Government. Here I waited till the Council rose, and talked the while, with Creed, who tells me of Mr. Harry Howard's' (age 39) giving the Royal Society a piece of ground next to his house, to build a College on, which is a most generous act. And he tells me he is a very fine person, and understands and speaks well; and no rigid Papist neither, but one that would not have a Protestant servant leave his religion, which he was going to do, thinking to recommend himself to his master by it; saying that he had rather have an honest Protestant than a knavish Catholique. I was not called into the Council; and, therefore, home, first informing myself that my Lord Hinchingbrooke (age 20) hath been married this week to my Lord Burlington's (age 55) daughter (age 23); so that that great business is over; and I mighty glad of it, though I am not satisfied that I have not a Favour sent me, as I see Attorney Montagu (age 50) and the Vice-Chamberlain have (age 58). But I am mighty glad that the thing is done.

Note 1. Anna Maria (age 25), daughter of Robert Brudenel, second Earl of Cardigan (age 60). Walpole says she held the Duke of Buckingham's (age 39) horse, in the habit of a page, while he was fighting the duel with her husband. She married, secondly, George Rodney Bridges, son of Sir Thomas Bridges of Keynsham, Somerset (age 51), Groom of the Bedchamber to Charles IL, and died April 20th, 1702. A portrait of the Countess of Shrewsbury, as Minerva, by Lely.

Evelyn's Diary. 04 Feb 1668. I saw the tragedy of "Horace" (written by the VIRTUOUS Mrs. Philips) acted before their Majesties [King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 37) and Henrietta Maria Bourbon Queen Consort Catherine of Braganza Queen Consort England 1638-1705]. Between each act a masque and antique dance. The excessive gallantry of the ladies was infinite, those especially on that ... Castlemaine (age 27), esteemed at £40,000 and more, far outshining the Queen (age 29).

Pepy's Diary. 14 Feb 1668. Thence I attended the King (age 37) and Council, and some of the rest of us, in a business to be heard about the value of a ship of one Dorrington's:-and it was pretty to observe how Sir W. Pen (age 46) making use of this argument against the validity of an oath, against the King (age 37), being made by the master's mate of the ship, who was but a fellow of about 23 years of age-the master of the ship, against whom we pleaded, did say that he did think himself at that age capable of being master's mate of any ship; and do know that he, himself, Sir W. Pen (age 46), was so himself, and in no better degree at that age himself: which word did strike Sir W. Pen (age 46) dumb, and made him open his mouth no more; and I saw the King (age 37) and Duke of York (age 34) wink at one another at it. This done, we into the gallery; and there I walked with several people, and among others my Lord Brouncker (age 48), who I do find under much trouble still about the business of the tickets, his very case being brought in; as is said, this day in the Report of the Miscarriages. And he seems to lay much of it on me, which I did clear and satisfy him in; and would be glad with all my heart to serve him in, and have done it more than he hath done for himself, he not deserving the least blame, but commendations, for this. I met with my cozen Roger Pepys (age 50) and Creed; and from them understand that the Report was read to-day of the Miscarriages, wherein my Lord Sandwich (age 42) is [named] about the business I mentioned this morning; but I will be at rest, for it can do him no hurt. Our business of tickets is soundly up, and many others: so they went over them again, and spent all the morning on the first, which is the dividing of the fleete; wherein hot work was, and that among great men, Privy-Councillors, and, they say, Sir W. Coventry (age 40); but I do not much fear it, but do hope that it will shew a little, of the Duke of Albemarle (age 59) and the Prince to have been advisers in it: but whereas they ordered that the King's Speech should be considered today, they took no notice of it at all, but are really come to despise the King (age 37) in all possible ways of chewing it. And it was the other day a strange saying, as I am told by my cozen Roger Pepys (age 50), in the House, when it was moved that the King's speech should be considered, that though the first part of the Speech, meaning the league that is there talked of, be the only good publick thing that hath been done since the King (age 37) come into England, yet it might bear with being put off to consider, till Friday next, which was this day. Secretary Morrice (age 65) did this day in the House, when they talked of intelligence, say that he was allowed but £70 a-year for intelligence, [Secret service money] whereas, in Cromwell's time, he [Cromwell] did allow £70,000 a-year for it; and was confirmed therein by Colonel Birch (age 52), who said that thereby Cromwell carried the secrets of all the Princes of Europe at his girdle. The House is in a most broken condition; nobody adhering to any thing, but reviling and finding fault: and now quite mad at the Undertakers, as they are commonly called, Littleton (age 47), Lord Vaughan (age 28), Sir R. Howard (age 42), and others that are brought over to the Court, and did undertake to get the King (age 37) money; but they despise, and would not hear them in the House; and the Court do do as much, seeing that they cannot be useful to them, as was expected. In short, it is plain that the King (age 37) will never be able to do any thing with this Parliament; and that the only likely way to do better, for it cannot do worse, is to break this and call another Parliament; and some do think that it is intended. I was told to-night that my Baroness Castlemayne (age 27) is so great a gamester as to have won £5000 in one night, and lost £25,000 in another night, at play, and hath played £1000 and £1500 at a cast.

Calendars. 25 Mar 1668. Petition of the poor whores, bauds, pimps, and panders, to the most splendid, illustrious, serene, and eminent lady of pleasure, the Countess of Castlemaine (age 27), for protection against the company of London apprentices, through whom they have sustained the loss of habitations, trades, and employments, and for a guard of "French, Trish, and English Hectors," who are their approved friends. Will contribute to her, as their sisters at Rome and Venice do the Pope. 'Signed by us, Madam Cresswell and Damaris Page, in the behalf of our sisters and fellow sufferers (in this day of our calamity), in Dog and Bitch Yard, Lukener's Lane, Saffron Hill, Moorfields,. Chiswell Street, Rosemary Lane, Nightingale Lane, Ratcliffe Highway, Well Close, Church Lane, East Smithfield," &c [Printer Ibid. No. 60]

Evelyn's Diary. 02 Apr 1668. To the Royal Society, where I subscribed 50,000 bricks, toward building a college. Among other libertine libels, there was one now printed and thrown about, a bold petition of the poor w--s [Note. whores] to Baroness Castlemaine (age 27).

1668 Bawdy House Riots

Pepy's Diary. 06 Apr 1668. Betimes I to Alderman Backewell (age 50), and with him to my Lord Ashly's (age 46), where did a little business about Tangier, and to talk about the business of certificates, wherein, contrary to what could be believed, the King (age 37) and Duke of York (age 34) themselves, in my absence, did call for some of the Commissioners of the Treasury, and give them directions about the business [of the certificates], which I, despairing to do any thing on a Sunday, and not thinking that they would think of it themselves, did rest satisfied, and stayed at home all yesterday, leaving it to do something in this day; but I find that the King (age 37) and Duke of York (age 34) had been so pressing in it, that my Lord Ashly (age 46) was more forward with the doing of it this day, than I could have been. And so I to White Hall with Alderman Backewell (age 50) in his coach, with Mr. Blany; my Lord's Secretary: and there did draw up a rough draught of what order I would have, and did carry it in, and had it read twice and approved of, before my Lord Ashly (age 46) and three more of the Commissioners of the Treasury, and then went up to the Council-chamber, where the Duke of York (age 34), and Prince Rupert (age 48), and the rest of the Committee of the Navy were sitting: and I did get some of them to read it there: and they would have had it passed presently, but Sir John Nicholas desired they would first have it approved by a full Council: and, therefore, a Council Extraordinary was readily summoned against the afternoon, and the Duke of York (age 34) run presently to the King (age 37), as if now they were really set to mind their business, which God grant! So I thence to Westminster, and walked in the Hall and up and down, the House being called over to-day, and little news, but some talk as if the agreement between France and Spain were like to be, which would be bad for us, and at noon with Sir Herbert Price (age 63) to Mr. George Montagu's (age 45) to dinner, being invited by him in the hall, and there mightily made of, even to great trouble to me to be so commended before my face, with that flattery and importunity, that I was quite troubled with it. Yet he is a fine gentleman, truly, and his lady a fine woman; and, among many sons that I saw there, there was a little daughter that is mighty pretty, of which he is infinite fond: and, after dinner, did make her play on the gittar and sing, which she did mighty prettily, and seems to have a mighty musical soul, keeping time with most excellent spirit. Here I met with Mr. Brownlow, my old schoolfellow, who come thither, I suppose, as a suitor to one of the young ladies that were there, and a sober man he seems to be. But here Mr. Montagu (age 45) did tell me how Mr. Vaughan (age 64), in that very room, did say that I was a great man, and had great understanding, and I know not what, which, I confess, I was a little proud of, if I may believe him. Here I do hear, as a great secret, that the King (age 37), and Duke of York (age 34) and Duchesse, and my Baroness Castlemayne (age 27), are now all agreed in a strict league, and all things like to go very current, and that it is not impossible to have my Lord Clarendon (age 59), in time, here again. But I do hear that my Baroness Castlemayne (age 27) is horribly vexed at the late libell1, the petition of the poor whores about the town, whose houses were pulled down the other day. I have got one of them, but it is not very witty, but devilish severe against her and the King (age 37) and I wonder how it durst be printed and spread abroad, which shews that the times are loose, and come to a great disregard of the King (age 37), or Court, or Government.

Note 1. "The Poor Whores' Petition to the most splendid, illustrious, serene and eminent Lady of Pleasure the Countess of Castlemayne (age 27), &c., signed by us, Madam Cresswell and Damaris Page, this present 25th day of March, 1668". This sham petition occasioned a pretended answer, entitled, "The Gracious Answer of the Most Illustrious Lady of Pleasure, the Countess of Castlem.... to the Poor Whores' Petition". It is signed, "Given at our Closset, in King Street, Westminster, die Veneris, April 24, 1668. Castlem...". Compare Evelyn, April 2nd, 1668.

Pepy's Diary. 07 Apr 1668. Here I hear Sir W. Davenant is just now dead; and so who will succeed him in the mastership of the house is not yet known. The eldest Davenport is, it seems, gone from this house to be kept by somebody; which I am glad of, she being a very bad actor. I took her then up into a coach and away to the Park, which is now very fine after some rain, but the company was going away most, and so I took her to the Lodge, and there treated her and had a deal of good talk, and now and then did baiser la, and that was all, and that as much or more than I had much mind to because of her paint. She tells me mighty news, that my Baroness Castlemayne (age 27) is mightily in love with Hart (age 42) of their house: and he is much with her in private, and she goes to him, and do give him many presents; and that the thing is most certain, and Becke Marshall only privy to it, and the means of bringing them together, which is a very odd thing; and by this means she is even with the King's love to Mrs. Davis (age 20). This done, I carried her and set her down at Mrs. Manuel's, but stayed not there myself, nor went in; but straight home, and there to my letters, and so home to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 05 May 1668. At noon home to dinner and Creed with me, and after dinner he and I to the Duke of York's playhouse; and there coming late, he and I up to the balcony-box, where we find my Baroness Castlemayne (age 27) and several great ladies; and there we sat with them, and I saw "The Impertinents" once more, now three times, and the three only days it hath been acted. And to see the folly how the house do this day cry up the play more than yesterday! and I for that reason like it, I find, the better, too; by Sir Positive At-all, I understand, is meant Sir Robert Howard (age 42). My Lady (age 27) [Castlemaine] pretty well pleased with it; but here I sat close to her fine woman, Willson, who indeed is very handsome, but, they say, with child by the King (age 37). I asked, and she told me this was the first time her Lady had seen it, I having a mind to say something to her. One thing of familiarity I observed in my Baroness Castlemayne (age 27): she called to one of her women, another that sat by this, for a little patch off her face, and put it into her mouth and wetted it, and so clapped it upon her own by the side of her mouth, I suppose she feeling a pimple rising there.

Pepy's Diary. 08 May 1668. After dinner my Lord and I together. He tells me he hears that there are great disputes like to be at Court, between the factions of the two women, my Baroness Castlemayne (age 27) and Mrs. Stewart (age 20), who is now well again, and the King (age 37) hath made several public visits to her, and like to come to Court: the other is to go to Barkeshire-house, which is taken for her, and they say a Privy-Seal is passed for £5000 for it. He believes all will come to ruin.

Pepy's Diary. 31 May 1668. At noon I sent for Mr. Mills and his wife and daughter to dine, and they dined with me, and W. Hewer (age 26), and very good company, I being in good humour. They gone to church, comes Mr. Tempest, and he and I sang a psalm or two, and so parted, and I by water to the New Exchange, and there to Mrs. Pierce's, where Knepp, and she, and W. Howe, and Mr. Pierce, and little Betty, over to Fox Hall, and there walked and supped with great pleasure. Here was Mrs. Manuel also, and mighty good company, and good mirth in making W. Howe spend his six or seven shillings, and so they called him altogether "Cully". So back, and at Somerset-stairs do understand that a boy is newly drowned, washing himself there, and they cannot find his body. So seeing them home, I home by water, W. Howe going with me, and after some talk he lay at my house, and all to bed. Here I hear that Mrs. Davis (age 20) is quite gone from the Duke of York's (age 34) house, and Gosnell comes in her room, which I am glad of. At the play at Court the other night, Mrs. Davis (age 20) was there; and when she was to come to dance her jigg, the Queene (age 58) would not stay to see it, which people do think it was out of displeasure at her being the King's whore, that she could not bear it. My Baroness Castlemayne (age 27) is, it seems, now mightily out of request, the King (age 38) coming little to her, and thus she mighty melancholy and discontented.

Pepy's Diary. 18 Aug 1668. At noon dined, and then to the office all the afternoon also, and in the evening to Sir W. Coventry's (age 40), but he not within, I took coach alone to the Park, to try to meet him there, but did not; but there were few coaches, but among the few there were in two coaches our two great beauties, my Baroness Castlemayne (age 27) and Richmond (age 21); the first time I saw the latter since she had the smallpox. I had much pleasure to see them, but I thought they were strange one to another.

Pepy's Diary. 23 Oct 1668. So home, and there all alone to dinner, my wife and W. Hewer (age 26) being gone to Deptford, Kent [Map] to see her mother, and so I to the office all the afternoon. In the afternoon comes my cozen, Sidney Pickering (age 18), to bring my wife and me his sister's Favour for her wedding, which is kindly done, and he gone, I to business again, and in the evening home, made my wife read till supper time, and so to bed. This day Pierce do tell me, among other news, the late frolick and debauchery of Sir Charles Sidly (age 29) and Buckhurst (age 25), running up and down all the night with their arses bare, through the streets; and at last fighting, and being beat by the watch and clapped up all night; and how the King (age 38) takes their parts; and my Lord Chief Justice Keeling (age 61) hath laid the constable by the heels to answer it next Sessions: which is a horrid shame. How the King (age 38) and these gentlemen did make the fiddlers of Thetford, this last progress, to sing them all the bawdy songs they could think of. How Sir W. Coventry (age 40) was brought the other day to the Duchesse of York (age 31) by the Duke (age 35), to kiss her hand; who did acknowledge his unhappiness to occasion her so much sorrow, declaring his intentions in it, and praying her pardon; which she did give him upon his promise to make good his pretences of innocence to her family, by his faithfulness to his master, the Duke of York (age 35). That the Duke of Buckingham (age 40) is now all in all, and will ruin Coventry (age 40), if he can: and that W. Coventry (age 40) do now rest wholly upon the Duke of York (age 35) for his standing, which is a great turn. He tells me that my Baroness Castlemayne (age 27), however, is a mortal enemy to the Duke of Buckingham (age 40), which I understand not; but, it seems, she is disgusted with his greatness, and his ill usage of her. That the King (age 38) was drunk at Saxam with Sidly (age 29), Buckhurst (age 25), &c., the night that my Lord Arlington (age 50) come thither, and would not give him audience, or could not which is true, for it was the night that I was there, and saw the King (age 38) go up to his chamber, and was told that the King (age 38) had been drinking. He tells me, too, that the Duke of York (age 35) did the next day chide Bab. May (age 40) for his occasioning the King's giving himself up to these gentlemen, to the neglecting of my Lord Arlington (age 50): to which he answered merrily, that, by God, there was no man in England that had heads to lose, durst do what they do, every day, with the King (age 38), and asked the Duke of York's (age 35) pardon: which is a sign of a mad world. God bless us out of it!

Pepy's Diary. 30 Oct 1668. Up betimes; and Mr. Povy (age 54) comes to even accounts with me, which we did, and then fell to other talk. He tells, in short, how the King (age 38) is made a child of, by Buckingham (age 40) and Arlington (age 50), to the lessening of the Duke of York (age 35), whom they cannot suffer to be great, for fear of my Chancellor's (age 59) return, which, therefore, they make the King (age 38) violent against. That he believes it is impossible these two great men can hold together long: or, at least, that the ambition of the former is so great, that he will endeavour to master all, and bring into play as many as he can. That Anglesey (age 54) will not lose his place easily, but will contend in law with whoever comes to execute it. That the Duke of York (age 35), in all things but in his cod-piece, is led by the nose by his wife (age 31). That W. Coventry (age 40) is now, by the Duke of York (age 35), made friends with the Duchess (age 31); and that he is often there, and waits on her. That he do believe that these present great men will break in time, and that W. Coventry (age 40) will be a great man again; for he do labour to have nothing to do in matters of the State, and is so usefull to the side that he is on, that he will stand, though at present he is quite out of play. That my Baroness Castlemayne (age 27) hates the Duke of Buckingham (age 40). That the Duke of York (age 35) hath expressed himself very kind to my Lord Sandwich (age 43), which I am mighty glad of. That we are to expect more changes if these men stand. This done, he and I to talk of my coach, and I got him to go see it, where he finds most infinite fault with it, both as to being out of fashion and heavy, with so good reason that I am mightily glad of his having corrected me in it; and so I do resolve to have one of his build, and with his advice, both in coach and horses, he being the fittest man in the world for it, and so he carried me home, and said the same to my wife. So I to the office and he away, and at noon I home to dinner, and all the afternoon late with Gibson at my chamber about my present great business, only a little in the afternoon at the office about Sir D. Gawden's accounts, and so to bed and slept heartily, my wife and I at good peace, but my heart troubled and her mind not at ease, I perceive, she against and I for the girle, to whom I have not said anything these three days, but resolve to be mighty strange in appearance to her. This night W. Batelier come and took his leave of us, he setting out for France to-morrow.

Pepy's Diary. 21 Dec 1668. Thence to the Duke's playhouse, and saw "Macbeth". the King (age 38) and Court there; and we sat just under them and my Baroness Castlemayne (age 28), and close to the woman that comes into the pit, a kind of a loose gossip, that pretends to be like her, and is so, something. And my wife, by my troth, appeared, I think, as pretty as any of them; I never thought so much before; and so did Talbot and W. Hewer (age 26), as they said, I heard, to one another. The King (age 38) and Duke of York (age 35) minded me, and smiled upon me, at the handsome woman near me but it vexed me to see Moll Davis (age 20), in the box over the King's and my Baroness Castlemayne's (age 28) head, look down upon the King (age 38), and he up to her; and so did my Baroness Castlemayne (age 28) once, to see who it was; but when she saw her, she looked like fire; which troubled me. The play done, took leave of Talbot, who goes into the country this Christmas, and so we home, and there I to work at the office late, and so home to supper and to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 15 Jan 1669. Up, and by coach to Sir W. Coventry (age 41), where with him a good while in his chamber, talking of one thing or another; among others, he told me of the great factions at Court at this day, even to the sober engaging of great persons, and differences, and making the King (age 38) cheap and ridiculous. It is about my Lady Harvy's (age 30) being offended at Doll Common's acting of Sempronia, to imitate her; for which she got my Lord Chamberlain (age 67), her kinsman, to imprison Doll: when my Baroness Castlemayne (age 28) made the King (age 38) to release her, and to order her to act it again, worse than ever, the other day, where the King (age 38) himself was: and since it was acted again, and my Lady Harvy (age 30) provided people to hiss her and fling oranges at her: but, it seems the heat is come to a great height, and real troubles at Court about it.

Pepy's Diary. 16 Jan 1669. Up, and to the office all the morning, dined at home with my people, and so all the afternoon till night at the office busy, and so home to supper and to bed. This morning Creed, and in the afternoon comes Povy (age 55), to advise with me about my answer to the Lords [Commissioners] of Tangier, about the propositions for the Treasurership there, which I am not much concerned for. But the latter, talking of publick things, told me, as Mr. Wren (age 40) also did, that the Parliament is likely to meets again, the King (age 38) being frighted with what the Speaker hath put him in mind of-his promise not to prorogue, but only to adjourne them. They speak mighty freely of the folly of the King (age 38) in this foolish woman's business, of my Lady Harvy (age 30). Povy (age 55) tells me that Sir W. Coventry (age 41) was with the King (age 38) alone, an hour this day; and that my Baroness Castlemayne (age 28) is now in a higher command over the King (age 38) than ever-not as a mistress, for she scorns him, but as a tyrant, to command him: and says that the Duchess of York (age 31) and the Duke of York (age 35) are mighty great with her, which is a great interest to my Chancellor's' (age 59) family; and that they do agree to hinder all they can the proceedings of the Duke of Buckingham (age 40) and Arlington (age 51): and so we are in the old mad condition, or rather worse than any; no man knowing what the French intend to do the next summer.

Pepy's Diary. 04 Mar 1669. Up, and a while at the office, but thinking to have Mr. Povy's (age 55) business to-day at the Committee for Tangier, I left the Board and away to White Hall, where in the first court I did meet Sir Jeremy Smith, who did tell me that Sir W. Coventry (age 41) was just now sent to the Tower, about the business of his challenging the Duke of Buckingham (age 41), and so was also Harry Saville (age 27) to the Gate-house; which, as [he is] a gentleman, and of the Duke of York's (age 35) bedchamber, I heard afterwards that the Duke of York (age 35) is mightily incensed at, and do appear very high to the King (age 38) that he might not be sent thither, but to the Tower [Map], this being done only in contempt to him. This news of Sir W. Coventry (age 41) did strike me to the heart, and with reason, for by this and my Lord of Ormond's (age 58) business, I do doubt that the Duke of Buckingham (age 41) will be so flushed, that he will not stop at any thing, but be forced to do any thing now, as thinking it not safe to end here; and, Sir W. Coventry (age 41) being gone, the King (age 38) will have never a good counsellor, nor the Duke of York (age 35) any sure friend to stick to him; nor any good man will be left to advise what is good. This, therefore, do heartily trouble me as any thing that ever I heard. So up into the House, and met with several people; but the Committee did not meet; and the whole House I find full of this business of Sir W. Coventry's (age 41), and most men very sensible of the cause and effects of it. So, meeting with my Lord Bellassis (age 54), he told me the particulars of this matter; that it arises about a quarrel which Sir W. Coventry (age 41) had with the Duke of Buckingham (age 41) about a design between the Duke and Sir Robert Howard, to bring him into a play at the King's house, which W. Coventry (age 41) not enduring, did by H. Saville (age 27) send a letter to the Duke of Buckingham (age 41), that he had a desire to speak with him. Upon which, the Duke of Buckingham (age 41) did bid Holmes (age 47), his champion ever since my Lord Shrewsbury's business1, go to him to know the business; but H. Saville (age 27) would not tell it to any but himself, and therefore did go presently to the Duke of Buckingham (age 41), and told him that his uncle Coventry (age 41) was a person of honour, and was sensible of his Grace's liberty taken of abusing him, and that he had a desire of satisfaction, and would fight with him. But that here they were interrupted by my Lord Chamberlain's (age 67) coming in, who was commanded to go to bid the Duke of Buckingham (age 41) to come to the King (age 38), Holmes (age 47) having discovered it. He told me that the King (age 38) did last night, at the Council, ask the Duke of Buckingham (age 41), upon his honour, whether he had received any challenge from W. Coventry (age 41)? which he confessed that he had; and then the King (age 38) asking W. Coventry (age 41), he told him that he did not owne what the Duke of Buckingham (age 41) had said, though it was not fit for him to give him a direct contradiction. But, being by the King (age 38) put upon declaring, upon his honour, the matter, he answered that he had understood that many hard questions had upon this business been moved to some lawyers, and that therefore he was unwilling to declare any thing that might, from his own mouth, render him obnoxious to his Majesty's displeasure, and, therefore, prayed to be excused: which the King (age 38) did think fit to interpret to be a confession, and so gave warrant that night for his commitment to the Tower. Being very much troubled at this, I away by coach homewards, and directly to the Tower, where I find him in one Mr. Bennet's house, son to Major Bayly, one of the Officers of the Ordnance, in the Bricke Tower [Map]2 where I find him busy with my Lord Halifax (age 35) and his brother (age 50); so I would not stay to interrupt them, but only to give him comfort, and offer my service to him, which he kindly and cheerfully received, only owning his being troubled for the King (age 38) his master's displeasure, which, I suppose, is the ordinary form and will of persons in this condition. And so I parted, with great content, that I had so earlily seen him there; and so going out, did meet Sir Jer. Smith going to meet me, who had newly been with Sir W. Coventry (age 41). And so he and I by water to Redriffe [Map], and so walked to Deptford, Kent [Map], where I have not been, I think, these twelve months: and there to the Treasurer's house, where the Duke of York (age 35) is, and his Duchess (age 31); and there we find them at dinner in the great room, unhung; and there was with them my Lady Duchess of Monmouth (age 31), the Countess of Falmouth (age 24), Castlemayne (age 28), Henrietta Hide (age 23) (my Lady Hinchingbroke's (age 24) sister), and my Lady Peterborough (age 47). And after dinner Sir Jer. Smith and I were invited down to dinner with some of the Maids of Honour, namely, Mrs. Ogle (age 17), Blake (age 16), and Howard (age 18), which did me good to have the honour to dine with, and look on; and the Mother of the Maids, and Mrs. Howard (age 43), the mother of the Maid of Honour of that name, and the Duke's housekeeper here. Here was also Monsieur Blancfort (age 28), Sir Richard Powell, [her uncle] Colonel Villers (age 48), Sir Jonathan Trelawny (age 46), and others. And here drank most excellent, and great variety, and plenty of wines, more than I have drank, at once, these seven years, but yet did me no great hurt. Having dined and very merry, and understanding by Blancfort (age 28) how angry the Duke of York (age 35) was, about their offering to send Saville to the Gate-house, among the rogues; and then, observing how this company, both the ladies and all, are of a gang, and did drink a health to the union of the two brothers, and talking of others as their enemies, they parted, and so we up; and there I did find the Duke of York (age 35) and Duchess (age 31), with all the great ladies, sitting upon a carpet, on the ground, there being no chairs, playing at "I love my love with an A, because he is so and so: and I hate him with an A, because of this and that:" and some of them, but particularly the Duchess (age 31) herself, and my Baroness Castlemayne (age 28), were very witty. This done, they took barge, and I with Sir J. Smith to Captain Cox's; and there to talk, and left them and other company to drink; while I slunk out to Bagwell's; and there saw her, and her mother, and our late maid Nell, who cried for joy to see me, but I had no time for pleasure then nor could stay, but after drinking I back to the yard, having a month's mind para have had a bout with Nell, which I believe I could have had, and may another time.

Note 1. Charles II wrote to his sister (age 24) (Henrietta, Duchess of Orléans), on March 7th, 1669: "I am not sorry that Sir Will. Coventry has given me this good occasion by sending my Lord of Buckingham (age 41) a challenge to turne him out of the Councill. I do intend to turn him allso out of the Treasury. The truth of it is, he has been a troublesome man in both places and I am well rid of him" (Julia Cartwright's "Madame", 1894, p. 283).

Note 2. The Brick Tower [Map] stands on the northern wall, a little to the west of Martin tower, with which it communicates by a secret passage. It was the residence of the Master of the Ordnance, and Raleigh was lodged here for a time.

Pepy's Diary. 28 Apr 1669. Up, and was called upon by Sir H. Cholmly (age 36) to discourse about some accounts of his, of Tangier: and then other talk; and I find by him that it is brought almost effect ([through] the late endeavours of the Duke of York (age 35) and Duchess (age 32), the Queen-Mother (age 59), and my Lord St. Albans (age 64), together with some of the contrary faction, my Lord Arlington (age 51)), that for a sum of money we shall enter into a league with the King of France (age 30), wherein, he says, my Chancellor (age 60)1 is also concerned; and that he believes that, in the doing hereof, it is meant that he [Clarendon] shall come again, and that this sum of money will so help the King (age 38) that he will not need the Parliament; and that, in that regard it will be forwarded by the Duke of Buckingham (age 41) and his faction, who dread the Parliament. But hereby we must leave the Dutch, and that I doubt will undo us; and Sir H. Cholmly (age 36) says he finds W. Coventry (age 41) do think the like. Baroness Castlemayne (age 28) is instrumental in this matter, and, he say never more great with the King (age 38) than she is now. But this a thing that will make the Parliament and kingdom mad, and will turn to our ruine: for with this money the King (age 38) shall wanton away his time in pleasures, and think nothing of the main till it be too late. He gone, I to the office, where busy till noon, and then home to dinner, where W. Batelier dined with us, and pretty merry, and so I to the office again. This morning Mr. Sheres sent me, in two volumes, Mariana his History of Spaine, in Spanish, an excellent book; and I am much obliged for it to him.

Note 1. Clarendon (age 60); then an exile in France.

In 1670 Barbara Villiers 1st Duchess of Cleveland (age 29) was created 1st Duke Cleveland, 1st Earl of Southampton and 1st Baron Nonsuch by King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 39) for having given birth to five of his illegitimate children.

Andrew Marvell Letter to a friend 1671. 1671. The King (age 40) having, upon pretence of the great preparations of his neighbours, demanded three hundred thousand pounds for his navy, (though in conclusion he hath not sent out any) and that the Parliament should pay his debts, which the ministers would never particularize to the House of Commons, our house gave several bills. You see how far things were stretched beyond reason, there being no satisfaction how these debts were contracted, and all men foreseeing that what was given would not be applied to discharge the debts, which I hear are at this day risen to four millions.

Nevertheless, such was the number of the constant courtiers, increased by the apostate patriots, who were bought off for that turn, some at six, others at ten, one at fifteen thousand pounds, in money; besides which, offices, lands, and reversions to others, that it is a mercy they gave not away the whole land and liberty of England. The Duke of Buckingham (age 42) is again one hundred and forty thousand pounds in debt, and, by this prorogation, his creditors have time to tear all his lands in pieces. The House of Commons have run almost to the end of their time, and are grown extremely chargeable to the King (age 40), and odious to the people. They have signed and sealed ten thousand pounds a-year more to the Duchess of Cleveland (age 30), who has likewise ten thousand pounds out of the excise of beer and ale; five thousand pounds a year out of the post-office; and, they say, the reversion of all the king's leases, the reversion of all the places in the Customhouse, and, indeed, what not? All promotions, spiritual and temporal, pass under her cognizance.

Evelyn's Diary. 01 Mar 1671. His Majesty's (age 40) Surveyor, Mr. Wren (age 47), faithfully promised me to employ him. I having also bespoke his Majesty (age 40) for his work at Windsor Castle [Map], which my friend, Mr. May (age 49), the architect there, was going to alter, and repair universally; for, on the next day, I had a fair opportunity of talking to his Majesty (age 40) about it, in the lobby next the Queen's (age 32) side, where I presented him with some sheets of my history. I thence walked with him through St James' Park [Map] to the garden, where I both saw and heard a very familiar discourse between ... and Mrs. Nelly (age 21), as they called an impudent comedian, she looking out of her garden on a terrace at the top of the wall, and ... [Note. the elipsis here is John Evelyn being coy about the King's (age 40) conversation with Nell Gwyn.] standing on the green walk under it. I was heartily sorry at this scene. Thence the King (age 40) walked to the Duchess of Cleveland (age 30), another lady of pleasure, and curse of our nation.

On 25 May 1671 Henry Wood 1st Baronet (age 73) died without male issue. Baronet Wood extinct. On 31 May 1671 he was buried at Ufford, Suffolk. His daughter [her future daughter-in-law] Mary Wood Duchess Southampton (age 8) was his heir. In view of the great wealth she was to inherit she was betrothed to [her illegitimate son] Charles Fitzroy 1st Duke Southampton 2nd Duke Cleveland (age 8), an illegitmate son of King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 40) and Barbara Villiers 1st Duchess of Cleveland (age 30). On her father's death she went to live with Barbara Villiers 1st Duchess of Cleveland (age 30). They, Mary Wood Duchess Southampton (age 8) and Charles Fitzroy 1st Duke Southampton 2nd Duke Cleveland (age 8) married 1679 but she died a year later from smallpox.

Evelyn's Diary. 17 Oct 1671. My Lord Henry Howard (age 43) coming this night to visit my Lord Chamberlain, and staying a day, would needs have me go with him to Norwich, Norfolk [Map], promising to convey me back, after a day or two; this, as I could not refuse, I was not hard to be pursuaded to, having a desire to see that famous scholar and physician, Dr. T. Browne (age 65), author of the Religio Medici and Vulgar Errors, now lately knighted. Thither, then, went my Lord and I alone, in his flying chariot with six horses; and by the way, discoursing with me of several of his concerns, he acquainted me of his going to marry his eldest son (age 43) to one of the King's (age 41) natural daughters [Note. Either [her illegitimate daughter] Anne Fitzroy Countess Sussex (age 10) or [her illegitimate daughter] Charlotte Fitzroy Countess Lichfield (age 7).], by the Duchess of Cleveland (age 30); by which he reckoned he should come into mighty favor. He also told me that, though he kept that idle creature, Mrs. B-- [Note. Jane Bickerton Duchess Norfolk (age 28)], and would leave £200 a year to the son [Note. Henry Howard and Jane Bickerton had three sons; not clear which is being referred to since the eldest may have died and the reference may be to a surviving son.] he had by her, he would never marry her, and that the King (age 41) himself had cautioned him against it. All the world knows how he kept his promise [Note. meaning he didn't keep his promise since Henry Howard did marry Jane Bickerton - this a case of John Evelyn writing his diary retrospectively?], and I was sorry at heart to hear what now he confessed to me; and that a person and a family which I so much honored for the sake of that noble and illustrious friend of mine, his grandfather, should dishonor and pollute them both with those base and vicious courses he of late had taken since the death of Sir Samuel Tuke (age 56), and that of his own virtuous lady (my Lady Anne Somerset, sister to the Marquis); who, while they lived, preserved this gentleman by their example and advice from those many extravagances that impaired both his fortune and reputation.

In 1672 [her mother] Mary Bayning Countess Anglesey (age 49) died.

On 16 Jul 1672 [her illegitimate daughter] Barbara Fitzroy was born illegitimately to King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 42) and Barbara Villiers 1st Duchess of Cleveland (age 31) at Merton College, Oxford University.

Evelyn's Diary. 01 Aug 1672. I was at the betrothal of Lord Arlington's (age 54) only [her daughter-in-law] daughter (age 4) (a sweet child if ever there was any to the [her illegitimate son] Duke of Grafton (age 8), the King's (age 42) natural son by the Duchess of Cleveland (age 31); the Archbishop of Canterbury (age 74) officiating, the King (age 42) and the grandees being present. I had a favor given me by my Lady; but took no great joy at the thing for many reasons.

On 01 Aug 1672 [her illegitimate son] Henry Fitzroy 1st Duke Grafton (age 8) and [her daughter-in-law] Isabella Bennet Duchess Grafton (age 4) were married. She the daughter of Henry Bennet 1st Earl Arlington (age 54) and Elisabeth Nassau Beverweert Countess Arlington (age 38). He the illegitmate son of King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 42) and Barbara Villiers 1st Duchess of Cleveland (age 31).

He was created 1st Earl Euston, 1st Viscount Ipswich, 1st Baron Sudbury. Isabella Bennet Duchess Grafton (age 4) by marriage Countess Euston.

On 16 May 1674 [her son-in-law] Thomas Lennard 1st Earl of Sussex (age 20) and [her illegitimate daughter] Anne Fitzroy Countess Sussex (age 13) were married at Hampton Court Palace, Richmond [Map]. She the illegitmate daughter of King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 43) and Barbara Villiers 1st Duchess of Cleveland (age 33). They were first cousin once removed.

Evelyn's Diary. 06 Sep 1676. Supped at the Lord Chamberlain's (age 58), where also supped the famous beauty and errant lady, the Duchess of Mazarine (age 30) (all the world knows her story), the Duke of Monmouth (age 27), [her illegitimate daughter] Countess of Sussex (age 15) (both natural children of the King (age 46) by the Duchess of Cleveland (age 35)) [Note. A mistake by Evelyn. Jame's Scott's (age 27) mother was Lucy Walter, Anne Fitzroy's (age 15) mother was Barbara Villiers 1st Duchess of Cleveland (age 35)], and the Countess of Derby (age 16), a virtuous lady, daughter to my best friend, the Earl of Ossory (age 42).

On 06 Feb 1677 [her son-in-law] Edward Lee 1st Earl Lichfield (age 14) and [her illegitimate daughter] Charlotte Fitzroy Countess Lichfield (age 12) were married. She by marriage Countess Lichfield. She the illegitmate daughter of King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 46) and Barbara Villiers 1st Duchess of Cleveland (age 36). He the son of Francis Lee 4th Baronet and Elizabeth Pope Countess Lindsey. They were third cousins.

In 1679 [her illegitimate son] Charles Fitzroy 1st Duke Southampton 2nd Duke Cleveland (age 16) and [her daughter-in-law] Mary Wood Duchess Southampton (age 16) were married. She by marriage Duchess Southampton. He the illegitmate son of King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 48) and Barbara Villiers 1st Duchess of Cleveland (age 38).

Evelyn's Diary. 06 Nov 1679. Dined at the Countess of Sunderland's (age 33), and was this evening at the remarriage of the [her daughter-in-law] Duchess of Grafton (age 11) to the [her illegitimate son] Duke (age 16) his Majesty's (age 49) natural son), she being now twelve years old. The ceremony was performed in my Lord Chamberlain's (age 61) (her father's) lodgings at Whitehall by the Bishop of Rochester (age 54), his Majesty (age 49) being present. A sudden and unexpected thing, when everybody believed the first marriage would have come to nothing; but, the measure being determined, I was privately invited by my Lady (age 45), her mother, to be present. I confess I could give her little joy, and so I plainly told her, but she said the King (age 49) would have it so, and there was no going back. This sweetest, most hopeful, most beautiful, child, and most virtuous, too, was sacrificed to a boy that had been rudely bred, without anything to encourage them but his Majesty's (age 49) pleasure. I pray God the sweet child find it to her advantage, who, if my augury deceive me not, will in a few years be such a paragon as were fit to make the wife of the greatest Prince in Europe! I staid supper, where his Majesty (age 49) sat between the Duchess of Cleveland (age 38) (the mother of the Duke of Grafton) and the sweet Duchess (age 11) the bride; there were several great persons and ladies, without pomp. My love to my Lord Arlington's (age 61) family, and the sweet child made me behold all this with regret, though as the Duke of Grafton (age 16) affects the sea, to which I find his father intends to use him, he may emerge a plain, useful and robust officer: and were he polished, a tolerable person; for he is exceedingly handsome, by far surpassing any of the King's (age 49) other natural issue.

Evelyn's Diary. 04 Dec 1679. I dined, together with Lord Ossory (age 45) and the Earl of Chesterfield (age 45), at the Portugal Ambassador's (age 53), now newly come, at Cleveland House, a noble palace, too good for that infamous.... [Note. Probably a reference to Barbara Villiers 1st Duchess of Cleveland (age 39)] The staircase is sumptuous, and the gallery and garden; but, above all, the costly furniture belonging to the Ambassador, especially the rich Japan cabinets, of which I think there were a dozen. There was a billiard table, with as many more hazards as ours commonly have; the game being only to prosecute the ball till hazarded, without passing the port, or touching the pin; if one miss hitting the ball every time, the game is lost, or if hazarded. It is more difficult to hazard a ball, though so many, than in our table, by reason the bound is made so exactly even, and the edges not stuffed; the balls are also bigger, and they for the most part use the sharp and small end of the billiard stick, which is shod with brass, or silver. The entertainment was exceedingly civil; but, besides a good olio, the dishes were trifling, hashed and condited after their way, not at all fit for an English stomach, which is for solid meat. There was yet good fowls, but roasted to coal, nor were the sweetmeats good.

Evelyn's Diary. 18 Apr 1680. We spent our time in the mornings in walking, or riding, and contriving [alterations], and the afternoons in the library, so as I passed my time for three or four days with much satisfaction. He was pleased in conversation to impart to me divers particulars of state, relating to the present times. He being no great friend to the D-- [Note. Probably Barbara Villiers 1st Duchess of Cleveland (age 39)] was now laid aside, his integrity and abilities being not so suitable in this conjuncture. 21st. I returned to London.

Before 07 Dec 1680 Peter Lely (age 62). Portrait of Barbara Villiers 1st Duchess of Cleveland (age 40).

Before 07 Dec 1680 Peter Lely (age 62). Portrait of Barbara Villiers 1st Duchess of Cleveland (age 40).

In 1683 [her brother-in-law] Philip Palmer of Dorney Court (age 68) died.

Evelyn's Diary. 30 Mar 1684. Easter day. The Bp. of Rochester [Dr. Turner] (age 46) preach'd before, the King (age 53) after which his Ma*, accompanied with three of his natural sonns, the [her illegitimate son] Dukes of Northumberland (age 18), Richmond, and St. Alban's (age 13) (sons of Portsmouth (age 34), Cleaveland (age 43), and Nelly (age 34)), went up to the Altar; ye three boyes entering before the King (age 53) within the railes, at the right hand, and three Bishops on the left, viz. London (age 52) (who officiated), Durham (age 51), and Rochester (age 46), with the Sub-dean Dr. Holder. the King (age 53) kneeling before the Altar, zaking his offering, the Bishop first receiv'd, and then his Ma* after which he retir'd to a canopied seate on the right hand. Note, there was perfume burnt before the Office began. I had receiv'd ye Sacrament at Whitehall early with the Lords and Household, ye Bp. of London officiating. Then went to St. Martin's [Map], where Dr. Tenison (age 47) preach'd (recover'd from yc small-pox); then went againe to Whitehall as above. In the afternoone went to St. Martin's againe.

Death and Burial of Charles II

Evelyn's Diary. 04 Feb 1685. Prayers were solemnly made in all the Churches, especialy in both ye Court Chapells, where the Chaplaines reliev'd one another every halfe quarter of an houre from the time he began to be in danger till he expir'd, according to the forme prescrib'd in the Church Offices. Those who assisted his Majesty's (age 54) devotions were, the Abp. of Canterbury (age 68), the Bishops of London (age 53), Durham (age 52), and Ely (age 47), but more especialy Dr. Ken, the Bp. of Bath and Wells (age 47) receiving the Holy Sacrament, but his Ma* told them he would consider of it, which he did so long 'till it was too late. Others whisper'd that the Bishops and Lords, except the Earles of Bath (age 56) and Feversham (age 44), being order'd to withdraw the night before, Hurlston, the 'Priest, had presumed to administer the Popish Offices. He gave his breeches and keys to yc Duke (age 51), who was almost continually kneeling by his bed-side, and in teares. He also recommended to him the care of his natural children, all except the Duke of Monmouth (age 35), now in Holland, and in his displeasure. He intreated the Queene (age 46) to pardon him (not without cause); who a little before had sent a Bishop to excuse her not more frequently visiting him, in reguard of her excessive griefe, and withall, that his Ma* (age 54) would forgive it if at any time she had offended him. He spake to ye Duke (age 51) to be kind to the Dutchesse of Cleaveland (age 44), and especialy Portsmouth (age 35), and that Nelly (age 35) might not starve.

In Mar 1686 [her illegitimate son] George Fitzroy 1st Duke Northumberland (age 20) and [her daughter-in-law] Catherine Wheatley were married. Soon after the marriage Northumberland and his brother, [her illegitimate son] Henry FitzRoy, 1st Duke of Grafton (age 22), allegedly attempted to privately convey her abroad to an English convent in Ghent [Map], Belgium. He the illegitmate son of King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland and Barbara Villiers 1st Duchess of Cleveland (age 45).

Evelyn's Diary. 29 Mar 1686. The [her illegitimate son] Duke of Northumberland (age 20) (a natural son of the late King by the Dutchess of Cleaveland (age 45)) marrying very meanly, with the helpe of his [her illegitimate son] brother Grafton (age 22), attempted to spirit away his wife.

Around 1690 Jacob Huysmans (age 57). Portrait of Barbara Villiers 1st Duchess of Cleveland (age 49).

Before 1694 John Michael Wright (age 76). Portrait of Barbara Villiers 1st Duchess of Cleveland (age 53).

In 1694 [her illegitimate son] Charles Fitzroy 1st Duke Southampton 2nd Duke Cleveland (age 31) and [her daughter-in-law] Anne Pulteney Duchess Southampton Duchess of Cleveland (age 30) were married. She by marriage Duchess Southampton. He the illegitmate son of King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland and Barbara Villiers 1st Duchess of Cleveland (age 53).

Before 14 Aug 1698 [her future husband] Robert "Beau Handsome" Fielding (age 48) and Margaret Burke Lady Muskerry were married. She the daughter of Ulick Burke 1st Marquess Clanricarde and Anne Compton Lady Rushout.

Before 01 Jan 1701 Henri Gascar (age 66). Portrait of Barbara Villiers 1st Duchess of Cleveland (age 60).

In 1705 [her husband] Roger Palmer 1st Earl Castlemaine (age 71) died at Oswestry, Shropshire.

On 09 Nov 1705 [her future husband] Robert "Beau Handsome" Fielding (age 55) and Anne Deleau were married. He pursuing her believing her to be an heiress worth £60,000 her friends sought to prevent the marriage at the ceremony Anne Deleau was substituted with Mary Wadsworth.

On 25 Nov 1705 Robert "Beau Handsome" Fielding (age 55) and Barbara Villiers 1st Duchess of Cleveland (age 64) were married bigamously. She the daughter of William Villiers 2nd Viscount Grandison and Mary Bayning Countess Anglesey.

On 04 Dec 1706 [her husband] Robert "Beau Handsome" Fielding (age 56) was found guilty of bigamy. The marriage between him and Barbara Villiers 1st Duchess of Cleveland (age 66) was annulled. He escaped sentence by producing a letter from Queen Anne of England Scotland and Ireland (age 41) suspending his sentences. He lived out his days with Mary Wadsworth.

On 09 Oct 1709 Barbara Villiers 1st Duchess of Cleveland (age 68) died at Chiswick Mall. Her son [her illegitimate son] Charles Fitzroy 1st Duke Southampton 2nd Duke Cleveland (age 47) succeeded 2nd Duke Cleveland, 2nd Earl of Southampton and 2nd Baron Nonsuch. [her daughter-in-law] Anne Pulteney Duchess Southampton Duchess of Cleveland (age 45) by marriage Duchess Cleveland.

On 12 May 1712 [her former husband] Robert "Beau Handsome" Fielding (age 62) died.

1715 Battle of Preston

The 1715 Battle of Preston was the final action of the 1715 Jacobite Rebellion. It commenced on 09 Nov 1715 when Jacobite cavalry entered Preston, Lancashire [Map]. Royalist troops arrived in number over the next few days surrounding Preston forcing the Jaocbite surrender. 1463 were taken prisoner of which 463 were English. The Scottish prisoners included:

George Seton 5th Earl of Winton (age 37). The only prisoner to plead not guilty, sentenced to death, escaped from the Tower of London [Map] on 04 Aug 1716 around nine in the evening. Travelled to France then to Rome.

On 24 Feb 1716 William Gordon 6th Viscount Kenmure was beheaded on Tower Hill [Map].

On 09 Feb 1716 William Maxwell 5th Earl Nithsale was sentenced to be executed on 24 Feb 1716. The night before his wife (age 35) effected his escape from the Tower of London [Map] by exchanging his clothes with those of her maid. They travelled to Paris then to Rome where the court of James "Old Pretender" Stewart (age 26) was.

James Radclyffe 3rd Earl Derwentwater (age 25) was imprisoned in the Tower of London [Map]. He was examined by the Privy Council on 10 Jan 1716 and impeached on 19 Jan 1716. He pleaded guilty in the expectation of clemency. He was attainted and condemned to death. Attempts were made to procure his pardon. His wife Anna Maria Webb Countess Derwentwater (age 23), her sister Mary Webb Countess Waldegrave (age 20) [Note. Assumed to be her sister Mary], their aunt Anne Brudenell Duchess Richmond (age 44), Barbara Villiers 1st Duchess of Cleveland appealed to King George I of Great Britain and Ireland (age 54) in person without success.

On 24 Feb 1716 James Radclyffe 3rd Earl Derwentwater (age 25) was beheaded on Tower Hill [Map]. Earl Derwentwater, Baronet Radclyffe of Derwentwater in Cumberland forfeit.

William Murray 2nd Lord Nairne was tried on 09 Feb 1716 for treason, found guilty, attainted, and condemned to death. He survived long enough to benefit from the Indemnity Act of 1717.

General Thomas Forster of Adderstone (age 31) was attainted. He was imprisoned at Newgate Prison, London [Map] but escaped to France.

On 14 May 1716 Henry Oxburgh was hanged, drawn and quartered at Tyburn [Map]. He was buried at Church of St Gile's in the Fields. His head was spiked on Temple Bar.

The trials and sentences were overseen by the Lord High Steward William Cowper 1st Earl Cowper (age 50) for which he subsequently received his Earldom.

Grammont. The Chevalier de Grammont took notice of this conduct, without being able to comprehend it; but, as he was attentive to the inclinations of the king, he began to make his court to him by enhancing the merit of this new mistress. Her figure was more showy than engaging: it was hardly possible for a woman to have less wit, or more beauty: all her features were fine and regular; but her shape was not good: yet she was slender, straight enough, and taller than the generality of women: she was very graceful, danced well, and spoke French better than her mother tongue: she was well bred, and possessed, in perfection, that air of dress which is so much admired, and which cannot be attained, unless it be taken when young, in France. While her charms were gaining ground in the king's heart, the Countess of Castlemaine amused herself in the gratification of all her caprices

Sober Advice from Horace Page 5. But here's his point; A Wench (he cries) for me!

"I never touch a Dame of Quality.

To P [...]l [...]r's Bed no Actress comes amiss,

He courts the whole Personae Dramatis:

He too can say, "With Wives I never sin."

But Singing-Girls and Mimicks draw him in.

Sure, worthy Sir, the Diff'rence is not great,

With whom you lose your Credit and Estate?

This, or that Person, what avails to shun?

What's wrong is wrong, wherever it be done:

The Ease, Support, and Lustre of your Life,

Destroy'd alike with Strumpet, Maid, or Wife.

What push'd poor E[...]s on th' Imperial Whore?

'Twas but to be where CHARLES had been before.

The fatal Steel unjustly was apply'd,

When not his Lust offended, but his Pride:

Too hard a Penance for defeated Sin,

Himself shut out, and Jacob Hall let in.

Suppose that honest Part that rules us all,

Should rise, and say-"Sir Robert! or Sir Paul!

Grammont. The Princess Royal was the first who was taken with him: Miss Hyde seemed to be following the steps of her mistress: this immediately brought him into credit, and his reputation was established in England before his arrival. Prepossession in the minds of women is sufficient to find access to their hearts: Jermyn found them in dispositions so favourable for him, that he had nothing to do but to speak.

It was in vain they perceived that a reputation so lightly established, was still more weakly sustained: the prejudice remained: the Countess of Castlemaine, a woman lively and discerning, followed the delusive shadow; and though undeceived in a reputation which promised so much, and performed so little, she nevertheless continued in her infatuation: she even persisted in it, until she was upon the point of embroiling herself with the king; so great was this first instance of her constancy.

Grammont. Jacob Hall, the famous rope-dancer, was at that time in vogue in London: his strength and agility charmed the public, even to a wish to know what he was in private; for he appeared, in his tumbling dress, to be quite of a different make, and to have limbs very different from the fortunate Jermyn. The tumbler did not deceive Lady Castlemaine's expectations, if report may be believed: and as was intimated in many a song, much more to the honour of the rope-dancer than of the countess; but she despised all these rumours, and only appeared still more handsome.

Grammont. The Earl of Bristol, ever restless and ambitious, had put in practice every art to possess himself of the king's favour. As this is the same Digby whom Count Bussy mentions in his Annals, it will be sufficient to say, that he was not at all changed: he knew that love and pleasure had possession of a master, whom he himself governed in defiance of the chancellor; thus, he was continually giving entertainments at his house; and luxury and elegance seemed to rival each other in those nocturnal feasts, which always lead to other enjoyments. The two Miss Brooks, his relations, were always of those parties: they were both formed by nature to excite love in others, as well as to be susceptible of it themselves; they were just what the king wanted: the earl, from this commencement; was beginning to entertain a good opinion of his project, when Lady Castlemaine, who had lately gained entire possession of the king's heart, was not in a humour, at that time, to share it with another, as she did very indiscreetly afterwards, despising Miss Stewart. As soon, therefore, as she received intimation of these secret practices, under pretence of attending the king in his parties, she entirely disconcerted them; so that the earl was obliged to lay aside his projects, and Miss Brook to discontinue her advances. The king did not even dare to think any more on this subject; but his brother was pleased to look after what he neglected; and Miss Brook accepted the offer of his heart, until it pleased heaven to dispose of her otherwise, which happened soon after in the following manner.

Grammont. Such were the heroes of the court. As for the beauties, you could not look anywhere without seeing them: those of the greatest reputation were this same Countess of Castlemaine, afterwards Duchess of Cleveland, Lady Chesterfield, Lady Shrewsbury, the Mrs. Roberts, Mrs. Middleton, the Miss Brooks, and a thousand others, who shone at court with equal lustre; but it was Miss Hamilton and Miss Stewart who were its chief ornaments. The new queen gave but little additional brilliancy to the court, either in her person, or in her retinue, which was then composed of the Countess de Panétra, who came over with her in quality of lady of the bedchamber; six frights, who called themselves maids of honour, and a duenna, another monster, who took the title of governess to those extraordinary beauties.

Grammont. Mrs. Hyde was one of the first of the beauties who were prejudiced with a blind prepossession in favour of Jermyn: she had just married a man whom she loved: by this marriage she became sister-in-law to the duchess, brilliant by her own native lustre, and full of pleasantry and wit. However, she was of opinion, that so long as she was not talked of on account of Jermyn, all her other advantages would avail nothing for her glory: it was, therefore, to receive this finishing stroke, that she resolved to throw herself into his arms.

She was of a middle size, had a skin of a dazzling whiteness, fine hands, and a foot surprisingly beautiful, even in England: long custom had given such a languishing tenderness to her looks, that she never opened her eyes but like a Chinese; and, when she ogled, one would have thought she was doing something else.

Jermyn accepted of her at first; but, being soon puzzled what to do with her, he thought it best to sacrifice her to Lady Castlemaine. The sacrifice was far from being displeasing to her: it was much to her glory to have carried off Jermyn from so many competitors; but this was of no consequence in the end.

Grammont. Miss Stewart's beauty began at this time to be celebrated. The Countess of Castlemaine perceived that the king paid attention to her; but, instead of being alarmed at it, she favoured, as far as she was able, this new inclination, whether from an indiscretion common to all those who think themselves superior to the rest of mankind, or whether she designed, by this pastime, to divert the king's attention from the commerce which she held with Jermyn. She was not satisfied with appearing without any degree of uneasiness at a preference which all the court began to remark: she even affected to make Miss Stewart her favourite, and invited her to all the entertainments she made for the king; and, in confidence of her own charms, with the greatest indiscretion, she often kept her to sleep. The king, who seldom neglected to visit the countess before she rose, seldom failed likewise to find Miss Stewart in bed with her. The most indifferent objects have charms in a new attachment: however, the imprudent countess was not jealous of this rival's appearing with her, in such a situation, being confident, that whenever she thought fit, she could triumph over all the advantages which these opportunities could afford Miss Stewart; but she was quite mistaken.

Grammont. Hamilton, who saw him as yellow as jealousy itself, and particularly thoughtful, imagined that he had just discovered what all the world had perceived long before; when Chesterfield, after a broken insignificant preamble, asked him how he succeeded with Lady Castlemaine. Hamilton, who very well saw that he meant nothing by this question, nevertheless thanked him; and as he was thinking of an answer: "Your cousin," said the earl, "is extremely coquettish, and I have some reason to suppose she is not so prudent as she ought to be." Hamilton thought the last charge a little too severe; and as he was endeavouring to refute it: "Good God," said my lord, "you see, as well as the whole court, what airs she gives herself: husbands are always the last people that are spoken to about those affairs that concern them the most; but they are not always the last to perceive it themselves: though you have made me your confidant in other matters, yet I am not at all surprised you have concealed this from me; but as I flatter myself with having some share in your esteem, I should be sorry you should think me such a fool as to be incapable of seeing, though I am so complaisant as not to express my sentiments: nevertheless, I find that affairs are now carried on with such barefaced boldness, that at length I find I shall be forced to take some course or other. God forbid that I should act the ridiculous part of a jealous husband: the character is odious; but then I do not intend, through an excess of patience, to be made the jest of the town. Judge, therefore, from what I am going to tell you, whether I ought to sit down unconcerned, or whether I ought to take measures for the preservation of my honour.

Letters of Horace Walpole. How infinitely humane you are about Gibberne! shall I amuse you with the truth of that history, which I have discovered? The poor silly woman his mother has pressed his coming for a very private reason - only to make him one of the most considerable men in this country - and by what wonderful means do you think this mighty business is to be effected? only by the beauties of his person! As I remember, he was as little like an Adonis as could be - you must keep this inviolably; but depend upon the truth of it - I mean, that his mother really has this idea. She showed his picture to - why, to the Duchess of Cleveland, to the Duchess of Portsmouth, to Madame Pompadour, in short, to one of them, I don't know which; I only know it was not to my Lady Suffolk, the King's former Mistress - "Mon Dieu! Madame, est-ilfrai quefotrejils est si sholi que ce Bortrait? il faut que je le garte; je feux apsolument I'afoir." The woman protested nothing ever was so handsome as her lad, and that the nasty picture did not do him half justice. In short, she flatters herself that the Countess will do him whole justice - I don't think it impossible but out of charity she may make him groom of the chambers. I don't know indeed how the article of beauty may answer; but if you should lose your Gibberne - it is good to have a friend at court.

The Affairs of State Volume 3 The Session of the Poets. 19. Dryden, whom one wou'd have thought had more Wit

The Censure of every Man did disdain,

Pleading some pitiful Rhimes he had writ

In praise of the Countess of Castlemaine.

Grammont. Miss Hamilton had much difficulty to suppress her laughter during this harangue: however, she told him, that she thought herself much honoured by his intentions towards her, and still more obliged to him for consulting her, before he made any overtures to her relations: "It will be time enough," said she, "to speak to them upon the subject at your return from the waters; for I do not think it is at all probable that they will dispose of me before that time, and in case they should be urgent in their solicitations, your nephew William will take care to acquaint you; therefore, you may set out whenever you think proper; but take care not to injure your health by returning too soon."

The Chevalier de Grammont, having heard the particulars of this conversation, endeavoured as well as he could to be entertained with it; though there were certain circumstances in the declaration, notwithstanding the absurdity of others, which did not fail to give him some uneasiness. Upon the whole, he was not sorry for Russell's departure; and, assuming an air of pleasantry, he went to relate to the king, how Heaven had favoured him, by delivering him from so dangerous a rival. "He is gone then, Chevalier?" said the king "Certainly, Sir," said he, "I had the honour to see him embark in a coach, with his asthma, and country equipage, his perruque à calotte, neatly tied with a yellow riband, and his old-fashioned hat covered with oil-skin, which becomes him uncommonly well: therefore, I have only to contend with William Russell, whom he leaves as his resident with Miss Hamilton; and, as for him, I neither fear him upon his own account, nor his uncle's: he is too much in love himself, to pay attention to the interests of another; and as he has but one method of promoting his own, which is by sacrificing the portrait, or some love-letters of Mrs. Middleton, I have it easily in my power to counteract him in such kind of favours, though I confess I have pretty well paid for them."

"Since your affairs proceed so prosperously with the Russells," said the king, "I will acquaint you that you are delivered from another rival, much more dangerous, if he were not already married: my brother has lately fallen in love with Lady Chesterfield." "How many blessings at once!" exclaimed the Chevalier de Grammont: "I have so many obligations to him for this inconstancy, that I would willingly serve him in his new amour, if Hamilton was not his rival: nor will your majesty take it ill, if I promote the interests of my mistress's brother, rather than those of your majesty's brother." "Hamilton, however," said the king, "does not stand so much in need of assistance, in affairs of this nature. as the Duke of York; but I know Lord Chesterfield is of such a disposition, that he will not suffer men to quarrel about his wife, with the same patience as the complaisant Shrewsbury; though he well deserves the same fate." Here follows a true description of Lord Chesterfield.

He had a very agreeable face, a fine head of hair, an indifferent shape, and a worse air; he was not, however, deficient in wit: a long residence in Italy had made him ceremonious in his commerce with men, and jealous in his connection with women. He had been much hated by the king, because he had been much beloved by Lady Castlemaine: it was reported that he had been in her good graces prior to her marriage; and as neither of them denied it. it was the more generally believed.

He had paid his devoirs to the eldest daughter of the Duke of Ormond, while his heart was still taken up with his former passion. The king's love for Lady Castlemaine, and the advancement he expected from such an alliance, made him press the match with as much ardour as if he had been passionately in love: he had therefore married Lady Chesterfield without loving her, and had lived some time with her in such coolness, as to leave her no room to doubt of his indifference. As she was endowed with great sensibility and delicacy, she suffered at this contempt: she was at first much affected with his behaviour, and afterwards enraged at it; and, when he began to give her proofs of his affection, she had the pleasure of convincing him of her indifference.

They were upon this footing, when she resolved to cure Hamilton, as she had lately done her husband, of all his remaining tenderness for Lady Castlemaine. For her it was no difficult undertaking: the conversation of the one was disagreeable, from the unpolished state of her manners, her ill-timed pride, her uneven temper, and extravagant humours: Lady Chesterfield, on the contrary, knew how to heighten her charms, with all the bewitching attractions in the power of a woman to invent, who wishes to make a conquest.

Besides all this, she had greater opportunities of making advances to him, than to any other: she lived at the Duke of Ormond's, at Whitehall, where Hamilton, as was said before, had free admittance at all hours: her extreme coldness, or rather the disgust which she shewed for her husband's returning affection, wakened his natural inclination to jealousy: he suspected that she could not so very suddenly pass from anxiety to indifference for him, without some secret object of a new attachment; and, according to the maxims of all jealous husbands, he immediately put in practice all his experience and industry, in order to make a discovery, which was to destroy his own happiness.

Hamilton, who knew his disposition, was, on the other hand, upon his guard, and the more he advanced in his intrigue, the more attentive was he to remove every degree of suspicion from the earl's mind: he pretended to make him his confidant, in the most unguarded and open manner, of his passion for Lady Castlemaine: he complained of her caprice, and most earnestly desired his advice how to succeed with a person whose affections he alone had entirely possessed.

Chesterfield, who was flattered with this discourse, promised him his protection with greater sincerity than it had been demanded: Hamilton, therefore, was no further embarrased than to preserve Lady Chesterfield's reputation, who, in his opinion, declared herself rather too openly in his favour: but whilst he was diligently employed in regulating, within the rules of diseretion, the partiality she expressed for him, and in conjuring her to restrain her glances within bounds, she was receiving those of the Duke of York; and, what is more, made them favourable returns.

He thought that he had perceived it, as well as every one besides; but he thought likewise, that all the world was deceived as well as himself: how could he trust his own eyes, as to what those of Lady Chesterfield betrayed for this new rival? He could not think it probable, that a woman of her disposition could relish a man, whose manners had a thousand times been the subject of their private ridicule; but what he judged still more improbable was, that she should begin another intrigue before she had given the finishing stroke to that in which her own advances had engaged her: however, he began to observe her with more circumspection, when he found by his discoveries, that if she did not deceive him, at least the desire of doing so was not wanting. This he took the liberty of telling her of; but she answered him in so high a strain, and treated what he said so much like a phantom of his own imagination, that he appeared confused without being convinced: all the satisfaction he could procure from her, was her telling him, in a haughty manner, that such unjust reproaches as his ought to have had a better foundation.

Lord Chesterfield had taken the same alarm; and being convinced, from the observations he had made, that he had found out the happy lover who had gained possession of his lady's heart, he was satisfied; and without teazing her with unnecessary reproaches, he only waited for an opportunity to confound her, before he took his measures.

After all, how can we account for Lady Chesterfield's conduct, unless we attribute it to the disease incident to most coquettes, who, charmed with superiority, put in practice every art to rob another of her conquest, and spare nothing to preserve it.

Royal Ancestors of Barbara Villiers 1st Duchess of Cleveland 1640-1709

Kings Wessex: Great x 19 Grand Daughter of King Edmund "Ironside" I of England

Kings Gwynedd: Great x 16 Grand Daughter of Owain "Great" King Gwynedd

Kings Seisyllwg: Great x 22 Grand Daughter of Hywel "Dda aka Good" King Seisyllwg King Deheubarth

Kings Powys: Great x 17 Grand Daughter of Maredudd ap Bleddyn King Powys

Kings England: Great x 10 Grand Daughter of King Edward III of England

Kings Scotland: Great x 14 Grand Daughter of William "Lion" I King Scotland

Kings Franks: Great x 16 Grand Daughter of Louis VII King Franks

Kings France: Great x 12 Grand Daughter of Philip "Bold" III King France

Royal Descendants of Barbara Villiers 1st Duchess of Cleveland 1640-1709

Diana Spencer Princess Wales x 1

Ancestors of Barbara Villiers 1st Duchess of Cleveland 1640-1709

Great x 4 Grandfather: John Villiers

Great x 3 Grandfather: John Villiers

Great x 2 Grandfather: William Villiers of Brooksby Leicestershire

Great x 1 Grandfather: George Villiers of Brokesby

Great x 3 Grandfather: Richard Clarke

Great x 2 Grandmother: Collette Clarke

GrandFather: Edward Villiers

Great x 2 Grandfather: William Saunders of Harrington Northamptonshire

Great x 1 Grandmother: Audrey Saunders

Father: William Villiers 2nd Viscount Grandison 9 x Great Grand Son of King Edward III of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: John St John 7 x Great Grand Son of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England

Great x 3 Grandfather: John St John 8 x Great Grand Son of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England

Great x 4 Grandmother: Joan Iwardby

Great x 2 Grandfather: Nicholas St John 6 x Great Grand Son of King Edward III of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: Richard Carew 4 x Great Grand Son of King Edward III of England

Great x 3 Grandmother: Margaret Carew 5 x Great Grand Daughter of King Edward III of England

Great x 4 Grandmother: Malyn Oxenbridge

Great x 1 Grandfather: John St John 7 x Great Grand Son of King Edward III of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: Richard Blount of Iver in Buckinghamshire 11 x Great Grand Son of King Henry I "Beauclerc" England

Great x 3 Grandfather: Richard Blount of Mapledurham in Oxfordshire 12 x Great Grand Son of King Henry I "Beauclerc" England

Great x 2 Grandmother: Elizabeth Blount 13 x Great Grand Daughter of King Henry I "Beauclerc" England

GrandMother: Barbara St John 8 x Great Grand Daughter of King Edward III of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: Edward Hungerford 8 x Great Grand Son of King Henry III of England

Great x 3 Grandfather: Walter Hungerford 1st Baron Hungerford Heytesbury 9 x Great Grand Son of King Henry III of England

Great x 4 Grandmother: Jane Zouche 9 x Great Grand Daughter of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 2 Grandfather: Walter Hungerford 10 x Great Grand Son of King Henry III of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: John Danvers

Great x 3 Grandmother: Susan Danvers

Great x 1 Grandmother: Lucy Hungerford 11 x Great Grand Daughter of King Henry III of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: Robert Dormer of Wing

Great x 3 Grandfather: William Dormer

Great x 2 Grandmother: Anne Dormer

Great x 4 Grandfather: William Sidney

Great x 3 Grandmother: Mary Sidney

Great x 4 Grandmother: Anne Pakenham

Barbara Villiers 1st Duchess of Cleveland 10 x Great Grand Daughter of King Edward III of England

GrandFather: Paul Bayning 1st Viscount Bayning

Mother: Mary Bayning Countess Anglesey 11 x Great Grand Daughter of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England

Great x 1 Grandfather: Henry Glemham

GrandMother: Anne Glemham Viscountess Bayning 10 x Great Grand Daughter of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: John Sackville 8 x Great Grand Son of King Henry III of England

Great x 3 Grandfather: Richard Sackville 7 x Great Grand Son of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England

Great x 4 Grandmother: Margaret Boleyn 6 x Great Grand Daughter of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England

Great x 2 Grandfather: Thomas Sackville 1st Earl Dorset 8 x Great Grand Son of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: John Brydges

Great x 3 Grandmother: Winifred Brydges Marchioness Winchester

Great x 4 Grandmother: Agnes Ayloffe

Great x 1 Grandmother: Anne Sackville 9 x Great Grand Daughter of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England

Great x 3 Grandfather: John Baker

Great x 2 Grandmother: Cicely Baker Countess Dorset

Great x 4 Grandfather: Thomas Dinley

Great x 3 Grandmother: Elizabeth Dinley