Biography of Edward Montagu 2nd Earl Sandwich 1648-1688

Paternal Family Tree: Montagu

Maternal Family Tree: Amy Fermor 1509-1580

1660 July Creation of Peerages

1665 Great Plague of London

1668 Buckingham Shrewsbury Duel

1672 Battle of Solebay

On 07 Nov 1642 [his father] Edward Montagu 1st Earl Sandwich (age 17) and [his mother] Jemima Crew Countess Sandwich (age 17) were married.

On 03 Jan 1648 Edward Montagu 2nd Earl Sandwich was born to Edward Montagu 1st Earl Sandwich (age 22) and Jemima Crew Countess Sandwich (age 23) at Hinchinbrooke.

Pepy's Diary. 05 Jan 1660. Then my wife (age 19) and I, it being a great frost, went to Mrs. Jem's, in expectation to eat a sack-posset, but Mr. Edward (age 12) not coming it was put off; and so I left my wife (age 19) playing at cards with her, and went myself with my lanthorn to Mr. Fage, to consult concerning my nose, who told me it was nothing but cold, and after that we did discourse concerning public business; and he told me it is true the City had not time enough to do much, but they are resolved to shake off the soldiers; and that unless there be a free Parliament chosen, he did believe there are half the Common Council will not levy any money by order of this Parliament. From thence I went to my father's (age 58), where I found Mrs. Ramsey and her grandchild, a pretty girl, and staid a while and talked with them and my mother, and then took my leave, only heard of an invitation to go to dinner to-morrow to my cosen Thomas Pepys. I went back to Mrs. Jem, and took my wife (age 19) and Mrs. Sheply, and went home.

Pepy's Diary. 11 Jan 1660. Wednesday. Being at Will's with Captain Barker, who hath paid me £300 this morning at my office, in comes my father (age 58), and with him I walked, and leave him at W. Joyce's, and went myself to [his grandfather] Mr. Crew's (age 62), but came too late to dine, and therefore after a game at shittle-cocks with Mr. Walgrave and Mr. Edward (age 12), I returned to my father (age 58), and taking him from W. Joyce's, who was not abroad himself, we inquired of a porter, and by his direction went to an alehouse, where after a cup or two we parted. I went towards London, and in my way went in to see Crowly, who was now grown a very great loon and very tame. Thence to Mr. Steven's with a pair of silver snuffers, and bought a pair of shears to cut silver, and so homeward again. From home I went to see [his sister] Mrs. Jem, who was in bed, and now granted to have the smallpox. Back again, and went to the Coffee-house, but tarried not, and so home.

Pepy's Diary. 16 Jan 1660. Monday. In the morning I went up to [his grandfather] Mr. Crew's (age 62), and at his bedside he gave me direction to go to-morrow with Mr. Edward (age 12) to Twickenham, Richmond, and likewise did talk to me concerning things of state; and expressed his mind how just it was that the secluded members should come to sit again. I went from thence, and in my way went into an alehouse and drank my morning draft with Matthew Andrews and two or three more of his friends, coachmen. And of one of them I did hire a coach to carry us to-morrow to Twickenham. From thence to my office, where nothing to do; but Mr Downing (age 35) he came and found me all alone; and did mention to me his going back into Holland, and did ask me whether I would go or no, but gave me little encouragement, but bid me consider of it; and asked me whether I did not think that Mr. Hawly could perform the work of my office alone or no. I confess I was at a great loss, all the day after, to bethink myself how to carry this business. At noon, Harry Ethall came to me and went along with Mr. Maylard by coach as far as Salsbury Court, and there we set him down, and we went to the Clerks, where we came a little too late, but in a closet we had a very good dinner by Mr. Pinkny's courtesy, and after dinner we had pretty good singing, and one, Hazard, sung alone after the old fashion, which was very much cried up, but I did not like it. Thence we went to the Green Dragon, on Lambeth Hill, both the Mr. Pinkney's, Smith, Harrison, Morrice, that sang the bass, Sheply and I, and there we sang of all sorts of things, and I ventured with good success upon things at first sight, and after that I played on my flageolet, and staid there till nine o'clock, very merry and drawn on with one song after another till it came to be so late. After that Sheply, Harrison and myself, we went towards Westminster on foot, and at the Golden Lion, near Charing Cross, we went in and drank a pint of wine, and so parted, and thence home, where I found my wife and maid a-washing. I staid up till the bell-man came by with his bell just under my window as I was writing of this very line, and cried, "Past one of the clock, and a cold, frosty, windy morning". I then went to bed, and left my wife and the maid a-washing still.

Pepy's Diary. 17 Jan 1660. Tuesday. Early I went to [his grandfather] Mr. Crew's (age 62), and having given Mr. Edward (age 12) money to give the servants, I took him into the coach that waited for us and carried him to my house, where the coach waited for me while I and the child went to Westminster Hall, and bought him some pictures. In the Hall I met Mr. Woodfine, and took him to Will's and drank with him. Thence the child and I to the coach, where my wife was ready, and so we went towards Twickenham. In our way, at Kensington we understood how that my Lord Chesterfield (age 26) had killed another gentleman about half an hour before, and was fled.

Note. Philip Stanhope, second Earl of Chesterfield (age 26), ob. 1713, act. suae 80. We learn, from the memoir prefixed to his "Printed Correspondence", that he fought three duels, disarming and wounding his first and second antagonists, and killing the third. The name of the unfortunate gentleman who fell on this occasion was Woolly. Lord Chesterfield (age 26), absconding, went to Breda, where he obtained the royal pardon from Charles II (age 29). He acted a busy part in the eventful times in which he lived, and was remarkable for his steady adherence to the Stuarts. Lord Chesterfield's letter to Charles II, and the King's (age 29) answer granting the royal pardon, occur in the Correspondence published by General Sir John Murray, in 1829: "Jan. 17th, 1659. The Earl of Chesterfield and Dr. Woolly's son of Hammersmith, had a quarrel about a mare of eighteen pounds price; the quarrel would not be reconciled, insomuch that a challenge passed between them. They fought a duel on the backside of Mr. Colby's house at Kensington, where the Earl and he had several passes. The Earl wounded him in two places, and would fain have then ended, but the stubbornness and pride of heart of Mr. Woolly would not give over, and the next pass [he] was killed on the spot. The Earl fled to Chelsea, and there took water and escaped. The jury found it chance-medley".-Rugge's "Diurnal", Addit MSS.,British Museum. B.].

Pepy's Diary. 03 Apr 1660. Late to bed. About three in the morning there was great knocking at my cabin, which with much difficulty (so they say) waked me, and I rose, but it was only for a packet, so went to my bed again, and in the morning gave it my Lord. This morning Capt. Isham (age 32) comes on board to see my Lord and drunk his wine before he went into the Downs, there likewise come many merchants to get convoy to the Baltique, which a course was taken for. They dined with my Lord, and one of them by name Alderman Wood talked much to my Lord of the hopes that we have now to be settled, (under the King he meant); but my Lord took no notice of it. After dinner which was late my Lord went on shore, and after him I and Capt. Sparling went in his boat, but the water being almost at low water we could not stay for fear of not getting into our boat again. So back again. This day come the Lieutenant of the Swiftsure, who was sent by my Lord to Hastings, one of the Cinque Ports, to have got Mr. Edward Montagu (age 12) to have been one of their burgesses, but could not, for they were all promised before. After he had done his message, I took him and Mr. Pierce, the surgeon (who this day came on board, and not before), to my cabin, where we drank a bottle of wine. At night, busy a-writing, and so to bed. My heart exceeding heavy for not hearing of my dear wife, and indeed I do not remember that ever my heart was so apprehensive of her absence as at this very time.

Pepy's Diary. 10 May 1660. This morning came on board Mr. Pinkney and his son, going to the King with a petition finely writ by Mr. Whore, for to be the King's (age 29) embroiderer; for whom and Mr. Saunderson (age 74) I got a ship. This morning come my Lord Winchelsea and a great deal of company, and dined here. In the afternoon, while my Lord and we were at musique in the great cabin below, comes in a messenger to tell us that Mr. Edward Montagu (age 12), [Sir Edward Montagu's eldest son, afterwards second Earl of Sandwich, called by Pepys "The child".] my Lord's son, was come to Deal, Kent [Map], who afterwards came on board with Mr. Pickering (age 42) with him. The child was sick in the evening. At night, while my Lord was at supper, in comes my Lord Lauderdale and Sir John Greenville, who supped here, and so went away. After they were gone, my Lord called me into his cabin, and told me how he was commanded to set sail presently for the King1, and was very glad thereof, and so put me to writing of letters and other work that night till it was very late, he going to bed. I got him afterwards to sign things in bed. After I had done some more work I to bed also.

Note 1. Ordered that [his father] General Montagu (age 34) do observe the command of His Majesty for the disposing of the fleet, in order to His Majesty's returning home to England to his kingly government: and that all proceedings in law be in His Majesty's name. Rugge's Diurnal. B.

Pepy's Diary. 12 May 1660. This morning I inquired for my boy, whether he was come well or no, and it was told me that he was well in bed. My Lord called me to his chamber, he being in bed, and gave me many orders to make for direction for the ships that are left in the Downs, giving them the greatest charge in the world to bring no passengers with them, when they come after us to Scheveling Bay, excepting Mr. Edward Montagu (age 12), [his uncle] Mr. Thomas Crew (age 36), and Sir H. Wright (age 23). Sir R. Stayner (age 35) hath been here early in the morning and told my Lord, that my Lord Winchelsea understands by letters, that the Commissioners are only to come to Dover, Kent [Map] to attend the coming over of the King. So my Lord did give order for weighing anchor, which we did, and sailed all day. In our way in the morning, coming in the midway between Dover and Calais, we could see both places very easily, and very pleasant it was to me that the further we went the more we lost sight of both lands. In the afternoon at cards with Mr. North (age 24) and the Doctor. There by us, in the Lark frigate, Sir R. Freeman and some others, going from the King to England, come to see my Lord and so onward on their voyage. In the afternoon upon the quarterdeck the Doctor told Mr. North (age 24) and me an admirable story called "The Fruitless Precaution", an exceeding pretty story and worthy my getting without book when I can get the book.[??] This evening came Mr. Sheply on board, whom we had left at Deal and Dover getting of provision and borrowing of money. In the evening late, after discoursing with the Doctor, &c., to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 17 May 1660. Up early to write down my last two days' observations. Dr. Clerke came to me to tell me that he heard this morning, by some Dutch that are come on board already to see the ship, that there was a Portuguese taken yesterday at the Hague, that had a design to kill the King. But this I heard afterwards was only the mistake upon one being observed to walk with his sword naked, he having lost his scabbard. Before dinner Mr. Edw. Pickering (age 42) and I, W. Howe, Pim, and my boy (age 12), to Scheveling, where we took coach, and so to the Hague, where walking, intending to find one that might show us the King incognito, I met with Captain Whittington (that had formerly brought a letter to my Lord from the Mayor of London) and he did promise me to do it, but first we went and dined at a French house, but paid 16s. for our part of the club. At dinner in came Dr. Cade, a merry mad parson of the King's (age 29). And they two after dinner got the child and me (the others not being able to crowd in) to see the King, who kissed the child very affectionately. Then we kissed his, and the Duke of York's, and the Princess Royal's hands. The King seems to be a very sober man; and a very splendid Court he hath in the number of persons of quality that are about him, English very rich in habit. From the King to the Lord Chancellor1, who did lie bed-rid of the gout: he spoke very merrily to the child and me. After that, going to see the Queen of Bohemia, I met with Dr. Fullers whom I sent to a tavern with Mr. Edw. Pickering (age 42), while I and the rest went to see the Queen (age 50), who used us very respectfully; her hand we all kissed. She seems a very debonaire, but plain lady. After that to the Dr.'s, where we drank a while or so. In a coach of a friend's of Dr. Cade we went to see a house of the Princess Dowager's (age 28)2 in a park about half-a-mile or a mile from the Hague, where there is one, the most beautiful room for pictures in the whole world. She had here one picture upon the top, with these words, dedicating it to the memory of her husband:-"Incomparabili marito, inconsolabilis vidua".

Note 1. On January 29th, 1658, Charles II (age 29) entrusted the Great Seal to Sir Edward Hyde (age 51), with the title of Lord Chancellor, and in that character Sir Edward accompanied the King to England.

Note 2. Mary, Princess Royal (age 28), eldest daughter of Charles I, and widow of William of Nassau, Prince of Orange. She was not supposed to be inconsolable, and scandal followed her at the court of Charles II, where she died of small-pox, December 24th, 1660.

1660 July Creation of Peerages

On 07 May 1661 [his future brother-in-law] Charles Boyle 3rd Baron Clifford (age 21) and Jane Seymour Baroness Clifford (age 24) were married. She the daughter of William Seymour 2nd Duke of Somerset and Frances Devereux Duchess of Somerset (age 61). He the son of Richard Boyle 2nd Earl Cork 1st Earl Burlington (age 48) and Elizabeth Clifford Countess Burlington (age 47). She a great x 4 granddaughter of King Henry VII of England and Ireland.

Pepy's Diary. 24 Dec 1662. So to my brother's and shoemaker, and so to my Lord Crew's, and dined alone with him, and after dinner much discourse about matters. Upon the whole, I understand there are great factions at Court, and something he said that did imply a difference like to be between the King (age 32) and the Duke (age 29), in case the Queen (age 24) should not be with child. I understand, about this bastard (age 13)1. He says, also, that some great man will be aimed at when Parliament comes to sit again; I understand, the Chancellor (age 53) and that there is a bill will be brought in, that none that have been in arms for the Parliament shall be capable of office. And that the Court are weary of my Lord Albemarle (age 54) and Chamberlin (age 60). He wishes that my [his father] Lord Sandwich (age 37) had some good occasion to be abroad this summer which is coming on, and that my Lord Hinchingbroke (age 14) were well married, and [his brother] Sydney (age 12) had some place at Court. He pities the poor ministers that are put out, to whom, he says, the King (age 32) is beholden for his coming in, and that if any such thing had been foreseen he had never come in.

Note 1. James Crofts (age 13), son of Charles II by Lucy Walter, created Duke of Monmouth (age 13) in 1663, Duke of Buccleuch in 1673, when he took the name of Scott.

Pepy's Diary. 26 Jan 1663. Up and by water with Sir W. Batten (age 62) to White Hall, drinking a glass of wormewood wine at the Stillyard [Map], and so up to the Duke, and with the rest of the officers did our common service; thence to my [his father] Lord Sandwich's (age 37), but he was in bed, and had a bad fit last night, and so I went to, Westminster Hall [Map], it being Term time, it troubling me to think that I should have any business there to trouble myself and thoughts with. Here I met with Monsieur Raby, who is lately come from France. (he) tells me that my Lord Hinchingbroke (age 15) and his brother do little improve there, and are much neglected in their habits and other things; but I do believe he hath a mind to go over as their tutour, and so I am not apt to believe what he says therein. But I had a great deal of very good discourse with him, concerning the difference between the French and the Pope, and the occasion, which he told me very particularly, and to my great content; and of most of the chief affairs of France, which I did enquire: and that the King (age 32) is a most excellent Prince, doing all business himself; and that it is true he hath a mistress, Mademoiselle La Valiere (age 18), one of the Princess Henriette's women, that he courts for his pleasure every other day, but not so as to make him neglect his publique affairs. He tells me how the King (age 32) do carry himself nobly to the relations of the dead Cardinall1, and will not suffer one pasquill to come forth against him; and that he acts by what directions he received from him before his death.

Note 1. Cardinal Mazarin died March 9th, 1661.

Pepy's Diary. 15 May 1663. My Lord Hinchingbrooke (age 15), I am told, hath had a mischance to kill his boy by his birding-piece going off as he was a-fowling. The gun was charged with small shot, and hit the boy in the face and about the temples, and he lived four days.

Pepy's Diary. 16 Jan 1665. Thence I to Westminster Hall [Map] and walked up and down. Among others Ned Pickering (age 47) met me and tells me how active my Lord is at sea, and that my Lord Hinchingbrooke (age 17) is now at Rome, and, by all report, a very noble and hopefull gentleman.

Pepy's Diary. 28 May 1665. Thence to my [his mother] Lady Sandwich's (age 40), where, to my shame, I had not been a great while before. Here, upon my telling her a story of my Lord Rochester's (age 18) running away on Friday night last with Mrs. Mallett (age 14), the great beauty and fortune of the North, who had supped at White Hall with Mrs. Stewart (age 17), and was going home to her lodgings with her grandfather, my Lord Haly (age 57), by coach; and was at Charing Cross [Map] seized on by both horse and foot men, and forcibly taken from him, and put into a coach with six horses, and two women provided to receive her, and carried away. Upon immediate pursuit, my Lord of Rochester (age 18) (for whom the King (age 34) had spoke to the lady often, but with no successe) was taken at Uxbridge; but the lady (age 14) is not yet heard of, and the King (age 34) mighty angry, and the Lord (age 18) sent to the Tower [Map]. Hereupon my Lady did confess to me, as a great secret, her being concerned in this story. For if this match breaks between my Lord Rochester (age 18) and her, then, by the consent of all her friends, my Lord Hinchingbrooke (age 17) stands fair, and is invited for her. She is worth, and will be at her mother's (age 35) death (who keeps but a little from her), £2500 per annum. Pray God give a good success to it! But my poor Lady, who is afeard of the sickness, and resolved to be gone into the country, is forced to stay in towne a day or two, or three about it, to see the event of it.

Pepy's Diary. 06 Jun 1665. Thence to the office, where upon Sir G. Carteret's (age 55) accounts, to my great vexation there being nothing done by the Controller to right the King (age 35) therein. I thence to my office and wrote letters all the afternoon, and in the evening by coach to Sir Ph. Warwicke's (age 55) about my Tangier business to get money, and so to my [his mother] Lady Sandwich's (age 40), who, poor lady, expects every hour to hear of my Lord; but in the best temper, neither confident nor troubled with fear, that I ever did see in my life. She tells me my Lord Rochester (age 18) is now declaredly out of hopes of Mrs. Mallett (age 14), and now she is to receive notice in a day or two how the King (age 35) stands inclined to the giving leave for my Lord Hinchingbrooke (age 17) to look after her, and that being done to bring it to an end shortly.

Pepy's Diary. 25 Jul 1665. At night home and to bed, my head full of business, and among others, this day come a letter to me from Paris from my Lord Hinchingbrooke (age 17), about his coming over; and I have sent this night an order from the Duke of Albemarle (age 56) for a ship of 36 guns to [go] to Calais to fetch him.

Great Plague of London

Pepy's Diary. 31 Jul 1665. Thus we end this month, as I said, after the greatest glut of content that ever I had; only under some difficulty because of the plague, which grows mightily upon us, the last week being about 1700 or 1800 of the plague. My [his father] Lord Sandwich (age 40) at sea with a fleet of about 100 sail, to the Northward, expecting De Ruyter (age 58), or the Dutch East India fleet. My Lord Hinchingbrooke (age 17) coming over from France, and will meet his sister at Scott's-hall. Myself having obliged both these families in this business very much; as both my Lady, and Sir G. Carteret (age 55) and his Lady (age 63) do confess exceedingly, and the latter do also now call me cozen, which I am glad of. So God preserve us all friends long, and continue health among us.

Pepy's Diary. 04 Aug 1665. So home, and found all things well, and letters from Dover that my Lord Hinchingbrooke (age 17) is arrived at Dover, and would be at Scott's hall this night, where the whole company will meet. I wish myself with them.

Pepy's Diary. 12 Aug 1665. At noon am sent for by Sir G. Carteret (age 55), to meet him and my Lord Hinchingbrooke (age 17) at Deptford, Kent [Map], but my Lord did not come thither, he having crossed the river at Gravesend, Kent [Map] to Dagenhams, whither I dare not follow him, they being afeard of me; but Sir G. Carteret (age 55) says, he is a most sweet youth in every circumstance. Sir G. Carteret (age 55) being in haste of going to the Duke of Albemarle (age 56) and the Archbishop (age 67), he was pettish, and so I could not fasten any discourse, but take another time.

Pepy's Diary. 14 Aug 1665. Thence by agreement to Sir J. Minnes's (age 66) lodgings, where I found my Lord Bruncker (age 45), and so by water to the ferry, and there took Sir W. Batten's (age 64) coach that was sent for us, and to Sir W. Batten's (age 64), where very merry, good cheer, and up and down the garden with great content to me, and, after dinner, beat Captain Cocke (age 48) at billiards, won about 8s. of him and my Lord Bruncker (age 45). So in the evening after, much pleasure back again and I by water to Woolwich, Kent [Map], where supped with my wife, and then to bed betimes, because of rising to-morrow at four of the clock in order to the going out with Sir G. Carteret (age 55) toward Cranborne to my Lord Hinchingbrooke (age 17) in his way to Court.

Pepy's Diary. 18 Feb 1666. After dinner they gone, and it being a brave day, I walked to White Hall, where the Queene (age 56) and ladies are all come: I saw some few of them, but not the Queene (age 56), nor any of the great beauties. I endeavoured to have seen my Lord Hinchingbrooke (age 18), who come to town yesterday, but I could not.

Pepy's Diary. 19 Feb 1666. Up, and by coach to my [his father] Lord Sandwich's (age 40), but he was gone out. So I to White Hall, and there waited on the Duke of Yorke (age 32) with some of the rest of our brethren, and thence back again to my Lord's, to see my Lord Hinchingbrooke (age 18), which I did, and I am mightily out of countenance in my great expectation of him by others' report, though he is indeed a pretty gentleman, yet nothing what I took him for, methinks, either as to person or discourse discovered to me, but I must try him more before I go too far in censuring.

Pepy's Diary. 20 Feb 1666. After dinner I took him by coach to White Hall, and there he and I parted, and I to my [his father] Lord Sandwich's (age 40), where coming and bolting into the dining-room, I there found Captain Ferrers going to christen a child of his born yesterday, and I come just pat to be a godfather, along with my Lord Hinchingbrooke (age 18), and Madam Pierce, my Valentine, which for that reason I was pretty well contented with, though a little vexed to see myself so beset with people to spend me money, as she of a Valentine and little Mrs. Tooker, who is come to my house this day from Greenwich, Kent [Map], and will cost me 20s., my wife going out with her this afternoon, and now this christening. Well, by and by the child is brought and christened Katharine, and I this day on this occasion drank a glasse of wine, which I have not professedly done these two years, I think, but a little in the time of the sicknesse. After that done, and gone and kissed the mother in bed, I away to Westminster Hall [Map], and there hear that Mrs. Lane is come to town.

Pepy's Diary. 25 Feb 1666. Lord's Day. My wife up between three and four of the clock in the morning to dress herself, and I about five, and were all ready to take coach, she and I and Mercer, a little past five, but, to our trouble, the coach did not come till six. Then with our coach of four horses I hire on purpose, and Leshmore to ride by, we through the City to Branford [Map] and so to Windsor, Berkshire [Map], Captain Ferrers overtaking us at Kensington, being to go with us, and here drank, and so through, making no stay, to Cranborne, about eleven o'clock, and found my Lord and the ladies at a sermon in the house; which being ended we to them, and all the company glad to see us, and mighty merry to dinner. Here was my Lord, and Lord Hinchingbrooke (age 18), and [his brother] Mr. Sidney (age 15), Sir Charles Herbert (age 26), and Mr. Carteret (age 25), my Baroness Carteret (age 64), my [his sister] Lady Jemimah, and Lady Slaning.

Pepy's Diary. 25 Feb 1666. The Duke of Albemarle's (age 57) post is so great, having had the name of bringing in the King (age 35), that he is like to stand, or, if it were not for him, God knows in what troubles we might be from some private faction, if an army could be got into another hand, which God forbid! It is believed that though Mr. Coventry (age 38) be in appearance so great against the Chancellor (age 57), yet that there is a good understanding between the Duke and him. He dreads the issue of this year, and fears there will be some very great revolutions before his coming back again. He doubts it is needful for him to have a pardon for his last year's actions, all which he did without commission, and at most but the King's private single word for that of Bergen; but he dares not ask it at this time, lest it should make them think that there is something more in it than yet they know; and if it should be denied, it would be of very ill consequence. He says also, if it should in Parliament be enquired into the selling of Dunkirke (though the Chancellor (age 57) was the man that would have it sold to France, saying the King of Spayne had no money to give for it); yet he will be found to have been the greatest adviser of it; which he is a little apprehensive may be called upon this Parliament. He told me it would not be necessary for him to tell me his debts, because he thinks I know them so well. He tells me, that for the match propounded of Mrs. Mallett (age 15) for my Lord Hinchingbrooke (age 18), it hath been lately off, and now her friends bring it on again, and an overture hath been made to him by a servant of hers, to compass the thing without consent of friends, she herself having a respect to my Lord's family, but my Lord will not listen to it but in a way of honour. The Duke hath for this weeke or two been very kind to him, more than lately; and so others, which he thinks is a good sign of faire weather again. He says the Archbishopp of Canterbury (age 67) hath been very kind to him, and hath plainly said to him that he and all the world knows the difference between his judgment and brains and the Duke of Albemarle's (age 57), and then calls my Lady Duchesse (age 46) the veryst slut and drudge and the foulest worde that can be spoke of a woman almost.

Pepy's Diary. 08 Apr 1666. To the Chappell, but could not get in to hear well. But I had the pleasure once in my life to see an Archbishop (age 70) (this was of Yorke) in a pulpit. Then at a loss how to get home to dinner, having promised to carry Mrs. Hunt thither. At last got my Lord Hinchingbroke's (age 18) coach, he staying at Court; and so took her up in Axe-yard [Map], and home and dined. And good discourse of the old matters of the Protector and his family, she having a relation to them. The Protector (age 39)1 lives in France: spends about £500 per annum. Thence carried her home again and then to Court and walked over to St. James's Chappell, thinking to have heard a Jesuite preach, but come too late. So got a Hackney and home, and there to business. At night had Mercer comb my head and so to supper, sing a psalm, and to bed.

Note 1. Richard Cromwell (age 39) subsequently returned to England, and resided in strict privacy at Cheshunt for some years before his death in 1712.

Pepy's Diary. 04 Aug 1666. Up, and to the office, where all the morning, and, at noon to dinner, and Mr. Cooke dined with us, who is lately come from Hinchingbroke [Map], [Lord Hinchingbrooke (age 18)] who is also come to town: The family all well. Then I to the office, where very busy to state to Mr. Coventry (age 38) the account of the victuals of the fleete, and late at it, and then home to supper and to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 06 Aug 1666. Up, and to the office a while, and then by water to my [his mother] Baroness Montagu's (age 41), at Westminster, and there visited my Lord Hinchingbroke (age 18), newly come from Hinchingbroke [Map], and find him a mighty sober gentleman, to my great content.

Pepy's Diary. 26 Aug 1666. But, however, I was in pain, after we come out, to know how I had done; and hear well enough. But, however, it shall be a caution to me to prepare myself against a day of inquisition. Being come out, I met with Mr. Moore, and he and I an houre together in the Gallery, telling me how far they are gone in getting my Lord [Sandwich's] pardon, so as the Chancellor (age 57) is prepared in it; and Sir H. Bennet (age 48) do promote it, and the warrant for the King's signing is drawn. The business between my Lord Hinchingbrooke (age 18) and Mrs. Mallett (age 15) is quite broke off; he attending her at Tunbridge [Map], and she declaring her affections to be settled; and he not being fully pleased with the vanity and liberty of her carriage. He told me how my Lord has drawn a bill of exchange from Spayne of £1200, and would have me supply him with £500 of it, but I avoyded it, being not willing to embarke myself in money there, where I see things going to ruine.

Pepy's Diary. 05 Nov 1666. Thence to my [his grandfather] Lord Crew's (age 68), and there dined, and mightily made of, having not, to my shame, been there in 8 months before. Here my Lord and [his uncle] Sir Thomas Crew (age 42), [his uncle] Mr. John (age 38), and [his uncle] Dr. Crew (age 33), and two strangers. The best family in the world for goodness and sobriety. Here beyond my expectation I met my Lord Hinchingbrooke (age 18), who is come to towne two days since from Hinchingbroke [Map], and brought his [his sister] sister and brother Carteret (age 25) with him, who are at Sir G. Carteret's (age 56).

Pepy's Diary. 05 Nov 1666. After dinner and this discourse I took coach, and at the same time find my Lord Hinchingbrooke (age 18) and [his uncle] Mr. John Crew (age 38) and the [his uncle] Doctor (age 33) going out to see the ruins of the City; so I took the Doctor into my Hackney coach (and he is a very fine sober gentleman), and so through the City. But, Lord! what pretty and sober observations he made of the City and its desolation; till anon we come to my house, and there I took them upon Tower Hill [Map] to shew them what houses were pulled down there since the fire; and then to my house, where I treated them with good wine of several sorts, and they took it mighty respectfully, and a fine company of gentlemen they are; but above all I was glad to see my Lord Hinchingbrooke (age 18) drink no wine at all. Here I got them to appoint Wednesday come se'nnight to dine here at my house, and so we broke up and all took coach again, and I carried the Doctor (age 33) to Chancery Lane [Map], and thence I to White Hall, where I staid walking up and down till night, and then got almost into the play house, having much mind to go and see the play at Court this night; but fearing how I should get home, because of the bonefires and the lateness of the night to get a coach, I did not stay; but having this evening seen my [his sister] Lady Jemimah, who is come to towne, and looks very well and fat, and heard how Mr. John Pickering (age 55) is to be married this week, and to a fortune with £5000, and seen a rich necklace of pearle and two pendants of dyamonds, which Sir G. Carteret (age 56) hath presented her with since her coming to towne, I home by coach, but met not one bonefire through the whole town in going round by the wall, which is strange, and speaks the melancholy disposition of the City at present, while never more was said of, and feared of, and done against the Papists than just at this time.

Pepy's Diary. 13 Nov 1666. At the office all the morning, at noon home to dinner, and out to Bishopsgate Street, and there bought some drinking-glasses, a case of knives, and other things, against tomorrow, in expectation of my Lord Hinchingbroke's (age 18) coming to dine with me.

Pepy's Diary. 13 Nov 1666. So home, and having set some things in the way of doing, also against to-morrow, I to my office, there to dispatch business, and do here receive notice from my Lord Hinchingbrooke (age 18) that he is not well, and so not in condition to come to dine with me to-morrow, which I am not in much trouble for, because of the disorder my house is in, by the bricklayers coming to mend the chimney in my dining-room for smoking, which they were upon almost till midnight, and have now made it very pretty, and do carry smoke exceeding well.

Pepy's Diary. 14 Nov 1666. Up, and by water to White Hall, and thence to Westminster, where I bought several things, as a hone, ribbon, gloves, books, and then took coach and to Knipp's lodging, whom I find not ready to go home with me. So I away to do a little business, among others to call upon Mr. Osborne for my Tangier warrant for the last quarter, and so to the Exchange [Map] for some things for my wife, and then to Knipp's again, and there staid reading of Waller's verses, while she finished dressing, her husband being by. I had no other pastime. Her lodging very mean, and the condition she lives in; yet makes a shew without doors, God bless us! I carried him along with us into the City, and set him down in Bishopsgate Street, and then home with her. She tells me how Smith, of the Duke's house, hath killed a man upon a quarrel in play; which makes every body sorry, he being a good actor, and, they say, a good man, however this happens. The ladies of the Court do much bemoan him, she says. Here she and we alone at dinner to some good victuals, that we could not put off, that was intended for the great dinner of my Lord Hinchingbroke's (age 18), if he had come.

Pepy's Diary. 25 Nov 1666. The Council up, after speaking with Sir W. Coventry (age 38) a little, away home with Captain Cocke (age 49) in his coach, discourse about the forming of his contract he made with us lately for hempe, and so home, where we parted, and I find my uncle Wight (age 64) and Mrs. Wight and Woolly, who staid and supped, and mighty merry together, and then I to my chamber to even my journal, and then to bed. I will remember that Mr. Ashburnham (age 62) to-day at dinner told how the rich fortune Mrs. Mallett (age 15) reports of her servants; that my Lord Herbert (age 25) would have had her; my Lord Hinchingbrooke (age 18) was indifferent to have her1 my Lord John Butler (age 23) might not have her; my Lord of Rochester (age 19) would have forced her2 and Sir---Popham (age 20), who nevertheless is likely to have her, would kiss her breach to have her.

Note 1. They had quarrelled (see August 26th). She, perhaps, was piqued at Lord Hinchingbroke's (age 18) refusal "to compass the thing without consent of friends" (see February 25th), whence her expression, "indifferent" to have her. It is worthy of remark that their children intermarried; Lord Hinchingbroke's (age 18) son (age 18) married Lady Rochester's (age 15) daughter. B.

Note 2. Of the lady (age 15) thus sought after, whom Pepys calls "a beauty" as well as a fortune, and who shortly afterwards, about the 4th February, 1667, became the wife of the Earl of Rochester (age 19), then not twenty years old, no authentic portrait is known to exist. When Mr. Miller, of Albemarle Street, in 1811, proposed to publish an edition of the "Memoires de Grammont", he sent an artist to Windsor to copy there the portraits which he could find of those who figure in that work. In the list given to him for this purpose was the name of Lady Rochester. Not finding amongst the "Beauties", or elsewhere, any genuine portrait of her, but seeing that by Hamilton she is absurdly styled "une triste heritiere", the artist made a drawing from some unknown portrait at Windsor of a lady of a sorrowful countenance, and palmed it off upon the bookseller. In the edition of "Grammont" it is not actually called Lady Rochester, but "La Triste Heritiere". A similar falsification had been practised in Edwards's edition of 1793, but a different portrait had been copied. It is needless, almost, to remark how ill applied is Hamilton's epithet. B.

Pepy's Diary. 27 Nov 1666. Up, and to the office, where we sat all the morning, and here I had a letter from Mr. Brisband on another occasion, which, by the by, intimates my Lord Hinchingbroke's (age 18) intention to come and dine with me to-morrow. This put me into a great surprise, and therefore endeavoured all I could to hasten over our business at the office, and so home at noon and to dinner, and then away by coach, it being a very foul day, to White Hall, and there at Sir G. Carteret's (age 56) find my Lord Hinchingbrooke (age 18), who promises to dine with me to-morrow, and bring Mr. Carteret along with him. Here I staid a little while talking with him and the ladies, and then away to my [his grandfather] Lord Crew's (age 68), and then did by the by make a visit to my Lord Crew (age 68), and had some good discourse with him, he doubting that all will break in pieces in the Kingdom; and that the taxes now coming out, which will tax the same man in three or four several capacities, as for lands, office, profession, and money at interest, will be the hardest that ever come out; and do think that we owe it, and the lateness of its being given, wholly to the unpreparedness of the King's own party, to make their demand and choice; for they have obstructed the giving it by land-tax, which had been done long since.

Pepy's Diary. 27 Nov 1666. Having ended my visit, I spoke to [his uncle] Sir Thomas Crew (age 42), to invite him and his brother John (age 25) to dinner tomorrow, at my house, to meet Lord Hinchingbrooke (age 18); and so homewards, calling at the cook's, who is to dress it, to bespeak him, and then home, and there set things in order for a very fine dinner, and then to the office, where late very busy and to good purpose as to dispatch of business, and then home.

Pepy's Diary. 28 Nov 1666. Up, and with Sir W. Pen (age 45) to White Hall (setting his lady (age 42) and daughter (age 15) down by the way at a mercer's in the Strand, where they are going to lay out some money), where, though it blows hard and rains hard, yet the Duke of York (age 33) is gone a-hunting. We therefore lost our labour, and so back again, and by hackney coach to secure places to get things ready against dinner, and then home, and did the like there, and to my great satisfaction: and at noon comes my Lord Hinchingbrooke (age 18), [his uncle] Sir Thomas Crew (age 42), [his uncle] Mr. John Crew (age 38), Mr. Carteret (age 25), and Brisband. I had six noble dishes for them, dressed by a man-cook, and commended, as indeed they deserved, for exceeding well done. We eat with great pleasure, and I enjoyed myself in it with reflections upon the pleasures which I at best can expect, yet not to exceed this; eating in silver plates, and all things mighty rich and handsome about me. A great deal of fine discourse, sitting almost till dark at dinner, and then broke up with great pleasure, especially to myself; and they away, only Mr. Carteret and I to Gresham College, where they meet now weekly again, and here they had good discourse how this late experiment of the dog, which is in perfect good health, may be improved for good uses to men, and other pretty things, and then broke up.

Pepy's Diary. 29 Apr 1667. After dinner Sir G. Carteret (age 57) and I alone in his closet an hour or more talking of my [his father] Lord Sandwich's (age 41) coming home, which, the peace being likely to be made here, he expects, both for my Lord's sake and his own (whose interest he wants) it will be best for him to be at home, where he will be well received by the King (age 36); he is sure of his service well accepted, though the business of Spain do fall by this peace. He tells me my Lord Arlington (age 49) hath done like a gentleman by him in all things. He says, if my Lord [Sandwich] were here, he were the fittest man to be Lord Treasurer (age 60) of any man in England; and he thinks it might be compassed; for he confesses that the King's matters do suffer through the inability of this man, who is likely to die, and he will propound him to the King (age 36). It will remove him from his place at sea, and the King (age 36) will have a good place to bestow. He says to me, that he could wish, when my Lord comes, that he would think fit to forbear playing, as a thing below him, and which will lessen him, as it do my Lord St. Albans (age 62), in the King's esteem: and as a great secret tells me that he hath made a match for my Lord Hinchingbrooke (age 19) to a [his future wife] daughter (age 22) of my [his future father-in-law] Lord Burlington's (age 54), where there is a great alliance, £10,000 portion; a civil family, and relation to my Chancellor (age 58), whose son (age 5) hath married one of the daughters (age 4); and that my Chancellor (age 58) do take it with very great kindness, so that he do hold himself obliged by it. My Lord Sandwich (age 41) hath referred it to my [his grandfather] Lord Crew (age 69), Sir G. Carteret (age 57), and Mr. Montagu (age 49), to end it. My Lord Hinchingbrooke (age 19) and the lady know nothing yet of it. It will, I think, be very happy. Very glad of this discourse, I away mightily pleased with the confidence I have in this family, and so away, took up my wife, who was at her mother's, and so home, where I settled to my chamber about my accounts, both Tangier and private, and up at it till twelve at night, with good success, when news is brought me that there is a great fire in Southwarke [Map]: so we up to the leads, and then I and the boy down to the end of our, lane, and there saw it, it seeming pretty great, but nothing to the fire of London, that it made me think little of it. We could at that distance see an engine play-that is, the water go out, it being moonlight.

Pepy's Diary. 03 May 1667. So away, I not finding of Mr. Moore, with whom I should have met and spoke about a letter I this day received from him from my Lord Hinchingbrooke (age 19), wherein he desires me to help him to £1900 to pay a bill of exchange of his father's, which troubles me much, but I will find some way, if I can do it, but not to bring myself in bonds or disbursements for it, whatever comes of it.

Pepy's Diary. 09 May 1667. Mightily pleased with the noblenesse of this house, and the brave furniture and pictures, which indeed is very noble, and, being broke up, I with Sir G. Carteret (age 57) in his coach into Hide Park, to discourse of things, and spent an hour in this manner with great pleasure, telling me all his concernments, and how he is gone through with the purchase for my [his sister] Lady Jemimah and her husband (age 26); how the Treasury is like to come into the hands of a Committee; but that not that, nor anything else, will do our business, unless the King (age 36) himself will mind his business, and how his servants do execute their parts; he do fear an utter ruin in the state, and that in a little time, if the King (age 36) do not mind his business soon; that the King (age 36) is very kind to him, and to my [his father] Lord Sandwich (age 41), and that he doubts not but at his coming home, which he expects about Michaelmas, he will be very well received. But it is pretty strange how he began again the business of the intention of a marriage of my Lord Hinchingbrooke (age 19) to a daughter of my [his future father-in-law] Lord Burlington's (age 54) to my Chancellor (age 58), which he now tells me as a great secret, when he told it me the last Sunday but one; but it may be the poor man hath forgot, and I do believe he do make it a secret, he telling me that he has not told it to any but myself, end this day to his daughter my Lady Jemimah, who looks to lie down about two months hence.

Pepy's Diary. 15 May 1667. So with utmost content I away with Sir G. Carteret (age 57) to London, talking all the way; and he do tell me that the business of my Lord Hinchingbrooke (age 19) his marriage with my [his future father-in-law] Lord Burlington's (age 54) [his future wife] daughter (age 22) is concluded on by all friends; and that my Lady (age 22) is now told of it, and do mightily please herself with it; which I am mighty glad of.

Pepy's Diary. 05 Jun 1667. Here they talked of my Lord Hinchingbroke's (age 19) match with [his future father-in-law] Lord Burlington's (age 54) [his future wife] daughter (age 22), which is now gone a pretty way forward, and to great content, which I am infinitely glad of.

Pepy's Diary. 17 Jun 1667. He gone, I to my business again, and then home to supper and to bed. I have lately played the fool much with our Nell, in playing with her breasts. This night, late, comes a porter with a letter from Monsieur Pratt, to borrow £100 for my Lord Hinchingbrooke (age 19), to enable him to go out with his troop in the country, as he is commanded; but I did find an excuse to decline it. Among other reasons to myself, this is one, to teach him the necessity of being a good husband, and keeping money or credit by him.

Pepy's Diary. 12 Jul 1667. Thence he set me down at my [his grandfather] Lord Crew's (age 69) and away, and I up to my Lord, where [his uncle] Sir Thomas Crew (age 43) was, and by and by comes Mr. Caesar, who teaches my Lady's page upon the lute, and here Mr. Caesar did play some very fine things indeed, to my great liking. Here was my Lord Hinchingbrooke (age 19) also, newly come from Hinchingbroke [Map], where all well, but methinks I knowing in what case he stands for money by his demands to me and the report Mr. Moore gives of the management of the family, makes me, God forgive me! to condemn him, though I do really honour and pity them, though they deserve it not, that have so good an estate and will live beyond it.

Pepy's Diary. 08 Aug 1667. He gone, I met with Mr. Moore, who tells me that my Lord Hinchingbrooke (age 19) is now with his [his future wife] mistress (age 22), but not that he is married, as W. Howe come and told us the other day.

Pepy's Diary. 02 Sep 1667. After dinner comes in Mr. Townsend; and there I was witness of a horrid rateing, which Mr. Ashburnham (age 63), as one of the Grooms of the King's Bedchamber, did give him for want of linen for the King's person; which he swore was not to be endured, and that the King (age 37) would not endure it, and that the King (age 37) his father, would have hanged his Wardrobe-man should he have been served so the King (age 37) having at this day no handkerchers, and but three bands to his neck, he swore. Mr. Townsend answered want of money, and the owing of the linen-draper £5000; and that he hath of late got many rich things made-beds, and sheets, and saddles, and all without money, and he can go no further but still this old man, indeed, like an old loving servant, did cry out for the King's person to be neglected. But, when he was gone, Townsend told me that it is the grooms taking away the King's linen at the quarter's end, as their fees, which makes this great want: for, whether the King (age 37) can get it or no, they will run away at the quarter's end with what he hath had, let the King (age 37) get more as he can. All the company gone, Sir G. Carteret (age 57) and I to talk: and it is pretty to observe how already he says that he did always look upon the Chancellor (age 58) indeed as his friend, though he never did do him any service at all, nor ever got any thing by him, nor was he a man apt, and that, I think, is true, to do any man any kindness of his own nature; though I do know that he was believed by all the world to be the greatest support of Sir G. Carteret (age 57) with the King (age 37) of any man in England: but so little is now made of it! He observes that my [his father] Lord Sandwich (age 42) will lose a great friend in him; and I think so too, my Lord Hinchingbrooke (age 19) being about a match calculated purely out of respect to my Chancellor's (age 58) family.

Pepy's Diary. 05 Oct 1667. At noon home, and by coach to Temple Bar to a India shop, and there bought a gown and sash, which cost me 26s., and so she [Mrs. Pepys] and Willet away to the 'Change [Map], and I to my [his grandfather] Lord Crew (age 69), and there met my Lord Hinchingbrooke (age 19) and [his sister] Lady Jemimah, and there dined with them and my Lord, where pretty merry, and after dinner my Lord Crew (age 69) and Hinchingbroke [Map] and myself went aside to discourse about my [his father] Lord Sandwich's (age 42) business, which is in a very ill state for want of money, and so parted, and I to my tailor's, and there took up my wife and Willet, who staid there for me, and to the Duke of York's playhouse, but the house so full, it being a new play, "The Coffe House", that we could not get in, and so to the King's house: and there, going in, met with Knepp, and she took us up into the tireing-rooms: and to the women's shift, where Nell (age 17) was dressing herself, and was all unready, and is very pretty, prettier than I thought.

Pepy's Diary. 09 Oct 1667. By and by to dinner, and after dinner I walked up to Hinchingbroke [Map], where my [his mother] Lady (age 42) expected me; and there spent all the afternoon with her: the same most excellent, good, discreet lady that ever she was; and, among other things, is mightily pleased with the lady that is like to be her son Hinchingbroke's (age 19) wife, which I am mightily glad of.

Pepy's Diary. 23 Oct 1667. Thence to Mrs. Martin's, and there staid till two o'clock, and drank and talked, and did give her £3 to buy my goddaughter her first new gowne.... [Missing text: "and I did hazer algo con her;"] and so away homeward, and in my way met Sir W. Pen (age 46) in Cheapside [Map], and went into his coach, and back again and to the King's playhouse, and there saw "The Black Prince" again: which is now mightily bettered by that long letter being printed, and so delivered to every body at their going in, and some short reference made to it in heart in the play, which do mighty well; but, when all is done, I think it the worst play of my Lord Orrery's (age 46). But here, to my great satisfaction, I did see my Lord Hinchingbrooke (age 19) and his [his future wife] mistress (age 23), with her [his future father-in-law] father (age 55) and [his future mother-in-law] mother (age 54); and I am mightily pleased with the young lady, being handsome enough-and, indeed, to my great liking, as I would have her. I could not but look upon them all the play; being exceeding pleased with my good hap to see them, God bring them together! and they are now already mighty kind to one another, and he is as it were one of their family. The play done I home, and to the office a while, and then home to supper, very hungry, and then to my chamber, to read the true story, in Speed, of the Black Prince, and so to bed. This day, it was moved in the House that a day might be appointed to bring in an impeachment against the Chancellor (age 58), but it was decried as being irregular; but that, if there was ground for complaint, it might be brought to the Committee for miscarriages, and, if they thought good, to present it to the House; and so it was carried. They did also vote this day thanks to be given to the Prince and Duke of Albemarle (age 58), for their care and conduct in the last year's war, which is a strange act; but, I know not how, the blockhead Albemarle hath strange luck to be loved, though he be, and every man must know it, the heaviest man in the world, but stout and honest to his country. This evening late, Mr. Moore come to me to prepare matters for my [his father] Lord Sandwich's (age 42) defence; wherein I can little assist, but will do all I can; and am in great fear of nothing but the damned business of the prizes, but I fear my Lord will receive a cursed deal of trouble by it.

Pepy's Diary. 01 Nov 1667. Up betimes, and down to the waterside (calling and drinking a dram of the bottle at Michell's, but saw not Betty), and thence to White Hall and to Sir W. Coventry's (age 39) lodging, where he and I alone a good while, where he gives me the full of the Duke of Albemarle's (age 58) and D. Gawden's narratives, given yesterday by the House, wherein they fall foul of him and Sir G. Carteret (age 57) in something about the dividing of the fleete, and the Prince particularly charging the Commissioners of the Navy with negligence, he says the Commissioners of the Navy whereof Sir W. Coventry (age 39) is one. He tells me that he is prepared to answer any particular most thoroughly, but the quality of the persons do make it difficult for him, and so I do see is in great pain, poor man, though he deserves better than twenty such as either of them, for his abilities and true service to the King (age 37) and kingdom. He says there is incoherences, he believes, to be found between their two reports, which will be pretty work to consider. The Duke of Albemarle (age 58) charges W. Coventry that he should tell him, when he come down to the fleete with Sir G. Carteret (age 57), to consult about dividing the fleete, that the Dutch would not be out in six weeks, which W. Coventry says is as false as is possible, and he can prove the contrary by the Duke of Albemarle's (age 58) own letters. The Duke of Albemarle (age 58) says that he did upon sight of the Dutch call a council of officers, and they did conclude they could not avoid fighting the Dutch; and yet we did go to the enemy, and found them at anchor, which is a pretty contradiction. And he tells me that Spragg did the other day say in the House, that the Prince, at his going from the Duke of Albemarle (age 58) with his fleete, did tell him that if the Dutch should come on, the Duke was to follow him, the Prince, with his fleete, and not fight the Dutch. Out of all this a great deal of good might well be picked. But it is a sad consideration that all this picking of holes in one another's coats-nay, and the thanks of the House to the Prince and the Duke of Albemarle (age 58), and all this envy and design to ruin Sir W. Coventry (age 39)-did arise from Sir W. Coventry's (age 39) unfortunate mistake the other day, in producing of a letter from the Duke of Albemarle (age 58), touching the good condition of all things at Chatham, Kent [Map] just before the Dutch come up, and did us that fatal mischiefe; for upon this they are resolved to undo him, and I pray God they do not. He tells me upon my demanding it that he thinks the King (age 37) do not like this their bringing these narratives, and that they give out that they would have said more but that the King (age 37) hath hindered them, that I suppose is about my [his father] Lord Sandwich (age 42). He is getting a copy of the Narratives, which I shall then have, and so I parted from him and away to White Hall, where I met Mr. Creed and Yeabsly, and discoursed a little about Mr. Yeabsly's business and accounts, and so I to chapel and there staid, it being All-Hallows day, and heard a fine anthem, made by Pelham (who is come over) in France, of which there was great expectation, and indeed is a very good piece of musique, but still I cannot call the Anthem anything but instrumentall musique with the voice, for nothing is made of the words at all. I this morning before chapel visited Sir G. Carteret (age 57), who is vexed to see how things are likely to go, but cannot help it, and yet seems to think himself mighty safe. I also visited my Lord Hinchingbrooke (age 19), at his chamber at White Hall, where I found Mr. Turner, Moore, and Creed, talking of my Lord Sandwich (age 42), whose case I doubt is but bad, and, I fear, will not escape being worse, though some of the company did say otherwise. But I am mightily pleased with my Lord Hinchingbroke's (age 19) sobriety and few words. After chapel I with Creed to the Exchange [Map], and after much talk he and I there about securing of some money either by land or goods to be always at our command, which we think a thing advisable in this critical time, we parted, and I to the Sun Taverne with Sir W. Warren (with whom I have not drank many a day, having for some time been strange to him), and there did put it to him to advise me how to dispose of my prize, which he will think of and do to my best advantage. We talked of several other things relating to his service, wherein I promise assistance, but coldly, thinking it policy to do so, and so, after eating a short dinner, I away home, and there took out my wife, and she and I alone to the King's playhouse, and there saw a silly play and an old one, "The Taming of a Shrew", and so home and I to my office a little, and then home to supper and to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 09 Dec 1667. All the morning busy at the office, doing very considerable business, and thither comes Sir G. Carteret (age 57) to talk with me; who seems to think himself safe as to his particular, but do doubt what will become of the whole kingdom, things being so broke in pieces. He tells me that the King (age 37) himself did the other day very particularly tell the whole story of my [his father] Lord Sandwich's (age 42) not following the Dutch ships, with which he is charged; and shews the reasons of it to be the only good course he could have taken, and do discourse it very knowingly. This I am glad of, though, as the King (age 37) is now, his favour, for aught I see, serves very little in stead at this day, but rather is an argument against a man; and the King (age 37) do not concern himself to relieve or justify any body, but is wholly negligent of everybody's concernment. This morning I was troubled with my Lord Hinchingbroke's (age 19) sending to borrow £200 of me; but I did answer that I had none, nor could borrow any; for I am resolved I will not be undone for any body, though I would do much for my Lord Sandwich (age 42)-for it is to answer a bill of exchange of his, and I perceive he hath made use of all other means in the world to do it, but I am resolved to serve him, but not ruin myself, as it may be to part with so much of the little I have by me to keep if I should by any turn of times lose the rest.

Pepy's Diary. 13 Dec 1667. Up, lying long all alone (my wife lying for these two or three days of sickness alone), thinking of my several businesses in hand, and then rose and to the office, being in some doubt of having my cozen Roger (age 50) and Lord Hinchinbroke (age 19) and [his uncle] Sir Thos. Crew (age 43) by my cozens invitation at dinner to-day, and we wholly unprovided. So I away to Westminster, to the Parliament-door, to speak with Roger: and here I saw my Lord Keeling (age 60) go into the House to the barr, to have his business heard by the whole House to-day; and a great crowd of people to stare upon him. Here I hear that the Lords' Bill for banishing and disabling my Lord Clarendon (age 58) from bearing any office, or being in the King's dominions, and its being made felony for any to correspond with him but his own children, is brought to the Commons: but they will not agree to it, being not satisfied with that as sufficient, but will have a Bill of Attainder brought in against him: but they make use of this against the Lords, that they, that would not think there was cause enough to commit him without hearing, will have him banished without hearing.

Pepy's Diary. 13 Dec 1667. After dinner comes Mr. Moore, and he and I alone a while, he telling me my [his father] Lord Sandwich's (age 42) credit is like to be undone, if the bill of £200 my Lord Hinchingbrooke (age 19) wrote to me about be not paid to-morrow, and that, if I do not help him about it, they have no way but to let it be protested. So, finding that Creed hath supplied them with £150 in their straits, and that this is no bigger sum, I am very willing to serve my Lord, though not in this kind; but yet I will endeavour to get this done for them, and the rather because of some plate that was lodged the other day with me, by my Lady's order, which may be in part of security for my money, as I may order it, for, for ought I see, there is no other to be hoped for. This do trouble me; but yet it is good luck that the sum is no bigger. He gone, I with my cozen Roger (age 50) to Westminster Hall [Map]; and there we met the House rising: and they have voted my Lord Chief Justice Keeling's (age 60) proceedings illegal; but that, out of particular respect to him, and the mediation of a great many, they have resolved to proceed no further against him. After a turn or two with my cozen, I away with Sir W. Warren, who met me here by my desire, and to Exeter House [Map], and there to counsel, to Sir William Turner, about the business of my bargain with my Lady Batten; and he do give me good advice, and that I am safe, but that there is a great many pretty considerations in it that makes it necessary for me to be silent yet for a while till we see whether the ship be safe or no; for she is drove to the coast of Holland, where she now is in the Texell, so that it is not prudence for me yet to resolve whether I will stand by the bargain or no, and so home, and Sir W. Warren and I walked upon Tower Hill [Map] by moonlight a great while, consulting business of the office and our present condition, which is but bad, it being most likely that the Parliament will change all hands, and so let them, so I may keep but what I have.

Pepy's Diary. 14 Dec 1667. Up and to the office, where busy, and after dinner also to the office again till night, when Mr. Moore come to me to discourse about the £200 I must supply my Lord Hinchingbrooke (age 19), and I promised him to do it, though much against my will.

Buckingham Shrewsbury Duel

Pepy's Diary. 17 Jan 1668. Up, and by coach to White Hall to attend the Council there, and here I met first by Mr. Castle (age 39) the shipwright, whom I met there, and then from the whole house the discourse of the duell yesterday between the Duke of Buckingham (age 39), Holmes, and one Jenkins, on one side, and my Lord of Shrewsbury (age 45), Sir John Talbot (age 37), and one Bernard Howard (age 27), on the other side: and all about my Lady Shrewsbury (age 25)1, who is a whore, and is at this time, and hath for a great while been, a whore to the Duke of Buckingham (age 39). And so her husband (age 45) challenged him, and they met yesterday in a close near Barne-Elmes, and there fought: and my Lord Shrewsbury (age 45) is run through the body, from the right breast through the shoulder: and Sir John Talbot (age 37) all along up one of his armes; and Jenkins killed upon the place, and the rest all, in a little measure, wounded. This will make the world think that the King (age 37) hath good councillors about him, when the Duke of Buckingham (age 39), the greatest man about him, is a fellow of no more sobriety than to fight about a whore. And this may prove a very bad accident to the Duke of Buckingham (age 39), but that my Baroness Castlemayne (age 27) do rule all at this time as much as ever she did, and she will, it is believed, keep all matters well with the Duke of Buckingham (age 39): though this is a time that the King (age 37) will be very backward, I suppose, to appear in such a business. And it is pretty to hear how the King (age 37) had some notice of this challenge a week or two ago, and did give it to my Lord Generall (age 59) to confine the Duke (age 39), or take security that he should not do any such thing as fight: and the Generall trusted to the King (age 37) that he, sending for him, would do it, and the King (age 37) trusted to the Generall; and so, between both, as everything else of the greatest moment do, do fall between two stools. The whole House full of nothing but the talk of this business; and it is said that my Lord Shrewsbury's (age 45) case is to be feared, that he may die too; and that may make it much the worse for the Duke of Buckingham (age 39): and I shall not be much sorry for it, that we may have some sober man come in his room to assist in the Government. Here I waited till the Council rose, and talked the while, with Creed, who tells me of Mr. Harry Howard's' (age 39) giving the Royal Society a piece of ground next to his house, to build a College on, which is a most generous act. And he tells me he is a very fine person, and understands and speaks well; and no rigid Papist neither, but one that would not have a Protestant servant leave his religion, which he was going to do, thinking to recommend himself to his master by it; saying that he had rather have an honest Protestant than a knavish Catholique. I was not called into the Council; and, therefore, home, first informing myself that my Lord Hinchingbrooke (age 20) hath been married this week to my [his future father-in-law] Lord Burlington's (age 55) [his future wife] daughter (age 23); so that that great business is over; and I mighty glad of it, though I am not satisfied that I have not a Favour sent me, as I see Attorney Montagu (age 50) and the Vice-Chamberlain have (age 58). But I am mighty glad that the thing is done.

Note 1. Anna Maria (age 25), daughter of Robert Brudenel, second Earl of Cardigan (age 60). Walpole says she held the Duke of Buckingham's (age 39) horse, in the habit of a page, while he was fighting the duel with her husband. She married, secondly, George Rodney Bridges, son of Sir Thomas Bridges of Keynsham, Somerset (age 51), Groom of the Bedchamber to Charles IL, and died April 20th, 1702. A portrait of the Countess of Shrewsbury, as Minerva, by Lely.

Pepy's Diary. 05 Feb 1668. Thence to other discourse, among others, he mightily commends my Lord Hinchingbroke's (age 20) match and [his future wife] Lady (age 23), though he buys her £10,000 dear, by the jointure and settlement his [his father] father (age 42) makes her; and says that the Duke of York (age 34) and Duchess of York (age 30) did come to see them in bed together, on their wedding-night, and how my Lord had fifty pieces of gold taken out of his pocket that night, after he was in bed. He tells me that an Act of Comprehension is likely to pass this Parliament, for admitting of all persuasions in religion to the public observation of their particular worship, but in certain places, and the persons therein concerned to be listed of this, or that Church; which, it is thought, will do them more hurt than good, and make them not own, their persuasion. He tells me that there is a pardon passed to the Duke of Buckingham (age 40), my Lord of Shrewsbury (age 45), and the rest, for the late duell and murder1 which he thinks a worse fault than any ill use my late Chancellor (age 58) ever put the Great Seal to, and will be so thought by the Parliament, for them to be pardoned without bringing them to any trial: and that my Lord Privy-Seal (age 62) therefore would not have it pass his hand, but made it go by immediate warrant; or at least they knew that he would not pass it, and so did direct it to go by immediate warrant, that it might not come to him. He tells me what a character my Lord Sandwich (age 42) hath sent over of Mr. Godolphin (age 33), as the worthiest man, and such a friend to him as he may be trusted in any thing relating to him in the world; as one whom, he says, he hath infallible assurances that he will remaine his friend which is very high, but indeed they say the gentleman is a fine man.

Note 1. The royal pardon was thus announced in the "Gazette" of February 24th, 1668: "This day his Majesty was pleased to declare at the Board, that whereas, in contemplation of the eminent services heretofore done to his Majesty by most of the persons who were engaged in the late duel, or rencounter, wherein William Jenkins was killed, he Both graciously pardon the said offence: nevertheless, He is resolved from henceforth that on no pretence whatsoever any pardon shall be hereafter granted to any person whatsoever for killing of any man, in any duel or rencounter, but that the course of law shall wholly take place in all such cases". The warrant for a pardon to George, Duke of Buckingham (age 40), is dated January 27th, 1668; and on the following day was issued, "Warrant for a grant to Francis, Earl of Shrewsbury (age 45), of pardon for killing William Jenkins, and for all duels, assaults, or batteries on George, Duke of Buckingham (age 40), Sir John Talbot, Sir Robert Holmes, or any other, whether indicted or not for the same, with restitution of lands, goods, &c". (Calendar of State Papers, 1667-68, pp. 192,193).

Pepy's Diary. 08 Mar 1668. At noon, after sermon, I to dinner with Sir G. Carteret (age 58) to Lincoln's Inn Fields, where I find mighty deal of company-a solemn day for some of his and her friends, and dine in the great dining-room above stairs, where Sir G. Carteret (age 58) himself, and I, and his son, at a little table by, the great table being full of strangers. Here my Lady Jem. do promise to come, and bring my Lord Hinchingbrooke (age 20) and his lady some day this week, to dinner to me, which I am glad of.

Pepy's Diary. 13 Mar 1668. Thence with our company to the King's playhouse, where I left them, and I, my head being full of to-morrow's dinner, I to my [his grandfather] Lord Crew's (age 70), there to invite [his uncle] Sir Thomas Crew (age 44); and there met with my Lord Hinchingbrooke (age 20) and his lady, the first time I spoke to her. I saluted her; and she mighty civil and; with my [his sister] Lady Jemimah, do all resolve to be very merry to-morrow at my house. My Lady Hinchingbroke [Note. Probably a reference to Elizabeth Wilmot Countess Sandwich the future Lady Hinchinbroke.] I cannot say is a beauty, nor ugly; but is altogether a comely lady enough, and seems very good-humoured, and I mighty glad of the occasion of seeing her before to-morrow.

Pepy's Diary. 14 Mar 1668. Up very betimes, and with Jane to Levett's, there to conclude upon our dinner; and thence to the pewterer's, to buy a pewter sesterne1, which I have ever hitherto been without, and so up and down upon several occasions to set matters in order, and that being done I out of doors to Westminster Hall [Map], and there met my Lord Brouncker (age 48), who tells me that our business is put off till Monday, and so I was mighty glad that I was eased of my attendance here, and of any occasion that might put me out of humour, as it is likely if we had been called before the Parliament. Therefore, after having spoke with Mr. Godolphin (age 33) and cozen Roger (age 50), I away home, and there do find everything in mighty good order, only my wife not dressed, which troubles me. Anon comes my company, viz., my Lord Hinchingbrooke (age 20) and his lady, Sir Philip Carteret (age 27) and his, lady, GoDolphin and my cozen Roger (age 50), and Creed: and mighty merry; and by and by to dinner, which was very good and plentifull: (I should have said, and Mr. George Montagu (age 45)), who come at a very little warning, which was exceeding kind of him. And there, among other things, my Lord had Sir Samuel Morland's (age 43) late invention for casting up of sums of L. s. d.2 which is very pretty, but not very useful. Most of our discourse was of my [his father] Lord Sandwich (age 42) and his family, as being all of us of the family; and with extraordinary pleasure all the afternoon, thus together eating and looking over my closet: and my Lady Hinchingbroke [Map] I find a very sweet-natured and well-disposed lady, a lover of books and pictures, and of good understanding. About five o'clock they went; and then my wife and I abroad by coach into Moorefields [Map], only for a little ayre, and so home again, staying no where, and then up to her chamber, there to talk with pleasure of this day's passages, and so to bed. This day I had the welcome news of our prize being come safe from Holland, so as I shall have hopes, I hope, of getting my money of my Lady Batten, or good part of it.

Note 1. A pewter cistern was formerly part of the furniture of a well- appointed dining-room; the plates were rinsed in it, when necessary, during the meal. A magnificent silver cistern is still preserved in the dining-room at Burghley House, the seat of the Marquis of Exeter. It is said to be the largest piece of plate in England, and was once the subject of a curious wager. B.

Note 2. The same as Morland's (age 43) so-called calculating machine. Sir Samuel (age 43) published in 1673 "The Description and Use of two Arithmetick Instruments, together with a short Treatise of Arithmetic, as likewise a Perpetual Almanack and severall useful tables"..

Before 17 Mar 1668 Edward Montagu 2nd Earl Sandwich (age 20) and Mary Anne Boyle (age 23) were married. She the daughter of Richard Boyle 2nd Earl Cork 1st Earl Burlington (age 55) and Elizabeth Clifford Countess Burlington (age 54). He the son of Edward Montagu 1st Earl Sandwich (age 42) and Jemima Crew Countess Sandwich (age 43).

Pepy's Diary. 24 May 1668. After dinner my [his mother] Lady Sandwich (age 43) sending to see whether I was come, I presently took horse, and find her and her family at chapel; and thither I went in to them, and sat out the sermon, where I heard Jervas Fullwood, now their chaplain, preach a very good and seraphic kind of sermon, too good for an ordinary congregation. After sermon, I with my Lady, and my Lady Hinchingbroke [Map], and Paulina, and Lord Hinchingbrooke (age 20), to the dining-room, saluting none of them, and there sat and talked an hour or two, with great pleasure and satisfaction, to my Lady, about my Lord's matters; but I think not with that satisfaction to her, or me, that otherwise would, she knowing that she did design tomorrow, and I remaining all the while in fear, of being asked to lend her some money, as I was afterward, when I had taken leave of her, by Mr. Shepley, £100, which I will not deny my Lady, and am willing to be found when my Lord comes home to have done something of that kind for them, and so he riding to Brampton [Map] and supping there with me he did desire it of me from my Lady, and I promised it, though much against my will, for I fear it is as good as lost. After supper, where very merry, we to bed, myself very weary and to sleep all night.

Pepy's Diary. 26 Sep 1668. Could sleep but little last night, for my concernments in this business of the victualling for Sir Prince, so up in the morning and he comes to me, and there I did tell him all, and give him my advice, and so he away, and I to the office, where we met and did a little business, and I left them and by water to attend the Council, which I did all the morning, but was not called in, but the Council meets again in the afternoon on purpose about it. So I at noon to Westminster Hall [Map] and there stayed a little, and at the Swan [Map] also, thinking to have got Doll Lane thither, but elle did not understand my signs; and so I away and walked to Charing Cross [Map], and there into the great new Ordinary, by my Lord Mulgrave's, being led thither by Mr. Beale (age 36), one of Oliver's, and now of the King's Guards; and he sat with me while I had two grilled pigeons, very handsome and good meat: and there he and I talked of our old acquaintances, W. Clerke and others, he being a very civil man, and so walked to Westminster and there parted, and I to the Swan [Map] again, but did nothing, and so to White Hall, and there attended the King (age 38) and Council, who met and heard our answer. I present, and then withdrew; and they sent two hours at least afterwards about it, and at last rose; and to my great content, the Duke of York (age 34), at coming out, told me that it was carried for Prince at 6d. 8d., and 8 3/4d.; but with great difficulty, I understand, both from him and others, so much that Sir Edward Walker told me that he prays to God he may never live to need to plead his merit, for D. Gawden's sake; for that it hath stood him in no stead in this business at all, though both he and all the world that speaks of him, speaks of him as the most deserving man of any servant of the King's in the whole nation, and so I think he is: but it is done, and my heart is glad at it. So I took coach and away, and in Holborne overtook D. Gawden's coach, and stopped and went home, and Gibson to come after, and to my house, where Prince did talk a little, and he do mightily acknowledge my kindness to him, and I know I have done the King (age 38) and myself good service in it. So he gone, and myself in mighty great content in what is done, I to the office a little, and then home to supper, and the boy to read to me, and so to bed. This noon I went to my Lady Peterborough's (age 46) house, and talked with her about the money due to her Lord, and it gives me great trouble, her importunity and impertinency about it. This afternoon at Court I met with Lord Hinchingbrooke (age 20), newly come out of the country, who tells me that Creed's business with Mrs. Pickering (age 26) will do, which I am neither troubled nor glad at.

Pepy's Diary. 28 Sep 1668. Thence to my [his father-in-law] Lord Burlington's (age 55) houses the first time I ever was there, it being the house built by Sir John Denham (age 53), next to Clarendon House; and here I visited my Lord Hinchingbrooke (age 20) and his lady; [his brother] Mr. Sidney Montagu (age 18) being come last night to town unexpectedly from Mount's Bay, where he left my Lord well, eight days since, so as we may now hourly expect to hear of his arrival at Portsmouth, Hampshire [Map]. Sidney (age 18) is mighty grown; and I am glad I am here to see him at his first coming, though it cost me dear, for here I come to be necessitated to supply them with £500 for my Lord. He sent him up with a declaration to his friends, of the necessity of his being presently supplied with £2000; but I do not think he will get one. However, I think it becomes my duty to my Lord to do something extraordinary in this, and the rather because I have been remiss in writing to him during this voyage, more than ever I did in my life, and more indeed than was fit for me.

Pepy's Diary. 10 Nov 1668. Up, and my wife still every day as ill as she is all night, will rise to see me out doors, telling me plainly that she dares not let me see the girle, and so I out to the office, where all the morning, and so home to dinner, where I found my wife mightily troubled again, more than ever, and she tells me that it is from her examining the girle and getting a confession now from her of all....[Missing text ", even to the very tocando su thing with my hand"] which do mightily trouble me, as not being able to foresee the consequences of it, as to our future peace together. So my wife would not go down to dinner, but I would dine in her chamber with her, and there after mollifying her as much as I could we were pretty quiet and eat, and by and by comes Mr. Hollier (age 59), and dines there by himself after we had dined, and he being gone, we to talk again, and she to be troubled, reproaching me with my unkindness and perjury, I having denied my ever kissing her. As also with all her old kindnesses to me, and my ill-using of her from the beginning, and the many temptations she hath refused out of faithfulness to me, whereof several she was particular in, and especially from my [his father] Lord Sandwich (age 43), by the sollicitation of Captain Ferrers, and then afterward the courtship of my Lord Hinchingbrooke (age 20), even to the trouble of his lady. All which I did acknowledge and was troubled for, and wept, and at last pretty good friends again, and so I to my office, and there late, and so home to supper with her, and so to bed, where after half-an-hour's slumber she wakes me and cries out that she should never sleep more, and so kept raving till past midnight, that made me cry and weep heartily all the while for her, and troubled for what she reproached me with as before, and at last with new vows, and particularly that I would myself bid the girle be gone, and shew my dislike to her, which I will endeavour to perform, but with much trouble, and so this appeasing her, we to sleep as well as we could till morning.

Pepy's Diary. 23 Jan 1669. So to the office, where all the morning till noon, when word brought me to the Board that my [his father] Lord Sandwich (age 43) was come; so I presently rose, leaving the Board ready to rise, and there I found my Lord Sandwich (age 43), Peterborough, and Sir Charles Harbord (age 29); and presently after them comes my Lord Hinchingbrooke (age 21), [his brother] Mr. Sidney (age 18), and Sir William Godolphin (age 33). And after greeting them, and some time spent in talk, dinner was brought up, one dish after another, but a dish at a time, but all so good; but, above all things, the variety of wines, and excellent of their kind, I had for them, and all in so good order, that they were mightily pleased, and myself full of content at it: and indeed it was, of a dinner of about six or eight dishes, as noble as any man need to have, I think; at least, all was done in the noblest manner that ever I had any, and I have rarely seen in my life better anywhere else, even at the Court.

Pepy's Diary. 02 May 1669. Lord's Day. Up, and by water to White Hall, and there visit my [his father] Lord Sandwich (age 43), who, after about two months' absence at Hinchingbroke [Map], come to town last night. I saw him, and very kind; and I am glad he is so, I having not wrote to him all the time, my eyes indeed not letting me. Here with Sir Charles Herbert [Harbord] (age 29), and my Lord Hinchingbrooke (age 21), and [his brother] Sidney (age 18), we looked upon the picture of Tangier, designed: by Charles Herbert [Harbord] (age 29), and drawn by Dancre (age 44), which my Lord Sandwich (age 43) admires, as being the truest picture that ever he's saw in his life: and it is indeed very pretty, and I will be at the cost of having one of them.

Pepy's Diary. 13 May 1669. Up, and to the office, where all the morning, it being a rainy foul day. But at noon comes my Lord Hinchingbrooke (age 21), and [his brother] Sidney (age 18), and Sir Charles Harbord (age 29), and Roger Pepys (age 52), and dined with me; and had a good dinner, and very merry with; us all the afternoon, it being a farewell to Sidney (age 18); and so in the evening they away, and I to my business at the Office and so to supper, and talk with my brother, and so to bed.

On 10 Apr 1670 [his son] Edward Montagu 3rd Earl Sandwich was born to Edward Montagu 2nd Earl Sandwich (age 22) and [his wife] Mary Anne Boyle (age 25) at Burlington House.

Around 1671 [his son] Richard Montagu was born to Edward Montagu 2nd Earl Sandwich (age 22) and [his wife] Mary Anne Boyle (age 26)

On 24 Sep 1671 [his wife] Mary Anne Boyle (age 26) died.

1672 Battle of Solebay

On 28 May 1672 Philip Carteret (age 31) and Winston Churchill were killed at Solebay, Southwold [Map].

[his father] Edward Montagu 1st Earl Sandwich (age 46) was killed. His son Edward Montagu 2nd Earl Sandwich (age 24) succeeded 2nd Earl Sandwich.

George Legge 1st Baron Dartmouth (age 25) fought.

Charles Harbord (age 32) was killed. The inscription on his. Monument in Westminster Abbey [Map] reads ... Sr. Charles Harbord Knt. his Majesties Surveyor General, and First Lieutenant of the Royall James, under the most noble and illustrious captain Edward, Earle of Sandwich (age 46), Vice Admirall of England, which after a terrible fight maintained to admiration against a squadron of the Holland fleet for above six houres, neere the Suffolk coast, having put off two fireships, at last being utterly dissabled and few of her men remaining unhurt, was by a third unfortunately set on fire: but he (though he swam well) neglected to save himselfe as some did, and out of the perfect love to that worthy lord (whom for many yeares he had constantly accompanyed in all his honourable imployments, and in all the engagements of the former warr) dyed with him at the age of XXXIII, much bewailed of his father whom he never offended, and much beloved of all for his knowne piety, vertue, loyalty, fortitude and fidelity.

Captain John Cox was killed in action.

Admiral John Holmes (age 32) fought as commander of Rupert.

The Gloucester took part.

In 1674 [his mother] Jemima Crew Countess Sandwich (age 49) died.

In 1679 [his former brother-in-law] Charles Boyle 3rd Baron Clifford (age 39) and Arethusa Berkeley Baroness Clifford (age 15) were married. The difference in their ages was 24 years. She the daughter of George Berkeley 1st Earl Berkeley (age 51) and Elizabeth Massingberd Couness Berkeley. He the son of Richard Boyle 2nd Earl Cork 1st Earl Burlington (age 66) and Elizabeth Clifford Countess Burlington (age 65).

On 29 Nov 1688 Edward Montagu 2nd Earl Sandwich (age 40) died. He was buried at All Saints Church, Barnwell [Map]. On 29 Nov 1688 His son [his son] Edward Montagu 3rd Earl Sandwich (age 18) succeeded 3rd Earl Sandwich.

16 Jun 1884. Erected by Edward Montagu 8th Earl Sandwich (age 44). Wall plaque listing those buried beneath the chancel of All Saints Church, Barnwell [Map].

[his uncle] Henry Montagu. Note. Mistake. Died 1625.

[his grandfather] Sidney Montagu

[his grandmother] Paulina Pepys, wife of Sidney Montagu

[his former wife] Mary Anne Boyle, wife of Edward Montagu 2nd Earl Sandwich

Edward Montagu 2nd Earl Sandwich

[his son] Richard Montagu

Mary Montagu

[his brother] Charles John Montagu

Edward Montagu Viscount Hinchingbrooke

[his brother] James Montagu

[his brother] Sidney Wortley-Montagu

[his brother] Dean John Montagu

[his son] Edward Montagu 3rd Earl Sandwich

Colonel John Montagu

Unknown Sarah Montagu died 1739, widow of Edward Montagu

Edward Montagu

Captain William Montagu

Mary Montagu

Elizabeth Montague-Dunk

Maria Henrietta Powlett

John George Montagu

John Montagu 4th Earl Sandwich

Dorothy Fane Countess Sandwich

Charlotte Maylor

John Montagu 5th Earl Sandwich

George Montagu 6th Earl Sandwich

Catherine Caroline Montagu Countess Colonna-Walewski

Louise-Marie Colonna-Walewska

Louisa Lowry-Corry Countess of Sandwich

Mary Paget Countess Sandwich

Sydney Montagu

John William Montagu 7th Earl Sandwich.

Royal Ancestors of Edward Montagu 2nd Earl Sandwich 1648-1688

Kings Wessex: Great x 19 Grand Son of King Edmund "Ironside" I of England

Kings Gwynedd: Great x 17 Grand Son of Owain "Great" King Gwynedd

Kings Seisyllwg: Great x 23 Grand Son of Hywel "Dda aka Good" King Seisyllwg King Deheubarth

Kings Powys: Great x 18 Grand Son of Maredudd ap Bleddyn King Powys

Kings England: Great x 11 Grand Son of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England

Kings Scotland: Great x 15 Grand Son of William "Lion" I King Scotland

Kings Franks: Great x 15 Grand Son of Louis VII King Franks

Kings France: Great x 16 Grand Son of Louis "Fat" VI King France

Ancestors of Edward Montagu 2nd Earl Sandwich 1648-1688

Great x 4 Grandfather: William Ladde Montagu 5 x Great Grand Son of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England

Great x 3 Grandfather: Thomas Montagu 6 x Great Grand Son of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England

Great x 2 Grandfather: Edward Montagu 7 x Great Grand Son of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: William Dudley

Great x 3 Grandmother: Agnes Dudley

Great x 1 Grandfather: Edward Montagu 8 x Great Grand Son of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: John Roper

Great x 3 Grandfather: John Roper of Well Hall

Great x 2 Grandmother: Helen Roper

GrandFather: Sidney Montagu 9 x Great Grand Son of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: John Harrington

Great x 3 Grandfather: John Alexander Harrington

Great x 2 Grandfather: James Harrington

Great x 4 Grandfather: Robert Moton of Peckleton in Leicestershire

Great x 3 Grandmother: Elizabeth Moton

Great x 1 Grandmother: Elizabeth Harrington

Great x 4 Grandfather: Nicholas Sidney

Great x 3 Grandfather: William Sidney

Great x 4 Grandmother: Anne Brandon

Great x 2 Grandmother: Lucy Sidney

Great x 4 Grandfather: Hugh Pakenham

Great x 3 Grandmother: Anne Pakenham

Father: Edward Montagu 1st Earl Sandwich 10 x Great Grand Son of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England

Great x 3 Grandfather: William Pepys of Cottenham

Great x 2 Grandfather: William Pepys of Cottenham

Great x 1 Grandfather: John Pepys of Impington

GrandMother: Paulina Pepys

Edward Montagu 2nd Earl Sandwich 11 x Great Grand Son of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: John Crewe of Nantwich

Great x 3 Grandfather: Randulph Crewe

Great x 2 Grandfather: John Crew

Great x 1 Grandfather: Thomas Crew

GrandFather: John Crew 1st Baron Crew

Great x 4 Grandfather: John Bray of Eaton Bray

Great x 3 Grandfather: Reginald Bray

Great x 2 Grandfather: Reginald Bray of Stene and Hinton

Great x 1 Grandmother: Temperance Bray

Mother: Jemima Crew Countess Sandwich 12 x Great Grand Daughter of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: William Waldegrave

Great x 3 Grandfather: George Waldegrave

Great x 2 Grandfather: Edward Waldegrave 9 x Great Grand Son of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: Robert Drury

Great x 3 Grandmother: Anne Drury 8 x Great Grand Daughter of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England

Great x 4 Grandmother: Anne Calthorpe 7 x Great Grand Daughter of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England

Great x 1 Grandfather: Edward Waldegrave 10 x Great Grand Son of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England

GrandMother: Jemima Waldegrave Baroness Crew 11 x Great Grand Daughter of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England

Great x 2 Grandfather: John Higham

Great x 1 Grandmother: Sarah Higham

Great x 4 Grandfather: William Yelverton

Great x 3 Grandfather: William Yelverton

Great x 2 Grandmother: Martha Yelverton

Great x 4 Grandfather: Henry Fermor

Great x 3 Grandmother: Amy Fermor