Biography of George Boleyn Viscount Rochford 1503-1536

Paternal Family Tree: Boleyn

Maternal Family Tree: Emma de Dinan 1136-1208

1525 Knighting of Henry Fitzroy

1528 Sweating Sickness Outbreak

1529 Henry VIII Creates New Peerages

1533 Marriage of Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn

1533 Coronation of Anne Boleyn

1533 Birth and Christening of Elizabeth I

1536 Death of Catherine of Aragon

1536 May-Day Jousts

1536 Arrest of George Boleyn

1536 Arrest of Anne Boleyn

1536 Imprisonment of Anne Boleyn

1536 Trial of Brereton, Norris, Smeaton, and Weston

1536 Trial of Anne and George Boleyn

1536 Execution of George Boleyn, Brereton, Norris, Smeaton and Weston

1536 Execution of Anne Boleyn

1536 Post Execution Sources

1542 Catherine Howard Tower of London Executions

Biography of George Boleyn: Translated by Christopher Smith from Edmond Bapst's "Deux Gentilshommes-Poètes of the Court of Henry VIII" originally published in 1871, translated by Twenty Trees.

Available on Amazon in paperback and Ebook.

In November 2023 I published my translation of Lancelot's du Carle's remarkable biography of Anne Boleyn, written in Old French, in 1500 or so lines, in rhyming couplets. Translating that work made me consider why George Boleyn had been accused of incest with his sister Anne, and subsequently executed for it. It wasn't obvious why King Henry VIII had George executed too, especially given his prestigious role as Ambassador to the French court for many years.

I began to research George, with a view to writing a biography of him. In doing so I came across Edmond Bapst's "Deux Gentilshommes-Poètes of the Court of Henry VIII", written in French, published in 1871, which contained biographies of George Boleyn and Henry Howard.

On translating the early part of Bapst's book it became clear that it was comprehensive, well written, well researched, and well annotated - Bapst's notes are extensive and lengthy - so I decided to translate the entire biography with a view to including it, and its references to my website, and to publish the biography as a book. The translation of the second part of Bapst's book, the biography of Henry Howard, is in progress.

In 1498 [his father] Thomas Boleyn 1st Earl Wiltshire and Ormonde (age 21) and [his mother] Elizabeth Howard Countess of Wiltshire and Ormonde (age 18) were married. She the daughter of Thomas Howard 2nd Duke of Norfolk (age 55) and Elizabeth Tilney Countess of Surrey. They were fourth cousins.

Around 1503 George Boleyn Viscount Rochford was born to Thomas Boleyn 1st Earl Wiltshire and Ormonde (age 26) and Elizabeth Howard Countess of Wiltshire and Ormonde (age 23) at Blickling Hall, Norfolk [Map].

On 18 May 1523 [his future brother-in-law] Henry Parker (age 10) and Grace Newport (age 6) were married.

Around 1525 George Boleyn (age 22) and Jane Parker (age 20) were married. He the son of Thomas Boleyn 1st Earl Wiltshire and Ormonde (age 48) and Elizabeth Howard Countess of Wiltshire and Ormonde (age 45).

Knighting of Henry Fitzroy

On 18 Jun 1525 Henry Fitzroy (age 6) was taken by barge to Bridewell Palace [Map] where he was enobled by his father King Henry VIII of England and Ireland (age 33).

In the morning Henry Fitzroy (age 6) was created 1st Earl Nottingham.

In the afternoon Henry Fitzroy (age 6) was created 1st Duke of Richmond and Somerset.

Henry Percy 5th Earl of Northumberland (age 47) carried the Sword of State. Thomas More (age 47) read the patents of nobility. Charles Brandon 1st Duke of Suffolk (age 41), Thomas Grey 2nd Marquess Dorset (age 47),

Henry Courtenay (age 29) was created 1st Marquess Exeter. Gertrude Blount Marchioness of Exeter (age 22) by marriage Marchioness Exeter.

Henry Clifford (age 32) was created 1st Earl of Cumberland, Warden of the West Marches and Governor of Carlisle Castle.

Thomas Manners (age 33) was created 1st Earl of Rutland. Eleanor Paston Countess Rutland (age 30) by marriage Countess of Rutland. He was given the Earldom of Rutland to reflect his descent from Anne York Duchess Exeter sister of the previous Earl of Rutland. At the same time his arms Manners Arms were augmented with the Manners Augmented Arms

Henry Brandon (age 2) was created 1st Earl Lincoln.

Robert Radclyffe (age 42) was created 1st Viscount Fitzwalter.

[his father] Thomas Boleyn 1st Earl Wiltshire and Ormonde (age 48) was created 1st Viscount Rochford. [his mother] Elizabeth Howard Countess of Wiltshire and Ormonde (age 45) by marriage Viscountess Rochford.

[his uncle] Thomas Howard 3rd Duke of Norfolk (age 52), William Fitzalan 18th Earl of Arundel (age 49) and John de Vere 14th Earl of Oxford (age 25) attended.

Letters and Papers 1528. Jan 1528. R. O.3748. The KING'S New YEAR'S Gifts.

List of new year's gifts to various persons, Jan. 19 Henry VIII. First, to the Cardinal, in plate, 40¼ oz.; to the aBishop of Canterbury, 31 oz.; to the Bishops of Winchester, Lincoln, Exeter, Carlisle, and Llandaff, various, from 31 to 20 oz. To 13 of the nobility, among whom are the dukes of Norfolk and Suffolk, the Earl of Northumberland and Viscount Rocheford (age 25), gifts varying from 31 to 20 oz. To 11 knights, among whom are Sir William Fitzwilliam (age 38) and Sir John Wallop, from 28 to 13 oz. To Mr. Norris, 26 oz., Mr. Wyat, 183/8 oz. To Dr. Chambers, 243/8 oz. To the Queen's physician, 25½ oz.; her apothecary, 16¼ oz. Mr. Philip, 20¾ oz. Similar presents to Giles Dues, Peter (Carmelianus), luter, and his wife, to the Princess's schoolmaster, to Mr. Abell, and to the Queen's Chancellor, almoner, and secretary. To 33 noble ladies, among whom is the French Queen, the elder and younger duchess of Norfolk, the duchess of Buckingham, the Countess of Sarum, Lady Rocheford, Lady Russell, &c. To 10 mistresses, sc., Norris, Jane (sic) Bollen, Baker, &c., from 22 to 10 oz.

Paper roll. Endd.

Letters and Papers 1528. 02 May 1528. R. O. 4236. Warham (age 78) To Lord Rochford (age 25) And Sir Henry Guildford (age 39).

Has received their letter, dated Greenwich, 1 May, saying that the King wishes him to send up the writer of the copy of the bill of supplication, the man who instructed the writer, and the supplication interlined, of which they have the copy. Sends Richard Sisely, in whose hands he found the original bill, scribbled and interlined, which he encloses; and Thomas Colhurst, the writer, who did nothing but copy the bill which was brought to him. Sisely will tell Rochford (age 25) from whom he had the original bill in Tunbridge, but he does not know who gave the instructions or wrote the original bill. Would have sent to Tunbridge for those Siseley named, but thought Lord Rochford (age 25) could do that better, as he has the rule there, and, besides that, it might cause a bruit. Otford, 2 May. Signed.

1528 Sweating Sickness Outbreak

Letters and Papers 1528. 20 Jun 1528. Love Letters III. 4403. Henry VIII (age 36). to [his sister] Anne Boleyn (age 27).

The doubt I had of your health troubled me extremely, and I should scarcely have had any quiet without knowing the certainty; but since you have felt nothing, I hope it is with you as with us. When we were at Waltham [Map], two ushers, two valets de chambre, your brother (age 25), master "Jesoncre" (Treasurer), fell ill, and are now quite well; and we have since removed to Hunsdon, Hertfordshire [Map], where we are very well, without one sick person. I think if you would retire from Surrey, as we did, you would avoid all danger. Another thing may comfort you:-few women have this illness; and moreover, none of our court, and few elsewhere, have died of it. I beg you, therefore, not to distress yourself at our absence, for whoever strives against fortune is often the further from his end.

Letters and Papers 1528. 23 Jun 1528. 4408. Thomas Hennege to Wolsey.

"Laud be Jesu, the King's grace is very merry since he came to this house, for there was none fell sick of the sweat since he came hither, and ever after dinner he shoth (shooteth ?) to supper time. This morning is told me that [his sister] Mistress Ann (age 27) and my Lord of Roxfort (age 25) had the sweat, and was past the danger thereof." Mr. Carre (deceased) begs you to be gracious to his sister, a nun in Wilton Abbey, to be prioress there, according to your promise. Mr. Tuke is here, and lies in the court under the King's privy chamber, so that he may come at the King's pleasure. At every meal the King sends him a dish from his table. The King will tarry here 14 days. Hunsdon, 23 June.

This night, as the King went to bed, word came of the death of William Care (deceased).

Letters and Papers 1528. 21 Jul 1528. R. O. 4538. Hennege To Wolsey.

I have this day put the King in remembrance of the letter of his own hand, which he said he would write, but he complains of his head, and therefore is not disposed to write at present. Tomorrow he intends to go to Grafton, to stay the Thursday, and return on the Friday. I will get him to write without fail, when I can. I beseech you continue gracious to my poor brother the archdeacon of Oxford, for whom I thank you. Ampthill, 21 July. Signed.

P.S.—There is no news here. The King is well, saving his head. My [his wife] Lady Rocheford (age 23) and [his sister] Mrs. Anne (age 27) cometh this week to the Court. My lord Rocheford (age 25) was to have come, but because of the sweat he remains at home.

P. 1. Add. Endd.

Letters and Papers 1528. 23 Jun 1528. 4409. When I came to that part of your letter mentioning your counsel to the King for avoiding infection he thanked your Grace, and showed the manner of the infection; how folks were taken; how little danger there was if good order be observed; how few were dead of it; how Mistress [his sister] Ann (Boleyn) (age 27) and my Lord Rochford (age 25) both have had it; what jeopardy they have been in by the turning in of the sweat before the time; of the endeavor of Mr. Buttes (age 42), who hath been with them in his return; and finally of their perfect recovery. He begs you will keep out of infection, and that you will use small suppers, drink little wine, "namely, that is big," and once in the week use the pills of Rasis; and if it come, to sweat moderately, and at the full time, without suffering it to run in, &c.

Letters and Papers 1528. 21 Jul 1528. Love Letters XV. 4539. Henry VIII (age 37) to [his sister] Anne Boleyn (age 27).

Is perplexed with such things as her brother (age 25) will declare to her. Wrote in his last that he trusted shortly to see her, "which is better known at London than with any that is about me; whereof I not a little marvel, but lack of discreet handling must be the cause thereof." I hope soon "our meeting shall not depend upon other men's lyght handylleness but upon your own. Written with the hand of hys that longeth to be yours."

Letters and Papers 1528. 26 Sep 1528. S. B. 4779. George Bulleyn (age 25), squire of the Body.

Annuity of 50 marks, payable by the chief butler of England, out of the issues of the prizes of wines. Del. Westm., 26 Sept. 20 Henry VIII. Pat. 20 Henry VIII. p. 1, m. 20.

Letters and Papers 1529. 30 Jul 1529. Titus, B. I. 286. B. M. 5802. Brian Tuke To Wolsey.

On coming today to the King, found with him Lord Rochford (age 26) and Mr. Stephens. The former had told the King that my Lord of Worcester's letters to Nicholas Rustico had been deciphered last night, which was not so, but the King said nothing about it. Gave him the letter from Mr. Secretary and Sir Francis Brian, which contained nothing but Brian's arrival at the French court, the declaration of his charge to the King, and the good answer he received; viz., that the King said that the money the Emperor should have of him would be spent in a year, and meanwhile he would fortify his frontiers, so that if the Emperor made war on the King for the divorce, he should be the better able to resist him. The King, Lord Rochford (age 26) and Mr. Stephens, liked this well. As to Albany's coming, the French king showed himself contented therewith, and that he would write to pensioners of his in Scotland to dissuade the alliance with the Emperor on pain of losing their pensions; that he had taken a Scot sent from Hungary to the king of Scots; that he would advise with the lady Regent at her return, and answer accordingly. Reckons the peace to be concluded, as the French king supposes the Emperor will spend the said money in a year, and that he will give them answer at my Lady's return. Thinks if the French pensions in Scotland are granted on condition of the holders doing what the King wishes, they are better given than taken away. In this letter was a reference to what Mr. Secretary had written secretly in a former letter, touching the matrimony, "trusting it were surely come to the King's hands." After this delivered the extract of cyphers from Worcester's letters, which was well accepted, "with good lawghyng at themperor's galies furnyshed with sheperds, and not able to be set forthe withoute they shulde be drawen at the taile of Andrewe Doria's galies." After presenting Campeggio's pollicitation, which was well liked, showed the whole discourse of everything, as Wolsey ordered him. Was better heard than Campeggio believed, especially in the point that he had no intelligence with the Queen; but there was not much said to it. Went on to say what Wolsey had done with the ambassadors of Venice and Ferrara. As to the quinqueremes and 50 galleys of the Venetians, Mr. Stephens said they had galleys enough, but no men to row them, and that their land army is not as great as is said. However, the King thinks they will hold their own. The King also heard the Venetian ambas- sador's news, that the Turk is probably in Hungary; and the King believes that Venice will take his side against the Emperor if need be. He then suddenly went away into an inner chamber, and Tuke had no time to ask him when he would see the Venetian ambassador, nor with whom of the Queen's folks Campeggio should speak, nor about his own books. Will find out tonight or tomorrow. Greenwich, 30 July, towards evening.

Calendars. Oct. 11. [1529] Sanuto Diaries, v. lii. p. 153.

515. Lodovico Falier to the Signory.

Narrates conversations held with Cardinal Wolsey, and Cardinal Campeggio, late Legate in England, who has departed on his way to Rome.

King Henry has sent two ambassadors to the Emperor1, and two ambassadors to the King of France2, with congratulations on the peace made; and he has also sent an ambassador to the Pope.

London, 11th October. Registered, by Sanuto 9th November.


Note 1. Qu., Sir Nicholas Carew (age 33) and Dr. Richard Sampson,

Note 2. Qu., George Boleyn (age 26) and Dr. John Stokesley (age 54).

Letters and Papers 1529. 01 Dec 1529 R. O. St. P. VII. 219. 6073. Embassy to France.

Instructions to George Boleyn (age 26), gentleman of the Privy Chamber, and John Stokesley, D.D. (age 54), sent to the French king (age 35).

On their arrival at the French court they shall confer with Sir Francis Brian on the repair of Albany into Scotland, to interrupt the alliance between Scotland and the Emperor; on which subject, though Brian has been continually solicitous, the King has received from him no direct answer. They shall tell Francis that Brian is recalled to look after his own causes, and they are sent in his place; and they shall say that, considering the inconvenience like to ensue to France by the proposed alliance, the King has been anxious to learn what chance there might be of good effect by Albany's passing into Scotland, and they shall desire a consultation to be held with the Duke on the subject, guarding themselves from the supposition that the King wishes for it upon any other grounds than the benefit of France. If it be resolved on, it must be kept as secret as possible, taking care it does not come to the knowledge of the French king.

They shall also advise upon the question of a General Council, which is to be by them mutually prevented, considering the influence the Emperor has over the Pope. Upon the King's great matter they shall say, the King has sent Stokesly (age 54), who shall declare his opinion and that of other learned men, and shall say that, as De Langy at his late being here had said that divers in those parts were of similar opinion, he had special charge to consult them, and he shall do his best to obtain opinions favorable to the King. They shall also desire the French king to allow them to see the originals of the treaties and conventions made at Cambray, as copies only have reached England, sent to the French ambassadors here, containing many contradictions; and the same secresy has been observed in the court of the lady Margaret. Signed by the King at beginning and end.

Henry VIII Creates New Peerages

On 08 Dec 1529 King Henry VIII of England and Ireland (age 38) created three Earldoms ...

[his father] Thomas Boleyn 1st Earl Wiltshire and Ormonde (age 52) was created 1st Earl Wiltshire, 1st Earl Ormonde. [his mother] Elizabeth Howard Countess of Wiltshire and Ormonde (age 49) by marriage Earl Wiltshire, Countess Ormonde. His [his grandmother] mother (age 75) was the daughter of the last Earl Ormonde Thomas Butler 7th Earl Ormonde.

George Hastings 1st Earl Huntingdon (age 42) was created 1st Earl Huntingdon. Anne Stafford Countess Huntingdon (age 46) by marriage Countess Huntingdon.

Robert Radclyffe 1st Earl of Sussex (age 46) was created 1st Earl of Sussex by King Henry VIII of England and Ireland (age 38). Elizabeth Stafford Countess Sussex (age 50) by marriage Countess of Sussex.

Letters and Papers 1529. 29 Dec 1529. R. O.6134. [Sir Rob. Wingfield to Henry VIII.] John Bartelett, of your Highness' retinue, has presented to me, your deputy, and the council of this town, your letters patent granting him the passage between this and Dover. The mayor and his brethren complain that this is contrary to a charter granted to them by Edward III., and confirmed by the King, which they showed to the Duke of Norfolk, Lord Rochford (age 26), and Master Pallett, your controller. They have written about it to the King.

Draft, with corrections in Wingfield's hand, p. 1. Endd.

Letters and Papers 1529. 29 Dec 1529. R. O. 6115. Cardinal Wolsey (age 56).

Grant by Wolsey to George Boleyn (age 26), knt., Viscount Rochford, son and heir apparent of [his father] Thomas Earl of Wiltshire and Ormond (age 52), of an annuity of £200 out of the lands of the Bishopric of Winchester, with power to distrain for nonpayment.

ii. Similar grant of an annuity of 200 marks out of the abbey lands of St. Albans.

Around 1531 George Boleyn Viscount Rochford (age 28) translated a book "Les Epistres et Evangiles" for his sister [his sister] Queen Anne Boleyn of England (age 30). The book water damaged but its dedication remains. The dedication was thought to have been write by Anne's father-in-law Henry Parker 11th Baron Marshal 10th Baron Morley (age 50) however a passage prefacing the dedication reading, ‘moost lovyng and frynddely brother’ was discovered by means of ultraviolet light leading historians to conclude the dedication was written by George Boleyn Viscount Rochford (age 28):

To the right honourable lady, the Lady Marchioness of Pembroke, her most loving and friendly brother sendeth greetings.

Our friendly dealings, with so divers and sundry benefits, besides the perpetual bond of blood, have so often bound me, Madam, inwardly to love you, that in every of them I must perforce become your debtor for want of power, but nothing of my good will. And were it not that by experience your gentleness is daily proved, your meek fashion often times put into use, I might well despair in myself, studying to acquit your deserts towards me, or embolden myself with so poor a thing to present to you. But, knowing these perfectly to reign in you with more, I have been so bold to send unto you, not jewels or gold, whereof you have plenty, not pearl or rich stones, whereof you have enough, but a rude translation of a well-willer, a goodly matter meanly handled, most humbly desiring you with favour to weigh the weakness of my dull wit, and patiently to pardon where any fault is, always considering that by your commandment I have adventured to do this, without the which it had not been in me to have performed it. But that hath had power to make me pass my wit, which like as in this I have been ready to fulfil, so in all other things at all times I shall be ready to obey, praying him on whom this book treats, to grant you many years to his pleasure and shortly to increase in heart’s ease with honour’

Hall's Chronicle 1533. The King being advertised by the French King how that he and the Pope should meet at Nice in June following thought it convenient to send a solemn Ambassador to the French King both to accompany him to Nece and also to common with the Bishop of Rome concerning his unlawful stay in the King’s divorce: whereupon he appointed the duke of Norfolk, the Lorde Rocheforde (age 28) brother to the new Queen, Sir William Paulet (age 48) Comptroller of the King’s Household, Sir Anthony Browne and Sir Francis Bryan, Knights, to be his ambassadors which made great provision for that purpose and so with the number of one hundred and sixty horses came to Dover and so to Calais on Whitsun eve on which day the Queen made her entry through the City of London toward her Coronation) where they made their abode a certain space and passed through all France till they came to Lyons, where they remained a space as you shall here after.

Letters and Papers 1533. 10 Jan 1533. R. O. 32. The King's New Year's Gifts.

Account of plate received of the following goldsmiths, and given away in New Year's gifts, 1 Jan. 24 Hen. VIII.:—

Of John Freman.—In gilt cups, &c. to Master Norres, lady Sandes, Sir Nich. Caroo, the bp. of Bath, the bp. of Lincoln, the abbot of Ramsey, the earl of Sussex, the bp. of Ezeter, Sir John Aleyn, Ric. Gresham, the King's Almoner, the lady of Salisbury, the bp. of Durham, the bp. of York, the Lord Steward, the bp. of Carlisle, the earl of Northumberland, the Princess, Master Sydnour, the earl of Westmoreland, Master Comptroller, the abbot of St. M. Abbey, the earl of Worcester, Sir James Bulleyn, lord Darcy, the duke of Norfolk, the Lord Chamberlain, Sir Ric. Paige, Sir Will. Kyngeston, Sir John Gaige, Sir John Russell, Sir Geo. Lawson, Sir Thos. Nevile, lord Curson, lord Mountague, lord Zouche, lord Stafford, lord Powes, the old duchess of Norfolk, the Princess, the "lady marques" of Exeter, the countess of Worcester, Sir Edw. Seymer, Sir John Nevile, lady Fitzwilliam, lady Russell, wife of Sir John Russell, Dr. Lupton, lord Dawbenney, the old lady Guildford, the countess of Huntingdon, the "lady marques" of Dorset, Master Crumwell, lady Outhrede, Becket the King's master cook, lady Lucy, the earl of Northumberland, the countess of Westmoreland, lady Stanneope, the bp. of Exeter, the Lord Chamberlain, lord Awdeley, lady Nevile, wife* of Sir Thos. Nevile, lady Kyngeston, lady Calthrop, lady Russell of Worcestershire, Geo. Lupkyn,—Lee, gent, usher, lady Verney, the countess of Derby, Borrein Myllyner, the earl of Huntingdon, lord Morley, lady Mountegill, Master Treasurer, — Parker, of the Robes and his wife, — Hubbert of St. Katherine's, Luke Liark, gunner, Mayon Sagbut, Christopher Myllyner. Total, 1,550 oz. at 5s. 2d. the ounce, = 400l. 8s. 4d.

Of Corneles.—To the [his father] earl of Wiltshire (age 56), Thos. Hennage, the bp. of Ely, Sir John Daunce, Sir Francis Brian, — Heywood, lord Dacris of the South, the earl of Oxford, the bp. of London, the bp. of Rochester, — Layland a priest, Dr. Buttes, the bp. of Llandaff, lord Mountjoye, lord Hussey, the prior of Christchurch, Canterbury, Sir Edw. Nevile, Sir Ric. Weston, Fraunces Weston, Sir Edw. Baynton, John Sowle, of Smithfield, Thos. Warde, the marquis of Exeter, Master Tuke, Thos. Alverd, Master Crumwell, Roger Radclif, the earl of Essex, the earl of Wiltshire (age 56), Master Crumwell, Dr. Rawson, lady Wingfeld, Jenyns Jueller, the dean of St. Stephen's, Sir Edw. Guldeford, lady Broune, Anth. Cassidony, lady Powes, old lady Brian, Anne Joscelyn, Anth. Toote, graver, — Vincent, clockmaker, Vincent Wolf, painter, — Rawlyns of Calais, — Blaknall of the Crown, — Skydmor, gent, usher, the abbot of St. Albans, Master Hennaige, Sir Anth. Broune, the French queen, the duke of Suffolk, the earl of Derby, the abbot of Abingdon, lord Mountegill, Peter Vaune, secretary, the abbot of Peterborough, the abbess of Reading, the duke of Suffolk, the bp. of Hereford, Sir Thos. Palmer, Sir Brian Tuke, the young duchess of Norfolk, the earl of Rutland, lord Windessore, the dean of the Chapel, Master Sullyerd, the French queen, the lord of St. John's, the countess of Rutland, Geo. Ardison, the countess of Kent, Anne Savaige, Mistress Margery, lady Shelston, Thos. Alverd, Richard the King's "pullicer" of stones, the abbey of Westminster, Anth. Antonyes. Total, 1,5603/8 ozs. at 5s. 2d. the ounce, = 403l. 1s. 11¼d.

Of Morgam Wolf parcels. (fn. 11)

To the Jewel-house, Sir Hen. Wiat, Master Norres, lord Lisle, lord Rochford (age 30), — Hasilwood of the Receipt, the young lady Guldeford, Sir Arthur Darcy, Gorron Bertinus Italian, to the christening of Sir Will. Pounder's son in May. Total, 3483/8 ozs. at 5s. 2d the ounce, = 89l. 7s. 0¼d. Of Will. Davy.—Parcels to Will. Lokke, Basterd Fawconbrige, John Cavalcant. 76½ oz. at 5s. 2d. the ounce, = 19l. 15s. 3d.

Parcels of plate new made and amended between the last day of Dec. 23 Hen. VIII. and the 1st of Jan. 24 Hen. VIII. by the King's goldsmiths, viz., (1). By John Freman, received out of the scullery, the pitcher-house; of Sir Francis Brian, the King's vessel that the arms of the said Sir Francis may be taken out, and the striking the same vessel with the arms of Master Wallop, who was deputed ambassador to the French king in April last; of the ewery, the cellar, the "chaundry," the jewel-house; for taking the Cardinal's arms out of plate and striking the King's arms in the same; for burnishing, &c. of plate given to the lady marques of Pembroke, received of Hen. Collyer, clerk of the Jewel-house. Received by the said Henry, for the Princess, of the said John Freman, a gilt cruse with a cover. Due to the said John Freman for a cruse silver and gilt, given by the King's command to Anthony, one of his minstrels, and not entered in the warrant of the New Year's gifts. Total of the same John Freman's parcels of mending stuff, 27l. 16s. 8½d.

(2). By Cornelis, received out of the pantry of the groom porter, out of the ewery, the "chaundry," the pitcher-house, for making a new sword of gold to the George of Diamantes belonging to the King's collar of gold, and garters for the same; received of Hen. Collyer, clerk of the Jewel-house; of the said Henry at the same time a pair of silver snuffers of the Princess; out of the Jewel-house in the Tower, for taking the Cardinal's arms out of various pieces of plate, of which curious descriptions are given, and striking the same with the King's arms; received at the Jewel-house at Calais, for making other plate with the King's arms, for striking the arms of the lady marques of Pembroke on various articles of plate, burnishing, &c. Delivered by the said Cornelis 40 amels of fine silver graven with my lady marques of Pembroke's arms, and set in several parcels of plate, making and burnishing of the same ammelles, &c. Total of Cornelys' parcels of mending stuff, 52l. 14s. 2½d.

Sum total of all the parcels in money, £993 3s. 5½d.; which sum Sir Brian Tuke is commanded to pay to the persons before written upon sight of warrant dated Greenwich, 10 Jan. 24 Hen. VIII.

Large paper, formerly a roll consisting of ten leaves written on one side only.

Letters and Papers 1533. 05 Feb 1533. R. O. 123. Parliament.

Fiat for writs of summons as follows:—

i. Geo. Boleyn, lord Rocheford (age 30), to be present in Parliament this Wednesday. Westm., 5 Feb. 24 Hen. VIII.

ii. Similar writ to Hen. lord Mautravers. Dated as above.

iii. Similar writ to Francis Talbot, son and heir apparent of Geo. earl of Shrewsbury. 17 Feb.

Signed at top by the King.

Marriage of Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn

Letters and Papers 1533. 23 Feb 1533. Vienna Archives. 180. Chapuys to Charles V.

As the Queen sees that the obstinacy of the King increases daily, and the appearances of disorder in view of the new marriage, she is compelled to employ your aid. Since my last of the 15th, the King does not cease to press the archbishops of Canterbury and York, the bishops of London, Winchester, and Lincoln, and many others, Italians as well as English, to subscribe a document he has drawn up to his taste, of a very strange nature, as you will see. The archbishop of York and the bishop of Winchester have not yet agreed to do so. The elect of Canterbury (age 43) has made no difficulty about it, and has even solicited it, as if it were his own business; and if it be true, as I am told today on good authority, that he has gone to give the Queen special notice of it, he has given good earnest of maintaining the opinion of the King in this divorce without variation. He has married (esposé) the King to the [his sister] Lady (age 32), in presence of the [his father] father (age 56), [his mother] mother (age 53), brother (age 30), and two of her favorites, and one of his priests. If it be so, the King has taken the best means of preventing him from changing his opinions when raised to his dignity, as the archbishop of York has done. It is very probable either that the said elect has solemnised these espousals, or has promised to do so for certain considerations, as I have written to your Majesty, especially as since he has been elected he has dared to say openly that he would maintain, on pain of being burned, that the King might take the Lady to wife. The bruit continues, that in order to accomplish the said marriage the King waits for nothing else except the bulls of the elect; and for this purpose he has commanded those who have the charge of it to summon a provincial synod for the 16th. It is said that the King means to demand money for a war with Scotland, and to make harbours on the coast; and the better to colour the matter, the king of France has sent him a master architect. The French ambassador had intended to visit me, but was prevented by company, and proposes to do so tomorrow. It is said that Melanchthon is in one of the King's lodgings, and has been there for eight days, but it is kept such a secret that I can find no one who knows the certainty of it. The King has written for him expressly, I think merely for the Queen's affair, for he favors her, and because he pretends and wishes to have in his hands all ecclesiastical ordinances,—not only the synodical ones of this kingdom, but the papal as well. And in order the better to conduct the affair, last year he induced the prelates, by menaces and devices, to submit to whatever should be decided by 40 persons, of whom one half should be appointed by himself, and the other by the prelates, and himself above all. For this reformation, or rather deformation, it seems he could find no fitter instrument than Melanchthon, so as to give the utmost possible trouble to the Pope, that his previous boasts might not be without effect.

Letters and Papers 1533. 11 Mar 1533. 11 March. R. O. 229. George Lord Rochford (age 30). Warrant under the King's sign manual to Cromwell, master of the jewels, to deliver to George Viscount Rocheford, who is appointed ambassador to France, £106 13s. 4d. for his diets for 14 days beginning this day. Westm., 11 March 24 Henry VIII.

Letters and Papers 1533. 11 Mar 1533. R. O. St. P. VII. 427. 230. Instructions for Lord Rochford (age 30), sent to the French Court.

Is to present Francis with the letters written by the King's own hand, and express the delight he feels in his friendship and offers of service made by De Langeais, especially with regard to his asking the King's advice concerning the marriage of the duke of Orleans with the Pope's niece. Has declared it already by De Langeais at his return; which Rochford is to enlarge upon, touching on the low extraction of the [his sister] lady (age 32), which the King thinks is a great obstacle. Is to tell Francis that, according to his advice given at their last interview, and from his anxiety to have male issue for the establishment of his kingdom, he has proceeded effectually to the accomplishment of his marriage, trusting to find that his deeds will correspond with his promises, and that he will assist and maintain the King in the event of any excommunication from the Pope. That, in full consideration of the friendship of Francis, the King has opened to him his mind entirely, and asked his advice from time to time; and, considering he is now following the French king's counsel, he hopes that he will, as a true friend and brother, devise whatever he can for the establishment of the said marriage, preventing any impediment to it, or of the succession, which please God will follow, and which, to all appearance, is in a state of advancement already, as the King himself would do for Francis in like case. That, considering the Pope, in the violation of the rights of princes, has unjustly appointed a day for the King to appear before him (to which he does not intend to submit, it being dishonorable to his royal dignity, especially as the Pope refused to admit the excusator), if kings and princes were to allow this, he would extend his usurpation over all the rest, to their great dishonor. Ought a prince to submit to the arrogance and ambition of an earthly creature whom God has made his subject? Ought a King to humble himself, and pay obedience to him over whom God has given him the superiority? This would be to pervert the order which God has ordained, and would be as prejudicial to Francis as to Henry himself. The King will therefore be glad if Francis will despatch an agent to the Pope to intimate to him the following points: —1. That if he refuses to admit the King's excusator, and proceeds against the King, Francis will not allow it, but both will resist it to his great disadvantage; but if he will maintain the King's privileges, and not intermeddle in the cause, he will find us his true friends; otherwise, we will never enter into any alliance with him. 2. That he will never consent to the marriage of the Pope's niece with his son, except, without delay, the Pope admits the King's excusator, as he is bound to do. Furthermore, if any one, as is likely to be the case, should endeavour to alienate him from our cause, notwithstanding that we are assured of the alliance between us, and that such attempts would be fruitless, we hope he will excuse us for suggesting that if such a case arises he should reply that he considers our cause to be just, seeing that we are so straitly allied with him in amity and friendship, that, if it were infringed, it would turn to his dishonor, and give the world occasion to suppose that the friendship of princes is nothing but dissimulation.

Letters and Papers 1533. 11 Mar 1533. R. O. 228. Cromwell's Accounts. A "declaration" of receipts and payments by my master, Thomas Cromwell, to the King's use, from 22 Nov. 24 Henry VIII. to 11 March following:—

i. Receipts.—From "suppressed lands." of John Tyrrell, for Dame Elyns, belonging to Christchurch, London, 30s. William Bretton, farmer of Wykes, £4 6s. 7d. William Werley, for the spiritualities of the late monastery of Sandewall, £4 10s. Ant. Cave, receiver of the late priory of Tykford, £40 Dr. Bentley, for the parsonage of Tottenham, belonging to Christchurch, £9 10s. William Laurence, for priory of St. Peter's, Ipswich, £20 Francis Harryson, for parsonage of Alveley, belonging to mon. of Lyses, £5 John Purdon, receiver of Walyngforde, £44 16s. 7½d. Anne Knyght, executrix of John Knight, receiver of Ramston, £32 The prioress of Halliwell, for tithe in Donton, belonging to mon. of Wallingford, 46s. 8d. John Hall, receiver of Horkesley, £6 13s. 4d. Mr. Saynte Jermyn, for parsonage of Maryborne, belonging to Blakemore, 13s. 4d. William Laurence, out of the box of Our Lady of Ipswich, £24; and for pensions of Romberow, £18 9s. William Cavendysshe, for lands of Christchurch, £42 13s. 4d. Alice Pemsey, for lands of Lesynge, 46s. 8d. William Laurence, on determination of his account, £4 17s. ½d. Richard Stretie, for goods of Calwyche, £30 William Cavendysshe, for farm of Walcomstowe and parsonage of Bexley, belonging to Christchurch, £11 14s. 5d. Simon Momfort, for late mon. of Canwell, £6 13s. 4d. Duke of Norfolk, for parsonages of Felixstowe and Walton, belonging to late Cardinal's College, Ipswich, £13 6s. 8d.

For restitution of temporalities.—Abbot of Holme, £50 Prior of Huntingdon, £25 Minister of St. Robert nigh Knaresborough, £10 Abbot of Walden, £50

Money due by obligations from Dr. Blyth, executor to the Bishop of Chester, £100 The Duke of Norfolk, 200 marks. The aBishop of York, £200 Peter Lygham, clk., £66 13s. 4d. ABishop of Develyn, £200 Sir Thomas Seymor, 500 marks. Bishop of Hereford, £200 Bishop of Bath, £133 6s. 8d.

Of Martin Bowes, goldsmith, for crown gold molten out of chains, at 41s. 4d. per oz. of Rob. Draper and John Halalie of the Jewel-house.

Vacations of Bishoprics.—Of Richard Strete, for Bishopric of Chester, £612 18s. 1d. ½ q. Executors of the late aBishop of Canterbury, £1,000; and for "a mounte," £100 of the Monk Bailie of Westminster, for the abbot's portion, £666 13s. 4d.

Farms.—Prior of Shene, for parcel of the manor of Lewsham, £3 Edward Shelley, for manor of Fyndon, £16 0s. 2d. William Cavendisshe, for part revenues of Honesdon, 29s. 9d.

Money granted by last Convocation.—Of the executors of the late aBishop of Canterbury, for the first fifth, £242 2s. 3½d.

John Judd, for revenues of the Hamper, £300

Money received out of the King's coffers of Thomas Alverd, and from the Tower of London.

Loans repaid by Edm. Pekham and James Moryce, the Duke of Richmond's receiver.

Revenues of Rice Griffith's lands in Emelyn, Abermerles, and Perottes lands, of Thomas Johns; of the manor of Newton, from Sir William Thomas; and for a balinger of the said Griffith of Richard Tanner.

Total receipts, 20,£567 6s. 3½d. ½ q. Whereof—

ii. Payments.—To John Whalley, for the King's works at the Tower, £831 0s. 9d. To Benedict, the King's tomb-maker, £38 9s. 9d. To Averey, yeoman of the crossbows, for livery coats. To Thomas Warde, harberger, for reward, £20 To Steph. Vaughan, £46 13s. 4d. Dr. Lee, for his diets in Denmark, £60 To the post of Denmark, £11 13s. 4d. Mons. Beauvays, the French ambassador, £23 6s. 8d. My Lord of Rocheford (age 30), £106 13s. 4d. Dr. Benett, by Ant. Bonvice, 1,000 marks. Sir George Lawson and others, to convey the King's money to the North, 13,£584 9s. 4d. Paper and ink, 14s. 4d. Money paid to the King's coffers, [for the aBishop of Canterbury's] vacation and mounte, 1,£100 Silks and velvets bought of Richard Gresham and William Bo[try]. Carriage of copes and other stuff, late of Christchurch. Delivered to the Earl of Rutland (age 41), £200; and to [the executors of the] aBishop of Canterbury, £1,000

Payments to Ant. [Bo]nvice for Philip Wylde. To Martin Bowes. To Cavendish, for costs at Christchurch. For my master's fee for the receipt of extraordinary receipts, £150 To Mary Henyngam, late prioress of Wikes, £5 To Richard Riche, for the purchase of lands of Thomas Roberts, nigh Copthall, £220 To Thomas Alverd, for the King's works at Westminster, £2,000

Total payments, 21,£240 12s. "And so in superplusage, £673 5s. 8d. ½ q. Ayenste the whiche—

"Received of Thomas Alverd, 4,£000 Whereof—"

[Delivered to] Fowler, for [works] at Calais, 4,£000 Paid to Draper and Halalie, 18 March, £15 To the landgrave of Hesse's servants, £9 6s. 8d. To Roger Elys, clk., £40 To Sir George Lawson, 1,£000 To John Freman, for plate given to Mons. Momepesarte, £173 2s. 11½d. To Dr. Lee, for the rest of his diets, £32 To the king of Denmark's ambassador, £23 6s. 8d. To Mr. Speaker of the Parliament, £50 To Benedict, £7 9s. To the King's coffers, 1,£000 To the duke of Bever's (Bavaria's) servant, £23 6s. 8d.

Grand total of payments, 27,£614 3s. 11½d.

Large paper, pp. 5. Mutilated.

Letters and Papers 1533. 15 Mar 1533. 235. I received the day before yesterday your letters of the 3rd inst., and took occasion to go to court, to learn not only about the affairs of Scotland, and of the German, of whom I last wrote to your Majesty, and also of the charge of lord Rochford (age 30), who left here in post two days ago to visit the king of France, with the intention, as some say, to get him to take in hand the affairs of Scotland, with which they are already marvellously troubled; for there is no lord or other who would willingly go in the said enterprise; and the earl of Wiltshire has today confessed to me that the King, his master, would be glad of. peace if he was asked for it, because the other is his nephew, and moreover that it was a costly war, very injurious to the English, from which no good could be expected, and further that the Scots had taken seven or eight of their gentlemen. He would name no more, but the common report is that there were about 25, all men of some mark. Among other reasons for believing that Rochford was despatched for this cause is that two days before his departure the King held a great council, to which were summoned the brother of the earl Douglas and another captain, who had just returned from the Borders. Others think that he has gone to know if the King would like to come here as he promised at Boulogne; and they build upon the rumors current both at Boulogne and here as soon as the King returned, and the orders issued by the King to put his parks in order, revoking all licenses that he had given to hunt,—a sign that he means to give this pastime at the meeting. To ascertain the truth, I have had today some conversation with the King about the French king's journey to Compiegne, which was in order to approach near here; but he would not enter on the subject, only saying it was an ordinary removal of the King for his amusement. I then began to extol the last meeting at Calais, and the causes which had taken him there; but, for all that, he would not speak of the second. Notwithstanding, it escaped him that the said assembly has been formed chiefly to feast together, and to testify their mutual amity. I think he said this to me because I had told him I had seen the treaty, which was very clumsily forged in the said assembly, and that it did not deserve to have the reputation of having caused that assembly. At last I said to him that they had had such great pleasure and pastime together that they might some day repeat it. He told me it might be so, and that the confidence between himself and the French king was so great that they could visit each other without any ceremony. But he spoke in such a frigid way that I do not think their affairs have gone quite so far, though I think he would vastly desire the said coming of the king of France, especially as he wishes to accomplish his marriage.

Letters and Papers 1533. 16 Mar 1533. Camusat, 82 b. 242. Montmorency (age 40) to the Bailly Of Troyes.

The King sends a memoir which has come from the cardinals of Tournon and Grammont, to be shown to the king of England and the duke of Norfolk. He will reply fully to what Langey and Rochefort (age 30) have brought. As to the prize which the Scotch have taken to Dieppe since the Bailly wrote, such good order has been taken on the coasts of Normandy, Picardy, and Brittany that the king of England has good reason to be contented. Desires him to tell Norfolk of this. The King sends Beauvais to Scotland in a few days. He will pass through England, to try and bring this war to an amicable end. The Emperor does what he can to stir them up. The King will spend Easter at Paris, which is inconvenient, considering the journey he intends to take. Expects that the first news from Italy will be the Emperor's embarcation. Sends a letter in the King's hand to [his sister] Madame la Marquise (age 32). Desires to be recommended to her. Has news that the Bailly's brother is better. The King has sent to Denmark to preserve friendship with the King there, who is the present possessor. Thinks he will remain friendly, though the Emperor has tried to draw him away. Coussy, 16 March. Fr.

Calendars. March 30. [1533] Sanuto Diaries, v. lviii. p. 45. 867. Carlo Capello to the Signory.

In the Parliament of the Ecclesiastics [the Convocation of theologians and canonists ?] they are attending daily with the utmost diligence to the affair of the divorce, and to deprive the Pope of his appeal and authority in this kingdom. It is supposed they will settle thus; and should his Holiness not assent to the divorce, they will withdraw their obedience. For this purpose the Marchioness's brother [George Boleyn Lord Rochford (age 30)?] went to France to have a Latin work printed about these, matters, and to urge King Francis likewise to withdraw his obedience to the Pope.

Tomorrow the ArchBishop of Canterbury will be consecrated; and on the first Sunday after Easter (la domenica delli Apostoli) the Parliament [query, Convocation] will meet again, and settle the matter in a few days1. On the 24th, and yesterday, the Duke of Norfolk warned the Papal Nuncio here, that of necessity this must be done, as the Pope will not take heed for the salvation of this kingdom.2

It is believed that the affairs of Scotland will be adjusted. Five days ago, a Scottish lord named Stuart—of the family opposed to the Earl of Angus—arrived here, on his way to France for this purpose, and they are expecting Mons. de Beove [Beauvoir ?].

The Scots lately captured seven vessels, laden by English merchants with wines, wax, and other merchandise.

Four days ago, a Doctor, late English ambassador to the King of Denmark, [Frederick I. who died at Gottorp, 3rd April 1533] accompanied by a Danish Envoy, arrived here to confirm the peace and goodwill between the two crowns.

Advices have been received from Dantzic that King Christian, the Emperor's brother-in-law, has been fettered hand and foot, for having written to the Hollanders, to come and release and restore him to his kingdom; and the Danes were preparing for war, and had engaged a considerable band of Lansquenets from Guelders, against the Hollanders. All this proceeds from the most Christian King, and the stir made by the King of Scotland, from the Emperor.

London, 30th March. Registered by Sanuto, 29th April.


Note 1. In the year 1533, the first Sunday after Easter was the 20th of April, and as it was not customary to transact important public business in Passion week or Easter week it had perhaps been originally intended to prorogue the “Convocation” and the Parliament until after the holidays, but on Monday the 31st March, the day of Cranmer's consecration, something occurred, causing the two Houses of Convocation and Parliament to continue their sittings during the 5th week in Lent, and to decide the divorce case on the Monday in Passion week, whereupon Parliament was prorogued until the 6th June, as seen by Capello's letter of the 12th April.

Note 2. “Poi che 'l Papa non vol avertir alia salute di questo Regno.”

Letters and Papers 1533. 31 Mar 1533. 296. I have not been able to learn the particulars of Rochford's (age 30) charge, but I am told on good authority it is founded "en beaulcop de diableries et choses extravagantes," [lots of devilry and extravagant things] and that he had already some days ago left the court of France without effecting anything. The doctor whom the King had sent to Hamburg and to the king of Denmark returned three days ago, and with him there has come a merchant, a gentleman of the said king of Denmark, whom he sends to this King, who only discovered himself to the said doctor at Calais. I am told he is one of the principal personages of that country, and that he came to offer his service to this King;—which I do not believe, at least not against the Scots, considering the relations the king of Denmark has with them. I will inquire both about him and the doctor. Hearing there were some foot soldiers in Holland, I have tried to discover if there was any intrigue going on here, but I can learn nothing of it.

Calendars. April 12. [1533] Sanuto Diaries, v. lviii. p. 81.

On the Monday in Passion week1 Parliament (il Parlamento) [and Convocation ?] assembled. They decided that the marriage of Queen Catharine to the King is null, and that he may marry (poter prender moter); and they have abolished (lecato) the appeal to the Pope. Henceforth, no one may contract marriage by dispensation, but solely as conceded by holy writ, and the sacred canons; so that the dispensation of Pope Julius is void. They have also abrogated the dispensation for holding a plurality of benefices with cure of souls, and for nonage, and other things. They have prohibited obedience to papal monitions and interdicts. The Bishop of Rochester [John Fisher] having publicly opposed these measures, on Palm Sunday [6th April], he was arrested, and given in custody to the Bishop of Winchester [Stephen Gardiner (age 50)]; and three days ago he was sent to reside at a place of his (ad uno locho suo) and is not to go more than a mile beyond it.

Parliament has been prorogued (si levò) until Whitsuntide, which will be on the 6th of June.

Three days ago, the King; sent the Dukes of Norfolk and Suffolk and the Marquis of Exeter (il Marcheze di Anal sic) to notify to the Queen the decision made in Parliament about the divorce, and the new marriage; exhorting her to yield, and secede (rinmorersi) from the judgment of the “Rota.” She replied that she knew not, and was unable to imagine, how such a matter could have been terminated, the decision not having been made by a legitimate judge; and with regard to a new marriage, she believed nothing whatever, knowing the King her husband to be most sage and holy supientissimo et suntissimo. As to yielding to the sentence, she said that although it was her wish to satisfy his Majesty in everything, yet is it beyond her power to do so on this occasion not choosing to peril the salvation of her soul, and disobey the law of God who united her to his Majesty; and that recourse must be had to the true judge and vicar of the Lord. Subsequently the Imperial Ambassador went to the King, and spoke to him molto altamente.

This morning of Easter Eve, the [his sister] Marchioness Anne (age 32) went with the King to high mass, as Queen, and with all the pomp of a Queen, clad in cloth of gold, and loaded (carga) with the richest jewels; and she dined in public; although they have not yet proclaimed the decision of the Parliament [Convocation ?].

I hear on good authority that the conclusion of the peace with Scotland is expected.

I am assured that some months ago, his Majesty espoused her, and that she bore him a son who is several months old. (Mivien afirmato za più mezi questa Mta averla sposata, e aver uno fiol di qualche meze con lei).

Four days ago, Mons. de Beove [Beauvoir] arrived here with the son (age 30) of the Earl of Wiltshire (age 56), and he told me he hoped the affairs between his Majesty and Scotland will be adjusted; and Dom. Silvestro Dario, the papal nuncio late in Scotland, tells me King James will be satisfied with fair terms, without which he will do nothing, and the Scots would rather die than submit; they plunder the English daily, and their King is dependent on the Emperor.

On the 5th a gentleman came hither to the King from the Duke of Saxony his cousin (germano suo), with letters from Frederick Count Palatine—who last year commanded the troops sent in favour of the Emperor by the Free Towns and other potentates of Germany—to request his Majesty to join their League; and they are holding a Diet, in which, should his Majesty choose, he will have great authority. This envoy went first to France, and he has not yet been despatched.

London, 12th April. Registered by Sanuto 8th May.


Note 1. In the year 1533 the 13th of April was Easter day, so the case was decided by the “Convocation” or Parliament on the 7th April 1533.”

Calendars. 15 Apr 1533. 1061. Eustace Chapuys (age 43) to the Emperor (age 33).

About a week ago the sieur de Rochefort (age 30) (George Boleyn) returned from France with the sieur de Beauvoes (Beauvoir), who started yesterday for Scotland for the purpose of inducing king James to place his differences with this King (age 41) into his master's hand, and making him judge and arbiter of their differences. I have been told by a very worthy man that the duke of Albany's secretary returning from a visit to the said Beaulvoys (sic) had assured him that the said ambassador would be unable to accomplish his mission in Scotland, and that war would go on fiercer than ever. Indeed it would seem as if the Scots at this moment more prosperous than ever, for instead of being as before on the defensive, they are continually making raids on the borders. For this purpose did Mr. de Rocchefort (age 30) go to France as it is now ascertained. These people, as I am told, wish immensely for peace with Scotland, but God, as I said above, has taken away their senses, and they cannot see how to bring it about. The said Mr. de Rocchefort (age 30), as his own servants assert, has been presented in France with 2,000 crs., no doubt for the good tidings of his [his sister] sister's (age 32) marriage, to whom the Most Christian King has now written a letter addressing her as Queen. I fancy, moreover, that the French consider this good news, firstly: because it is likely to be the means of breaking off the friendship between Your Majesty and this king, and also, because it might ultimately be the cause of freeing the French from their debt and payment of pensions, either through sheer necessity, or for fear these people may have of their ultimately joining you, should the Pope proceed to sentence the case and have the censures executed-a thing which, in my opinion, Your Majesty ought to urge in every possible way-the French would be released from all their bonds and pecuniary obligations to this king.

Letters and Papers 1533. 15 Apr 1533. 351. Eight days ago Rochford (age 30) came from France with the seigneur De Beauvoes, who left yesterday to return to Scotland to persuade the king of Scots to refer his differences with the King to the arbitration of Francis. I am told by a trusty person that Albany's secretary, returning from a visit to Beaulvois, informed him that Beaulvoys would do nothing in Scotland, and that war would come of it sooner than anything else. The said Scots triumph more than ever, and, instead of standing on the defensive, make continual invasions. The English, I hear, would gladly have peace; but God, as I have said, has taken away their understanding to find the means. Rochford (age 30), as his servants say, has received in France 2,000 cr. as a present for the good news he had brought of his sister's (age 32) marriage; to whom the French king has written as to a Queen. I think they take this in France for good news, both to break the amity between your Majesty and the King, and because it may be a means of getting rid of their debt and pension, either by necessity or by the fear the English will have of them, or else that the Pope, if he should proceed to sentence and aggravated censures, will release them from all obligations.

Letters and Papers 1533. 10 May 1533. 465. On the 7th I was at Westminster at 8 a.m., where were assembled in council the Chancellor, the earls of [his father] Wiltshire (age 56) and Essex, lord Rochford (age 30), the Treasurer, the Controller, Cromwell, the two chief judges of England, Drs. Fox and Sampson, and others. The two Dukes were not there, because they had gone home to their houses. On Wiltshire (age 56) arriving there, he drew from his pouch the letter I had written to the King, asking me the meaning of it, and that I would show the power therein mentioned. To this I replied, that as to showing the power I had no great occasion, for as I was ambassador it was only of use to me for my discharge as against your Majesty, in case I should be accused of having intermeddled too far. Nevertheless, to show that I did not wish to stand on ceremony, I was willing to satisfy the King by producing the said power, and I threw it upon the table; which being read, I declared my said letter summarily, giving them to understand the tenor of the briefs and excommunications. On hearing this, Wiltshire (age 56), as one much grieved and astonished, began to say that the said letter appeared a little strange, and that it was of such a quality that if it had been written by any one in the kingdom, however great, his body and goods would be confiscated by virtue of the late statute, of which he desired to notify me by the command of the King, who had besides ordered him to tell me that if I desired to live in peace and do the duty of an ambassador, as I had done till now, the King would treat me most favorably, as much as any ambassador who could come to him from any prince; but if I meant to assume two faces, and exceed the duty of an ambassador, it would be another thing. Therefore, I ought to consider well how I interfered in the matters contained in the said power. On this I said he acted like the eels of Meaux1, who cry before they are skinned; for as yet I had neither appealed nor presented apostolic letters, nor done anything by my said letter of which they could reasonably complain, even if it had been written by any other than an ambassador. As to the good treatment of the King, of which he spoke, I held myself very well satisfied hitherto, and that he was so virtuous and humane that he could not do otherwise; also he could not, without injuring his reputation. As to the two faces of which he spoke, I did not yet know this art, if he did not teach it to me. By these two faces he meant, to attempt to act as ambassador and as proctor. At last I told him he might lawfully enough excuse himself from speaking of this matter, as being an interested party, and moreover that it was a matter for learned men. At this he knew not what to say, except that he referred himself to others.

Note 1. Thomas Boleyn 1st Earl Wiltshire and Ormonde (age 56).

Coronation of Anne Boleyn

Letters and Papers 1533. 29 May 1533. 556. The Duke left two hours after I had returned, so that neither he nor his company, among which is the brother (age 30) of the [his sister] Lady (age 32), have delayed one day to see the triumph in which the Lady (age 32) has today come from Greenwich to the Tower. She was accompanied by several bishops and lords, and innumerable people, in the form that other queens have been accustomed to be received; and, whatever regret the King may have shown at the taking of the Queen's barge, the Lady has made use of it in this triumph, and appropriated it to herself. God grant she may content herself with the said barge and the jewels and husband of the Queen, without attempting anything, as I have heretofore written, against the persons of the Queen and Princess. The said triumph consisted entirely in the multitude of those who took part in it, but all the people showed themselves as sorry as though it had been a funeral. I am told their indignation increases daily, and that they live in hope your Majesty will interfere. On Saturday the Lady will pass all through London and go to the King's lodging, and on Sunday to Westminster, where the ceremony of the coronation will take place. London, 29 May 1533.

Fr., pp. 9. From a modern copy.

Birth and Christening of Elizabeth I

On 10 Sep 1533 the future Elizabeth I was christened at the Palace of Placentia, Greenwich [Map].

Gertrude Blount Marchioness of Exeter (age 30), Walter Blount, Archbishop Thomas Cranmer (age 44) and Margaret Wotton Marchioness Dorset (age 46) were Godparents.

Henry Bourchier 2nd Earl Essex 3rd Count Eu carried the covered gilt basin. Charles Brandon 1st Duke of Suffolk (age 49) escorted the Dowager Duchess of Norfolk (age 56). Henry Grey 1st Duke of Suffolk (age 16) carried the Salt. Elizabeth Stafford Duchess Norfolk (age 36) carried the Chrisom. Agnes Tilney Duchess Norfolk (age 56) carried Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland. Henry Courtenay 1st Marquess Exeter (age 37) carried a taper of virgin wax.

Edward Stanley 3rd Earl of Derby (age 24), [his father] Thomas Boleyn 1st Earl Wiltshire and Ormonde (age 56), Henry Grey 4th Earl Kent (age 38) and George Boleyn Viscount Rochford (age 30) supported the train of the mantle.

[his uncle] Thomas Howard 3rd Duke of Norfolk (age 60), [his uncle] William Howard 1st Baron Howard (age 23), [his uncle] Thomas Howard (age 22) and John Hussey 1st Baron Hussey of Sleaford (age 68) carried the canopy.

Letters and Papers 1534. 13 May 1534. R. O. 661. Instructions for —, Ambassador to France.

He is to thank the French king for his good will towards Henry, as shown by the reports of Lord Rochford (age 31) and Sir William Fitzwilliam (age 44), and to tell him that the King is highly gratified by his answers to them concerning the meeting and otherwise. Henry will omit nothing that may serve for the conservation and continuance of amity.

Will receive benignly any person sent by Francis with further instructions, and will give him such answers as will be agreeable to the French king. Being instructed by Rochford (age 31) and Fitzwilliam of the circumstances and particulars, he must declare the above in such a way that Francis may see that his answers have been not a little to the King's rejoice and singular consolation. He must also give the King's recommendations to the Queen of Navarre, the Great Master, the Admiral, the Bishop of Paris, Mons. Catylyon, Mons. Pomeray and Mons. Beauvoys, and request them to have the King and his cause always in their good remembrance. He must advertise the King from time to time of their proceedings and other occurrences. Is well contented with his conduct.

Note 7. It seems very doubtful whether any ambassador was actually sent with these instructions.

Letters and Papers 1534. 14 May 1534. Vienna Archives. 662. Chapuys to Charles V.

It is over 15 days since the Scotch ambassador came to communicate to me the articles mentioned in my letter of the 22nd ult., of which I send the two principal in a bill joined to this. Among other things he told me that he believed they would conclude the peace with England, both because they were so much stimulated to it by them and also for the necessity the King his master was in in order that the English might not invade him while he was almost destitute of aid, — a thing the French would not be sorry for, but would rather tacitly suggest in order to reduce the King his master to necessity and compel him to take such a wife as Francis and the king of England pleased; and for the King his master to arrive at his object, viz., to obtain the daughter of France in marriage, it was expedient to amuse the English by means of a peace, so that this king might not hinder it, as he had always done hitherto, and this king being assured of the said peace, would have no fear of that marriage. These words I got from him, not without mystery, and he said that whatever peace they made, when an opportunity of war arose they would find only too many lawful grounds for it, and of this he could assure me, and also that they would not treat of anything that could directly or indirectly injure the amity with your majesty's countries or the fraternity caused by the reception of the Toison, and that the English had made several overtures to them of a contrary character, which they had always rejected, saying that they wished your majesty to be comprised in the peace, and that the bishop and he had orders to that effect.

Since then the Scotch ambassadors have been in nearly continual communication with the King and Council, ever since the return of Rochford (age 31) and Fitzwilliam from France, which they seemed to be waiting for to settle matters. After their return, the French ambassador, who had not been present at any of the previous consultations, was summoned, and the English began to speak in a higher tone, demanding certain land which has been adjudged to the Scotch king by innumerable treaties. The English wished that this difference, with others, should be remitted to the French king, but the Scotch refused and proposed the Pope. At this the Duke of Norfolk asked angrily what popo they meant, implying that there were two, one of Rome and one of Canterbury. This gave the bishop an opportunity of speaking of the papal authority and reproving what had been done here against his Holiness. The company were not pleased and the Duke wished he had not spoken.

After much contention, it seems that the English, desirous of peace agreed to what the Scotch wished, and concluded a peace during the lives of the two Kings and four years longer. I have not been able to find out the particulars. Two days ago the ambassador sent to ask when he might come and see me, and though I offered him any time, he has not yet come, having been occupied with the Council in drawing up the treaty. The bishop has also sent to say that he wishes to talk to me for three or four hours, but we have not yet met for fear of suspicion.

Rochford (age 31) and the Treasurer having returned from France, although the day was extraordinary, the King and his mistress dined in public, and after dinner, in presence of all the guests, the King said he was bound to give thanks to God for having so entirely conciliated to him such a good brother and friend as the king of France, who was always ready to share his fortune and conform to his will, which the said Rochford (age 31) and Treasurer confirmed, but certainly this unusual publication makes many people suspect that the king of France begins to halt, especially as he has put off the interviews which the King was hastening for July, and some still think that they will not take place, and that the Bishop of Paris or some other great personage sent by Francis will come here in order among other things to "fere lecture desdites entrevues."

Having several times consulted the Queen how to give effect to the sentence, she wrote to me two days since the letter which I send with this, which besides explaining her advice will serve to excuse her from writing to your majesty. She thought, before that when the sentence was given the King would be converted, but now she knows it will be necessary to proceed by other remedies, which she dare not propose, both for fear her letters should be intercepted, and not to contradict what she has already written; knowing also that your majesty understands much better than anyone else what is necessary to remedy matters here. An immediate remedy is necessary, otherwise the case is irreparable. For besides that the King and others get worse every day, this new sect is increasing and gaining strength, and if it once take root even those who have hitherto held for the Queen will change their opinion, believing that what your majesty would do in the Queen's behalf was not on that account but to maintain the Pope's authority, which they call tyranny, and on this pretext the King hopes to have the support, not only of those of his own kingdom, but of a part of Germany. If your majesty knew the complaints daily made of the delay of this remedy, you would be astonished. They have been more frequent of late, since the merchants have been preparing for the coming fair in Flanders, people saying that if they were permitted henceforth to go to Flanders or Spain, all was over.

The Queen has been removed to a house belonging to the heirs of Sir Richard Wingfield, who died at Toledo. She is better lodged than she was, although the house is small. When she was about to remove, the King sent two doctors to summon her to swear to the two statutes lately made, of which I sent a copy on the 22nd; but instead of complying she intimated to the doctors the sentence lately given in her favor. Nevertheless the doctors compelled all the servants of the house to swear. Some days ago the King asked his mistress's [aunt], who has charge of the Princess, if the latter had abated her obstinacy, and on being answered "No," he said there must be someone about her who encouraged her and conveyed news from the Queen her mother. The said [his aunt] gouvernante (age 58), on consideration, could suspect no one except the maid of whom I lately wrote, who had been compelled to swear, and on this suspicion she drove her out, and she has been for some days without anyone to go to or means to support herself. The Princess has been much grieved at this, for she was the only one in whom she had confidence, and by her means she had letters from me and others. The Queen also is very sorry, but still more because the King has taken from the Princess her confessor, a very good man, and given her another who is a Lutheran and a tool of his own. During the last few days the King, perceiving that neither by force nor menaces could he get his way with the said Princess, or for some other reasons, has shown her more honor than usual, and used more gracious words, begging that she would lay aside her obstinacy and he would promise her before Michaelmas to make such a bargain with her that she should enjoy a royal title and dignity; to which, among 1,000 other wise answers, she replied that God had not so blinded her as to confess for any kingdom on earth that the King her father and the Queen her mother had so long lived in adultery, nor would she contravene the ordinance of the Church and make herself a bastard. She believes firmly that this dissimulation the King uses is only the more easily to attain his end and cover poison, but she says she cares little, having full confidence in God that she will go straight to Paradise and be quit of the tribulations of this world, and her only grief is about the troubles of the Queen her mother. I have been told that within these few days the King has shown himself more cheerful than usual. I know not whether it was owing to the peace with the Scots or to the news of the troubles in Germany, which he will encourage to the utmost of his power, until he is given other things to think about.

The secretary of the Vayvode, whose despatch was put off till the return of Rochford (age 31) and the Treasurer, is still here. I have not been able to learn what he is doing. London, 14 May 1534.Fr., pp. 9. From a modern copy.

Letters and Papers 1534. 11 Jun 1534. R. O. 823. Sir Edward Ryngeley to Lord Lisle (age 70).

The King and Queen are in good health. I came to the Court on Tuesday last about 3 o'clock. I was not there half an hour before his Grace sent for me into a garden which he has just made. He asked me heartily how you did, and whether the town was free from sickness and clean kept, of which I assured him. It would be well for you to speak to master Mayor for the mending of the two gutters from the market to Our Lady Church. If he lack paviours I can send them from London. The King is well conttented that his works go so well forward. I told him in the Treasurer's presence how much more is done in thickness than appears in the book, both in the two towers and the walls. The King is well contented with the pains you have taken about them and the sandhills, and is pleased with the conduct of his retinue, as I think they will see when he comes thither. I advise you to let the drags and ploughs go still upon the sandhills till you can shoot level over them from the mount at Becham Tower. I have not asked the King for wood or anything else, because the letters you promised to send have not come. I wish they were, for I trust to be shortly at Calais. As to my own business, the market was done before I came. We have a new lord Warden of "the Porche," Lord Rochford (age 31). Sir John Dudley is master of the armery, Sir Antony Browne standard-bearer, and master Harper has the "awnage," that is the sealing of the cloth in Kent. Today the King comes to York Place to supper and dines there tomorrow, and to Waltham to bed, and on Saturday to Hunsdon, where he will remain all next week. He will not be at Hampton Court till Saturday week. I have given all your recommendations to your friends except to master Kingston and master Norrys. The former is at Wanstead, and the latter came to the Court late on Tuesday night. A great sum of money has been stolen from him, so that he is not pleasantly disposed to be spoken with. I have no other news, but I hope to know more before I come out of Essex. Recommendations to the Mayor, lord Edmund, master Wynkefeld, Mr. Porter, Mr. Treasurer (age 44), Mr. Undermarshal and Mr. Ruckwode. Hampton Court, 11 June. Signed.

I pray you be contented with my meaning, for my inditing is but reasonable.

Pp. 2. Add.: Deputy of Calais. Endd.

Note 1. His patent was not passed till the 23 June. See Grants in June, No. 16.

Letters and Papers 1534. 17 Oct 1534. R. O. 1273. George Lord Rochford (age 31) to Lord Lisle (age 70).

I desire your favor to the bearer, my servant William Atkyns, that he may pass into Flanders with such small baggage as he shall bring with him, which he is to sell there and with the proceeds purchase me certain hawks, Hampton Court, 17 Oct. Signed.

P. 1. Add. Endd.: 17 Oct. 1534.

Letters and Papers 1534. 06 Nov 1534. R. O. 1396. George Lord Rochford (age 31) to Lord Lisle (age 70).

I have sent the bearer, the King's servant, only to bring me sure word in what sort the Admiral will cross the sea, and whether he will send his train before him or come first himself. I beg you to inquire and send word by the bearer, and that he may have the first passage after the Admiral has arrived at Calais. Vaghan, the bailly of Dover, whom you have required to come to Calais as one of the retinue there, cannot be spared, as the Admiral is lodged in his house. Commend me to my lady. Dover, 6 Nov. Signed.

P 1. Add.: Deputy of Calais. Endd.

Letters and Papers 1535. 05 May 1535. Vienna Archives. 666. Chapuys to Charles V.

It seems, as I lately wrote to Granvelle, that Cromwell is anxious to know the result of the negotiations at Calais before making me any overture, notwithstanding what he has several times promised me. It is true that since he was ill he has not been in Court till within these four days, and I believe he had then no opportunity to speak of the matters for the multitude of other business. When he comes back from Court a second time we shall be able the better to judge if there is any dissimulation; but I have never had great hopes that the English could be brought by gentle means to accept any terms compatible with reason and honesty. The King's deputies to the diet of Calais are to leave on the 11th. Rochford (age 32), the Lady's (age 34) brother, will go in place of Cromwell. Many think that Cromwell excused himself of the charge in despair of the issue. Three days ago there arrived here two doctors, sent by those of Lubeck, to solicit money, as I have been told, from this King, to protect themselves against an alliance of the Count Palatine and the duke of Holstein. I will try, in speaking to Cromwell, to learn about it, without forgetting to intimate in passing that the continuance of these intrigues is not in accordance with the proposition for the confirmation of friendship, nor even with former treaties.

Letters and Papers 1535. 17 May 1535. 726. The [his uncle] Duke of Norfolk (age 62) with other English gentlemen and about 300 horses were to start on the 12th. In place of Cromwell, who cannot leave, having the control of everything in his hands, Lord Rochford (age 32), the brother of the new Queen (age 34), or a bishop, her almoner, will come.

News has come of the capture, by the king of the Romans, of the prothonotary Casale, who was sent to king John on the part of England.

Hol., pp. 13. Copy. Headed: A M. Ambrogio da Carlemesnel, (fn. 4) alli 17 di Maggio, ritenuta fino alli 18, &c.

Letters and Papers 1535. 28 May 1535. R. O. 776. The Mayor and Jurats of Rye to Cromwell. Certain variances have fallen out between Sir William Inold (or Juold?), curate of Rye, and John Youg, on which the latter said that as good men and as true as the same Inold were hanged in this month. On Inold's complaint we have examined Yong, who has affirmed that as good men and better than Inold were hanged, as they would not be sworn to the King; whereas Inold was sworn, and has done to the contrary. We have informed the Council, and sent letters to my Lord of Rochford (age 32), the warden of the Cinque Ports, but he is one of the King's ambassadors beyond sea. In his absence my Lord of Wiltshire has opened the letters, and shown them to Mr. Chr. Hales, the King's Attorney, who advises us to send the parties to you. Rye, 28 May.

Hol., p. 1. Add.: Secretary. Endd.

Letters and Papers 1535. 05 Jun 1535. 826. On the 28th Cromwell came twice to my lodging, not having found me the first time; and, anxious and troubled as he showed himself, he told me that when the French came to Calais they began by protesting that they would not speak of war, and they continued this language till Rochford (age 32) left; but afterwards, as the [his uncle] Duke of Norfolk (age 62) wrote, they entirely changed their tone, and were very desirous of war. He said he would not specify in what quarter; not withstanding he immediately observed to me that it was for Milan. Further, in the way of confidence, Cromwell showed me a writing, which, he said, had been enclosed in a letter sent to him by the Admiral of France, although it bore no signature or appearance of being an inclosure. He allowed me to read it in full. The purport was that Francis, having carefully examined the question of the validity of the two marriages of the king of England, found the first unlawful and the other valid, and promised to defend the latter, and procure revocation of the sentence given to the contrary by the Holy See. On reading it I smiled, and said the French knew well what they were doing, and did not promise things without knowing for how much an ell, and, having obtained what they wanted, knew how to wash their hands of their promises. And for this they had several means sufficiently apparent, especially as there would be time enough, before they were called on to fulfil their promises. I added that since the said king of France had taken so much trouble in examining matrimonial questions, this King had no occasion to send lately to Calais; and that, having the promise of such a prince as the king of France, who is not only so great but allied to the Queen, this King, who alleged the fear that princes entertained of the kindred and affinity of your Majesty, ought to make no difficulty in submitting to the determination of the Council. To this he made no reply. In truth I should doubt that the said writing had been drawn up by the English, who want to impute it to the king of France, for otherwise it would not agree with what a very good person has sent to inform the Princess, i.e. that the French insisted on having her for the Dauphin; and this is said commonly at the lodging of the French ambassador. It seems the more probable from what the King said lately, that the Admiral had written on his arrival at Calais, that there was nothing so true as that your Majesty had previously offered them the said Princess.

Letters and Papers 1535. 05 Jun 1535. 826. As to what Cromwell said to me about war against Milan, I told him that it was not likely that Francis would disturb your Majesty's holy enterprise; that the conquest of Milan was more difficult than it had ever been; that the French professed that they meant to keep treaties; and that, even if Francis did conquer Milan, he would have more need of your Majesty's friendship to keep it than he had now, and that he would refuse no condition for that purpose. This I said that they might not imagine you would be moved by such menaces to do whatever they wished. I used every means I could to ascertain the conditions asked in return for the aforesaid offers; and, among other things, I asked him if the French did not require hostages, seeing that the girl was still young, or a cessation of their pensions in the meantime. He said as to the first nothing had been said; as to the second, "Yes, indeed!" en grondissant, without saying more; but next day he added that if the French wanted to cheat them of their pension (ses jouoyent de vouloir avoir leur pension) they would presently have "la passion," i.e. war. I talked about hostages, because I had been told that the French demanded the Princess as a hostage. To give me to understand that there was no fear of the French not complying with all their demands, Cromwell told me they would never think of doing otherwise, seeing they were excluded from the friendship of all other princes, and that they had lost all hope on the side of Germany, and did not know how they stood with the Swiss. I confirmed all that he said, saying that as God had given him so much sense and intelligence it would be the more shame to him if he did not know how to use successfully such an opportunity. This I said to him for the mystery which your Majesty will very well understand. Afterwards he told me that, notwithstanding the offers made to them by the French, if there appeared any hope of a renewal of amity with your Majesty the French should have a very short answer, although they always wished to preserve the friendship of the French, and that, awaiting news from your Majesty, he had caused the said Rochford (age 32) to stay here, to the great regret of the French admiral; and finally, hoping for some good fruit of the things we had discussed together, he would take care that Rochford (age 32) did not return so soon to Calais, and especially that nothing was treated to the disadvantage of your Majesty or to the hindrance of the new alliance; telling me what their ambassador in France had notified to the King his master, that Likerke, having heard the answer to the overtures made on behalf of your Majesty, had sent to you in haste, and hoped for a favourable answer, provided that your Majesty had not left Barcelona before the 26th ult.; and that this King and those of his Council (who were, in this matter, at their wits' end) desired that meanwhile I would consider the terms and means for this noble and necessary work, the restoration of amity, giving me to understand that I could do it very well, and better than the whole of them, and that I would in this show myself a good and true counsellor of the King.

Letters and Papers 1535. 05 Jun 1535. 826. The King also told me that your Majesty had thought it better to go to Naples than to Tunis, and that the latter was too great a risk to your person, on whom so much depended. Perceiving that he avoided speaking of the proposed negotiations, I touched upon them myself, saying I had no doubt that Cromwell had informed him of our conversations, and therefore I would only say that he would find your Majesty fully inclined to listen to any proposed alliance as far as honor and conscience would allow. He then told me he wished he could be assured of being able to make arrangements with your Majesty, and in confidence of some favorable answer he had detained Rochford (age 32), but that he could not keep him longer, for the Admiral was in despair from the great delay, and that the French bragged that they meant to make war on the duchy of Milan, and pressed him strongly to join the dance; to which he had refused to listen. He wished also to make me believe that what the Pope was doing against the duke of Urbino was not without an understanding with the French; and on my showing him, by the reasons I had declared to Cromwell, and other arguments, that it was not likely the French would move war, he said to me that the truth might be anything (que tout pouvoit estre); nevertheless, they (the French?) expressed it as above. Hereupon he asked me what the cardinal of Liege was doing, and if the duke of Gueldres was on good terms with your Majesty (estoit bien de vre. Mate); and on my telling him that I knew nothing but good, he said the French boasted that the said Duke had revoked all the treaties made with your Majesty, and intended to make the king of France his heir; and though it would be difficult for Francis to take possession of the duchy, it would be always a matter of contention. I told him that as your Majesty held the country of Utrecht and Over Yssel, the duke of Gueldres had no mind to be fractious ((regipper, qu. regimber?), and in order to be paid some arrears the Duke will have advanced the said practises. The King replied that if other news did not come from your Majesty he feared he could not avoid treating with the French. I said that as they were both princes of virtue and honor, it was not to be feared that they would treat matters in prejudice of the treaties made with your Majesty. At which reply he remained astonished, thinking I was going to beg him to break off their negotiations, and give him some hope of obtaining from your Majesty what he demanded.

Letters and Papers 1535. 05 Jun 1535. Vienna Archives. 826. Chapuys to Charles V.

After the two first communications between the deputies of these two Kings, Lord Rochford (age 32) left Calais, and arrived here on the 25th ult. Before speaking to the King he went to the [his sister] Lady (age 34), his sister, and conversed with her a long time. He could not have brought back from Calais anything agreeable to himself; for, as I am told by the Grand Esquire (age 39)1, both then and several times since she has been in a bad humour, and said a thousand shameful words of the King of France, and generally of the whole nation. On the 25th and on the 27th, Corpus Christi Day, the King and his Council were exceedingly busy, consulting, as it is supposed, on the message brought by Rochford (age 32), and were unable to dissemble their great dissatisfaction. The French ambassador has had his share of dissatisfaction also, because Rochford (age 32) did not bring him any news, and because he was not called to Court, although on Corpus Christi Day he waited at Cromwell's lodging till 10 at night, expecting that Cromwell would return from Court and tell him the news. Indeed, Cromwell himself informs me he despatched him in two words, and he left greatly dissatisfied.

Note 1. Otherwise called Master of the Horse, Sir Nicholas Carew (age 39).

Letters and Papers 1535. 06 Jun 1535. 837. The Admiral is still at Calais. Does not think that anything will be done of much importance. Nothing more is said about the interview. * * *

Two days ago the King was very angry with the English ambassador (age 32). Spoke to the Grand Master, who said that the English wished the King to do things that touched his conscience; but they must not think the French would do anything against the Church, but rather defend it against oppressors. In fact, the king of England is enraged and desperate because the French will not imitate him, and he sees himself alone in his opinions. The King told him, and the Imperial ambassador showed him a letter to the same effect, that the King of England went disguised to the Charterhouse, of which they have treated some members so badly, and urged them with many reasons to take him for Head of the Church, and not the Pope. To which they replied unanimously that he might do with their persons what he would, but they would never consent to what they considered unjust. There is no news of anything being done against them yet. Du Bellay thinks the marriage with England will take place. Is of opinion that, whatever Francis may do so as not to be alone, he is so impressed with the instability, madness, and impiety of the King that at some time he expects, without fail, to have him as an enemy according to the custom of the country. * *

The English ambassador (age 32), having spoken to the King, who in public was vexed and angry with him, went to Calais, perhaps sent there by his master on the business there, about which, until now, 29 June (sic), in the morning, nothing has been heard of moment, but it is clear that difficulties will not lack.

Ital., pp. 11. Modern copy. Headed: Al Sig. Monsig. Ambrogio, ut supra (i.e. 6 June.)

Letters and Papers 1535. 22 Jun 1535. Add. MS. 8,715, f. 76 b. B. M. 909. Bishop of Faenza to M. Ambrogio.

The Admiral (age 43), who was 22 days at Calais, returned on the 17th, though it was said everywhere that he would go on to England. Mons. de Ricciafort (age 32) (Rochford), the brother of the new [his sister] Queen (age 34), came here for eight days, but, as far as could be seen, did nothing. It is only from his relation to the Queen that he is employed, for the King has very few to trust in. All business passes through the hands of people who depend on the new Queen, and must therefore be settled according to her purpose. This was the case in the negociations with the Admiral (age 43), which were broken off on account of his refusal to allow the duke of Angoulême to go to England until the girl was old enough to be married, and because he would not declare in any way against the Church, or in favour of the King's second wife (age 34) (ne voler difendere in alcun modo contro la chiesa o declaratione del concilio la causa della seconda moglie1). Every one knows that the alliance (parentado) has not been concluded, as both sides confidently affirmed it would be, but that the ambassadors separated very ill satisfied, and the English are guarding Calais more carefully than they have done, even when the French were there in greater numbers. However, both sides affirm the friendship to be firmer than ever. The French king and Council say that their respect to the Holy See and the Pope has been the principal cause of their not coming to some other understanding (ad altro ristretto) with the king of England, who is a most bitter enemy of the Church, and so firm in his opinion that he intends to die in it, and tries to have this kingdom for company. The [his uncle] Duke of Norfolk (age 62), according to the Admiral (age 43), affirms that he would sooner die than see any change as regards the King or the new Queen; which is not unlike what the writer has heard in other ways of Norfolk, viz., that this breaking off might reasonably have been expected, matters depending very much on his dexterity, and the affairs of England being commonly managed more than barbarously. For he, being one of the greatest men in the kingdom, and having sons, and the Duke of Richmond (age 16) for his son-in-law, might hope one day to have that daughter for one of his sons, or, if disorders ensued, to get the rule into his own hands. The French lords are not too well contented with the English, who, since Norfolk's return, have despatched a courier, and show themselves displeased that nothing was concluded at Calais. The Admiral (age 43), though he takes Fisher's (age 65) case much to heart, has great fears for his life, especially as the Pope says in the brief that the created him a cardinal to make use of him in the Council. He says also that the English pretended that he could not live much more than a month, being a valetudinarian of 90; which shows what they mean to do with him, reckoning him 25 years older than he is, although they declare there is no hope in any case of his coming out of prison. These are truly the most monstrous things seen in our time. The French make great account with the Pope of not listening to anything proposed to them by the English which might turn to the damage of the Holy See.

Ital., pp. 9, modern copy. Headed: In Amoien, al Sig. M. Ambrogio, alli 12 (sic) ut supra.

2. An extract copy from the original is in the Vatican transcripts, dated Amiens, 22 June 1535. Pp. 3.

Note 1. nor want to defend the cause of the second wife in any way against the church or declaration of the council

Letters and Papers 1535. 04 Jul 1535. 985. Francis also spoke three days ago of the new [his sister] Queen of England (age 34), how little virtuously she has always lived and now lives, and how she and her brother (age 32) and adherents suspect the [his uncle] Duke of Norfolk (age 62) of wishing to make his son King, and marry him to the King's legitimate daughter, though they are near relations. It seems to him there can be little friendship between the two kingdoms.

The King spoke of the marriage of the king of Scotland with the duke of Vendome's daughter as certain, but said the king of England was displeased at it, and now would wish to give him his eldest daughter. His inconstancy was incredible. Sends the copy of a proclamation issued in England.

Ital., pp. 11, modern copy. Headed; Al S. Mons. Ambrogio, ali 4 di Luglio, data alla Fiera.

Death of Catherine of Aragon

Calendars. 21 Jan 1536. Eustace Chapuys (age 46) to the Emperor (age 35).

The good Queen (deceased) breathed her last at 2 o'clock in the afternoon. Eight hours afterwards, by the King's (age 44) express commands, the inspection of her body was made, without her confessor or physician or any other officer of her household being present, save the fire-lighter in the house, a servant of his, and a companion of the latter, who proceeded at once to open the body. Neither of them had practised chirurgy, and yet they had often performed the same operation, especially the principal or head of them, who, after making the examination, went to the Bishop of Llandaff, the Queen's confessor, and declared to him in great secrecy, and as if his life depended on it, that he had found the Queen's (deceased) body and the intestines perfectly sound and healthy, as if nothing had happened, with the single exception of the heart, which was completely black, and of a most hideous aspect; after washing it in three different waters, and finding that it did not change colour, he cut it in two, and found that it was the same inside, so much so that after being washed several times it never changed colour. The man also said that he found inside the heart something black and round, which adhered strongly to the concavities. And moreover, after this spontaneous declaration on the part of the man, my secretary having asked the Queen's physician whether he thought the Queen (deceased) had died of poison, the latter answered that in his opinion there was no doubt about it, for the bishop had been told so under confession, and besides that, had not the secret been revealed, the symptoms, the course, and the fatal end of her illness were a proof of that.

No words can describe the joy and delight which this King (age 44) and the promoters of his [his sister] concubinate (age 35) have felt at the demise of the good Queen (deceased), especially the [his father] earl of Vulcher (age 59), and his son (age 33), who must have said to themselves, What a pity it was that the Princess (age 19) had not kept her mother (deceased) company. The King (age 44) himself on Saturday, when he received the news, was heard to exclaim, "Thank God, we are now free from any fear of war, and the time has come for dealing with the French much more to our advantage than heretofore, for if they once suspect my becoming the Emperor's friend and ally now that the real cause of our enmity no longer exists I shall be able to do anything I like with them." On the following day, which was Sunday, the King (age 44) dressed entirely in yellow from head to foot, with the single exception of a white feather in his cap. His bastard daughter (age 2) was triumphantly taken to church to the sound of trumpets and with great display. Then, after dinner, the King (age 44) went to the hall, where the ladies were dancing, and there made great demonstration of joy, and at last went into his own apartments, took the little bastard (age 2), carried her in his (age 44) arms, and began to show her first to one, then to another, and did the same on the following days. Since then his joy has somewhat subsided; he has no longer made such demonstrations, but to make up for it, as it were, has been tilting and running lances at Grinduys [Map]. On the other hand, if I am to believe the reports that come to me from every quarter, I must say that the displeasure and grief generally felt at the Queen's (deceased) demise is really incredible, as well as the indignation of the people against the King (age 44). All charge him with being the cause of the Queen's (deceased) death, which I imagine has been produced partly by poison and partly by despondency and grief; besides which, the joy which the King (age 44) himself, as abovesaid, manifested upon hearing the news, has considerably confirmed people in that belief.

Great preparations are being made for the burial of the good Queen (deceased), and according to a message received from Master Cromwell (age 51) the funeral is to be conducted with such a pomp and magnificence that those present will scarcely believe their eyes. It is to take place on the 1st of February; the chief mourner to be the King's own niece (age 18), that is to say, the daughter of the duke of Suffolk (age 52); next to her will go the Duchess, her mother; then the wife of the duke of Norfolk (age 39), and several other ladies in great numbers. And from what I hear, it is intended to distribute mourning apparel to no less than 600 women of a lower class. As to the lords and gentlemen, nothing has yet transpired as to who they are to be, nor how many. Master Cromwell (age 51) himself, as I have written to Your Majesty (age 35), pressed me on two different occasions to accept the mourning cloth, which this King (age 44) offered for the purpose no doubt of securing my attendance at the funeral, which is what he greatly desires; but by the advice of the Queen Regent of Flanders (Mary), of the Princess herself, and of many other worthy personages, I have declined, and, refused the cloth proffered; alleging as an excuse that I was already prepared, and had some of it at home, but in reality because I was unwilling to attend a funeral, which, however costly and magnificent, is not that befitting a Queen of England.

The King (age 44), or his Privy Council, thought at first that very solemn obsequies ought to be performed at the cathedral church of this city. Numerous carpenters and other artizans had already set to work, but since then the order has been revoked, and there is no talk of it now. Whether they meant it in earnest, and then changed their mind, or whether it was merely a feint to keep people contented and remove suspicion, I cannot say for certain.

Letters 1536. 21 Jan 1536. Vienna Archives. 141. Chapuys (age 46) to Charles V.

You could not conceive the joy that the King and those who favor this concubinage have shown at the death of the good Queen, especially the [his father] earl of Wiltshire (age 59) and his son (age 33), who said it was a pity the Princess (age 19) did not keep company with her. The King, on the Saturday he heard the news, exclaimed "God be praised that we are free from all suspicion of war"; and that the time had come that he would manage the French better than he had done hitherto, because they would do now whatever he wanted from a fear lest he should ally himself again with your Majesty, seeing that the cause which disturbed your friendship was gone. On the following day, Sunday, the King was clad all over in yellow, from top to toe, except the white feather he had in his bonnet, and the Little Bastard (age 2) was conducted to mass with trumpets and other great triumphs. After dinner the King entered the room in which the ladies danced, and there did several things like one transported with joy. At last he sent for his Little Bastard (age 2), and carrying her in his arms he showed her first to one and then to another. He has done the like on other days since, and has run some courses (couru quelques lances) at Greenwich.From all I hear the grief of the people at this news is incredible, and the indignation they feel against the King, on whom they lay the blame of her death, part of them believing it was by poison and others by grief; and they are the more indignant at the joy the King has exhibited. This would be a good time, while the people are so indignant, for the Pope to proceed to the necessary remedies, by which these men would be all the more taken by surprise, as they have no suspicion of any application being made for them now that the Queen is dead, and do not believe that the Pope dare take upon him to make war especially while a good part of Germany and other Princes are in the same predicament. Nevertheless, now that the Queen is dead, it is right for her honor and that of all her kin that she be declared to have died Queen, and it is right especially to proceed to the execution of the sentence, because it touches the Princess, and to dissolve this marriage which is no wise rendered valid by the Queen's death, and, if there be another thing, that he cannot have this woman to wife nor even any other during her life according to law, unless the Pope give him a dispensation; and it appears that those here have some hope of drawing the Pope to their side, for only three days ago Cromwell said openly at table that a legate might possibly be seen here a few days hence, who would come to confirm all their business, and yesterday commands were issued to the curates and other preachers not to preach against purgatory, images, or adoration of the saints, or other doubtful questions until further orders. Perhaps by this means and others they hope to lull his Holiness to sleep until your Majesty has parted from him, which would be a very serious and irremediable evil. I think those here will have given charge to the courier, whom they despatched in great haste to give the news of the Queen's death in France, to go on to Rome in order to prevent the immediate publication of censures.

The History of the Reformation Volume 1 Book III. She was of a very cheerful temper, which was not always limited within the bounds of exact decency and discretion. She [[his sister] Queen Anne Boleyn of England (age 35)] had rallied some of the king's servants more than became her. Her brother, the lord Rochford (age 33), was her friend, as well as brother; but his spiteful [his wife] wife (age 31) was jealous of him and, being a woman of no sort of virtue, (as will appear afterwards by her serving queen Katharine Howard in her beastly practices, for which she was attainted and executed,) she carried many stories to the king, or some about him, to persuade, that there was a familiarity between the queen and her brother, beyond what, so near a relation could justify. All that could be said for it was only this; that he was once been leaning upon her bed, which bred great suspicion. Henry Norris, that was groom of the stole; Weston and Brereton, that were the king's privy chamber; and one Mark Smeton, a musician; were all observed to have much of her favour. And their seal in serving her was thought too warm and diligent to flow from a less active principle than love. Many circumstances were brought to the king, which, working upon his aversion to the queen, together with his affection to mistress Seimour (age 27), made him conclude her guilty.

Letters 1536. 03 Mar 1536. R. O. 409. The Boleyn Family. List of grants by the King to [his father] Thomas Boleyn (age 59), Earl of Wiltshire, and George Boleyn (age 33), Lord Rochford, from 29 April 14 Henry VIII. to 3 March 27 Henry VIII. Lat., pp. 3.

Letters 1536. 17 Apr 1536. R. O. 675. George Lord Rochford (age 33) to Lord Lisle (age 71).

The King intends to be at Dover within this fortnight. I pray you help my servant, the bearer, to such things as he shall need for my provision. Greenwich, 17 April. Signed.

P. 1. Add.: Deputy of Calais.

Letters 1536. 21 Apr 1536. Vienna Archives. 699. Chapuys (age 46) to Charles V.

On coming to Court I was most cordially received by all the Lords of the Council, who congratulated me on the happy news, praising greatly the good service they presumed that I had done,—especially Lord Rochford (age 33), the [his sister] Concubine's (age 35) brother, to whom I said that I did not doubt that he had as great pleasure in what was taking place as any other, and that he would assist as in a matter for the benefit of the whole world, but especially of himself and his friends. He showed me "fort grosse chiere," and I dissembled in the same way with him, avoiding all occasions of entering into Lutheran discussions, from which he could not refrain.

Before the King went out to mass Cromwell came to me on his part to ask if I would not go and visit and kiss the Concubine (age 35), which would be doing a pleasure to this King; nevertheless, he left it to me. I told him that for a long time my will had been slave to that of the King, and that to serve him it was enough to command me; but that I thought, for several reasons, which I would tell the King another time, such a visit would not be advisable, and I begged Cromwell to excuse it, and dissuade the said visit in order not to spoil matters. Immediately afterwards Cromwell came to tell me that the King had taken it all in good part, hoping that hereafter "lon y supplyeroit assez," and he immediately added that after dinner I should speak with the King at leisure, and that on leaving him, agreeably to their custom, I ought to see those of the Council and explain my charge. I told him that I thought things were so honorable and reasonable, and had been foreseen so long, that I thought the King would make up his mind immediately; and if not, he to whom my credence was addressed would make a far better report to the Council than I could; nevertheless, that till I had heard part of the King's will, I could neither promise to go, nor not to go, to the said Council, though I meant to speak particularly to all, and do all that they would counsel me. Just after this the King came out and gave me a very kind reception, holding for some time his bonnet in his hand, and not allowing me to be uncovered longer than himself; and after asking how I was, and telling me that I was very welcome, he inquired of the good health of your Majesty and showed himself very glad to hear good news. He then asked where you were, and on my telling him that the courier had left you near Rome, he said that by the date of your Majesty's letters to his Secretary it appeared that you were at Gaeta when the courier left. Hereupon he asked if you would stay long at Rome, and on my telling him that I thought not, unless your Majesty could gratify him by a long delay, for which purpose I was sure you would make no difficulty either in remaining or doing anything else that you could on his account, he said he thought it would have been better for your interests not to have come so soon to Rome, but to have staid in Naples, so as to afford a bait to those who needed it to involve themselves further in the meshes. I said that there was still time enough to use such dissimulation, and that I was sure you would in this and other matters be glad to follow his counsel as that of a very old friend, good brother, and, as it were, a father, as he might understand by what I should tell him hereafter more at leisure. On this he said, Well, we should have leisure to discuss all matters. I was conducted to mass by Lord Rochford (age 33), the concubine's brother, and when the King came to the offering there was a great concourse of people partly to see how the concubine and I behaved to each other. She was courteous enough, for when I was behind the door by which she entered, she returned, merely to do me reverence as I did to her. After mass the King went to dine at the concubine's lodging, whither everybody accompanied him except myself, who was conducted by Rochford (age 33) to the King's Chamber of Presence, and dined there with all the principal men of the Court. I am told the concubine (age 35) asked the King why I did not enter there as the other ambassadors did, and the King replied that it was not without good reason. Nevertheless, I am told by one who heard her, the said concubine after dinner said that it was a great shame in the king of France to treat his uncle, the duke of Savoy, as he did, and to make war against Milan so as to break the enterprise against the Turks; and that it really seemed that the king of France, weary of his life on account of his illnesses, wished by war to put an end to his days. As soon as the King had dined, he, in passing by where I was, made me the same caress as in the morning, and, taking me by the hand, led me into his chamber, whither only the Chancellor and Cromwell followed. He took me apart to a window. I reminded him of several conversations which Cromwell and I had had, and also of those of your ambassador in France with Wallop, and also of the old affection your Majesty had borne him, and began to declare your will touching the four points, taking the utmost care to speak as gently as possible, that he might not find grounds of quarrel or irritation. He heard me patiently and without interruption, till at last, on my saying that your Majesty, desirous above all things of the peace of Christendom, had forborne your claim to Burgundy, which you might demand by a much better title than the invaders of Savoy and Milan, he answered that Milan belonged to the king of France, and the duchy of Burgundy also, for you had renounced it by the treaty of Cambray, which qualified the unreasonable conditions of that of Madrid, and that even if Milan had now come to your hands the defensive treaties comprehended only the lordships possessed at the time they were passed. I showed him, but not without difficulty, that he was illinformed about your rights to Milan and Burgundy, and also that when those treaties were made you were the lawful Lord of Milan, and he who held it was only feudatory, after whose death the duchy was not newly acquired by your Majesty, but had only been consolidated; which argument, as Cromwell informs me, has since been weighed and approved by the King and his Council.

Letters 1536. 29 Apr 1536. Vienna Archives. 752. Chapuys (age 46) to Charles V.

The Grand Ecuyer [Esquire], Mr. Caro (age 40), had on St. George's day the Order of the Garter in the place of the deceased M. de Burgain, to the great disappointment of Rochford (age 33), who was seeking for it, and all the more because the [his sister] Concubine (age 35) has not had sufficient influence to get it for her brother; and it will not be the fault of the said Ecuyer if the Concubine, although his cousin (quelque, qu. quoique? cousine) be not dismounted. He continually counsels Mrs. Semel [Jane Seymour (age 27)] and other conspirators "pour luy faire une venue," [to make him a visit] and only four days ago he and some persons of the chamber sent to tell the Princess (age 20) to be of good cheer, for shortly the opposite party would put water in their wine, for the King was already as sick and tired of the concubine (age 35) as could be; and the brother of lord Montague told me yesterday at dinner that the day before the bishop of London (age 61) had been asked if the King could abandon the said concubine, and he would not give any opinion to anyone but the King himself, and before doing so he would like to know the King's own inclination, meaning to intimate that the King might leave the said concubine, but that, knowing his fickleness, he would not put himself in danger. The said Bishop was the principal cause and instrument of the first divorce, of which he heartily repents, and would still more gladly promote this, the said concubine and all her race are such abominable Lutherans. London, 29 April 1536. Fr., from a modern copy, pp. 2.

May-Day Jousts

Wriothesley's Chronicle 1536. This yeare, on Maye daie, 1536, beinge Moundaie, was a great justing at Greenewych [Map], where was chalengers my Lorde of Rochforde (age 33) and others, and defenders Mr. Noris (age 54) and others.d.

Note d. Stow adds: "From these joustes King Henry sodainely departed to Westminster, haying only with him six persons, of which sodaine departore men manreiled."

Arrest of George Boleyn

Wriothesley's Chronicle 1536. And the secondo dale of Maie, Mr. Noris (age 54) and my Lorde of Rochforde (age 33) were brought to the Towre of London [Map] as prisoners;

Spanish Chronicle Chapter 29. 02 May 1536 ... and he sent them to the Duke (age 33) [Note. a mistake for Viscount] to see how he would answer. To explain why the Duke had been arrested, it should be told that the King was informed that he had been seen on several occasions going in and out of the Queen's room dressed only in his night-clothes. When the gentlemen went to him, he said, "I do not know why the King has had me arrested, for I never wronged him in word or deed. If my sister has done so, let her bear the penalty." Then the Chancellor replied, "Duke, it was ground for suspicion that you should go so often to her chamber at night, and tell the ladies to leave you. It was a very bold thing to do, and you deserve great punishment." "But look you, Chancellor," answered the Duke, "even if I did go to speak with her sometimes when she was unwell, surely that is no proof that I was so wicked as to do so great crime and treason to the King." Then the Duke of Norfolk said, "Hold thy peace, Duke, the King's will must be done after all." So they left him, and presently put old Margaret to the torture, who told the whole story of how she had arranged that Mark and Master Norris and Brereton should all have access to the Queen unknown to each other. She was asked about Master Wyatt, but she said she had never even seen him speak to the Queen privately, but always openly, whereupon Secretary Cromwell was glad, for he was very fond of Master Wyatt.

So the gentlemen ordered the old woman1 to be burnt that night within the Tower, and they took her confession to the King; and the King ordered all the prisoners to be beheaded, and the Duke as well, so the next day the Duke, Master Norris, Brereton, and Mark were executed.

Note 1. Lady Wingfield; I can find no record, however, of her having been burnt in Tower, although her dying confession, of which a part only now remains, has always been considered the strongest proof of Anne's guilt.

Spanish Chronicle Chapter 29. Arrest of George Boleyn02 May 1536 ... As soon as the King learnt that she was in the Tower, he ordered the Duke (age 33) [Note. a mistake for Viscount] her brother to be arrested, and taken thither, the old woman having already been taken.

Letters 1536. 02 May 1536. 782. The Concubine's brother (age 33), named Rochefort, has also been lodged in the Tower [Map], but more than six hours after the others, and three or four before his sister; and even if the said crime of adultery had not been discovered, this King, as I have been for some days informed by good authority, had determined to abandon her; for there were witnesses testifying that a marriage passed nine years before had been made and fully consummated between her and the earl of Northumberland (age 34), and the King would have declared himself earlier, but that some one of his Council gave him to understand that he could not separate from the Concubine without tacitly confirming, not only the first marriage, but also, what he most fears, the authority of the Pope. These news are indeed new, but it is still more wonderful to think of the sudden' change from yesterday to today, and the manner of the departure from Greenwich to come hither; but I forbear particulars, not to delay the bearer, by whom you will be amply informed.

Arrest of Anne Boleyn

Letters 1536. 14 May 1536. Add. MS. 25,114, f. 160. B. M. 873. Cromwell to Gardiner and Wallop.

The King has deferred answering their letters sent by Salisbury till the arrival of the bailly of Troyes. Has to inform them, however, of a most detestable scheme, happily discovered and notoriously known to all men. They may have heard the rumour of it. Will express to them, however, some part of the coming out, and of the King's proceeding. The [his sister] Queen's (age 35) incontinent living was so rank and common that the ladies of her privy chamber could not conceal it. It came to the ears of some of the Council, who told his Majesty, although with great fear, as the case enforced. Certain persons of the privy chamber and others of her side were examined, and the matter appeared so evident that, besides that crime, "there brake out a certain conspiracy of the King's death, which extended so far that all we that had the examination of it quaked at the danger his Grace was in, and on our knees gave him (God ?) laud and praise that he had preserved him so long from it." Certain men were committed to the Tower, viz., Marks (age 24) and Norris (age 54) and the Queen's brother (age 33); then she herself was apprehended and committed to the same place; after her Sir Francis Weston (age 25) and Thomas Brereton [A mistake for William?].

Spanish Chronicle Chapter 29. 02 May 1536. How the [his sister] Queen (age 35) and her brother the Duke (age 33) were arrested.

On the 2nd of May the captain of the guard with hundred halberdiers came to Greenwich in the King's great barge, and went to the Queen, and said to her, "My lady, the King has sent me for you;" and she, very much astonished, asked the captain where the King was. She was told he was at Westminster; and she at once got ready, and embarked with all her ladies, thinking she was to be taken to Westminster, but when she saw they stopped at the Tower, she asked whether the King was there. The captain of the Tower appeared, and the captain of the guard addressed him, saying, "I bring you here the Queen, whom the King orders you to keep prisoner, and very carefully guarded." Thereupon the captain took Anne by the arm, and she, as soon as she heard that she was a prisoner, exclaimed loudly in the hearing of many, "I entered with more ceremony the last time I came." They ordered two of her ladies to remain with her, and the rest to be taken to Westminster, and amongst them one very attractive, of whom we shall have to speak further on.1

Note 1. Probably a reference to Jane Seymour (age 27).

Hall's Chronicle 1536. 02 May 1536 ... who the next day was apprehended and brought from Greenwich to the Tower of London [Map], where after she [[his sister] Queen Anne Boleyn of England (age 35)] was arraigned of high treason, and condemned. Also at the same time was likewise apprehended, the Lord Rochford (age 33) brother to the said Queen (age 35), and Henry Norrys (age 54), Marke Smeaton (age 24), William Brereton and Sir Francis Weston (age 25), all of the King’s Privy Chamber. All these were likewise committed to the Tower [Map] and after arraigned and condemned of high treason.

Letters 1536. 02 May 1536. Add. MS. 28,588, f. 260. B. M. 784. Anne Boleyn. "Las nuevas de Ynglaterra de la presion de la Manceba del Rey."

The Emperor (age 36) has letters from England of 2 May, stating that the mistress [[his sister] Queen Anne Boleyn of England (age 35)] of the king of England, who is called Queen, had been put in the Tower [Map] for adultery with an organist of her chamber [Mark Smeaton (age 24)], and the King's most private "sommelier de corps (age 54)." Her brother (age 33) is imprisoned for not giving information of her crime. It is said that, even if it had not been discovered, the King had determined to leave her, as he had been informed that she had consummated a marriage with the earl of Nortemberlano (age 34) (Northumberland) nine years ago.

Sp., p. 1, modern copy.

Letters 1536. 02 May 1536. R. O. 785. Roland Bulkeley to Sir Ric. Bulkeley (age 35), Chamberlain of North Wales.

Commendations to Sir Richard (his brother) and his lady. The [his sister] Queen (age 35) is in the Tower, with the Earl of Wiltshire, Lord Rochford (age 33)1, Mr. Norres (age 54), one master Markes (age 24), one of the King's privy chamber, and sundry ladies. The cause is high treason, that is to say, "that maister Norres (age 54) shulde have a do wythe the Queyne, and Markes (age 24) and the other acsesari to the sayme. The arre lyke to suffyre, all ther morre is the pitte."

Begs him to come to the King as soon as he can, for he can do more than 20 in his absence, and to make haste, and be there before any word be of their death. "When it is ones knone that ye shall dede all wylbe to latte." Asks him to keep this letter close. Grays Inn, 2 May.

Hol., p. 1. Add. Endd.

Note. A mistake? George, Viscount Rochford, brother of Anne Boleyn, children of Thomas Bolyen, Earl of Wiltshire, was in the Tower.

Letters 1536. 03 May 1536. Otho, C. x. 225. B. M. Ellis, i Ser. II. 53. Singer's Cavendish, ii. 217. 793. Sir William Kingston (age 60) to [Cromwell].

On my Lord of Norfolk (age 63) and the King's Council departing from the Tower, I went before the [his sister] Queen (age 35) into her lodging. She said unto me, "Mr. Kingston (age 60), shall I go into a dungeon?" I said, "No, Madam. You shall go into the lodging you lay in at your coronation." "It is too g[ood] for me, she said; Jesu have mercy on me;" and kneeled down, weeping a [good] pace, and in the same sorrow fell into a great laughing, as she has done many times since. "She desyred me to move the Kynges hynes that she [might] have the sacarment in the closet by hyr chamber, that she my[ght pray] for mercy, for I am as clere from the company of man as for s[in as I] am clear from you, and am the Kynges trew wedded wyf. And then s[he said], Mr. Kynston, do you know wher for I am here? and I sayd, Nay. And th[en she asked me], When saw you the Kynge? and I sayd I saw hym not syns I saw [him in] the Tylte Yerde. And then, Mr. K., I pray you to telle me wher my [Lord, my fa]der [Thomas Boleyn 1st Earl Wiltshire and Ormonde (age 59)], ys? And I told hyr I saw hym afore dyner in the Cort. O[where is m]y sweet broder (age 33)? I sayd I left hym at York Place; and so I dyd. I [hear say, sai]d she, that I shuld be accused with iij. men; and I can say [no more but] nay, withyowt I shuld oppen my body. And ther with opynd her gown. O, No[res] (age 54), hast thow accused me? Thow ar in the Towre with me, [and thow and I shall] dy together; and, Marke (age 24), thow art here to. O, my mother (age 56), [thou wilt die with] sorow; and myche lamented my lady of Worceter (age 34), for by c[ause that her child di]d not store in hyre body. And my wyf sayd, what shuld [be the cause? And she sai]d, for the sorow she toke for me. And then she sayd, Mr. [Kyngston (age 60), shall I die with]yowt justes? And I sayd, the porest sugett the Ky[ng hath, hath justice. And t]her with she lawed. Alle thys sayinges was yesterny[ght] .... and thys mornyng dyd talke with Mestrys Co[fyn. And she said, Mr. Norr]es Henry Norreys (age 54) dyd say on Sunday last unto the Quenes am[ner that he would s]vere for the Quene that she was a gud woman. [And then said Mrs.] Cofyn (age 36), Madam, Why shuld ther be hony seche maters [spoken of? Marry,] sayd she, I bad hym do so: for I asked hym why he [did not go through with] hys maryage, and he made ansure he wold tary [a time. Then I said, Y]ou loke for ded men's showys, for yf owth ca[m to the King but good], you would loke to have me. And he sayd yf he [should have any such thought] he wold hys hed war of. And then she sayd [she could undo him if she wou]ld; and ther with thay felle yowt, bot .... and sayd on Wysson Twysday last .... that Nores (age 54) cam more .. age and further ....

"Wher I was commaunded to charge the gentelwomen that gyfes thayr atendans apon the Quene, that ys to say thay shuld have now (i.e., no) commynycasion with hyr in lese my wyf (age 60) ware present; and so I dyd hit, notwithstandynge it canot be so, for my Lady Bolen and Mestrys Cofyn (age 36) lyes on the Quenes palet, and I and my wyf at the dore with yowt, so at thay must nedes talke at be within; bot I have every thynge told me by Mestrys Cofyn (age 36) that she thinkes met for you to know, and tother ij. gentelweymen lyes withyowt me, and as I may knowe t[he] Kynges plesure in the premysses I shalle folow. From the Towre, thys morny[ng].

"Sir, syns the makynge of thys letter the Quene spake of Wes[ton [Francis Weston (age 25)], saying that she] had spoke to hym bycause he did love hyr kynswoman [Mrs. Skelton, and] sayd he loved not hys wyf (age 22), and he made ansere to hyr [again that h]e loved wone in hyr howse better then them bothe. And [the Queen (age 35) said, Who is] that? It ys yourself. And then she defyed hym, as [she said to me]. William Kyngston (age 60)."


Letters 1536. 10 May 1536. Add. MS. 8715, f. 248b. B. M. 838. Bishop of Faenza (age 36) to Mons. Ambrogio.

News came yesterday from England that the King had caused to be arrested the [his sister] Queen (age 35), her father, mother, brother (age 33), and an organist (age 24) with whom she had been too intimate. If it be as is reported, and as the cardinal Du Bellay has given him to understand, it is a great judgment of God. Hears that that King has so bound himself to this king (Francis), that he hopes, if it is so, that the Pope will regain him by means of these people (the French), because Madame Madalena ought reasonably to be given to him. The King is going seven leagues hence, but intends to return. The ambassadors are staying by order of the Grand Master.

Ital., p. 1. Modern copy. Headed: Al Signor Protonotario Ambrogio. Da Suoyeu, li 10 Maggio 1536.

ii. Extract from the original letter in the Vatican. Dated Suryeu le Contal (Sury le Comtat), 10 May 1536.

Letters 1536. 29 May 1536. Corpus Reform., iii. 81. 990. Melancthon to Justus Jonas.

The reports from England are more than tragic. The [his sister] Queen (deceased) is thrown into prison, with her father, brother (deceased), two bishops, and others, for adultery. You will hear the whole thing from Bucer. Monday. Lat.

On 02 May 1536 George Boleyn Viscount Rochford (age 33) arrested.

Imprisonment of Anne Boleyn

Letters 1536. Around 05 May 1536. Otho, C. x. 222. B. M. Singer's Cavendish, ii. 220. Ellis, I. Ser. ii. 56. 798. Sir William Kyngston (age 60) to Cromwell.

"After your departynge yesterday Greneway, gentelman yssher, cam to .... Mr. Caro and Master Bryan commaunded hym in the Kynges name to my .... Ratchfort (age 33) from my [his wife] Lady hys wyf (age 31) and the message was now more .... se how he dyd and also she wold humly sut unto the Kynges hy[nes] .... for hyr husband, and so he gaf hyr thankes and desyred me to kno .... tyme he shuld cum affore the Kynges consell, for I thynk I .... cum forthe tylle I cum to my jogement, wepynge very .... I departed from hym, and when I cam to the chambre the .... of me and sent for me, and sayd, I here say my Lord my .... here; it ys trowth, sayd I. I am very glad, sayd s[he] .... bothe be so ny to gether, and I showed hyr here was .... Weston (age 25) and Brerton, and she made very gud contenans .... I also sayd Mr. Page and Wyet (age 15) wase mo then she sayd he ha .... one hys fyst tother day and ys here now bot ma .... I shalle desyre you to bayre a letter from me .... [to Master] Secretory. And then I sayd, Madam, telle it me by [word of mouth, and I] wille do it. And so gaf me thankes, sayinge I ha[ve much marvel] that the Kynges conselle commes not to me and thys .... [[his sister] she] sayd we shuld have now rayne tyll she ware [delivered out] of the Towre. I pray you it may be shortly, by [cause, said I, of the] fayre wether; you know what I mayne. The Que[ne said unto me that same] nyght that the Kyng wyst what he dyd w[hen he put such] ij. abowt hyr as my Lady Boleyn and Mestres [Cofyn; for] [Margaret Dymoke aka Mistress Coffin (age 36)] thay cowd tell her now thynge of my [Lord her [his father] father (age 59), nor] nothynge ellys, bot she defyed them alle. [But then upon this my Lady Boleyn (age 35)] sayd to hyr, Seche desyre as you have h[ad to such tales] hase browthe you to thys, and then sayd [Mrs. Stoner, Mark (age 24)] ys the worst cherysshe of hony m[an in the house, for he w]ayres yernes. She sayd that was [because he was no gen]telman; bot he wase never in [my chamber but at Winchester, and there] she sent for hym to pl[ay on the virginals, for there my] logynge wa[s above the King's] .... for I never spake with hym syns bot upon Saterday before Mayday; and then I fond hym standyng in the ronde wyndo in my chambre of presens. And I asked why he wase so sad, and he ansured and sayd it was now mater; and then she sayd, You may not loke to have me speke to you as I shuld do to a nobulle man by cause you be an inferor [pe]rson. No, no, madam, a loke sufficed me, and thus fare you welle. [Sh]e hathe asked my wyf whether hony body makes thayr beddes, [and m]y wyf (age 60) ansured and sayd, Nay, I warant you; then she say[d tha]y myght make balettes well now, bot ther ys non bot .... de that can do it. Yese, sayd my wyf (age 60), Master Wyett by .... sayd trew .... my Lorde my broder wille dy .... ne I am sure thys was as .... tt downe to dener thys day.

William Kyngston (age 60).

Trial of Brereton, Norris, Smeaton, and Weston

Letters 1536. 10 May 1536. R. O. 837. Sir John Duddeley (age 32) to Lady Lisle (age 42).

Asks her to speak to her husband (age 72) that the bearer may have the next vacant soldier's room. Is sure there is no need to write the news, for all the world knows them by this time. Today Mr. Norres (age 54), Mr. Weston (age 25), William a Brearton, Markes (age 24), and Lord Rochforde (age 33) were indicted, and on Friday they will be arraigned at Westminster. The Queen herself will be condemned by Parliament. Wednesday, 10 May.

Hol., p. 1. Add.: At Calais.

Letters 1536. 12 May 1536. R. O. 855. John Husee to Lord Lisle (age 72).

I delivered your letter to Mr. Secretary, who promises to be your very friend. I could not see the King, but delivered his letter through Sir John Russell, who promises to consult with Mr. Secretary on your behalf; but there is no time to make suit till the matters now in hand be overblown. As to the friar (Mr. Secretary would they were all at the Devil), he shall be rid, but it will be tomorrow ere I have the letter for his despatch, which Goodall will bring, who will depart tomorrow night. You may tell Mr. Porter, Mr. Treasurer will meddle with no matter till this business be rid. Today Mr. Norrys (age 54), Weston (age 25), Bryerton, and Markes (age 24) have been arraigned, and are judged to be drawn, hanged, and quartered. They shall die tomorrow or Monday. [his sister] Anne the queen (age 35), and her brother (age 33), shall be arraigned in the Tower, some think tomorrow, but on Monday at furthest, and that they will suffer there immediately "for divers considerations, which are not yet known." Mr. Payge and Mr. W[y]at (age 15) are in the Tower, but it is thought without danger of life, though Mr. Payge is banished the King's court for ever. A new Parliament is summoned to commence on Thursday in Whitsun week. Walter Skynner comes over to your Lordship with my Lord Chancellor's letters, to summon you and lord Grey, but you will not go without further licence. Here is one Hall, serjeant-at-arms, who desires much to speak with Mr. Degory Graynfyld. London, 12 May.

Mr. Rossell sent his servant, the bearer, to me while I was writing. Please write some kind letter to Mr. Russell and Mr. Hennage, and write again to Mr. Secretary. Hol., p. 1. Add.

Letters 1536. 12 May. R. O. 848. Trial of Weston (age 25), Norris (age 54), and others.

Special commission of Oyer and Terminer for Middlesex to Sir Thomas Audeley, Chancellor, [his uncle] Thomas Duke of Norfolk (age 63), Charles Duke of Suffolk (age 52), John Earl of Oxford (age 65), Ralph Earl of Westmoreland (age 38), [his father] Thomas Earl of Wiltshire (age 59), Rob. Earl of Sussex, William lord Sandys, Thomas Crumwell (age 51), chief secretary, Sir William Fitzwilliam (age 46), Sir William Paulet (age 53), Sir John Fitzjames, Sir John Baldewyn, Sir Richard Lister, Sir John Porte, Sir John Spelman, Sir Walter Luke, Sir Ant. Fitzherbert, Sir Thomas Englefeld, and Sir William Shelley. Westm., 24 April 28 Henry VIII.

ii. The justices' precept to the sheriff of Middlesex for the return of the grand jury at Westminster on Wednesday, 10 May next. Dated 9 May 28 Henry VIII.—Grand jury panel annexed, 16 sworn.

iii. Indictment found in Middlesex against [his sister] Anne Boleyn (age 35), &c. as in No. 876, with marginal note stating that it was sent before the Duke of Norfolk (age 63) as steward of England, hac vice, as regards all matters touching the Queen and Lord Rochford (age 33).

iv. The justices' precept to the constable of the Tower to bring up Sir Francis Weston (age 25), Henry Noreys (age 54), William Bryerton, and Mark Smeton (age 24), at Westminster, on Friday next after three weeks of Easter. Westm., 10 May 28 Henry VIII.—With reply of the Constable endorsed.

v. The justices' precept to the sheriff of Middlesex for the return of the petty jury for the trial of Henry Noreys (age 54), William Bryerton, and Sir Francis Weston [here follows an erasure which evidently contained the name of Mark Smeaton (age 24)]. Westm., 12 May 28 Henry VIII.—With panel annexed.

vi. Special commission of Oyer and Terminer for Kent, to Sir Thomas Audeley (age 48), Chancellor, Thomas Duke of Norfolk (age 63), Charles Duke of Suffolk (age 52), John Earl of Oxford (age 65), Ralph Earl of Westmoreland (age 38), Rob. Earl of Sussex, Thomas Crumwell, chief secretary, Sir William Fitzwilliam (age 46), Sir William Paulet (age 53), Sir John Fitzjames, Sir John Baldewyn, Sir Richard Lyster, Sir John Porte, Sir John Spelman, Sir Walter Luke, Sir Anth. Fitzherbert, Sir Thomas Englefeld, and Sir William Shelley. Westm., 24 April 28 Henry VIII.

vii. The justices' precept to the sheriff of Kent for the return of the grand jury at Deptford, on Thursday, 11 May. Endd. by Sir Edward Wotton, sheriff.—Panel of grand jury annexed.

viii. Indictment found in Kent, as in No. 876, with memorandum in margin, as in section iii.

ix. Record of the sessions holden Friday after three weeks of Easter 28 Henry VIII. before the above justices. Noreys, Bryerton, Weston, and Smeton (age 24) were brought up in the custody of the constable of the Tower, when Smeton (age 24) pleaded guilty of violation and carnal knowledge of the Queen, and put himself in the King's mercy. Noreys, Bryerton, and Weston pleaded Not guilty. The jury return a verdict of Guilty, and that they have no lands, goods, or chattels.

Judgment against all four as in cases of treason; execution to be at Tyburn.

The above file of documents is endorsed: "Sessiones Comitatuum Middlesexiæ et Kanciæ primo tentæ apud villam Westmonasterii in comitatu Midd. coram Thoma Audeley, milite, Cancellario Angliæ, et aliis, &c., et secundo tentæ apud Depford in comitatu Kanciæ coram Johanne Baldewyn, milite et aliis, anno regni Regis Henrici VIII. vicesimo octavo."

Letters 1536. 13 May 1536. R. O. 865. J. Husee to Lord Lisle (age 72).

Here is no good to be done, neither with the King nor with any of his Council, till matters now had in hand be fully achieved. Mr. Secretary had no leisure to despatch the letter for the Friar's delivery. It is useless suing to Mr. Treasurer till he have more leisure. It is believed this matter will be rid by the end of next week. Here are so many tales I cannot tell what to write. This day, some say, young Weston (age 25) shall scape, and some that none shall die but the [his sister] Queen (age 35) and her brother (age 33); others, that Wyat (age 15) and Mr. Payge are as like to suffer as the others. The saying now is that those who shall suffer shall die when the Queen and her brother go to execution; but I think they shall all suffer. If any escape, it will be young Weston (age 25), for whom importunate suit is made. It is rumoured that Harry Webbe has been taken in the West country, and put in hold for the same cause. By Wednesday [May 17] all will be known. Sir Thomas Cheyne (age 51) is named Lord Warden, some say by Mr. Secretary's preferment. My Lord of Richmond (age 16) is Chamberlain of Chester and N. Wales, and Mr. Harry Knyvet, Constable of Beaumaris. If Mr. Secretary keep promise your Lordship shall have something. Today Mr. Russell was in very sad communication with Mr. Whethill. I fear I have taken a wrong pig by the ear, but I shall know by his preferring of your affairs ere long. Mr. Brian is chief gentleman of the privy chamber, and shall keep the table. There is plain saying that the King will assign the groom of the stole from time to time at his pleasure. I trust you will remember Mr. Secretary with wine and letters, and also Mr. Hennage. The King comes not to Dover at this time. There shall be both burgesses and knights of the shire for Calais. Give credence to Goodall, and keep secret what he tells you. London, 13 May. Hol., p. 1. Add.

Trial of Anne and George Boleyn

Letters 1536. 15 May 1536. R. O. 876. Trial of [his sister] Anne Boleyn (age 35) and Lord Rochford (age 33).

Record of pleas held at the Tower of London before [his uncle] Thomas Duke of Norfolk (age 63), treasurer and Earl marshal, lord high steward, citing:—

1. Patent appointing the said Duke steward of England hac vice for the trial of queen Anne and Lord Rochford (age 33). Westm., 12 May 28 Henry VIII.

2. Mandate to Sir John Baldewyn, Sir Richard Lister, Sir John Porte, Sir John Spelman, Sir Walter Luke, Sir Anth. Fitzherbert, Sir Thos. Englefeld, and Sir William Shelley, special commissioners of Oyer and Terminer for Middlesex, to return all indictments found against queen Anne and Lord Rochford (age 33). Westm., 13 May 28 Henry VIII.

3. Similar mandate to Sir John Baldewyn, Sir Walter Luke, Sir Anth. Fitzherbert, and Sir William Shelley, special commissioners for Kent. Westm., 13 May 28 Henry VIII.

4. Mandate to Sir William Kyngestone, constable of the Tower, to bring queen Anne and Lord Rochford (age 33) before the Lord High Steward when required. Westm., 13 May 28 Henry VIII.

5. The Lord High Steward issued his precept, 13 May, to Sir John Baldewyn and his fellows in Middlesex, to return the indictments at the Tower before him on Monday, 15 May, and a similar precept to Sir J. Baldewyn, Luke, and his fellows in Kent; a third precept to the constable of the Tower to bring queen Anne and Lord Rochford (age 33) that day before him; and a fourth to Ralph Felmyngham, serjeant-at-arms, to summon such and so many lords of the kingdom, peers of the said queen Anne and Lord Rochford (age 33), by whom the truth may appear.

6. Pleas held before the Duke of Norfolk (age 63), steward of England, at the Tower, on Monday, 15 May 28 Henry VIII.

The justices bring in the indictments for Middlesex and Kent, Sir William Kingston (age 60) produces the prisoners, and Ralph Felmyngham declares that he has summoned the peers. Proclamation being then made, the peers answer to their names; viz., Charles Duke of Suffolk (age 52), Henry marquis of Exeter, William Earl of Arundel, John Earl of Oxford (age 65), Henry Earl of Northumberland (age 34), Ralph Earl of Westmoreland (age 38), Edward Earl of Derby (age 27), Henry Earl of Worcester, Thomas Earl of Rutland (age 44), Rob. Earl of Sussex, George Earl of Huntingdon, John lord Audeley, Thos. lord La Ware, Henry lord Mountague, Henry lord Morley, Thos. lord Dacre, George lord Cobham, Henry lord Maltravers, Edward lord Powes, Thos. lord Mount Egle, Edward lord Clynton, William lord Sandes, Andrew lord Wyndesore, Thos. lord Wentworth, Thos. lord Burgh, and John lord Mordaunt.

7. Indictment found at Westminster on Wednesday next after three weeks of Easter, 28 Henry VIII.1 before Sir John Baldwin, &c., by the oaths of Giles Heron, Roger More, Richard Awnsham, Thos. Byllyngton, Gregory Lovell, Jo. Worsop, William Goddard, William Blakwall, Jo. Wylford, William Berd, Henry Hubbylthorn, William Hunyng, Rob. Walys, John England, Henry Lodysman, and John Averey; who present that whereas queen Anne has been the wife of Henry VIII. for three years and more, she, despising her marriage, and entertaining malice against the King, and following daily her frail and carnal lust, did falsely and traitorously procure by base conversations and kisses, touchings, gifts, and other infamous incitations, divers of the King's daily and familiar servants to be her adulterers and concubines, so that several of the King's servants yielded to her vile provocations; viz., on 6th Oct. 25 Henry VIII., at Westminster, and divers days before and after, she procured, by sweet words, kisses, touches, and otherwise, Henry Noreys, of Westminster, gentle man of the privy chamber, to violate her, by reason whereof he did so at Westminster on the 12th Oct. 25 Henry VIII.; and they had illicit intercourse at various other times, both before and after, sometimes by his procurement, and sometimes by that of the Queen. Also the Queen, 2 Nov. 27 Henry VIII. and several times before and after, at Westminster, procured and incited her own natural brother, George Boleyn (age 33), Lord Rochford, gentleman of the privy chamber, to violate her, alluring him with her tongue in the said George's mouth, and the said George's tongue in hers, and also with kisses, presents, and jewels; whereby he, despising the commands of God, and all human laws, 5 Nov. 27 Henry VIII., violated and carnally knew the said Queen, his own sister, at Westminster; which he also did on divers other days before and after at the same place, sometimes by his own procurement and sometimes by the Queen's. Also the Queen, 3 Dec. 25 Henry VIII., and divers days before and after, at Westminster, procured one William Bryerton, late of Westminster, gentleman of the privy chamber, to violate her, whereby he did so on 8 Dec. 25 Henry VIII., at Hampton Court, in the parish of Lytel Hampton, and on several other days before and after, sometimes by his own procurement and sometimes by the Queen's. Also the Queen, 8 May 26 Henry VIII., and at other times before and since, procured Sir Fras. Weston, of Westminster, gentleman of the privy chamber, &c., whereby he did so on the 20 May, &c. Also the Queen, 12 April 26 Henry VIII., and divers days before and since, at Westminster, procured Mark Smeton (age 24), groom of the privy chamber, to violate her, whereby he did so at Westminster, 26 April 27 Henry VIII.

Moreover, the said Lord Rochford (age 33), Norreys, Bryerton, Weston, and Smeton (age 24), being thus inflamed with carnal love of the Queen, and having become very jealous of each other, gave her secret gifts and pledges while carrying on this illicit intercourse; and the Queen, on her part, could not endure any of them to converse with any other woman, without showing great displeasure; and on the 27 Nov. 27 Henry VIII., and other days before and after, at Westminster, she gave them great gifts to encourage them in their crimes. And further the said Queen and these other traitors, 31 Oct. 27 Henry VIII., at Westminster, conspired the death and destruction of the King, the Queen often saying she would marry one of them as soon as the King died, and affirming that she would never love the King in her heart. And the King having a short time since become aware of the said abominable crimes and treasons against himself, took such inward displeasure and heaviness, especially from his said Queen's malice and adultery, that certain harms and perils have befallen his royal body.

And thus the said Queen and the other traitors aforesaid have committed their treasons in contempt of the Crown, and of the issue and heirs of the said King and Queen.

8. Record of indictment and process before Baldewyn, Luke, and others, in co. Kent.

The indictment found at Deptford, on Thursday, 11 May 28 Henry VIII., is precisely similar in character to the Middlesex indictment, except as regards times and places; viz., that the Queen at Estgrenewyche, 12 Nov. 25 Henry VIII., and divers days before and since, allured one Henry Noreys, late of Est Grenewyche, to violate her, whereby he did so on the 19 Nov., &c.; that on 22 Dec. 27 Henry VIII., and divers other days, at Eltham, she allured George Boleyn, Lord Rochford (age 33), &c., whereby he did so, 29 Dec., &c.; that on the 16 Nov. 25 Henry VIII., and divers, &c., at Est Grenewyche, she allured one William Bryerton, late of Est Grenewyche, &c., whereby he did so, 27 Nov., &c.; that on the 6 June 26 Henry VIII., &c., at Est Grenewyche, she allured Sir Fras. Weston, &c., whereby he did so, 20 June, &c.; that on the 13 May 26 Henry VIII. &c., at Est Grenewyche, she allured Mark Smeton (age 24), &c., whereby he did so, 19 May 26 Henry VIII.

And further that the said Boleyn, &c. grew jealous of each other; and the Queen, to encourage them, at Eltham, 31 Dec. 27 Henry VIII., and divers times before and since, made them presents, &c.; that the Queen and the others, 8 Jan. 27 Henry VIII., conspired the King's death, &c., and that she promised to marry one of the traitors whenever the King was dead, affirming she would never love him, &c.

And afterwards, Monday, 15 May, queen Anne comes to the bar before the Lord High Steward in the Tower, in the custody of Sir William Kingston (age 60), pleads not guilty, and puts herself on her peers; whereupon the said Duke of Suffolk (age 52), marquis of Exeter, and other peers, are charged by the High Steward to say the truth; and being examined from the lowest peer to the highest, each of them severally saith that she is guilty.

Judgment:—To be taken to prison in the Tower, and then, at the King's command, to the Green within the Tower, and there to be burned or beheaded as shall please the King.

The same day, Lord Rochford (age 33) is brought before the High Steward in the custody of Sir William Kingston (age 60), and pleads not guilty. The peers are charged, with the exception of the Earl of Northumberland (age 34), who was suddenly taken ill, and each of them severally saith that he is guilty.

Judgment:—To be taken to prison in the Tower, and then drawn through the city of London, to the gallows at Tyburn, &c., as usual in high treason.

R. O. 2. Originals of the above indictments, commission to the Lord High Steward, mandates and precept, with the original panel of peers. Several of these documents are a good deal injured.

Note 1. See Report III. of Dep. Keeper of the Pub. Records, App. ii. 243. The whole of the proceedings are printed by Mr. Hamilton in the Appendix to Vol. I. of Wriothesley's Chronicle.

Letters 1536. 15 May 1536. 908. Chapuys (age 46) to Charles V.

On the 15th the said Concubine and her brother (age 33) were condemned of treason by all the principal lords of England, and the [his uncle] Duke of Norfolk (age 63) pronounced sentence. I am told the [his father] Earl of Wiltshire (age 59) was quite as ready to assist at the judgment as he had done at the condemnation of the other four. Neither the [his sister] putain (age 35) nor her brother (age 33) was brought to Westminster like the other criminals. They were condemned within the Tower, but the thing was not done secretly, for there were more than 2,000 persons present. What she was principally charged with was having cohabited with her brother and other accomplices; that there was a promise between her and Norris (age 54) to marry after the King's death, which it thus appeared they hoped for; and that she had received and given to Norris certain medals, which might be interpreted to mean that she had poisoned the late Queen and intrigued to do the same to the Princess. These things she totally denied, and gave to each a plausible answer. Yet she confessed she had given money to Weston (age 25), as she had often done to other young gentlemen. She was also charged, and her brother likewise, with having laughed at the King and his dress, and that she showed in various ways she did not love the King but was tired of him. Her brother was charged with having cohabited with her by presumption, because he had been once found a long time with her, and with certain other little follies. To all he replied so well that several of those present wagered 10 to 1 that he would be acquitted, especially as no witnesses were produced against either him or her, as it is usual to do, particularly when the accused denies the charge.

I must not omit, that among other things charged against him as a crime was, that his sister (age 35) had told his [his wife] wife (age 31) that the King "nestoit habile en cas de soy copuler avec femme, et quil navoit ne vertu ne puissance1." This he was not openly charged with, but it was shown him in writing, with a warning not to repeat it. But he immediately declared the matter, in great contempt of Cromwell and some others, saying he would not in this point arouse any suspicion which might prejudice the King's issue. He was also charged with having spread reports which called in question whether his sister's daughter was the King's child. To which he made no reply. They were judged separately, and did not see each other. The Concubine was condemned first, and having heard the sentence, which was to be burnt or beheaded at the King's pleasure, she preserved her composure, saying that she held herself "pour toute saluee de la mort2," and that what she regretted most was that the above persons, who were innocent and loyal to the King, were to die for her. She only asked a short space for shrift (pour disposer sa conscience3). Her brother, after his condemnation, said that since he must die, he would no longer maintain his innocence, but confessed that he had deserved death. He only begged the King that his debts, which he recounted, might be paid out of his goods.

Although everybody rejoices at the execution of the putain, there are some who murmur at the mode of procedure against her and the others, and people speak variously of the King; and it will not pacify the world when it is known what has passed and is passing between him and Mrs. Jane Semel (age 27). Already it sounds ill in the ears of the people, that the King, having received such ignominy, has shown himself more glad than ever since the arrest of the putain; for he has been going about banqueting with ladies, sometimes remaining after midnight, and returning by the river. Most part of the time he was accompanied by various musical instruments, and, on the other hand, by the singers of his chamber, which many interpret as showing his delight at getting rid of a "maigre vieille et mechante bague4," with hope of change, which is a thing specially agreeable to this King. He supped lately with several ladies in the house of the Bishop of Carlisle, and showed an extravagant joy, as the said Bishop came to tell me next morning, who reported, moreover, that the King had said to him, among other things, that he had long expected the issue of these affairs, and that thereupon he had before composed a tragedy, which he carried with him; and, so saying, the King drew from his bosom a little book written in his own hand, but the Bishop did not read the contents. It may have been certain ballads that the King has composed, at which the putain and her brother laughed as foolish things, which was objected to them as a great crime.

Note 1. "was not skilful in case of copulating with a woman, and that he had neither virtue nor power".

Note 2. "for every death salute".

Note 3. to dispose of one's conscience.

Note 4. skinny old nasty ring

Note 5. This part of the letter was written on the 17th. See further on, at the beginning of the last paragraph.

On 15 May 1536 [his sister] Queen Anne Boleyn (age 35) tried at the King's Hall in the Tower of London [Map].

[his uncle] Thomas Howard 3rd Duke of Norfolk (age 63) was appointed Lord High Steward and presided. Henry Howard (age 20) attended. Henry Pole 1st Baron Montagu (age 44) was one of the judges. Elizabeth Browne Countess of Worcester (age 34) was the principal witness.

The jurors were:

Charles Brandon 1st Duke of Suffolk (age 52).

Edward Clinton 1st Earl Lincoln (age 24).

Thomas Fiennes 9th Baron Dacre Gilsland (age 21).

George Hastings 1st Earl Huntingdon (age 49).

Thomas Manners 1st Earl of Rutland (age 44).

John Mordaunt 1st Baron Mordaunt (age 56).

Ralph Neville 4th Earl of Westmoreland (age 38).

[his father-in-law] Henry Parker 11th Baron Marshal 10th Baron Morley (age 55).

Edward Stanley 3rd Earl of Derby (age 27).

Thomas Stanley 2nd Baron Monteagle (age 28).

John de Vere 15th Earl of Oxford (age 65).

Thomas Wentworth 1st Baron Wentworth (age 35).

Henry Somerset 2nd Earl of Worcester (age 40).

Henry Percy 5th Earl of Northumberland.

Thomas Burgh 7th Baron Cobham 5th Baron Strabolgi 1st Baron Burgh (age 48).

Henry Courtenay 1st Marquess Exeter (age 40).

William Fitzalan 18th Earl of Arundel (age 60).

Henry Fitzalan 19th Earl of Arundel (age 24).

Thomas Audley 1st Baron Audley Walden (age 48).

Edward Powers Lord Powers.

William Sandys 1st Baron Sandys Vyne (age 66).

Thomas Ware.

Andrew Windsor 1st Baron Windsor (age 69).

George Brooke 9th Baron Cobham (age 39).

She was found guilty and sentenced to be beheaded. John Spelman (age 56) signed the death warrant.

After Anne's trial her brother George Boleyn Viscount Rochford (age 33) was also tried and found guilty.

Wriothesley's Chronicle 1536. 15 May 1536. After this, immediately the Lord of Rocheforde (age 33), her brother, was arreigned for treason, which was for knowinge the Queene, his sister, carnallie, moste detestable against the la we of God and nature allso, and treason to his Prince, and allso for conspiracie of the Kinges death: Whereunto he made aunswere so prudentlie and wiselie to all articles layde against him, that manreil it was to heare, and never would confesse anye thinge, but made himselfe as cleare as though he had never offended. Howbeit he was there condemned by 26 lordes and barons of treason, and then my [his uncle] Lord of Northfolke (age 63) gave him this judgment: That he should goo agayne to prison in the Tower [Map] from whence he came, and to be drawne from the saide Towre of London thorowe the Cittie of London to the place of execution called Tybume [Map], and there to be hanged, beinge alyve cutt downe, and then his members cutt of and his bowells taken owt of his bodie and brent [burned] before him, and then his head cutt of and his bodie to be divided in 4 peeces, and his head and bodie to be sett at suche places as the King should assigne; and after this the court brake up for that tyme. The Major of London with certeyne Aldermen were present at this arreignment of the Queene and her brother, with the wardeins and 4 persons more of 12 of the principall craftes of London.

Letters 1536. 24 May 1536. Add. MS. 8,715, f. 252. B. M. 956. Bishop of Faenza (age 36) to Mons. Ambrogio.

According to information from England, received by the King yesterday, on the 15th inst. the [his sister] Queen (deceased) was degraded, and the following day was to be executed,—either burnt or beheaded; but first her brother (deceased), four gentlemen, and an organist (deceased), with whom she had misconducted herself, were to be quartered in her presence. It is not true that her [his father] father (age 59) and mother were imprisoned, but the former (age 59), being on the Council, was present at his daughter's (deceased) sentence. All was done in the presence of the French ambassador only. It is said that the King has been in danger of being poisoned by that lady (deceased) for a whole year, and that her daughter (age 2) is supposititious, being the child of a countryman (villano); but these particulars are not known for certain, according to what the King said today. The discovery was owing to words spoken by the organist (deceased) from jealousy of others. They are expecting now the declaration of the true daughter to reinstate her and annul what was done in favor of the other. Has not omitted to show what may be done on this occasion for the honor of God, &c. The French king answered that he ardently desired to bring back Henry to the Church, and that he would not fail in endeavouring to do so. He knows that the Imperialists have offered the king of England the queen of Hungary as a wife, but it is thought he will not take her, as she is in bad health, and not fit to bear children. He has today sent a person to his Ambassador about these affairs. He thinks it would be easy to bring back the King if it were not for his avarice, which is increased by the profit he draws from Church goods. The English ambassadors here are in very great joy. Knowing that one of them was a good man, and a friend of his, caused the opportunity and advantage of the King's coming back to the Pope to be shown to him; and that he should be neutral, and give the Emperor and (French) king to understand that he would oppose whoever refused peace; that there was not a better opportunity of wiping out the stains on his character, and making himself the most glorious King in the world; that every one should do his duty, and they would find in the Pope that true piety and goodness which ought now to be known to all the world. The Ambassador, and Winchester also, who is the other, thanked him, saying, with many tears, that this was their only desire, and they would do their part, so that they hoped we should soon embrace each other.

Ital., modern copy, pp. 6. Headed: Al Signor Protonotario Ambrogio, Da Lione, li 24 Maggio 1536.

Letters 1536. 15 May 1536. R. O. 878. Rochford (age 33), Norris (age 54), and Brereton. Lord Rochford's lands. Account of their yearly value.

Farms:—Manor of South Kent, and honor and lordship of Rayley, Essex, sold to the [his father] Earl of Wiltshire (age 59); manor of Grymston, worth £10 a year. Offices:—Stewardship of Beaulyu, Essex, £10 and keeping of the new park there, £4 10s. 3d.; keeping of the house of Our Lady of Bethlem without Bishopsgate, without account; keeping, &c. of the parks of Rayley and Thundersley and the bailliwick of the hundred of Rocheford, £16 20d.; keeping of the park of King's Hatfelde, 100s. 10d.; keeping of the manor, &c. of Beaulyu, Essex, and baileywick of the m[anors] of Newhall, Dorehame, Walkefare hall and P[ower]s, [See Vol. IV., 4993 (15).] Essex, £21 5s. 10d.; stewardship and other offices of Tunbridge, receivership and bailliwick of Brestede, keeping, &c. of the manor and park of Penshurst and the parks of Northleigh and Northlands, Kent, £28 15s. 10d.; constableship of Dover and keeping of the v. ports, —; constableship of Kelingworth, £13 6s. 8d.; keeping of Kelingworth park, 60s. 8d.; portership of Kelingworth castle, 30s. 4d.; bailiff and feudary of the liberty of the duchy in Warwickshire; keeping of the King's woods at Kelingworth, £4 11s. Annuities:—One of 50 mks., of the bp. of Winchester £200, and of the abbot of St. Albans £133 6s. 8d.

Grand total, £441 10s. 9d.

ii. Lands, &c. of Henry Norres (age 54), Esquire to the Body.

Account of Edmund Asshefelde, his receiver, for the year ending Michaelmas, 27 Henry VIII.

Arrearages, £692 8s. 2¾d.

Farms:—In co. Linc., the lordships of Barton upon Humber, £65, and Thursway and Tewelly, £13; in co. Notts., manor and lordship of Stokebardolph, Shelforde and Gedlyng, £45; cos. Beds. and Hunts., manor and lordship of Tylbroke and Southoo, £36 10s.; cos. Berks. and Dors., divers lands, £36; co. Rutl., lordship of Longhame, £81; co. Kent, lands in Greenwich, £15 10s.; co. Oxford, lordship of Duklyngton Fryngforde and Barley park, £32 10s.; manor of Mynster Lovell, £46; co. Bucks, "lands with the park which was never rented," nil; co. Surrey, house in Kewe never rented, nil. Total, £370 10s.

Offices:—Of the "Exchequireship" to the Body, £33 6s. 8d.; mastership of the Hart hounds, £18 5s.; Black Rod, £18 5s.; "gravership" of the Tower, £20; collectorship of the subsidy in London, worth 80 marks a year, sold to Richard Hill his deputy for ready money, nil; mastership of the hawkes, £40; keeping of the manor of Pleasaunce at Green wich, £24 17s. 8d.; stewardship of Mynsterlovell, £4 13s. 4d.; of Burfor town, £8 12s. 4d.; chamberlainship of North Wales, £20; constableship of Wallingford castle, £50; "wayreship" (weighership) of Southampton —; baileywick of Watlington, £6 20d.; mastership of the game of Whichewoode with Cornebury park, £27 2s. 6d.; keeping of Windsor little park, £4 11s. 3d.; of Foly Johns park —; of Ewelme park and manor, &c., £12 3s. 6d.; constableship, &c. of Donyngton castle and park, £16; baileywick of Kydlington, 100s.; of Buckl . d, —; of Newnam, 60s.; lieutenantship of Waltham forest —; keeping of Copped Hall park, —; of Hoknorton park, —; mastership of game and fee-farm of the lordship of Eltam, —; stewardships of Banbury, £6, of Osney, £4; and of the seven hundreds of Circetor, £6 13s. 4d.; fee of my Lord of Northumberland, £13 6s. 8d.; of lord Conyers, 66s. 8d.; of the abbot of Welbeke, 66s. 8d.; office of Sunyng, of the gift of the bp. of Salisbury, £13 6s. 8d.; stewardship of Abendon, £10; of Reading abbey, 100s.; of Brewan abbey, 66s. 8d.; of Malmsbury abbey, £10; of the University of Oxford, 100s. Total of offices, £395 5s. 7d.

Annuities:—Out of the Exchequer, £33 6s. 8d.; of the see of Winchester, £122; from the chamberlain of North Wales, over and above 40 marks for the constableship of Bewmares castle given to Richard Bowkeley, £360; out of the King's receipt, £26 13s. 4d.; of lord Dacres of the South, £20 Total, £562

Total "ultra arrerag," £1,327 15s. 7d.

iii. Lands, &c. of William Brereton, Esquire. Account for the year ended Michaelmas last 27 Henry VIII.

Lands in farm of the King:—To him and my lady in survivorship, lordship of Echells, £68 6s. 3½d., manor of Alderlaie, £20 12s. 5½d., and manor and lordship of Aldeford, Chesh., £53 14s. 1½d., with lands of Aldeforde, in Flintshire, 106s. 8d.; in all £47 clear, and the King paid. Lordship of Mottrom in Londendale, £46 19s. 2d., to him and his brother Uryan in survivorship, manor and lordship of Shotwyks and Sage Hall, £22 12s. 8d.; lands in Chester, parcel of Mottrom in Longdendale, 20s., to him and his heirs; manor of Lesnes, —; lands in Charleyton, Chesh., £6 14s. 8d.; ferries of North Wales, £20 2s. 4d. clear; lordship of Fyncheley, Midd., £25 19s. 4½d.: total £271 7s. 9d. Lands in farm of the Duke of Richmond (age 16):—Demesnes of Holt Castle, with the "weyre houks" and other pasture in the lordship of Bromefeld, £19 17s. 9d.; the horsemill in Holt town, 33s. 4d.: total, £21 11s. 1d. Farms:—of the Earl of Derby, of marshes in Alford, Coddington, and Twylston, Chesh., £18 19s., worth £8 10s. 8d., the King paid; of lord Audelay, the lordship of Tatenhall, co. Chester, £38 3s. 4½d., "worth nothing;" gift of Sir Randall Brereton, his father, lands in Malpas, &c., of the annuity of William Brereton, Esquire, 64s. 1d.; of Sir Anthony Browne, the lordship of Newhall, Chesh., £65 17s. 6d., "worth nothing by the year:" total, £120 3s. 11½d.

Sir John Savage's lands in farm of the King during the nonage of John, son and heir of the said Sir John, with my lady his wife's jointure:—In co. Chester, the lordship of Shipbroke, £85 2s., manors and lordships of Clyfton, £27 11s. 4d., Bradley, £14 9s. 11d., Makkelfeld, £12 2s. 8d., Huxley, £7 13s. 8d., Barrowe, £67 19s. 4½d., Chedell, £74 10½d., Coulle and Hurleston, £20 11s. 8½d.; in co. Shropp., lordships of Edelburnell, £13 16s. 7d., Crofton (with the manor), £7 13s. 8d., Sutton, £6 10s. 11d., Wotton Ovenbury, £14 4s. 7d., Hopebowdler, 55s. 1d., Wycus Malbus (Nantwich) for the barony there, 30s.; in co. Derby, lordships of Stanby, 34s. 17s. ½d., Elmeton, £16, Ilkeston, £37, Holmeffeld, £13 6s. 8d.; lordship of Graundby and Sutton, Notts, £36 4s. 7d.; lordship of Dowre, Derb., "nil, for he hath not accounted;" castle and manors of Gryse, Notts., "nil, in the hands of Richard Savage, the elder;" in co. Stafford, manors and lordships of Rossheton, £18 6s. 7¼d., and Tayne, £12 7s. ½d.; lordship of Shepfeld, Leic., £10; a meadow and tenement in Leicester, "nil, in the hands of John Savage:" total, £534 4s. 3¾d.

In farm:—of Dr. Chamber, tithe corn of Pykyll, £13 6s. 8d.; of the abbot of Vala Crucis, tithe corn of Ruabon, £26 13s. 4d., "for the which he paid nothing:" total, £40 Offices by the King:—chamberlainship of Chester, £22 10s., and Randall Brereton for the fee of chamberlain, £26 13s. 4d., £49 3s. 4d. clear; constable of Chester castle, £18 5s.; escheator of Chester, £10 10s.; rangership of Dalamer forest, £4 11s. 3d.; stewardship of Halton, 100 [s.]; comptrollership of Chester and Flintshire, £12 3s. 4d.; stewardship of Bromefeld, £20; receivership there, £13 6s. 8d.; master fostership, 60s.; office of serjeant at Paxe there, £4; of improver there, 60s. 10d.; keeping of Mersley park, 60s. 10d.; stewardship of Crykeland, £10; receivership there, 100s.; annuity of Denbigh, £6 13s. 4d.; sheriffship of Flintshire, £20; keeping of Halton park, 60s. 10d.: total, £190 15s. 5d. Other offices:— stewardship of lord Audeley's lands in Chester, £6 13s. 4d.; receivership of Newhall, Coulle, and other lands of Sir Anthony Browne, 50s.; annuity of the abbot of Norton, £4 13s. 4d.; of Anthony Kingeston, 53s. 4d.; the abbot of Chester, £20; abbot of Vala Riall, £20; stewardship of Sir William Brereton's lands in Malpas, 40s: total, £58 10s.

Grand total of Brereton's lands, &c., 1,2361. 12s. 6¼d.

Large paper, pp. 16. 3 blank leaves.

R. O. 879. Norris and Brereton.

Grant to Henry Norres (age 54), squire of the Body, of the stewardship of the manors of Lewesham and East Greenwich, with a yearly fee of £3 6s. 8d. [A.D. 1532.—See Vol. V., 1065 (22)]. Lat. Draft, pp. 2. Endd.

R. O. 2. Draft warrant to the Treasurer and Chamberlains of the Exchequer, in behalf of Thomas Brigges, deputy to Henry Norres (age 54), to whom the rangership of Whichwood Forest, Oxon, was granted by patent 24 Nov. 21 Henry VIII., with 6d. a day out of the issues of cos. Oxon and Berks,—to levy £17 arrears of the said 6d., which are unpaid since 5 June 26 Henry VIII. through insufficiency of the said issues, out of the petty custom of the port of London. [Date apparently 16 April 1536]. Pp. 2. Draft, mutilated. Endd.: £55 12s. 6d.—£28

R. O. 3. A list of William Brereton's offices; viz., chamberlain of Chester, escheator, baron of the Exchequer [i.e., of Chester], receiver general and surveyor, constable of the castle. "Also he maketh the coroners." Steward of Halton Castle and keeper of the prisoners there, steward to all abbeys and priories within the shire. "Steward to the king of Mottram in Longdendale, wherein he hath great manrede; steward and farmer of Echees, .... and Alderly, and farmer for the King of the same .... £100 by the year," &c. P. 1. Mutilated and defaced by damp. Endd.:

William Brereton offices.

R. O. 4. Accounts of John Norbury, general receiver of the lands of William Brereton in cos. Chester, Flint, and other counties, from 22 to 25 Henry VIII., containing numerous names of tenants, farmers, and officers.

A large folio volume of 41 leaves, numbered in pencil.

S. B. 5. Grant to W. Breerton, page of the chamber, of the wardship and marriage of Godfrey son and heir of Roger Fuljambe. [This S. B. is undated, but was probably issued early in the year 1529. See Vol. IV. 5508 (1). It has accordingly been placed on the file of the 21st year].

R. O. 6. A remembrance to Master Secretary of three offices in the King's gift, which William Brearton late had, in Cheshire; the riding forestership of Dealamer Forest, 4d. a day; keepership of Shotwike park, 2d. the [day]; escheatorship, £10 a year. P. 1. Endd.: [Hen]ry Annesley, Groom of the Chamber.

R. O. 880. Robert B[arnes] to Cromwell. Is informed that through the death of these false men the mastership of Bedlam1 shall be void. Begs for that promotion, which he would rather have than a bishopric. Hears it is worth £40 If he had it, would be near Cromwell, who might be a witness of his conversation. Need compels him to write, for he has nothing and nobody to care for him. Hol., p. 1. Add.: Secretary. Endd.: Anno xxviio.

R. O. 881. Robert Bar [Barnes] (age 41) to Cromwell. Desires to speak two or three words with him. "My matters pertain to God's glory and to the salvation of your soul, which our Heavenly Father ever keep for the sweet bulde (blood?) of his dear Son, Jesus Christ." Hol., p. 1. Add.: Master Secretary.

Note 1. Lord Rochford (age 33) was master of Bethlehem Hospital. See IV. 5815 (27); also in this Vol., No. 878, preceding. The endorsement is therefore wrong.

Letters 1536. 16 May 1536. Harl. MS. 283, f. 134. B. M. Ellis, 1 Ser. ii. 62. 890. Sir William Kyngston (age 60) to [Cromwell].

Was with the King today, and declared the petition of Lord Rochford (age 33), wherein I was answered. The said Lord desires to speak with you on a matter which touches his conscience. I wish to know your pleasure, because of my promise to him, and also to know the King's pleasure touching the Queen, as well for her confession as for the preparation of scaffolds. The King told me that my Lord of Canterbury should be her confessor, and he was here today with her. "The time is short, for the King supposeth the gentlemen to die tomorrow, and my Lord of Rochford (age 33), with the residue of gentlemen, and as yet without Doctor Allryge (?), which I look for;" but I have told him to be ready to suffer tomorrow, and so he accepts it very well, and will do his best to be ready, "notwithstanding, he would have received his rights, which hath not been used, and in especial here." Yet this day at dinner the Queen said she would go to "anonre" (a nunnery)1, and is in hope of life.

Hol., p. 1. Mutilated. Endd.

Note 1. Misread by Ellis, "Anvures," which he interprets as "Antwerp."

Excerpta Historica Page 260. 16 May 1536. Translation Of A Letter From A Portuguese Gentleman To A Friend In Lisbon, Describing The Execution Of [his sister] Anne Boleyn (age 35), Lord Rochford (age 33), Brereton, Norris (age 54), Smeton (age 24), And Weston (age 25).

The following extremely interesting Letter, which has been translated and obligingly communicated by Viscount Strangford, from the original in the Cartorio of the Monastery of Alcobaja, in Portugal, conveys an account of the execution of Anne Boleyn and her presumed accomplices, by, probably, an eye-witness.

Several letters from Sir William Kingston (age 60), the Lieutenant of the Tower, to Secretary Cromwell (age 51), have been printed1, which afford minute information on the conduct of the unfortunate Queen, from the time of her committal to the Tower until the day before her execution, together with notices of Lord Rochford, whose request to receive the sacrament was thus alluded to:-

"I have told my Lord of Rochford," says Kingston, on the 16th of May, "that he be in readiness to-morrow to suffer execution, and so he accepts it very well, and will do his best to be ready, notwithstanding he would have received his rights [i.e. the sacrament] which hath not been used and in especial here."2

From the same letter it is manifest that the Queen still entertained hopes of mercy, as Sir William Kingston adds — "Yet this day at dinner the Queen said that she should go to Antwerp, and is in hope of life." Her desire to go to Antwerp may be ascribed to its being the residence of many persons of the reformed religion, to one of whom she had rendered some service.3

Note 1. Ellis's Original Letters, First Series, vol. ii. p. 52 — 64.

Note 2. Ibid. p. 63.

Note 3. Ibid. p. 46.

Execution of George Boleyn, Brereton, Norris, Smeaton and Weston

Letters 1536. 17 May 1536. 908. Chapuys (age 46) to Charles V.

Today1 Rochford (age 33) has been beheaded before the Tower, and the four others above named, notwithstanding the intercession of the Bishop of Tarbes, the French ambassador resident, and the sieur de Tinteville, who arrived the day before yesterday, in behalf of one named Weston (age 25). The [his sister] Concubine (age 35) saw them executed from the Tower, to aggravate her grief. Rochford (age 33) disclaimed all that he was charged with, confessing, however, that he had deserved death for having been so much contaminated and having contaminated others with these new sects, and he prayed everyone to abandon such heresies. The Concubine (age 35) will certainly be beheaded tomorrow, or on Friday at the latest, and I think the King feels the time long that it is not done already. The day before the putain's condemnation he sent for Mrs. Semel [Jane Seymour (age 27)] by the Grand Esquire and some others, and made her come within a mile of his lodging, where she is splendidly served by the King's cook and other officers. She is most richly dressed. One of her relations, who dined with her on the day of the said condemnation, told me that the King sent that morning to tell her that he would send her news at 3 o'clock of the condemnation of the putain (age 35), which he did by Mr. Briant, whom he sent in all haste. To judge by appearances, there is no doubt that he will take the said Semel [Jane Seymour (age 27)] to wife; and some think the agreements and promises are already made.

Note 1. This part of the letter was written on the 17th. See further on, at the beginning of the last paragraph.

On 17 May 1536 George Boleyn Viscount Rochford (age 33), Henry Norreys (age 54), Francis Weston (age 25), William Brereton and Mark Smeaton (age 24) were beheaded at Tower Hill [Map]. They were buried at St Peter ad Vincula Church, Tower of London [Map].

Wriothesley's Chronicle 1536. 17 May 1536. Allso the 17th day of May, beinge Weddensday, the Lord of Rochforde (age 33), Mr. Norys (age 54), Mr. Bruton, Sir Francis Weston (age 25), and Markys (age 24), were all beheaded [Note. Smeaton was hanged] at the Tower-hill [Map]; and the Lord of Rocheforde, brother to Queene Anne, sayde these wordes followinge on the scaffolde to the people with a lowde voyce: Maisters all, I am come hither not to preach and make a sermon, but to dye, as the lawe hath fownde me, and to the lawe I submitt me, desiringe you all, and speciallie you my maisters of the Courte, that you will trust on God speciallie, and not on the vanities of the worlde, for if I had so done, I thincke I had bene alyve as yee be now; allso I desire you to helpe to the settinge forthe of the true worde of God; and whereas I am sclaundered by it, I have bene diligent to reade it and set it furth trulye; but if I had bene as diligent to observe it, and done and lyved thereafter, as I was to read it and sett it forthe, I had not come hereto, wherefore I beseche you all to be workers and lyve thereafter, and not to reade it and lyve not there after. As for myne offences, it can not prevayle you to heare them that I dye here for, but I beseche God that I may be an example to you all, and that all you may be wayre by me, and hartelye I require you all to pray for me, and to forgive me if I have offended you, and I forgive you all, and God save the Kinge. Their bodies with their heades were buried within the Tower of London [Map]; the Lord of Rochfordes (age 33) bodie and head within the chappell of the Tower [Map], Mr. Weston (age 25) and Norys (age 54) in the church yeard of the same [Map] in one grave, Mr. Bruton and Markes (age 24) in another grave in the same churche yerde within the Tower of London.

Spanish Chronicle Chapter 30. 17 May 1536. How the Duke, and Norris, and Brereton, and Mark were beheaded the next day1.

We have told how the old woman was ordered to be burned in the great courtyard of the Tower, and they made the Queen see it from an iron-barred window. She said, "Why do you grieve me so? I wish they would burn me with her." To which the keeper answered, "Madam, another death is reserved for you." I do not care for all the harm they can do me now," she said, "for they can never deny I was a crowned Queen, although I was a poor woman."

The next day they brought out the Duke (age 33) and the others, and it was a surprising sight to see the great crowd there was. There came with the culprits over five hundred halberdiers, and when the Duke ascended, a gentleman said to him, "My lord Duke if you have anything to say, you can say it." Then the Duke turned to the people and said in the hearing of many, "I beg you pray to God for me; for by the trial I have to pass through I am blameless, and never even knew that my sister was bad. Guiltless as I am, I pray God to have mercy upon my soul." Then he lay upon the ground with his head on the block, the headsman gave three strokes, and so died this poor Duke.

Then Master Norris mounted, and made a great long prayer; and then, turning to the people, he said, "I do not think any gentleman at Court owes more to the King than I do, and none have been more ungrateful and regardless of it than I have. I deserve the death they condemn me to, and worse still, and so I pray to God for mercy on my soul, and acknowledge the justice of my sentence." Then he cast himself on the ground, and was beheaded. The next was Brereton, who said nothing but "I have offended God and the King; pray for me," and he was executed.

The last was Mark, and he cried in a loud voice that all could hear, "Oh, woe is me! Only four months ago I was a poor man, and my good fortune raised me to better things, and would have lifted me higher still, but for the devil's tempting, and my inability to resist the pride which has been my undoing. I thought treason would never come to light, but I confess now I erred, and do not deserve so honourable a death as that which the King has ordered me. I ask pardon of God and the King, for I have wronged him more than any other, and I beg you, gentlemen, to pray to God for me;" and then he threw himself down and was beheaded; but before he died he said, "Gentlemen, I ask pardon of Master Percy, for he would have been killed if I had not been arrested, as I had set men on to murder him;" and fortunately Master Percy was there, and answered, "God pardon thee, Mark, as I pardon thee2."

The good Wyatt was witnessing all this from a window of the Tower, and all the people thought that he also was to be brought out and executed; but Wyatt that night wrote a letter to the King, and sent it to him by a cousin of his, which letter was as follows.

Note 1. Sir Henry Norris, Lord Rochford, William Brereton, Mark Smeaton, and Sir Francis Weston were beheaded on 17th May, 1536. The Chronicle makes no mention of Sir Francis Weston.

Note 2. Lingard positively asserts that Smeaton was hanged, and not beheaded; but quotes at length the letter of a Portuguese gentleman, then resident in London, to a friend in Lisbon, in which the account given of the affair agrees with the present Chronicle.

Archaeologia Volume 23 Section V. 17 May 1536. George. The lorde of Ratchforde (age 33), after many wordes, to the effecte sayed this. I desyre you that no man wilbe discoraged from the Gospell for my fall. For if I had lyved accordinge to the gospel as I loved it, and spake of it, I had never come to this. Wherfore sayed he Syrs for Gods love, leave not the gospel, but speake lesse and lyve better. For I had rather have one good lyver accordinge to the gospel then ten bablers.

Letters 1536. 19 May 1536. Vienna Archives. 911. [his sister] Anne Boleyn (age 35), Rochford (deceased), &c.

"Execution criminal hecha en Inglatierra el 16 de Mayo 15361."

The count (Viscount) Rochefort (deceased), brother of the Queen (unjustly so called) Anne Boleyn, was beheaded with an axe upon a scaffold before the Tower of London. He made a very catholic address to the people, saying he had not come thither to preach, but to serve as a mirror and example, acknowledging his sins against God and the King, and declaring he need not recite the causes why he was condemned, as it could give no pleasure to hear them. He first desired mercy and pardon of God, and afterwards of the King and all others whom he might have offended, and hoped that men would not follow the vanities of the world and the flatteries of the Court, which had brought him to that shameful end. He said if he had followed the teachings of the Gospel, which he had often read, he would not have fallen into this danger, for a good doer was far better than a good reader. In the end, he pardoned those who had condemned him to death, and asked the people to pray for his soul. After him Norris (deceased) was beheaded, then Weston (deceased) and Brereton, and Marc (deceased), the player on the spinnet, who said scarcely anything except to cry mercy of God and the King, and beg people to pray for their souls. Brereton and Marc (deceased) were afterwards quartered.

Letters 1536. 19 May. R. O. 919. John Husee to Lord Lisle.

I have received your letter with the spurs. With all my efforts I have been unable to come to the King's presence. "His Grace came not abroad except it were in the garden, and in his boat at night (at which times it may become no man to prevent him), this 14 days." But now that these matters of execution are past I hope soon to speak with him and deliver your spuis. Lord Rocheford, Mr. Norrys, Bruriton, Weston, and Markes suffered with the axe on the scaffold at Tower Hill on Wednesday the 17th, and died very charitably.

Letters 1536. 19 May 1536. R. O. 918. Antony Pykeryng to Lady Lisle.

I have delivered to William Colle 7½ oz. of gold and 2s. 6d. st. to pay for dyeing and dressing your kersey. The gold cost 5s. an oz.; you gave me 7½ cr., which is 37s. 6d., and owe me 2s. 6d. On the 17th instant Lord Rochford, Master Norys, Master Weston, Master Brwerton, and Markes of the Privy Chamber were put to death on Tower Hill.

Execution of Anne Boleyn

Letters 1536. 19 May 1536. 920. "The late [his sister] Queen (age 35) suffered this day in the Tower, who died boldly; and also her brother (deceased), Mr. Noreys (deceased), Bruirton, Weston (deceased), and Markes (deceased) suffered the 17th day of this instant upon Tower Hill; all which died charitably. God take them to his mercy if it be his pleasure. Mr. Paige and young Wyat (age 15) are in the Tower. What shall become of them God best knoweth."

Letters 1536. 23 May 1536. Add. MS. 28,588, f. 276. B. M. 947. Dr. Ortiz to the Empress.

Received today her letter of 15 April. Supposes that the Empress has since received his letters with news of the Princess's health. No letters have arrived from Eustace Chapuis, but the queen of Hungary writes that the king of England has imprisoned his [his sister] mistress (deceased) in the Tower. Other letters state that in order to have a son who might be attributed to the King, she committed adultery with a singer (deceased) who taught her to play on instruments. Others say it was with her brother (deceased). The King has sent them to the Tower with her father, mother, and other relations. Expresses his joy at her fall, which will ensure the safety of the Princess.

Remembers that the cardinal of Burgos told him he had heard, when ambassador in England, that it was foretold that this Ana would be burnt to death.

It is said that the king has taken from "Maestro Cronvel" the office by which he did so much harm to the monasteries; and that he has chosen two Catholic bishops of good life, by whom he wishes to be governed.

The bull for the convocation of the Council has been concluded by the Consistory, and will be intimated soon. The Pope has given up his journey to Bologna. The card. of Santa Cruz is going to Hungary to negotiate between the king of the Romans and the Vayvode. Rome, 23 May 1536.

Sp., pp. 3. Modern copy.

Letters 1536. 24 May 1536. 24 May. R. O. 952. John Husee to Lord Lisle (age 72).

Your peascods were thankfully received by the King "for mo considerations than I will write of." Mr. Russell says he moved his Grace for your preferment, and his Grace said it was too late, for all things had been disposed of long since, except some offices in Wales not fit for you, as it was so far from your native country, but he would gladly your Lordship had somewhat. The truth is, as I wrote, that Mr. Russell is a right worshipful, sad, and discreet gentleman, but will never prefer your Lordship. "I pray God take Mr. Norrys (deceased) to his mercy, for you have made an unlike change." You had better write to Mr. Hennage, and send him some pleasure. As to the priories of Mawdlens and Pylton, send me the extent of their lands and I will move the matter, but I think you might ask for some abbey "of the suppressed number" in Hampshire, Wiltshire, or elsewhere, near your dwelling-place. When your wine and quails come I will distribute them, unless otherwise commanded, to Mr. Russell and Mr. Hennage, but in anywise you should write to the latter, and also to Mr. Secretary, though he does you little good and promises much. The £200 the late Lord Rocheford (deceased) had out of the revenues of Winchester returns to the Bishop's coffers. Mr. Bryan had £100 that Mr. Norris (deceased) had out of the bishopric. As to the spurs, I cannot get to the King's presence, but when you have written to Mr. Hennage he shall have the delivery of them. Whatever be the reason, the King will not license you to come over. The King has already written about the marsh. I have not yet been able to get from Mr. Secretary the letter he promised to write for the friar's despatch. Your counsel do not advise you to procure a proviso by Act of Parliament for lord Daubney to stay the sale of lands that should descend to Mr. Basset, but only to keep a vigilant eye on his proceedings. Ling and haberdeyn are so dear that I cannot tell what to do, the former £8 per cwt. or over, and the latter £3 or over. A new coronation is expected at Midsummer. The progress shall not this summer pass Windsor. Your Lordship shall receive, by Hugh Colton, two pair of hosen. London, 24 May. Hol., pp. 2. Add.

Post Execution Sources

Letters 1536. 26 May 1536. Add. MS. 28,588, f. 281. B. M. 973. [Hannaert] to Charles V.

There is news from England that the so-called [his sister] Queen (deceased) was found in bed with her organist (deceased), and taken to prison. It is proved that she had criminal intercourse (hazia el maleficio a si mismo) with her brother (deceased) and others, and that the daughter (age 2) supposed to be hers was taken from a poor man. The English ambassador says that she and her brother are condemned to be burnt, and a valet (camarero) of the King's, who was very intimate with him, and three others, to be beheaded, for conspiring the death of the King. The King has sent for the Princess, made much of her, and given her many jewels belonging to the unjust Queen. De Leon Solarrona (Lyon sur le Rhone), 26 May 1536.

Sp., pp. 5. Modern copy.

Letters 1536. 02 Jun 1536. 1036. A Lord of the Privy Council seeing clear evidence that his sister loved certain persons with a dishonorable love, admonished her fraternally. She acknowledged her offence, but said it was little in her case in comparison with that of the Queen, as he might ascertain from Mark (deceased), declaring that she was guilty of incest with her own brother. The brother did not know what to do on this intelligence, and took counsel with two friends of the King, with whom he went to the King himself and one reported it in the name of all three. The King was astonished, and his color changed at the revelation, but he thanked the gentlemen. The Queen, meanwhile, took her pleasure unconscious of the discovery, seeing dogs and animals that day fight in a park. In the evening there was a ball, and the King treated her as if he knew no cause of displeasure. But Mark (deceased) was then in prison and was forced to answer the accusation against him. Without being tortured he deliberately said that the Queen had three times yielded to his passion. The King was thus convinced, but made no show of it, and gave himself up to enjoyment. Especially on the 1 May, he got up a tournay with several combatants; among others, my Lord of Rocheford (deceased), the [his sister] Queen's (deceased) brother, showed his skill in breaking lances and vaulting on horseback. Norris (deceased), also, best loved of the King, presented himself well armed, but his horse refused the lists and turned away as if conscious of the impending calamity to his master. The King seeing this, presented Norris with his own horse; who, however, knew that he could not keep it long. He, Weston (deceased), and Brereton did great feats of arms, and the King showed them great kindness "dissimulant leur ruyne prochaine." The Queen looked on from a high place, "et souvent envoioit les doulz regards," to encourage the combatants, who knew nothing of their danger. Immediately after the tournay archers were ordered to arrest Norris, and were much astonished and grieved, considering his virtue and intimacy with the King, that he should have committed disloyalty. Before he went to prison the King desired to speak to him, offering to spare his life and goods, although he was guilty, if he would tell him the truth. But being told the accusation, Norris offered to maintain the contrary with his body in any place. He was accordingly sent to the Tower. The Queen was conducted thither next day by the [his uncle] Duke of Norfolk (age 63), and her brother also, who said he had well merited his fate. Waston (deceased) and Barton followed, and pages also. The city rejoiced on hearing the report, hoping that the Princess would be restored. The whole town awaited her coming with delight.

"Et n'eussiez veu jusque aux petis enfans

Que tous chantans et d'aise triumphans.

11 n'y a cueur si triste qui ne rye

En attendant la princesse Marie."

But she did not remove from her lodging, and did not avenge herself by blaming the Queen when she heard that she was a prisoner; but only wished she had behaved better to the King, and hoped God would help her, adding:—

"Et si sa fille est au Roy, je promectz

Qu'a mon pouvoir ne luy fauldray jamais."

Here follows a eulogy of the Princess, describing her education in astronomy, mathematics, logic, morals, politics, Latin, Greek, &c. The expectation that she would be restored made the King apprehensive of some commotion; to appease which he caused his thanks to be conveyed to the people for their good will to him and his daughter, but told them they need not be anxious about her return, for they would shortly be satisfied. The joy of the people on this was converted into sorrow and they dispersed (et confuz s'en partit).

The Queen, meanwhile, having no further hope in this world, would confess nothing.

"Riens ne confesse, et ne resiste fort Comme voulant presque estre délivre De vivre icy, pour aulz cieulz aller vivre; Et l'espoir tant en icelle surmonte, Que de la mort ne tient plus aucun compte."

Letters 1536. 02 Jun 1536. Add. MS. 28,588, f. 284. B. M. 1043. Dr. Ortiz to the Empress.

The prayers of the late Queen of England and the Holy Martyrs have prevailed. The King's [his sister] mistress (deceased) had six lovers, one being her own brother (deceased). Another, a musician [Mark Smeaton (deceased)], seeing that he was less favoured, discovered the fact to the King, first asking for pardon and his life. Now they are all taken it is found to be true. Her [his father] father (age 59), who was innocent, approved her condemnation. She was sentenced, first to be degraded from being Queen, then beheaded and burnt, seeing the others suffer the same death, with the exception of the one who revealed the crime. It was proved at the trial that she had behaved in this way before the conception of the child which the King thought to be his. It is intended to declare the child not to be the King's. Images have been restored and purgatory is preached again.

The cardinal of Burgos told him that a saint, who was martyred at the beginning of her tyrannical exaltation, prophesied that Anne (deceased) would be burnt to death.

It is said that the process against her states that she poisoned the Queen. The King is enamoured of another lady [Jane Seymour (age 27)]. Rome, 2 June 1536.

Sp., pp. 3. Modern copy.

Letters 1536. 31 May 1536. Vesp. F. XIII. f. 109 b. B. M. Arch, XVII., 277. Ellis, 1 S. II., 67. 1010. [his former wife] Jane (age 31), widow of Lord Rochford (deceased), to [Cromwell].

Beseeching him to obtain from the King for her the stuff and plate of her husband. The King and her father paid 2,000 marks for her jointure to the [his father] Earl of Wyltchere (age 59), and she is only assured of 100 marks during the Earl's life, "which is very hard for me to shift the world withal." Prays him to inform the King of this. Signed.

P. 1. Begins: Master Secretary.

Letters 1536. 01 Jun 1536. Corpus Reform. iii., 90. 1033. Melancthon to John Agricola Islebiensis.

She ([his sister] Anne Boleyn (deceased)) is said to have had connexion with her own brother (deceased) and others, and to have conspired the death of the King and another prince [Henry Fitzroy 1st Duke Richmond and Somerset (age 16)]. Her brother (deceased) and [his father] father (age 59) have been arrested with her, as well as some bishops who were cognisant of her plans. See how dreadfully this calamity will dishonour the King. Such evil has the divorce brought. The daughter of the former Queen has been restored to her former dignity. What a great change has suddenly been made. Lat.

Letters 1536. But she did not give up her greatness, but spoke to the lords as a mistress. Those who came to interrogate were astonished. They afterwards went to Rochford, who said he knew that death awaited him and would say the truth, but raising his eyes to Heaven denied the accusations against him. They next went to Norris, Waston, and Barton, who all likewise refused to confess, except Mark, who had done so already. The King ordered the trial at Westminster, which was held after the manner of the country.

Description of the process of indictment and how the archers of the guard turn the back [of the axe] to the prisoners in going, but after sentence of guilty the edge is turned towards their faces; the trial at Westminster; the verdict; whereupon suddenly the axe was turned towards them; and the sentence. Everyone was moved at their misfortune, especially at the case of Waston, who was young and of old lineage and high accomplishments; but no one dared plead for him, except his mother, who, oppressed with grief, petitioned the King, and his wife, who offered rents and goods for his deliverance. But the King was determined the sentence should be carried out. If money could have availed, the fine would have been 100,000 crowns.

Rochford (deceased) was not tried at Westminster, but at the Tower, with the Queen. His calm behaviour, and good defence. More himself did not reply better. The judges at first were of different opinions, but at last one view overturned the other and they were unanimous. The [his uncle] Duke of Norfolk (age 63) as president, though maternal uncle of the accused, asked them if he was guilty or not, and one replied guilty. Rochford (deceased) then merely requested the judges that they would ask the King to pay his debts. The Queen then was summoned by an usher. She seemed unmoved as a stock, and came away with her young ladies, not as one who had to defend her cause but with the bearing of one coming to great honor. She returned the salutations of the lords with her accustomed politeness, and took her seat. She defended herself soberly against the charges, her face saying more for her than her words; for she said little, but no one to look at her would have thought her guilty. In the end the judges said she must resign her crown to their hands; which she did at once without resistance, but protested she had never misconducted herself towards the King. She was then degraded from all her titles,—countess, marchioness, and princess, which she said she gave up willingly to the King who had conferred them. Sentence of death, either by sword or fire, at the pleasure of the King, was pronounced by Norfolk. Her face did not change, but she appealed to God whether the sentence was deserved; then turning to the judges, said she would not dispute with them, but believed there was some other reason for which she was condemned than the cause alleged, of which her conscience acquitted her, as she had always been faithful to the King. But she did not say this to preserve her life, for she was quite prepared to die. Her speech made even her bitterest enemies pity her.

Meanwhile the prisoners prepared to die and took the Sacrament. Description of the execution of Rochford (deceased), with his dying speech, not unlike the version given in No. 1107. The other four said nothing, as if they had commissioned Rochford (deceased) to speak for them, except Mark, who persisted in what he said that he was justly punished for his misdeeds.

The Queen, in expectation of her last day, took the Sacrament. Then the day of her death was announced to her, at which she was more joyful than before. She asked about the patience shown by her brother and the others; but when told that Mark confessed that he had merited his death, her face changed somewhat. "Did he not exonerate me," she said, "before he died, of the public infamy he laid on me? Alas! I fear his soul will suffer for it."

Next day, expecting her end, she desired that no one would trouble her devotions that morning. But when the appointed hour passed she was disappointed,—not that she desired death, but thought herself prepared to die and feared that delay would weaken her. She, however, consoled her ladies several times, telling them that was not a thing to be regretted by Christians, and she hoped to be quit of all unhappiness, with various other good counsels. When the captain came to tell her the hour approached and that she should make ready, she bade him for his part see to acquit himself of his charge, for she had been long prepared. So she went to the place of execution with an untroubled countenance. Her face and complexion never were so beautiful. She gracefully addressed the people from the scaffold with a voice somewhat overcome by weakness, but which gathered strength as she went on. She begged her hearers to forgive her if she had not used them all with becoming gentleness, and asked for their prayers. It was needless, she said, to relate why she was there, but she prayed the Judge of all the world to have compassion on those who had condemned her, and she begged them to pray for the King, in whom she had always found great kindness, fear of God, and love of his subjects. The spectators could not refrain from tears. She herself having put off her white collar and hood that the blow might not be impeded, knelt, and said several times "O Christ, receive my spirit !"

One of her ladies in tears came forward to do the last office and cover her face with a linen cloth. The executioner then, himself distressed, divided her neck at a blow. The head and body were taken up by the ladies, whom you would have thought bereft of their souls, such was their weakness; but fearing to let their mistress be touched by unworthy hands, forced themselves to do so. Half dead themselves, they carried the body, wrapped in a white covering, to the place of burial within the Tower. Her brother was buried beside her, Weston (deceased) and Norris after them. Barton and Mark also were buried together (en ung couble).

The ladies were then as sheep without a shepherd, but it will not be long before they meet with their former treatment, because already the King has taken a fancy to a choice lady. And hereby, Monseigneur, is accomplished a great part of a certain prophecy which is believed to be true, because nothing notable has happened which it has not foretold. Other great things yet are predicted of which the people are assured. If I see them take place I will let you know, for never were such news. People say it is the year of marvels.Fr.

Letters 1536. 06 Jun 1536. Vienna Archives. 1069. Chapuys (age 46) to Charles V.

On the 24th of this month, the Eve of Ascension Day, immediately on the arrival of the courier who was despatched to Pontremolo, Cromwell sent me the packet which your Majesty had forwarded to that place, begging that I would impart my news to him without delay. Shortly afterwards he sent to say that he would come and see me, but as, owing to his being so much occupied, he had failed in a like promise two days before, I, in order to put him under greater obligation, went to see him. On my arrival he told me that he had been to Court that morning, only to obtain audience for me, which the King had granted for next day. The said courier had brought letters from their ambassador, giving such news of the sincere goodwill your Majesty bore the King that Cromwell said he was better pleased than if he had gained 100,000 cr.; and he was sure I should find the King otherwise inclined than he had been before, both as regards the principal matter and also as to myself in particular, for I had greatly increased the affection he bore me on account of certain letters I had lately written to him, of which I send a copy to Grandvelle; also that by the death of the [his sister] Concubine (deceased) matters would be more easily arranged now than they had been. He said it was he who had discovered and followed up the affair of the Concubine (deceased), in which he had taken a great deal of trouble, and that, owing to the displeasure and anger he had incurred upon the reply given to me by the King on the third day of Easter, he had set himself to arrange the plot (a fantasier et conspirer led. affaire), and one of the things which had roused his suspicion and made him enquire into the matter was a prognostic made in Flanders threatening the King with a conspiracy of those who were nearest his person. On this he praised greatly the sense, wit, and courage of the said Concubine (deceased) and of her brother (deceased). And to declare to me further the hope of good success, he informed me in great confidence that the King, his master, knowing the desire and affection of all his people, had determined in this coming Parliament to declare the Princess (age 20) his heir; but by what he said afterwards, which I shall partly report, he left me in much greater doubt than before. For, besides requesting me in speaking to the King not to make any request on the Princess's behalf, and, if she were mentioned, not to speak of her as Princess, he also told me it was above all things necessary the Princess should write a letter to her father according to a draft that Cromwell had drawn up in the most honorable and reasonable form that could be, and that to solicit the Princess to do this he had, by the King's command, sent to her a very confidential lady; but, in any case, to avoid scruple, the King wished I would write to her, and send her one of my principal servants to persuade her to make no difficulty about writing the said letter, which he would have translated from English into Latin, that I might see that it was quite honorable. This translation he gave me next day as I left the Court; and since reading it I have not found the said Cromwell, to tell him my opinion of it, although I begged him the day before, when he spoke about it, to take care that it did not contain anything which could directly or indirectly touch her right, or the honor either of herself or of the late Queen, her mother, nor yet her conscience; otherwise she would not consent thereto for all the gold in the world, and the King's indignation against her would only be increased; and that he whom the said Princess regarded as almost a father, ought to take good care that the whole was free from danger and scruple. This, he said, he had done, as I should see by the tenor of the letter, of which I send your Majesty the very translation he delivered to me. Besides the evidence that letter contains that there is some bird catching attempted (quy y a de la traynee et pipe), this has been confirmed to me from a good quarter, and I have warned the Princess. I mean to get out of it (de me demesler) and dissemble the affair as much as I can, without speaking or writing of it till I have understood the intention of those here on the principal article of the negotiations. I shall excuse myself for not having sent to the Princess by saying that the messenger (icelluy) to whom I had committed the translation had lost it in returning from Court. When I have learned their intention I shall not fail to make the necessary remonstrances as to the unreasonableness of the letter, and seek all means possible to moderate such rigour; nevertheless your Majesty will be pleased to instruct me what to say and do in case the King insist on having the letter entirely written by the Princess, and that otherwise he means to punish her, as the lady sent by the King to the Princess has given a servant of mine to understand.

Letters 1536. 08 Jun 1536. Statute Roll. 1087. Parliament.

Begun at Westminster 8 June 28 Henry VIII., Acts concerning:—

1. The attainder of Thomas Fitzgerald and his five uncles [c. 18].

2. Assurance of the manor of Southwark to the King [c. 19].

3. Jointure of Dame Grace, wife of Sir Henry Parker, son and heir to Henry lord Morley [c. 20].

4. Exchange between the King and the prior of St. Johns [c. 21].

5. Lands belonging to the earldom of Warwick [c. 22].

6. Pension to Robert Shurborn late Bishop of Chichester [c. 23].

7. Attainder of lord Thomas Howard [c. 24].

8. Assurance of lands to Viscount Beauchamp (age 36) [c. 25].

9. Assurance of lands in Kew to Viscount Beauchamp (age 36) and lady Anne (age 39) his wife [c. 26].

10. Church of Elsingspittle to be the parish church of St. Alphes, Cripplegate [c. 27].

11. Moiety of Ricard's Castle assured to John Onley [c. 28].

12. Exchange with the Abbot of Westminster for Covent Garden [c. 29].

13. Purchase of Stanton Barry from Thomas Pope [c. 30].

14. Enlargement of St. Margaret's churchyard, Southwark [c. 31].

15. Lands at Westminster conveyed to the King by the churchwardens of St. Martin's and St. Margaret's [c. 32].

16. Durham Place conveyed to the King by exchange [c. 33].

17. Baynard's Castle assured to the Duke of Richmond (age 16) [c. 34].

18. Exchange with lord Sandes [c. 35].

19. Award between Sir Adrian Fortescue and Sir Walter Stoner [c. 36].

20. Jointure of Dorothy, daughter to the Earl of Huntingdon, to be married to Richard Devereux, son of lord Ferrers [c. 37].

20a. Assurance of Paris Garden, &c. to the Queen [c. 38].

21. Earldom of March [c. 39].

22. Lands assured to Edward North [c. 40].

23. Manor of Birmingham assured to the King [c. 41].

24. Exchange with the Abbot of Abingdon [c. 42].

25. Lands assured to Thomas Jermyn [c. 43].

26. Manor of Haselyngfeld assured to the Charter House [c. 44].

27. The Queen's (age 27) jointure [c. 45].

28. Lands assured to Thomas Hatclyff, clerk of the Green Cloth [c. 46].

29. Lands assured to John Gostwyke [c. 47].

30. Concerning a marriage to be had between Lord Bulbeke (age 20), son and heir apparent to the Earl of Oxford (age 65), and Dorothy, eldest daughter of the Earl of Westmoreland (age 38) [c. 48].

31. Exchange of Covent Garden with the abbot and convent of Westmoreland [c. 49].

32. Exchange between the King, the archbishop of Canterbury, and Cromwell (Wimbledon, Mortlake, &c.) [c. 50].

33. Jointure of Catharine Duchess of Suffolk (age 17) [c. 51].

34. Lands of Lord Rochford (deceased), Norris (deceased), and others [c. 52].

35. Benefit of clergy restricted [c. 1].

36. Against servants embezzling [c. 2].

37. Power to allot townships in Wales [c. 3].

38. Repeal of statute for dowlas and lokerams [c. 4].

39. For prentices [c. 5].

40. For continuing the Statute of Beggars and other Acts [c. 6].

41. The Succession [c. 7].

42. For continuing statutes against exportation of copper, &c. [c. 8].

43. For continuing statutes against perjury and others [c. 9].

44. For extinguishing the authority of the Bishop of Rome [c. 10].

45. For restitution of first-fruits during vacancies to next incumbent [c. 11].

46. Declaring the limits of the King's palace of Westminster [c. 12].

47. Against non-residence of spiritual persons [c. 13].

48. Prices of wines [c. 14].

49. Punishment of pirates [c. 15].

50. Dispensations from Rome [c. 16].

51. The King's successors when 24 years of age to have power to annul Acts of Parliament made during their minority [c. 51].

Letters 1536. 07 Jul 1536. R. O. St. P. vii 565. Instructions to my Lord of Rochford, whom the King now sends to the French king.

1. Rochford is to repair to the French king with all speed, and in passing by Paris to make the King's and Queen's hearty recommendations to the Queen of Navarre, if she be there, and say that the Queen his mistress much rejoices in the deeply-rooted amity of the two kings, but wishes her to get the interview deferred, as the time would be very inconvenient to her, and the King is so anxious to see his good brother that he will not put it off on her account. Her reasons are, that being so far gone with child, she could not cross the sea with the King, and she would be deprived of his Highness's presence when it was most necessary, unless the interview can be deferred till April next. Rochford is to press this matter very earnestly, and say that the King having at this time appointed another personage to go to his good brother, the Queen, with much suit, got leave for Rochford to go in his place, principally on this account.

2. That there was nothing she regretted at the last interview so much as not having an interview with the said Queen of Navarre; and she hopes she may be able to come to Calais with her brother in April next, if the interview be deferred till then.

3. He is then to proceed to the French Court, and after delivery of the King's letters, mention the overture made by the embassy lately arrived from Lubeck and Hamburg, soliciting a contribution of 100,000 cr., that they may elect a king of Denmark wholly at their devotion. Considering how this would thwart the Emperor's purposes, the King suggests that Francis should contribute the moiety of that sum "like as his Highness hath with him contributed into Germany."

4. The King is informed that though the duke of Wyttenbergh is now lately restored by his and his good brother's means, yet he now seeks peace with the Emperor and Ferdinand. It is important that the truth about this should be ascertained.

5. He is to desire the liberation of an Italian White Friar named Palvisinus, who has been imprisoned at Paris only for writing a letter to the King, which his Grace thinks strange.

6. He is then to begin the Queen's suit for the prorogation of the interview, using such ways and means as the Queen of Navarre approves, and adding, as of himself, that he thinks it would be advisable to agree to it, "as the time will shortly be here." He shall also say, as of himself, that the King refused to write to the French king on the subject, notwithstanding the urgent suit of many of the nobles on the Queen's behalf, who are now mostly assembled at London on account of certain treasons conspired against his Grace, "the said Lord Rochford even so tempering his communication with the French king in this matter as he small not the King's highness to be overmuch desirous of it, but all in the Queen's name."

Letters 1536. 10 Jul 1536. R. O. 969. Sir Edward Ryngeley to Lord Lisle (age 72).

Wrote yesterday that the King would be at Calais at the latter end of August, and now asks Lord Lisle (age 72) to defer publishing this till he hears again, as the day will not be fixed till Lord Rochford's return from France. The truth will be known by the King's letter to Mr. Surveyor. Till then, Lisle had better stay all things, and the lieutenant of the Staple and Mr. Surveyor had better not do anything in consequence of his letter. Supposes he has heard of Lord Dacre's acquittal. London, 10 July.

Desires to be commended to Lady Lisle (age 42) and the Council. Signed.

P. 1. Add.: Deputy of Calais. Endd. 10 July 1534.

Letters and Papers 1539. 21 May 1539. R. O. St. P. III., 9. 1006. ABishop Brown to Cromwell.

My lord Chancellor, Mr. Treasurer (age 49), and I and others, have received your letters purporting the suppression of religious houses. The fame of it is so general that, in default of the commission not yet come, the King shall lose 5,000 mks., as the religious are wasting their goods. Is maligned for setting forth the Gospel: asks for assistance. Thanks for letters "in discharge" of his homage. The Deputy withholds his "halkes" and other dues. Made suit for New Abbey, "a house of the Obstinates' religion, which lay very commodious for me by Balymore, to repair unto in times of need," but was counted unworthy and the profits given to an Irishman. Asks for Grace Dew Abbey, if it be suppressed. Dublin, 21 May.

Owed the late lord Rochford £400, whereof he paid £250 to Rochford, and £50 to Mr. Hollice, alderman of London, to redeem a gold cup of the said Lord Rochford's. The remaining £100 should have been paid for the redemption of the house Rochford had of the writer, and which Cromwell's nephew, Sir Richard Cromwell, was to have enjoyed, but it was never recovered. Begs a letter to Mr. Treasurer (age 49), to discharge him of the full £400, or he will have to pay for what he never had. Signed.

Catherine Howard Tower of London Executions

On 13 Feb 1542 Queen Catherine Howard (age 19) and [his former wife] Jane Parker Viscountess Rochford (age 37) were beheaded at Tower Green [Map]. Henry Howard (age 26) attended. They were both buried at St Peter ad Vincula Church, Tower of London [Map].

[his sister] Mary Boleyn (age 43) was the heir of Jane Parker Viscountess Rochford (age 37) being the sister of her deceased husband George Boleyn Viscount Rochford.

Letters and Papers 1533. 10 Apr 1553. 324. Last Sunday, being Palm Sunday, the King made the bishop of Rochester prisoner, and put him under the charge of the bishop of Winchester; which is a very strange thing, as he is the most holy and learned prelate in Christendom. The King gave out in Parliament that this was done because he had insinuated that Rochford had gone to France with a commission to present an innumerable sum of money to the chancellor of France and the cardinal of Lorraine to persuade the Pope by a bribe to ratify this new marriage, or at all events to overlook it, and not proceed further; which the King thought his Holiness would naturally do, seeing that the matter was already settled. I think that Rochford must have had this among his other charges. Not to spoil their negotiations with the Pope for that which they were soliciting in these Estates, he begged the Nuncio, by the duke of Norfolk, not to write on these matters to his Holiness. The real cause of the Bishop's detention is his manly defence of the Queen's cause. You may learn by it the gross disorder of affairs here, and the obstinacy of this King, who seems to seek for nothing else except his own perdition. Whenever they speak to him of the inconveniences likely to arise, he says that whilst England is united, it is not conquerable by any foreign prince; but it seems to me he is doing all he can to disgust his people.

You cannot imagine the fear into which all these people have fallen, great and small, imagining they are undone; and even if they do not suffer from foreign, they will from civil war. But though their fear be great, their indignation is still greater, except with ten or twelve who hang about the Lady; so that they are willing to incur great losses, if your Majesty would send an army and root out the poison of the Lady and her adherents.

Letters and Papers 1533. Apr 1553. 419. Grants in April 1533, 25 Hen. VIII.

8. Sir Geo. Bulleyn, lord Rocheford. Wardship and marriage of Edm. Sheffeld, son and heir of Sir Rob. Sheffelde, during the minority of the said Edmund. Greenwich, 28 April 25 Hen. VIII. Del. Westm., 29 April.—P.S. Pat. p. 1, m. 9.

Letters 1536. 19 April. Camusat, 155. 688. The Bishop of Tarbes to Francis I.

On Easter eve a courier came to the Imperial Ambassador, who went next day to ask Cromwell when he could communicate the news to the King. Knowing that he was put off till Tuesday, let Cromwell know that he wished to speak to the King, and was answered that the King would be willing to see him on Wednesday. Went to Greenwich on that day, and while waiting to see the King, spoke to Norfolk, who has been ill several days. He assured the Bishop that what he had said the last time they met was true, and that whatever overture the Emperor might make things would not be other than they have been hitherto. Replied that he had no doubt of this, knowing that the friendship between the Kings cannot be affected by any practice or overture of the Emperor. The conversation was interrupted by Rochford and others. Met the King going to mass. He is vexed that the gentleman whom Francis was going to send has not come. He says the Emperor has written him a letter containing five articles: (1.) That he hoped to enter Rome the day the courier was starting, and when there he would try to bring the dissension between the Pope and the King to some good end. (2.) That the French king had made war on the duke of Savoy, claiming his patrimony and county of Nice, which Francis seemed to have given up as the Duke is named as an ally in treaties on the part both of France and of the Emperor. He therefore requests Henry to intercede with Francis for the said Duke, and persuade him to relinquish the war and return what he has taken. (3.) He fears that Francis will make war upon him in the duchy of Milan, and begs the King to defend it, in accordance with the treaty of Cambray and other treaties, by which Francis has no right to the duchy. (4.) He asks the King to forget what passed between them touching his aunt's divorce, and to renew the old treaties, for he has not forgotten the King's kindnesses and help. (5.) He asks Henry to contribute to the defence of Christendom against the Turk.

The King says the Emperor is anxious to have a speedy answer, but he wishes to think about it before replying, as it is a matter of importance, and he told the Ambassador so. He did not wish to make himself a judge between princes, and he had heard that Francis had just cause for making war in Savoy. He understands that the Emperor is preparing a powerful army to attack the French forces in Italy, preferring to do so before the Turkish army lands in Sicily or elsewhere. He thinks the Emperor cannot long pay such a great army, and that the French should fortify their camp in Piedmont and Savoy, and wait for the enemy in the towns, before which the Emperor would waste men and money, while Francis might collect a stronger army. This would be a better course than risking battle when the Imperialists wish to give it. A little delay will consume his money. Many of his men will desert, which will bring about his complete ruin, and force him to abandon Italy to Francis.

The treasurer Feguillen spoke about the delay in sending the gentleman, which some wished to turn to a bad end, and the Emperor was practising very diligently. Has always found the Treasurer very desirous of serving Francis, but does not know whether this was his object, or because his master is anxious to hear from France before answering the Emperor.

Went to Court really to know the charge of the Emperor's Ambassador, but his pretext was to excuse Bonneboz, captain of a galley which came into Hampton (Antonne) equipped for war, and of which complaints had been made. London, 19 April.


Letters 1536. 19 May. Add. MS. 8,715, f. 249. B. M. 922. Bishop of Faenza to Mons. Ambrogio.

The king of England, a fortnight before he imprisoned his [his sister] wife, her father, mother, brother, and friends, wrote the kindest and most loving letters, saying that he did not trust what the Emperor said to him, and wished to share the fortune of the French king, who is very desirous of having the honor of bringing him back to obedience to the Pope, and is trying to do it. He praised his ambassador in England, nephew of the cardinal d'Agramonte. "That woman" will doubtless be put to death. As the King allows certain doctrines in favor of the Church to be preached which he had formerly prohibited, desists from suppressing (levare) those abbeys which he had ordered to be suppressed, and has sent to seek the archbishop of Canterbury and another who had fled, being friends of the woman and Lutherans; it is thought here that he may be persuaded to the truth.

Ital. Modern copy. Pp. 7. Headed: Al Signor Protonotario Ambrogio. Da Sueyeu (Sury le Comtal), 19 May 1536.

Letters 1536. 902. Sir William Kyngston to [Cromwell].

I have been with my Lord of Rochford, and showed him the clause of your letter. He answered that he had sent you word by Dr. Alryge. Notwithstanding, he says that he made suit to you for promotion of a White Monk, of the Tower Hill, and with your help he was promoted to the abbey of Vale Sante Crewsys, in Cheshire, and he had for his promotion £100, and at Whitsuntide next should receive £100 more, but for this the King has the obligations. He supposes the said abbey is suppressed and the abbot undone, and his sureties also. As yet I have heard nothing of my Lord of Canterbury, and the Queen desires much to be shriven. I am very glad to hear of the "executur" of Calais, for he can handle that matter. For the gentlemen, the sheriffs of London must make provision. As yet I hear of no writ, but they are all ready, and, I trust clean, to God. They shall have warning in the morning, and I shall send at once to Master Eretage for carpenters to make a scaffold of such a height that all present may see it. If you wish more to be done, let me know. The Tower.

You must help my Lord of Rochford's conscience for the monk, if need be; and also he spake unto [me] for the Bishop of Develyn, for he must have of the said Bishop £250

Hol., p. 1. Endd.

Letters 1536. 9 June. Brady's Episc. Succession. 1105. Consistory at Rome.

"Fuerunt lectæ literæ de morte [his sister] Reginæ imo concubinæ Regis Angliæ quæ deprehensa in adulterio a Rege fuit tradita neci cum fratre et quatuor nobilibus viris."

"There were letters read about the death of the Queen, that is, the concubine of the King of England, who, having been caught in adultery by the King, was handed over to be put to death with her brother and four noble men."

From Barberini MSS.

Royal Ancestors of George Boleyn Viscount Rochford 1503-1536

Kings Wessex: Great x 14 Grand Son of King Edmund "Ironside" I of England

Kings Gwynedd: Great x 11 Grand Son of Owain "Great" King Gwynedd

Kings Seisyllwg: Great x 17 Grand Son of Hywel "Dda aka Good" King Seisyllwg King Deheubarth

Kings Powys: Great x 12 Grand Son of Maredudd ap Bleddyn King Powys

Kings England: Great x 7 Grand Son of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England

Kings Scotland: Great x 10 Grand Son of William "Lion" I King Scotland

Kings Franks: Great x 11 Grand Son of Louis VII King Franks

Kings France: Great x 8 Grand Son of Philip "Bold" III King France

Ancestors of George Boleyn Viscount Rochford 1503-1536

Great x 3 Grandfather: Thomas Boleyn

Great x 2 Grandfather: Geoffrey Boleyn

Great x 4 Grandfather: John Bracton

Great x 3 Grandmother: Anne Jane Bracton

Great x 1 Grandfather: Geoffrey Boleyn

Great x 4 Grandfather: John Bracton

Great x 3 Grandfather: John Bracton

Great x 2 Grandmother: Alice Bracton

GrandFather: William Boleyn

Great x 4 Grandfather: William Hoo

Great x 3 Grandfather: Thomas Hoo

Great x 2 Grandfather: Thomas Hoo 1st Baron Hoo and Hastings

Great x 1 Grandmother: Ann Hoo

Great x 2 Grandmother: Elizabeth Wychingham

Father: Thomas Boleyn 1st Earl Wiltshire and Ormonde 6 x Great Grand Son of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: James Butler 2nd Earl Ormonde Great Grand Son of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England

Great x 3 Grandfather: James Butler 3rd Earl Ormonde 2 x Great Grand Son of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England

Great x 4 Grandmother: Elizabeth Darcy Countess Ormonde

Great x 2 Grandfather: James "White Earl" Butler 4th Earl Ormonde 3 x Great Grand Son of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: John Welles 4th Baron Welles

Great x 3 Grandmother: Anne Welles Countess Ormonde 6 x Great Grand Daughter of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 4 Grandmother: Maud Ros Baroness Welles 5 x Great Grand Daughter of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 1 Grandfather: Thomas Butler 7th Earl Ormonde 4 x Great Grand Son of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: Thomas Beauchamp 11th Earl Warwick 6 x Great Grand Son of King Henry I "Beauclerc" England

Great x 3 Grandfather: William Beauchamp 1st Baron Bergavenny 5 x Great Grand Son of King John "Lackland" of England

Great x 4 Grandmother: Katherine Mortimer Countess Warwick 4 x Great Grand Daughter of King John "Lackland" of England

Great x 2 Grandmother: Joan Beauchamp Countess Ormonde 3 x Great Grand Daughter of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: Richard Fitzalan 9th Earl of Surrey 11th Earl of Arundel 2 x Great Grand Son of King Henry III of England

Great x 3 Grandmother: Joan Fitzalan Baroness Bergavenny 2 x Great Grand Daughter of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England

Great x 4 Grandmother: Elizabeth Bohun Countess Arundel and Surrey Great Grand Daughter of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England

GrandMother: Margaret Butler 5 x Great Grand Daughter of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: William Hankford

Great x 3 Grandfather: Richard Hankford

Great x 4 Grandmother: Cristina Unknown

Great x 2 Grandfather: Richard Hankford

Great x 1 Grandmother: Anne Hankford Countess Ormonde 4 x Great Grand Daughter of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England

Great x 3 Grandfather: John Montagu 3rd Earl Salisbury 2 x Great Grand Son of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England

Great x 4 Grandmother: Margaret Monthermer Baroness Montagu 3rd Baroness Monthermer Great Grand Daughter of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England

Great x 2 Grandmother: Anne Montagu Duchess Exeter 3 x Great Grand Daughter of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: Adam Francis

Great x 3 Grandmother: Maud Francis Countess of Salisbury

George Boleyn Viscount Rochford 7 x Great Grand Son of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: Robert Howard 2 x Great Grand Son of King John "Lackland" of England

Great x 3 Grandfather: John Howard 3 x Great Grand Son of King John "Lackland" of England

Great x 4 Grandmother: Margaret Scales 7 x Great Grand Daughter of King Henry I "Beauclerc" England

Great x 2 Grandfather: Robert Howard 4 x Great Grand Son of King John "Lackland" of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: William Tendring

Great x 3 Grandmother: Alice Tendring

Great x 1 Grandfather: John Howard 1st Duke of Norfolk 4 x Great Grand Son of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: John Mowbray 4th Baron Mowbray Baron Segrave 2 x Great Grand Son of King Henry III of England

Great x 3 Grandfather: Thomas Mowbray 1st Duke of Norfolk 2 x Great Grand Son of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England

Great x 4 Grandmother: Elizabeth Segrave 5th Baroness Segrave Baroness Mowbray Great Grand Daughter of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England

Great x 2 Grandmother: Margaret Mowbray Baroness Grey Ruthyn 3 x Great Grand Daughter of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: Richard Fitzalan 9th Earl of Surrey 11th Earl of Arundel 2 x Great Grand Son of King Henry III of England

Great x 3 Grandmother: Elizabeth Fitzalan Duchess Norfolk 2 x Great Grand Daughter of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England

Great x 4 Grandmother: Elizabeth Bohun Countess Arundel and Surrey Great Grand Daughter of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England

GrandFather: Thomas Howard 2nd Duke of Norfolk 5 x Great Grand Son of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: William de Moleyns

Great x 3 Grandfather: Richard Moleyns

Great x 4 Grandmother: Margery Bacon

Great x 2 Grandfather: William Moleyns 4 x Great Grand Son of King Henry III of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: Henry Beaumont 3rd Baron Beaumont 2 x Great Grand Son of King Henry III of England

Great x 3 Grandmother: Eleanor Beaumont 3 x Great Grand Daughter of King Henry III of England

Great x 4 Grandmother: Margaret Vere Baroness Devereux and Beaumont 5 x Great Grand Daughter of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 1 Grandmother: Katherine Moleyns 5 x Great Grand Daughter of King Henry III of England

Mother: Elizabeth Howard Countess of Wiltshire and Ormonde 6 x Great Grand Daughter of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: Philip Tilney

Great x 3 Grandfather: Frederick Tilney

Great x 2 Grandfather: Philip Tilney

Great x 1 Grandfather: Frederick Tilney

GrandMother: Elizabeth Tilney Countess of Surrey 8 x Great Grand Daughter of King John "Lackland" of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: John Henry Cheney

Great x 3 Grandfather: William Cheney

Great x 2 Grandfather: Lawrence Cheney

Great x 1 Grandmother: Elizabeth Cheney 7 x Great Grand Daughter of King John "Lackland" of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: John Cockayne

Great x 3 Grandfather: John Cockayne

Great x 4 Grandmother: Cecilia Vernon

Great x 2 Grandmother: Elizabeth Cockayne 6 x Great Grand Daughter of King John "Lackland" of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: Reginald Grey 2nd Baron Grey Ruthyn 7 x Great Grand Son of King Henry I "Beauclerc" England

Great x 3 Grandmother: Ida Grey 5 x Great Grand Daughter of King John "Lackland" of England

Great x 4 Grandmother: Alianore Strange Baroness Grey Ruthyn 4 x Great Grand Daughter of King John "Lackland" of England