Biography of George Villiers 2nd Duke of Buckingham 1628-1687

Paternal Family Tree: Villiers

Maternal Family Tree: Elizabeth Stumpe

1483 Dinner and Arrest of the Woodville Affinity

1483 Execution of William Hastings by Richard III

1628 Murder of the Duke of Buckingham

1668 Buckingham Shrewsbury Duel

Dinner and Arrest of the Woodville Affinity

The History of King Richard the Third by Thomas More. 01 May 1483. And as soon as they came in his presence, they alighted down with all their company about them. To whom the Duke of Buckingham said, "Go before, gentlemen and yeomen, keep your rooms." And thus in a goodly array, they came to the King (age 12) and, on their knees in very humble fashion, assuaged his Grace, who received them in very joyous and amiable manner, nothing earthly knowing nor mistrusting as yet. But even by and by, in his presence, they picked a quarrel with the Lord Richard Grey (age 26), the King's other brother by his mother, saying that he, with the Lord Marquis (age 28) his brother and the Lord Rivers (age 43) his uncle, had planned to rule the King and the realm, and to set variance among the lords, and to subdue and destroy the noble blood of the realm. Toward the accomplishing whereof, they said that the Lord Marquis (age 28) had entered into the Tower of London [Map], and thence taken out the King's treasure, and sent men to the sea. All of which things, these dukes knew well, were done for good purposes and necessary ones by the whole council at London, except that they must say something.

Unto which words, the King (age 12) answered, "What my brother marquis (age 28) has done I cannot say. But in good faith I dare well answer for mine uncle Rivers (age 43) and my brother (age 26) here, that they be innocent of any such matters.".

"Yea, my Liege," said the Duke of Buckingham, "they have kept their dealing in these matters far from the knowledge of your good Grace.".

And forthwith they arrested the Lord Richard (age 26) and Sir Thomas Vaughan (age 73), knight, in the King's (age 12) presence, and brought the King (age 12) and all back unto Northampton, Northamptonshire [Map], where they took again further counsel. And there they sent away from the King (age 12) whomever it pleased them, and set new servants about him, such as liked them better than him. At which dealing he wept and was nothing content, but it remedied not. And at dinner the Duke of Gloucester (age 30) sent a dish from his own table to the Lord Rivers (age 43), praying him to be of good cheer, all should be well enough. And he thanked the Duke (age 30), and prayed the messenger to bear it to his nephew, the Lord Richard (age 26), with the same message for his comfort, who he thought had more need of comfort, as one to whom such adversity was foreign. But for himself, he had been all his days used to a life therewith, and therefore could bear it the better. But for all this comfortable courtesy of the Duke of Gloucester (age 30), he sent the Lord Rivers (age 43) and the Lord Richard (age 26) with Sir Thomas Vaughan (age 73) into the north country to different places to prison and, afterwards, all to Pomfrait [Map], where they were, in conclusion, beheaded.

The History of King Richard the Third by Thomas More. But then, by and by, the lords assembled together at London. To ward which meeting, the Archbishop of York (age 59), fearing that it would be ascribed (as it was indeed) to his overmuch lightness that he so suddenly had yielded up the Great Seal to the Queen-to whom the custody thereof nothing pertained without special commandment of the King-secretly sent for the Seal again and brought it with him after the customary manner. And at this meeting, the Duke of Buckingham, whose loyalty toward the King no man doubted nor needed to doubt, persuaded the lords to believe that the Duke of Gloucester (age 30) was sure and fastly faithful to his Prince and that the Lord Rivers (age 43) and Lord Richard (age 26) with the other knights were, for matters attempted by them against the Dukes of Gloucester and Buckingham, put under arrest for the dukes' safety not for the King's jeopardy and that they were also in safeguard and should remain there no longer till the matter were, not by the dukes only but also by all the other lords of the King's Council indifferently examined and by other discretions ordered, and either judged or appeased. But one thing he advised them beware, that they judged not the matter too far forth before they knew the truth-for by turning their private grudges into the common hurt, irritating and provoking men unto anger, and disturbing the King's coronation, toward which the dukes were coming up, they might perhaps bring the matter so far out of joint, that it should never be brought in frame again. This strife, if it should happen to come to battle, as it was likely, though both parties were in all things equal, yet should the authority be on that side where the King is himself.

With these arguments of the Duke of Buckingham - part of which he believed; part, he knew the contrary - these commotions were somewhat appeased, but especially because the Dukes of Gloucester and Buckingham (age 28) were so near, and came so quickly on with the King, in none other manner, with none other voice or semblance, than to his coronation, causing the story to be blown about that those lords and knights who were taken had contrived the destruction of the Dukes of Gloucester and Buckingham (age 28) and of other noble blood of the realm, to the end that they themselves would alone manage and govern the King at their pleasure. And for the false proof thereof, some of the dukes' servants rode with the carts of the stuff that were taken (among such stuff, no marvel, but that some of it were armor, which, at the breaking up of that household, must needs either be brought away or cast away), and they showed it unto the people all the way as they went: "Lo, here be the barrels of armor that these traitors had privately conveyed in their carriage to destroy the noble lords withal." This device, although it made the matter to wise men more unlikely, who well perceived that, if the intenders meant war, they would rather have had their armor on their backs than to have bound them up in barrels, yet much part of the common people were therewith very well satisfied, and said it were like giving alms to hang them.

When the King approached near to the city, Edmund Shaa (age 47), goldsmith then mayor, with William White and John Mathew, sheriffs, and all the other aldermen in scarlet, with five hundred horse of the citizens in violet, received him reverently at Hornsey, and riding from thence, accompanied him in to the city, which he entered the fourth day of May, the first and last year of his reign.

But the Duke of Gloucester bore himself in open sight so reverently to the Prince, with all semblance of lowliness, that from the great obloquy in which he was so late before, he was suddenly fallen in so great trust, that at the Council next assembled, he was the only man chosen and thought most suitable to be Protector (age 30) of the King and his realm, so that-were it destiny or were it folly-the lamb was given to the wolf to keep. At which Council also the Archbishop of York (age 59), Chancellor of England, who had delivered up the Great Seal to the Queen (age 46), was thereof greatly reproved, and the Seal taken from him and delivered to Doctor Russell, Bishop of Lincoln, a wise man and good and of much experience, and one of the best learned men undoubtedly that England had in his time. Diverse lords and knights were appointed unto diverse offices. The Lord Chamberlain and some others kept still their offices that they had before.

Now all was such that the Protector (age 30) so sore thirsted for the finishing of what he had begun-though he thought every day a year till it were achieved-yet he dared no further attempt as long as he had but half his prey in hand, well knowing that if he deposed the one brother, all the realm would fall to the other, if he either remained in sanctuary or should by chance be shortly conveyed farther away to his liberty.

Wherefore straight away at the next meeting of the lords at the Council, he proposed unto them that it was a heinous deed of the Queen (age 46), and proceeding from great malice toward the King's counselors, that she should keep in sanctuary the King's brother from him, whose special pleasure and comfort were to have his brother with him. And that by her such was done to no other intent, but to bring all the lords in obloquy and murmur of the people, as though they were not to be trusted with the King's brother-they who were, by the assent of the nobles of the land, appointed as the King's nearest friends for the protection of his own royal person.

"The prosperity whereof stands," said he, "not all in keeping from enemies or ill viands, [poison?] but partly also in recreation and moderate pleasure, which he cannot in this tender youth take in the company of elder persons, but in the familiar conversation of those who be neither far under nor far above his age, and nevertheless of state appropriate to accompany his noble majesty. Wherefore with whom rather than with his own brother? And if any man think this consideration light (which I think no man thinks who loves the King), let him consider that sometimes without small things, greater cannot stand. And verily it redounds greatly to the dishonor both of the King's Highness and of all us that have been about his Grace, to have it run in every man's mouth, not in this realm only, but also in other lands (as evil words walk far), that the King's brother should be glad to keep sanctuary. For every man will suppose that no man will so do for nothing. And such evil opinion, once fastened in men's hearts, hard it is to wrest out, and may grow to more grief than any man here can divine.

"Wherefore I think it were not worst to send unto the Queen (age 46) for the redress of this matter some honorable trusty man, such as both values the King's welfare and the honor of his Council, and is also in favor and credible with her. For all which considerations, none seems to me more suitable than our reverent father here present, my Lord Cardinal (age 65), who may in this matter do most good of any man, if it please him to take the pain. Which I doubt not of his goodness he will not refuse, for the King's sake and ours, and the well being of the young Duke himself, the King's most honorable brother, and after my Sovereign Lord himself, my most dear nephew, considering that thereby shall be ceased the slanderous rumor and obloquy now going about, and the hurts avoided that thereof might ensue, and much rest and quiet grow to all the realm.

"And if she be perchance so obstinate, and so precisely set upon her own will that neither his wise and faithful instruction can move her, nor any man's reason content her, then shall we, by mine advice, by the King's authority, fetch him out of that prison, and bring him to his noble presence, in whose continual company he shall be so well cherished and so honorably treated that all the world shall to our honor, and her reproach, perceive that it was only malice, audacity, or folly, that caused her to keep him there. This is my mind in this matter for this time, except any of your lordships anything perceive to the contrary. For never shall I by God's grace so wed myself to mine own will, but that I shall be ready to change it upon your better advice."

When the Protector (age 30) had spoken, all the Council affirmed that the motion was good and reasonable, and to the King and the Duke his brother, honorable, and a thing that should cease great murmur in the realm, if the mother might be by good means induced to deliver him. Such a thing the Archbishop of Canterbury (age 65), whom they all agreed also to be thereto most appropriate, took upon himself to move her, and therein to give his uttermost best effort. However, if she could be in no way entreated with her good will to deliver him, then thought he and such others as were of the clergy present that it were not in any way to be attempted to take him out against her will. For it would be a thing that should turn to the great grudge of all men, and high displeasure of God, if the privilege of the holy place should now be broken, which had so many years been kept, and which both king and popes so good had granted, so many had confirmed, and which holy ground was more than five hundred years ago by Saint Peter, his own person come in spirit by night, accompanied with great multitude of angels, so specially hallowed and dedicated it to God (for the proof whereof they have yet in the Abbey Saint Peter's cloak to show) that from that time forward was there never so undevout a king who dared that sacred place to violate, or so holy a bishop that dared presume to consecrate.

"And therefore," said the Archbishop of Canterbury, "God forbid that any man should for any earthly enterprise break the immunity and liberty of that sacred sanctuary that has been the safeguard of so many a good man's life. And I trust," said he, "with God's grace, we shall not need it. But for any manner need, I would not we should do it. I trust that she shall be with reason contented, and all things in good manner obtained. And if it happen that I bring it not so to pass, yet shall I toward it so far forth do my best, that you shall all well perceive that no lack of my dutiful efforts, but the mother's dread and womanish fear, shall be the impediment."

"Womanish fear, nay womanish perversity," said the Duke of Buckingham. "For I dare take it upon my soul, she well knows she needs no such thing to fear, either for her son or for herself. For as for her, here is no man that will be at war with women. Would God some of the men of her kin were women too, and then should all be soon at rest. However, there is none of her kin the less loved for that they be her kin, but for their own evil deserving. And nevertheless, if we loved neither her nor her kin, yet were there no cause to think that we should hate the King's noble brother, to whose Grace we ourself be of kin. Whose honor, if she as much desired as our dishonor and as much regard took to his well being as to her own will, she would be as loath to suffer him from the King as any of us be. "For if she have any wit (as would God she had as good will as she has shrewd wit), she reckons herself no wiser than she thinks some that be here, of whose faithful mind, she nothing doubts, but verily believes and knows that they would be as sorry of his harm as herself, and yet would have him from her if she abide there. And we all, I think, are satisfied that both be with her, if she come thence and abide in such place where they may with their honor be.

"Now then, if she refuse in the deliverance of him, to follow the counsel of them whose wisdom she knows, whose truth she well trusts, it is easy to perceive that perversity hinders her, and not fear. But go to, suppose that she fear (as who may let her to fear her own shadow), the more she fears to deliver him, the more ought we fear to leave him in her hands. For if she cast such fond doubts that she fear his hurt, then will she fear that he shall be fetched thence. For she will soon think that if men were set (which God forbid) upon so great a mischief, the sanctuary would little impede them, for good men might, as I think, without sin somewhat less regard it than they do.

"Now then, if she doubt lest he might be fetched from her, is it not likely enough that she shall send him somewhere out of the realm? Verily, I look for none other. And I doubt not but she now thinks with great exertion on it, even as we consider the hindrance of sanctuary. And if she might happen to bring that to pass (as it were no great accomplishment, we letting her alone), all the world would say that we were a wise sort of counselors about a King-we that let his brother be cast away under our noses. And therefore I assure you faithfully for my mind, I will rather defy her plans, fetch him away, than leave him there, till her perversity or fond fear convey him away. "And yet will I break no sanctuary therefore. For verily since the privileges of that place and other like have been of long continued, I am not he that would be about to break them. And in good faith if they were now to begin, I would not be he that should be about to make them. Yet will I not say nay, but that it is a deed of pity that such men of the sea or their evil debtors have brought in poverty, should have some place of liberty, to keep their bodies out of the danger from their cruel creditors. And also if the Crown happen (as it has done) to come in question, while either part takes the other as traitors, I will well there be some places of refuge for both. But as for thieves, of which these places be full, and which never fall from the craft after they once fall thereto, it is pity the sanctuary should serve them. And much more murderers whom God bade to take from the altar and kill them, if their murder were willful. And where it is otherwise there need we not the sanctuaries that God appointed in the old law. For if either necessity, his own defense or misfortune draw him to that deed, a pardon serves which either the law grants of course, or the King of pity may.

"Then look me now how few sanctuary men there be whom any favorable necessity compelled to go thither. And then see on the other side what a sort there be commonly therein, of them whom willful prodigality has brought to nought. What a rabble of thieves, murderers, and malicious, heinous traitors, and that in two places specially: the one at the elbow of the city, the other in the very bowels. I dare well avow it. Weigh the good that they do with the hurt that comes of them, and you shall find it much better to lack both, than have both. And this I say, although they were not abused as they now be, and so long have been, that I fear me ever they will be while men be afraid to set their hands to the amendment: as though God and Saint Peter were the patrons of ungracious living.

"Now prodigals riot and run in debt upon the boldness of these places; yea, and rich men run thither with poor men's goods; there they build, there they spend and bid their creditors go whistle them. Men's wives run thither with their husbands' money, and say they dare not abide with their husbands for beating. Thieves bring thither their stolen goods, and there live thereon. There devise they new robberies; nightly they steal out, they rob and pillage and kill, and come in again as though those places gave them not only a safeguard for the harm they have done, but a license also to do more. However, much of this mischief, if wise men would set their hands to it, might be amended with great thanks to God and no breach of the privilege. The residue, since so long ago I knew never what pope and what prince more piteous than prudent has granted it, and other men because of a certain religious fear have not broken it, let us take a pain therewith, and let it in God's name stand in force, as far forth as reason will. Which is not fully so far forth as may serve to prevent us from fetching forth this noble man to his honor and wealth, out of that place in which he neither is nor can be a sanctuary man.

"A sanctuary serves always to defend the body of that man that stands in danger abroad, not of great hurt only, but also of lawful hurt. For against unlawful harms, never pope nor king intended to privilege any one place. For that privilege has every place. Know you any man any place wherein it is lawful for one man to do another wrong? That no man unlawfully take hurt, that liberty, the King, the law, and very nature forbid in every place and make to that regard for every man a sanctuary every place. But where a man is by lawful means in peril, there needs he the protection of some special privilege, which is the only ground and cause of all sanctuaries. From which necessity this noble prince is far. His love to his King, nature and kindred prove, whose innocence to all the world his tender youth proves. And so sanctuary as for him, neither none he needs, nor also none can have.

"Men come not to sanctuary as they come to baptism, to require it by their godfathers. He must ask it himself that must have it. And what reason-since no man has cause to have it but whose conscience of his own fault makes him feign need to require it-what reason then will yonder babe have? which, even if he had discretion to require it, if need were, I dare say would now be right angry with them that keep him there. And I would think without any scruple of conscience, without any breach of privilege, to be somewhat more homely with them that be there sanctuary men indeed. For if one go to sanctuary with another man's goods, why should not the King, leaving his body at liberty, satisfy the part of his goods even within the sanctuary? For neither king nor pope can give any place such a privilege that it shall discharge a man of his debts, being able to pay."

And that diversity of the clergy that were present, whether they said it for his pleasure or, as they thought, agreed plainly that by the law of God and of the church the goods of a sanctuary man should be delivered in payment of his debts, and stolen goods to the owner, and only liberty reserved him to get his living with the labor of his hands.

"Verily," said the Duke, "I think you say very truth. And what if a man's wife will take sanctuary because she wishes to run from her husband? I would think if she can allege none other cause, he may lawfully-without any displeasure to Saint Peter-take her out of Saint Peter's church by the arm. And if nobody may be taken out of sanctuary that says he will abide there, then if a child will take sanctuary because he fears to go to school, his master must let him alone. And as simple as that example is, yet is there less reason in our case than in that. For therein, though it be a childish fear, yet is there at the leastwise some fear. And herein is there none at all. And verily I have often heard of sanctuary men. But I never heard before of sanctuary children. And therefore, as for the conclusion of my mind, whosoever may have deserved to need it, if they think it for their safety, let them keep it. But he can be no sanctuary man that neither has wisdom to desire it nor malice to deserve it, whose life or liberty can by no lawful process stand in jeopardy. And he that takes one out of sanctuary to do him good, I say plainly that he breaks no sanctuary."

When the Duke had done, the laymen entire and a good part of the clergy also, thinking no earthly hurt was meant toward the young babe, agreed in effect that, if he were not delivered, he should be fetched. However, they all thought it best, in the avoiding of all manner of rumor, that the Lord Cardinal should first attempt to get him with her good will. And thereupon all the Council came unto the Star Chamber at Westminster. And the Lord Cardinal, leaving the Protector (age 30) with the Council in the Star Chamber, departed into the sanctuary to the Queen (age 46) with diverse other lords with him-were it for the respect of his honor, or that she should by presence of so many perceive that this errand was not one man's mind, or were it for that the Protector (age 30) intended not in this matter to trust any one man alone, or else, if she finally were determined to keep him, some of that company had perhaps secret instruction immediately, despite her mind, to take him and to leave her no chance to take him away, which she was likely to plan after this matter was revealed to her, if her time would in any way serve her.

When the Queen (age 46) and these lords were come together in presence, the Lord Cardinal showed unto her that it was thought by the Protector (age 30) and the whole Council that her keeping of the King's brother in that place was the thing which highly sounded, not only to the great rumor of the people and their obloquy, but also to the unbearable grief and displeasure of the King's royal majesty; to whose Grace it were as singular comfort to have his natural brother in company, as it was to both their dishonor and all theirs and hers also, to suffer him in sanctuary-as though the one brother stood in danger and peril of the other. And he showed her that the Council therefore had sent him unto her to require her the delivery of him that he might be brought unto the King's presence at his liberty, out of that place that they reckoned as a prison. And there should he be treated according to his estate. And she in this doing should both do great good to the realm, pleasure to the Council and profit to herself, assistance to her friends that were in distress, and over that (which he knew well she specially valued), not only great comfort and honor to the King, but also to the young Duke himself, for both of them great wealth it were to be together, as well for many greater causes, as also for their both entertainment and recreation; which thing the lords esteemed not slight, though it seem light, well pondering that their youth without recreation and play cannot endure, nor find any stranger according to the propriety of both their ages and estates so suitable in that point for any of them as either of them for the other.

"My lord," said the Queen (age 46), "I say not nay, but that it were very appropriate that this gentleman whom you require were in the company of the King his brother. And in good faith I think it were as great advantage to them both, as for yet a while, to be in the custody of their mother, the tender age considered of the elder of them both, but especially the younger, who besides his infancy that also needs good looking to, has awhile been so sore diseased, vexed with sickness, and is so newly rather a little amended than well recovered, that I dare put no earthly person in trust with his keeping but myself alone, considering, that there is, as physicians say, and as we also find, double the peril in the relapse that was in the first sickness, with which disease-nature being forelabored, forewearied and weakened-grows the less able to bear out a new excess of the illness. And although there might be found another who would by chance do their best unto him, yet is there none that either knows better how to order him than I that so long have kept him; or is more tenderly like to cherish him than his own mother that bore him."

"No man denies, good Madam," said the Cardinal, "but that your Grace were of all folk most necessary about your children, and so would all the Council not only be content but also glad that you were, if it might stand with your pleasure to be in such place as might stand with their honor. But if you appoint yourself to tarry here, then think they yet more apt that the Duke of York were at his liberty honorably with the King-to the comfort of them both than here as a sanctuary man to both their dishonor and obloquy. Since there is not always so great necessity to have the child be with the mother, but that occasion may sometime be such that it should be more expedient to keep him elsewhere. Which in this well appears that, at such time as your dearest son, then Prince and now King, should for his honor and good order of the country, keep household in Wales far out of your company, your Grace was well content therewith yourself."

"Not very well content," said the Queen (age 46), "and yet the case is not like: for the one was then in health, and the other is now sick. In which case I marvel greatly that my Lord Protector (age 30) is so desirous to have him in his keeping, where if the child in his sickness miscarried by nature, yet might he run into slander and suspicion of fraud. And where they call it a thing so sore against my child's honor and theirs also that he abides in this place, it is all their honors there to suffer him abide where no man doubts he shall be best kept. And that is here, while I am here, which as yet I intend not to come forth and jeopardize myself after the fashion of my other friends, who, would God, were here in surety with me rather than I were there in jeopardy with them."

"Why, Madam," said another lord, "know you anything why they should be in jeopardy?"

"Nay, verily, Sir," said she, "nor why they should be in prison neither, as they now be. But it is, I trust, no great marvel, though I fear lest those that have not omitted to put them in duress without falsity will omit as little to procure their destruction without cause." The Cardinal made a countenance to the other lord that he should harp no more upon that string. And then said he to the Queen (age 46) that he nothing doubted but that those lords of her honorable kin, who as yet remained under arrest should, upon the matter examined, do well enough. And as toward her noble person, neither was nor could be any manner of jeopardy.

"Whereby should I trust that?" said the Queen (age 46). "In that I am guiltless? As though they were guilty. In that I am with their enemies better beloved than they? When they hate them for my sake. In that I am so near of kin to the King? And how far be they away, if that would help, as God send grace it hurt not. And therefore as for me, I purpose not as yet to depart hence. And as for this gentleman my son, I mind that he shall be where I am till I see further. For I assure you, because I see some men so greedy without any substantial cause to have him, this makes me much the more further from delivering him."

"Truly, madam," said he, "and the further that you be to deliver him, the further be other men to suffer you to keep him, lest your causeless fear might cause you farther to convey him. And many be there that think that he can have no privilege in this place, who neither can have will to ask it, nor malice to deserve it. And therefore they reckon no privilege broken, though they fetch him out, which, if you finally refuse to deliver him, I verily think they will (so much dread has my Lord, his uncle, for the tender love he bears him), lest your Grace should by chance send him away."

"Ah, sir," said the Queen (age 46), "has the Protector (age 30) so tender zeal to him that he fears nothing but lest he should escape him? Thinks he that I would send him hence, which neither is in the plight to send out, and in what place could I reckon him sure, if he be not sure in this the sanctuary, whereof there was never tyrant yet so devilish that dared presume to break. And, I trust God, the most holy Saint Peter-the guardian of this sanctuary-is as strong now to withstand his adversaries as ever he was.

"But my son can deserve no sanctuary, and therefore he cannot have it. Forsooth he has found a goodly gloss by which that place that may defend a thief may not save an innocent. But he is in no jeopardy nor has no need thereof. Would God he had not. Trusts the Protector (age 30) (I pray God he may prove a Protector (age 30)), trusts he that I perceive not whereunto his painted process draws? He says it is not honorable that the Duke abide here and that it were comfortable for them both that he were with his brother because the King lacks a playfellow. Be you sure. I pray God send them both better playfellows than him who makes so high a matter upon such a trifling pretext-as though there could none be found to play with the King unless his brother, who has no lust to play because of sickness, come out of sanctuary, out of his safeguard, to play with him. As though princes as young as they be could not play but with their peers, or children could not play but with their kindred, with whom for the most part they agree much worse than with strangers.

"But the child cannot require the privilege-who told him so? He shall hear him ask it, if he will. However, this is a gay matter: Suppose he could not ask it; suppose he would not ask it; suppose he would ask to go out. If I say he shall not, if I ask the privilege but for myself, I say he that against my will takes out him, breaks the sanctuary. Serves this liberty for my person only, or for my goods too? You may not hence take my horse from me, and may you take my child from me? He is also my ward, for as my learned Council shows me, since he has nothing by descent held by knight's service, the law makes his mother his guardian. Then may no man, I suppose, take my ward from me out of sanctuary, without the breech of the sanctuary. And if my privilege could not serve him, nor he ask it for himself, yet since the law commits to me the custody of him, I may require it for him-unless the law give a child a guardian only for his goods and his lands, discharging him of the care and safekeeping of his body, for which only both lands and goods serve.

"And if examples be sufficient to obtain privilege for my child, I need not far to seek. For in this place in which we now be (and which is now in question whether my child may take benefit of it) mine other son, now King, was born and kept in his cradle and preserved to a more prosperous fortune, which I pray God long to continue. And as all you know, this is not the first time that I have taken sanctuary, for when my lord, my husband, was banished and thrust out of his kingdom, I fled hither being great with child, and here I bore the Prince. And when my lord, my husband, returned safe again and had the victory, then went I hence to welcome him home, and from hence I brought my babe the Prince unto his father, when he first took him in his arms. And I pray God that my son's palace may be as great safeguard to him now reigning, as this place was sometime to the King's enemy. In which place I intend to keep his brother.

"Wherefore here intend I to keep him because man's law serves the guardian to keep the infant. The law of nature wills the mother keep her child. God's law privileges the sanctuary, and the sanctuary my son, since I fear to put him in the Protector's (age 30) hands that has his brother already; and if both princes failed, the Protector (age 30) were inheritor to the crown. The cause of my fear has no man to do but examine. And yet fear I no further than the law fears, which, as learned men tell me, forbids every man the custody of them by whose death he may inherit less land than a kingdom. I can no more, but whosoever he be that breaks this holy sanctuary, I pray God shortly send him need of sanctuary, when he may not come to it. For taken out of sanctuary would I not my mortal enemy were."

The Lord Cardinal, perceiving that the Queen (age 46) grew ever longer the further off and also that she began to kindle and chafe and speak sore, biting words against the Protector (age 30), and such as he neither believed and was also loath to hear, he said unto her for a final conclusion that he would no longer dispute the matter. But if she were content to deliver the Duke to him and to the other lords there present, he dared lay his own body and soul both in pledge, not only for his safety but also for his estate. And if she would give them a resolute answer to the contrary, he would forthwith depart therewithal, and manage whosoever would with this business afterward; for he never intended more to move her in that matter in which she thought that he and all others, save herself, lacked either wit or truth-wit, if they were so dull that they could nothing perceive what the Protector (age 30) intended; truth, if they should procure her son to be delivered into his hands, in whom they should perceive toward the child any evil intended.

The Queen (age 46) with these words stood a good while in a great study. And forasmuch to her seemed the Cardinal more ready to depart than some of the remnant, and the Protector (age 30) himself ready at hand, so that she verily thought she could not keep him there, but that he should immediately be taken thence; and to convey him elsewhere, neither had she time to serve her, nor place determined, nor persons appointed, all things unready because this message came on her so suddenly, nothing less expecting than to have him fetched out of sanctuary, which she thought to be now beset in such places about that he could not be conveyed out untaken, and partly as she thought it might fortune her fear to be false, and so well she knew it was either needless or without remedy to resist; wherefore, if she should needs go from him, she thought it best to deliver him. And over that, of the Cardinal's faith she nothing doubted, nor of some other lords neither, whom she there saw, which as she feared lest they might be deceived, so was she well assured they would not be corrupted. Then thought she it should yet make them the more warily to look to him and the more circumspect to see to his safety, if she with her own hands gave him to them of trust. And at the last she took the young Duke by the hand, and said unto the lords:

"My Lord," said she, "and all my lords, I neither am so unwise to mistrust your wits, nor so suspicious to mistrust your truths. Of which thing I purpose to make you such a proof that, if either of both lacked in you, might turn both me to great sorrow, the realm to much harm, and you to great reproach. For, lo, here is," said she, "this gentleman, whom I doubt not but I could here keep safe if I would, whatsoever any man say. And I doubt not also but there be some abroad, so deadly enemies unto my blood, that if they knew where any of it lay in their own body, they would let it out.

"We have also had experience that the desire of a kingdom knows no kindred. The brother has been the brother's bane. And may the nephews be sure of their uncle? Each of these children is the other's defense while they be asunder, and each of their lives lies in the other's body. Keep one safe and both be sure, and nothing for them both more perilous than to be both in one place. For what wise merchant ventures all his goods in one ship?

"All this notwithstanding, here I deliver him and his brother in him-to keep into your hands-of whom I shall ask them both before God and the world. Faithful you be, that know I well, and I know well you be wise. Power and strength to keep him, if you wish, neither lack you of yourself, nor can lack help in this cause. And if you cannot elsewhere, then may you leave him here. But only one thing I beseech you for the trust that his father put in you ever, and for trust that I put in you now, that as far as you think that I fear too much, be you well wary that you fear not as far too little." And therewithal she said unto the child: "Farewell, my own sweet son. God send you good keeping. Let me kiss you once yet before you go, for God knows when we shall kiss together again." And therewith she kissed him, and blessed him, turned her back and wept

and went her way, leaving the child weeping as fast.

When the Lord Cardinal and these other lords with him had received this young duke, they brought him into the Star Chamber where the Protector (age 30) took him in his arms and kissed him with these words:

"Now welcome, my Lord, even with all my very heart." And he said in that of likelihood as he thought. Thereupon forthwith they brought him to the King, his brother, into the Bishop's Palace at Paul's, and from thence through the city honorably into the Tower, out of which after that day they never came abroad.

When the Protector (age 30) had both the children in his hands, he opened himself more boldly, both to certain other men, and also chiefly to the Duke of Buckingham, although I know that many thought that this Duke was privy to all the Protector's (age 30) counsel, even from the beginning.

And some of the Protector's (age 30) friends said that the Duke was the first mover of the Protector (age 30) to this matter, sending a private messenger unto him, straight after King Edward's death. But others again, who knew better the subtle cunning of the Protector (age 30), deny that he ever opened his enterprise to the Duke until he had brought to pass the things before rehearsed. But when he had imprisoned the Queen's (age 46) kinsfolks and gotten both her sons into his own hands, then he opened the rest of his purpose with less fear to them whom he thought meet for the matter, and specially to the Duke, who being won to his purpose, he thought his strength more than half increased.

The matter was broken unto the Duke by subtle folks, and such as were masters of their craft in the handling of such wicked devices, who declared unto him that the young king was offended with him for his kinsfolks' sakes, and that if he were ever able, he would revenge them, who would prick him forward thereunto if they escaped (for the Queen's (age 46) family would remember their imprisonment). Or else if his kinsfolk were put to death, without doubt the young king would be sorrowful for their deaths, whose imprisonment was grievous unto him. And that with repenting the Duke should nothing avail: for there was no way left to redeem his offense by benefits, but he should sooner destroy himself than save the King, who with his brother and his kinsfolks he saw in such places imprisoned, as the Protector (age 30) might with a nod destroy them all; and that it were no doubt but he would do it indeed, if there were any new enterprise attempted. And that it was likely that as the Protector (age 30) had provided private guard for himself, so had he spies for the Duke and traps to catch him if he should be against him, and that, perchance, from them whom he least suspected. The state of things and the dispositions of men were then such that a man could not well tell whom he might trust or whom he might fear. These things and such like, being beaten into the Duke's mind, brought him to that point where he had repented the way he had entered, yet would he go forth in the same; and since he had once begun, he would stoutly go through. And therefore to this wicked enterprise, which he believed could not be avoided, he bent himself and went through and determined that since the common mischief could not be amended, he would turn it as much as he might to his own advantage.

Then it was agreed that the Protector (age 30) should have the Duke's aid to make him king, and that the Protector's (age 30) only lawful son should marry the Duke's daughter, and that the Protector (age 30) should grant him the quiet possession of the Earldom of Hertford, which he claimed as his inheritance and could never obtain it in King Edward's time. Besides these requests of the Duke, the Protector (age 30) of his own mind promised him a great quantity of the King's treasure and of his household stuff. And when they were thus at a point between themselves, they went about to prepare for the coronation of the young king as they would have it seem. And that they might turn both the eyes and minds of men from perceiving their plans, the lords, being sent for from all parties of the realm, came thick to that solemnity.

But the Protector (age 30) and the Duke, after that, once they had set the Lord Cardinal, the Archbishop of York (then Lord Chancellor), the bishop of Ely (age 63), Lord Stanley, and Lord Hastings (age 52) (then Lord Chamberlain) with many other noble men to commune and devise about the coronation in one place, as fast were they in another place contriving the contrary, and to make the Protector (age 30) king. To which council, although there were admittedly very few, and they very secret, yet began there, here and there about, some manner of muttering among the people, as though all should not long be well, though they neither knew what they feared nor wherefore: Were it that before such great things, men's hearts of a secret instinct of nature misgives them, as the sea without wind swells of itself sometime before a tempest; or were it that some one man haply somewhat perceiving, filled many men with suspicion, though he showed few men what he knew. However, somewhat the dealing itself made men to muse on the matter, though the council was closed. For little by little all folk withdrew from the Tower and drew to Crosby's Place in Bishopsgate Street where the Protector (age 30) kept his household. The Protector (age 30) had the people appealing to him; the King was in manner alone. While some for their business made suit to them that had the doing, some were by their friends secretly warned that it might haply turn them to no good to be too much attendant about the King without the Protector's (age 30) appointment, who removed also many of the Prince's old servants from him, and set new ones about him. Thus many things coming together-partly by chance, partly by purpose-caused at length not only common people who wave with the wind, but also wise men and some lords as well, to mark the matter and muse thereon, so far forth that the Lord Stanley, who was afterwards Earl of Darby, wisely mistrusted it and said unto the Lord Hastings (age 52) that he much disliked these two several councils.

"For while we," said he, "talk of one matter in the one place, little know we whereof they talk in the other place."

"My Lord," said the Lord Hastings (age 52), "on my life, never doubt you. For while one man is there who is never thence, never can there be things once minded that should sound amiss toward me, but it should be in mine ears before it were well out of their mouths."

This meant he by Catesby, who was of his near secret counsel and whom he very familiarly used, and in his most weighty matters put no man in so special trust, reckoning himself to no man so dear, since he well knew there was no man to him so much beholden as was this Catesby, who was a man well learned in the laws of this land, and by the special favor of the Lord Chamberlain in good authority and much rule bore in all the county of Leicester where the Lord Chamberlain's power chiefly lay. But surely great pity was it that he had not had either more truth or less wit. For his dissimulation alone kept all that mischief up. If the Lord Hastings (age 52) had not put so special trust in Catesby, the Lord Stanley and he had departed with diverse other lords and broken all the dance, for many ill signs that he saw, which he now construed all to the best, so surely thought he there could be none harm toward him in that council intended where Catesby was. And of truth the Protector (age 30) and the Duke of Buckingham made very good semblance unto the Lord Hastings (age 52) and kept him much in company. And undoubtedly the Protector (age 30) loved him well and loath was to have lost him, saving for fear lest his life should have quelled their purpose. For which cause he moved Catesby to prove with some words cast out afar off, whether he could think it possible to win the Lord Hastings (age 52) to their part. But Catesby, whether he tried him or questioned him not, reported unto them that he found him so fast and heard him speak so terrible words that he dared no further say. And of truth the Lord Chamberlain, with great trust, showed unto Catesby the mistrust that others began to have in the matter.

Execution of William Hastings by Richard III

The History of King Richard the Third by Thomas More. 13 Jun 1483. Yet for the further appeasing of the people's mind, he sent immediately after dinner in all the haste, one herald of arms, with a proclamation to be made through the city in the King's name, containing that the Lord Hastings (age 52) with diverse others of his traitorous purpose had before conspired the same day to have slain the Lord Protector (age 30) and the Duke of Buckingham while sitting in the Council, and after to have taken upon them to rule the King and the realm at their pleasure, and thereby to pillage and spoil whom they pleased, uncontrolled. And much matter was there in the proclamation devised to the slander of the Lord Chamberlain (age 52), as that he was an evil counselor to the King's father, enticing him to many things highly redounding to the diminishing of his honor and to the universal hurt of his realm, by his evil company, sinister procuring, and ungracious example, as well in many other things, as in the vicious living and inordinate misuse of his body, both with many others, and also especially with Shore's wife (age 38) - who was one also of his most secret counsel in this heinous treason, with whom he lay nightly, and, namely, the night last past before his death-so that it was the less marvel if ungracious living brought him to an unhappy ending, which he was now put unto, by the most dread commandment of the King's Highness and of his honorable and faithful Council, both for his demerits, being so openly taken in his falsely conceived treason, and also lest the delaying of his execution might have encouraged other mischievous persons and partners of his conspiracy to gather and assemble themselves together in making some great commotion for his deliverance; whose hope now being by his well deserved death prudently repressed, all the realm should by God's grace rest in good quiet and peace.

Now was this proclamation made within two hours after he was beheaded, and it was so curiously composed and so fair written in parchment in so well a set hand, and therewith of itself so long a process, that every child might well perceive that it was prepared before. For all the time between his death and the proclaiming could scant have sufficed unto the bare writing alone, had it all been but in paper and scribbled forth in haste at random. So that upon the proclaiming thereof, one that was schoolmaster of Paul's, who was by chance standing by and comparing the shortness of the time with the length of the matter, said unto them that stood about him, "Here is a gay goodly cast, foul cast away for haste." And a merchant answered him that it was written by prophecy.

On 05 Jan 1617 [his father] George Villiers 1st Duke of Buckingham (age 24) was created 1st Earl Buckingham by King James I of England and Ireland and VI of Scotland (age 50); his favourite.

In 1618 [his father] George Villiers 1st Duke of Buckingham (age 25) was created 1st Marquess of Buckingham.

On 16 May 1620 [his father] George Villiers 1st Duke of Buckingham (age 27) and [his mother] Katherine Manners Duchess Buckingham (age 18) were married. She by marriage Countess Buckingham. She the daughter of Francis Manners 6th Earl of Rutland (age 42) and Frances Knyvet Lady Bevill. He the son of George Villiers of Brokesby and Mary Beaumont 1st Countess Buckingham (age 50).

On 18 May 1623 [his father] George Villiers 1st Duke of Buckingham (age 30) was created 1st Duke of Buckingham by King James I of England and Ireland and VI of Scotland (age 56) for being his favourite; what favourite means is open to debate. [his mother] Katherine Manners Duchess Buckingham (age 21) by marriage Duchess of Buckingham.

On 30 Jan 1628 George Villiers 2nd Duke of Buckingham was born to George Villiers 1st Duke of Buckingham (age 35) and Katherine Manners Duchess Buckingham (age 25).

Murder of the Duke of Buckingham

On 23 Aug 1628 [his father] George Villiers 1st Duke of Buckingham (age 35) was murdered at Greyhound Pub, Portsmouth by a disgruntled soldier John Felton (age 33). He was buried at Westminster Abbey [Map]. His son George Villiers 2nd Duke of Buckingham succeeded 2nd Duke of Buckingham, 2nd Marquess of Buckingham, 2nd Earl Buckingham.

Felton was considered a hero by many who blamed Buckingham for the failures of the 1625 Cádiz Expedition and 1627 Siege of Saint-Martin-de-Ré. Felton was subsequently hanged.

In 1635 [his step-father] Randall MacDonnell 1st Marquess Antrim (age 25) and [his mother] Katherine Manners Duchess Buckingham (age 32) were married. She the daughter of Francis Manners 6th Earl of Rutland and Frances Knyvet Lady Bevill. He the son of Randal "Arranach" Macdonnell 1st Earl Antrim and Alice O'Neill Countess Antrim.

In 1649 [his mother] Katherine Manners Duchess Buckingham (age 46) died. Her son George Villiers 2nd Duke of Buckingham (age 20) succeeded 19th Baron Ros Helmsley

In 1649 George Villiers 2nd Duke of Buckingham (age 20) was appointed 446th Knight of the Garter by King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 18).

Evelyn's Diary. 19 Aug 1649. I went to salute the French King (age 10) and the Queen Dowager (age 47); and, on the 21st, returned in one of the Queen's coaches with my Lord Germain, Duke of Buckingham (age 21), Lord Wentworth (age 37), and Mr. Croftes (age 38), since Lord Croftes.

On 15 Sep 1657 George Villiers 2nd Duke of Buckingham (age 29) and Mary Fairfax Duchess Buckingham (age 19) were married. She by marriage Duchess of Buckingham. He the son of George Villiers 1st Duke of Buckingham and Katherine Manners Duchess Buckingham.

Pepy's Diary. 07 Feb 1661. And after a walk to my Lord's; where, while I and my Lady were in her chamber in talk, in comes my Lord from sea, to our great wonder. He had dined at Havre de Grace on Monday last, and came to the Downs the next day, and lay at Canterbury that night; and so to Dartford, and thence this morning to White Hall. All my friends his servants well. Among others, Mr. Creed and Captain Ferrers tell me the stories of my Duke of Buckingham's (age 33) and my Lord's falling out at Havre de Grace, at cards; they two and my Lord St. Alban's (age 55) playing. The Duke did, to my Lord's dishonour, often say that he did in his conscience know the contrary to what he then said, about the difference at cards; and so did take up the money that he should have lost to my Lord. Which my Lord resenting, said nothing then, but that he doubted not but there were ways enough to get his money of him. So they parted that night; and my Lord sent for Sir R. Stayner (age 36) and sent him the next morning to the Duke, to know whether he did remember what he said last night, and whether he would own it with his sword and a second; which he said he would, and so both sides agreed. But my Lord St. Alban's, and the Queen (age 51) and Ambassador Montagu, did waylay them at their lodgings till the difference was made up, to my Lord's honour; who hath got great reputation thereby.

Pepy's Diary. 23 Apr 1661. Then the Duke (age 27), and the King with a scepter (carried by my Lord Sandwich (age 35)) and sword and mond1 before him, and the crown too. The King in his robes, bare-headed, which was very fine. And after all had placed themselves, there was a sermon and the service; and then in the Quire at the high altar, the King passed through all the ceremonies of the Coronacon, which to my great grief I and most in the Abbey could not see.

Note 1. Mond or orb of gold, with a cross set with precious stones, carried by the Duke of Buckingham (age 33).

Pepy's Diary. 27 Jul 1661. From thence to Westminster Hall [Map], where it was expected that the Parliament was to have been adjourned for two or three months, but something hinders it for a day or two. In the lobby I spoke with Mr. George Montagu (age 38), and advised about a ship to carry my Lord Hinchingbroke and the rest of the young gentlemen to France, and they have resolved of going in a hired vessell from Rye [Map], and not in a man of war. He told me in discourse that my Lord Chancellor (age 52) is much envied, and that many great men, such as the Duke of Buckingham (age 33) and my Lord of Bristoll (age 48), do endeavour to undermine him, and that he believes it will not be done; for that the King (though he loves him not in the way of a companion, as he do these young gallants that can answer him in his pleasures), yet cannot be without him, for his policy and service.

Pepy's Diary. 01 May 1662. Sir G. Carteret (age 52), Sir W. Pen (age 41), and myself, with our clerks, set out this morning from Portsmouth, Hampshire [Map] very early, and got by noon to Petersfield, Hampshire; several officers of the Yard accompanying us so far. Here we dined and were merry. At dinner comes my Lord Carlingford (age 59) from London, going to Portsmouth, Hampshire [Map]: tells us that the Duchess of York (age 25) is brought to bed of a girl, [Mary, afterwards Queen of England.] at which I find nobody pleased; and that Prince Rupert (age 42) and the Duke of Buckingham (age 34) are sworn of the Privy Councell. He himself made a dish with eggs of the butter of the sparagus, which is very fine meat, which I will practise hereafter.

Pepy's Diary. 08 Feb 1663. Another story was how Captain Ferrers and W. Howe both have often, through my Baroness Castlemaine's (age 22) window, seen her go to bed and Sir Charles Barkeley (age 33) in the chamber all the while with her. But the other day Captn. Ferrers going to Sir Charles to excuse his not being so timely at his arms the other day, Sir Charles swearing and cursing told him before a great many other gentlemen that he would not suffer any man of the King's Guards to be absent from his lodging a night without leave. Not but that, says he, once a week or so I know a gentleman must go..., and I am not for denying it to any man, but however he shall be bound to ask leave to lie abroad, and to give account of his absence, that we may know what guard the King (age 32) has to depend upon. The little Duke of Monmouth (age 13), it seems, is ordered to take place of all Dukes, and so to follow Prince Rupert (age 43) now, before the Duke of Buckingham (age 35), or any else.

Pepy's Diary. 15 May 1663. After dinner I went up to Sir Thomas Crew (age 39), who lies there not very well in his head, being troubled with vapours and fits of dizziness: and there I sat talking with him all the afternoon from one discourse to another, the most was upon the unhappy posture of things at this time; that the King (age 32) do mind nothing but pleasures, and hates the very sight or thoughts of business; that my Baroness Castlemaine's (age 22) rules him, who, he says, hath all the tricks of Aretin1 that are to be practised to give pleasure. In which he is too able .... but what is the unhappiness in that, as the Italian proverb says, "lazzo dritto non vuolt consiglio [Translation: An erection seeks no advice]". If any of the sober counsellors give him good advice, and move him in anything that is to his good and honour, the other part, which are his counsellers of pleasure, take him when he is with my Baroness Castlemaine's (age 22), and in a humour of delight, and then persuade him that he ought not to hear nor listen to the advice of those old dotards or counsellors that were heretofore his enemies: when, God knows! it is they that now-a-days do most study his honour. It seems the present favourites now are my Lord Bristol (age 50), Duke of Buckingham (age 35), Sir H. Bennet (age 45), my Lord Ashley (age 41), and Sir Charles Barkeley (age 33); who, among them, have cast my Chancellor (age 54) upon his back, past ever getting up again; there being now little for him to do, and he waits at Court attending to speak to the King (age 32) as others do: which I pray God may prove of good effects, for it is feared it will be the same with my Lord Treasurer (age 56) shortly. But strange to hear how my Lord Ashley (age 41), by my Lord Bristol's (age 50) means (he being brought over to the Catholique party against the Bishopps, whom he hates to the death, and publicly rails against them; not that he is become a Catholique, but merely opposes the Bishopps; and yet, for aught I hear, the Bishopp of London (age 64) keeps as great with the King (age 32) as ever) is got into favour, so much that, being a man of great business and yet of pleasure, and drolling too, he, it is thought, will be made Lord Treasurer (age 56) upon the death or removal of the good old man. My Lord Albemarle (age 54), I hear, do bear through and bustle among them, and will not be removed from the King's good opinion and favour, though none of the Cabinett; but yet he is envied enough. It is made very doubtful whether the King (age 32) do not intend the making of the Duke of Monmouth (age 14) legitimate2; but surely the Commons of England will never do it, nor the Duke of York (age 29) suffer it, whose lady (age 26), I am told, is very troublesome to him by her jealousy.

Note 1. An allusion to Aretin's infamous letters and sonnets accompanying the as infamous "Postures" engraved by Marc Antonio from the designs of Julio Romano (Steinman's "Memoir of Barbara, Duchess of Cleveland", privately printed, 1871).

Note 2. Thomas Ross, Monmouth's tutor, put the idea into his head that Charles II had married his mother. The report was sedulously spread abroad, and obtained some kind of credence, until, in June, 1678, the King (age 32) set the matter at rest by publishing a declaration, which was entered in the Council book and registered in Chancery. The words of the declaration are: "That to avoid any dispute which might happen in time to come concerning the succession of the Crown, he (Charles) did declare, in the presence of Almighty God, that he never gave, nor made any contract of marriage, nor was married to Mrs. Barlow, alias Waters, the Duke of Monmouth's (age 14) mother, nor to any other woman whatsoever, but to his present wife, Queen (age 24) Catherine, then living".

Pepy's Diary. 06 Jun 1663. Lay in bed till 7 o'clock, yet rose with an opinion that it was not 5, and so continued though I heard the clock strike, till noon, and would not believe that it was so late as it truly was. I was hardly ever so mistaken in my life before. Up and to Sir G. Carteret (age 53) at his house, and spoke to him about business, but he being in a bad humour I had no mind to stay with him, but walked, drinking my morning draft of whay, by the way, to York House [Map], where the Russia Embassador (age 18) do lie; and there I saw his people go up and down louseing themselves: they are all in a great hurry, being to be gone the beginning of next week. But that that pleased me best, was the remains of the noble soul of the late Duke of Buckingham (age 35) appearing in his house, in every place, in the doorcases and the windows.

Pepy's Diary. 22 Jul 1663. Thence to my Lord Crew's. My Lord not being come home, I met and staid below with Captain Ferrers, who was come to wait upon my Lady Jemimah to St. James's, she being one of the four ladies that hold up the mantle at the christening this afternoon of the Duke's (age 29) child (a boy). In discourse of the ladies at Court, Captain Ferrers tells me that my Baroness Castlemaine's (age 22) is now as great again as ever she was; and that her going away was only a fit of her own upon some slighting words of the King (age 33), so that she called for her coach at a quarter of an hour's warning, and went to Richmond; and the King (age 33) the next morning, under pretence of going a-hunting, went to see her and make friends, and never was a-hunting at all. After which she came back to Court, and commands the King (age 33) as much as ever, and hath and doth what she will. No longer ago than last night, there was a private entertainment made for the King (age 33) and Queen (age 24) at the Duke of Buckingham's (age 35), and she: was not invited: but being at my Lady Suffolk's (age 41), her aunt's (where my Lady Jemimah and Lord Sandwich (age 37) dined) yesterday, she was heard to say, "Well; much good may it do them, and for all that I will be as merry as they:" and so she went home and caused a great supper to be prepared. And after the King (age 33) had been with the Queen (age 24) at Wallingford House, he came to my Baroness Castlemaine's (age 22), and was there all night, and my Lord Sandwich (age 37) with him, which was the reason my Lord lay in town all night, which he has not done a great while before. He tells me he believes that, as soon as the King (age 33) can get a husband for Mrs. Stewart (age 16) however, my Baroness Castlemaine's (age 22) nose will be out of joynt; for that she comes to be in great esteem, and is more handsome than she. I found by his words that my Lord Sandwich (age 37) finds some pleasure in the country where he now is, whether he means one of the daughters of the house or no I know not, but hope the contrary, that he thinks he is very well pleased with staying there, but yet upon breaking up of the Parliament, which the King (age 33) by a message to-day says shall be on Monday next, he resolves to go.

Pepy's Diary. 06 Nov 1663. Thence, after walking a good while in the Long gallery, home to my Lord's lodging, my Lord telling me how my father did desire him to speak to me about my giving of my sister something, which do vex me to see that he should trouble my Lord in it, but however it is a good occasion for me to tell my Lord my condition, and so I was glad of it. After that we begun to talk of the Court, and he tells me how Mr. Edward Montagu (age 28) begins to show respect to him again after his endeavouring to bespatter him all was, possible; but he is resolved never to admit him into his friendship again. He tells me how he and Sir H. Bennet (age 45), the Duke of Buckingham (age 35) and his [his wife] Duchesse (age 25), was of a committee with somebody else for the getting of Mrs. Stewart (age 16) for the King (age 33); but that she proves a cunning slut, and is advised at Somerset House [Map] by the Queene-Mother (age 24), and by her mother (age 53), and so all the plot is spoiled and the whole committee broke. Mr. Montagu (age 28) and the Duke of Buckingham (age 35) fallen a-pieces, the Duchesse (age 25) going to a nunnery; and so Montagu begins to enter friendship with my Lord, and to attend the Chancellor (age 54) whom he had deserted. My Lord tells me that Mr. Montagu (age 28), among other things, did endeavour to represent him to the Chancellor's (age 54) sons as one that did desert their father in the business of my Lord of Bristol (age 51); which is most false, being the only man that hath several times dined with him when no soul hath come to him, and went with him that very day home when the Earl impeached him in the Parliament House, and hath refused ever to pay a visit to my Lord of Bristol (age 51), not so much as in return to a visit of his. So that the Chancellor (age 54) and my Lord are well known and trusted one by another. But yet my Lord blames the Chancellor (age 54) for desiring to have it put off to the next Session of Parliament, contrary to my Lord Treasurer's (age 56) advice, to whom he swore he would not do it: and, perhaps, my Chancellor (age 54), for aught I see by my Lord's discourse, may suffer by it when the Parliament comes to sit. My Lord tells me that he observes the Duke of York (age 30) do follow and understand business very well, and is mightily improved thereby.

Pepy's Diary. 13 Dec 1663. In the evening, he gone, I to my office to read Rushworth upon the charge and answer of the Duke of Buckingham (age 35), which is very fine, and then to do a little business against to-morrow, and so home to supper to my wife, and then to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 22 Feb 1664. This evening came Mr. Alsopp the King's brewer, with whom I spent an houre talking and bewailing the posture of things at present; the King (age 33) led away by half-a-dozen men, that none of his serious servants and friends can come at him. These are Lauderdale (age 47), Buckingham (age 36), Hamilton, Fitz-Harding (age 34) (to whom he hath, it seems, given £2,000 per annum in the best part of the King's estate); and that that the old [his father] Duke of Buckingham could never get of the King (age 33). Progers is another, and Sir H. Bennett (age 46). He loves not the Queen (age 25) at all, but is rather sullen to her; and she, by all reports, incapable of children. He is so fond of the Duke of Monmouth (age 14), that every body admires it; and he says the Duke hath said, that he would be the death of any man that says the King (age 33) was not married to his mother: though Alsopp says, it is well known that she was a common whore before the King (age 33) lay with her. But it seems, he says, that the King (age 33) is mighty kind to these his bastard children; and at this day will go at midnight to my Baroness Castlemaine's (age 23) nurses, and take the child and dance it in his arms: that he is not likely to have his tables up again in his house1, for the crew that are about him will not have him come to common view again, but keep him obscurely among themselves. He hath this night, it seems, ordered that the Hall (which there is a ball to be in to-night before the King (age 33)) be guarded, as the Queen-Mother's (age 54) is, by his Horse Guards; whereas heretofore they were by the Lord Chamberlain or Steward, and their people. But it is feared they will reduce all to the soldiery, and all other places taken away; and what is worst of all, that he will alter the present militia, and bring all to a flying army.

Note 1. The tables at which the King (age 33) dined in public.-B.

Pepy's Diary. 13 Oct 1664. After being at the office all the morning, I home and dined, and taking leave of my wife with my mind not a little troubled how she would look after herself or house in my absence, especially, too, leaving a considerable sum of money in the office, I by coach to the Red Lyon in Aldersgate Street, and there, by agreement, met W. Joyce and Tom Trice, and mounted, I upon a very fine mare that Sir W. Warren helps me to, and so very merrily rode till it was very darke, I leading the way through the darke to Welling, and there, not being very weary, to supper and to bed. But very bad accommodation at the Swan. In this day's journey I met with Mr. White, Cromwell's chaplin that was, and had a great deale of discourse with him. Among others, he tells me that Richard (age 38) is, and hath long been, in France, and is now going into Italy. He owns publiquely that he do correspond, and return him all his money. That Richard (age 38) hath been in some straits at the beginning; but relieved by his friends. That he goes by another name, but do not disguise himself, nor deny himself to any man that challenges him. He tells me, for certain, that offers had been made to the old man, of marriage between the King (age 34) and his daughter (age 26), to have obliged him, but he would not1. He thinks (with me) that it never was in his power to bring in the King (age 34) with the consent of any of his officers about him; and that he scorned to bring him in as Monk (age 55) did, to secure himself and deliver every body else. When I told him of what I found writ in a French book of one Monsieur Sorbiere, that gives an account of his observations herein England; among other things he says, that it is reported that Cromwell did, in his life-time, transpose many of the bodies of the Kings of England from one grave to another, and that by that means it is not known certainly whether the head that is now set up upon a post be that of Cromwell, or of one of the Kings. Mr. White tells me that he believes he never had so poor a low thought in him to trouble himself about it. He says the hand of God is much to be seen; that all his children are in good condition enough as to estate, and that their relations that betrayed their family are all now either hanged or very miserable.

Note 1. The Protector wished the Duke of Buckingham (age 36) to marry his daughter Frances (age 26). She married, 1. Robert Rich, grandson and heir to Robert, Earl of Warwick, on November 11th, 1657, who died in the following February; 2. Sir John Russell, Bart (age 24). She died January 27th, 1721-22 [Note. Other sources day 1720], aged eighty-four. In T. Morrice's life of Roger, Earl of Orrery (age 43), prefixed to Orrery's "State Letters" (Dublin, 1743, vol. i., p. 40), there is a circumstantial account of an interview between Orrery (then Lord Broghill) and Cromwell, in which the former suggested to the latter that Charles II should marry Frances Cromwell (age 26). Cromwell gave great attention to the reasons urged, "but walking two or three turns, and pondering with himself, he told Lord Broghill (age 43) the King (age 34) would never forgive him the death of his father. His lordship desired him to employ somebody to sound the King (age 34) in this matter, to see how he would take it, and offered himself to mediate in it for him. But Cromwell would not consent, but again repeated, 'the King (age 34) cannot and will not forgive the death of his father;' and so he left his lordship, who durst not tell him he had already dealt with his majesty in that affair. Upon this my Lord withdrew, and meeting Cromwell's wife and daughter, they inquired how he had succeeded; of which having given them an account, he added they must try their interest in him, but none could prevail"..

Evelyn's Diary. 29 Oct 1664. Was the most magnificent triumph by water and land of the Lord Mayor. I dined at Guildhall [Map] at the upper table, placed next to Sir H. Bennett (age 46), Secretary of State, opposite to my Lord Chancellor (age 55) and the Duke of Buckingham (age 36), who sat between Monsieur Comminges, the French Ambassador, Lord Treasurer (age 57), the Dukes of Ormond (age 54) and Albemarle (age 55), Earl of Manchester (age 62), Lord Chamberlain, and the rest of the great officers of state. My Lord Mayor came twice up to us, first drinking in the golden goblet his Majesty's (age 34) health, then the French King's as a compliment to the Ambassador; we returned my Lord Mayor's health, the trumpets and drums sounding. The cheer was not to be imagined for the plenty and rarity, with an infinite number of persons at the tables in that ample hall. The feast was said to cost £1,000. I slipped away in the crowd, and came home late.

Pepy's Diary. 15 Jan 1665. Then home to dinner, and after dinner to read in "Rushworth's Collections" about the charge against the late Duke of Buckingham (age 36), in order to the fitting me to speak and understand the discourse anon before the King (age 34) about the suffering the Turkey merchants to send out their fleete at this dangerous time, when we can neither spare them ships to go, nor men, nor King's ships to convoy them.

Pepy's Diary. 05 Aug 1665. Thence to Redriffe [Map], where we parted, and I home, where busy all the afternoon. Stepped to Colvill's to set right a business of money, where he told me that for certain De Ruyter (age 58) is come home, with all his fleete, which is very ill newes, considering the charge we have been at in keeping a fleete to the northward so long, besides the great expectation of snapping him, wherein my Lord Sandwich (age 40) will I doubt suffer some dishonour. I am told also of a great ryott upon Thursday last in Cheapside [Map]; Colonell Danvers, a delinquent, having been taken, and in his way to the Tower was rescued from the captain of the guard, and carried away; only one of the rescuers being taken. I am told also that the Duke of Buckingham (age 37) is dead, but I know not of a certainty.

John Reresby's Diary 05 Aug 1665. 05 Aug 1665. The Duchess (age 28) in her return lay at Welbeck [Map], the old Duke of Newcastle (age 72) being alive, where she was splendidly entertained, the Duke of York (age 31) having directed that the same respect should be paid her wherever she passed as if he were present. The Duke of Buckingham (age 37) and my Lord Ogle (age 35) had a quarrel there.

Pepy's Diary. 05 Oct 1666. So I away from him, and met with the Vice-Chamberlain (age 56), and I told him when I had this evening in coming hither met with Captain Cocke (age 49), and he told me of a wild motion made in the House of Lords by the Duke of Buckingham (age 38) for all men that had cheated the King (age 36) to be declared traitors and felons, and that my Lord Sandwich (age 41) was named. This put me into a great pain, so the Vice-Chamberlain (age 56), who had heard nothing of it, having been all day in the City, away with me to White Hall; and there come to me and told me that, upon Lord Ashly's (age 45) asking their direction whether, being a peere, he should bring in his accounts to the Commons, which they did give way to, the Duke of Buckingham (age 38) did move that, for the time to come, what I have written above might be declared by some fuller law than heretofore. Lord Ashly (age 45) answered, that it was not the fault of the present laws, but want of proof; and so said the Chancellor (age 57). He answered, that a better law, he thought, might be made so the House laughing, did refer it to him to bring in a Bill to that purpose, and this was all.

Pepy's Diary. 15 Oct 1666. Walking with Pierce in the Court of Wards out comes Sir W. Coventry (age 38), and he and I talked of business. Among others I proposed the making Sir J. Minnes (age 67) a Commissioner, and make somebody else Comptroller. He tells me it is the thing he hath been thinking of, and hath spoke to the Duke of York (age 33) of it. He believes it will be done; but that which I fear is that Pen will be Comptroller, which I shall grudge a little. The Duke of Buckingham (age 38) called him aside and spoke a good while with him. I did presently fear it might be to discourse something of his design to blemish my Lord of Sandwich (age 41), in pursuance of the wild motion he made the other day in the House. Sir W. Coventry (age 38), when he come to me again, told me that he had wrought a miracle, which was, the convincing the Duke of Buckingham (age 38) that something-he did not name what-that he had intended to do was not fit to be done, and that the Duke is gone away of that opinion. This makes me verily believe it was something like what I feared.

Pepy's Diary. 27 Oct 1666. Thence to talk about publique business; he tells me how the two Houses begin to be troublesome; the Lords to have quarrels one with another. My Lord Duke of Buckingham (age 38) having said to the Chancellor (age 57) (who is against the passing of the Bill for prohibiting the bringing over of Irish cattle), that whoever was against the Bill, was there led to it by an Irish interest, or an Irish understanding, which is as much as to say he is a Poole; this bred heat from my Chancellor (age 57), and something he [Buckingham] said did offend my Lord of Ossory (age 32) my (Lord Duke of Ormond's (age 56) son), and they two had hard words, upon which the latter sends a challenge to the former; of which the former complains to the House, and so the business is to be heard on Monday next. Then as to the Commons; some ugly knives, like poignards, to stab people with, about two or three hundred of them were brought in yesterday to the House, found in one of the house's rubbish that was burned, and said to be the house of a Catholique. This and several letters out of the country, saying how high the Catholiques are everywhere and bold in the owning their religion, have made the Commons mad, and they presently voted that the King (age 36) be desired to put all Catholiques out of employment, and other high things; while the business of money hangs in the hedge. So that upon the whole, God knows we are in a sad condition like to be, there being the very beginnings of the late troubles.

Pepy's Diary. 31 Oct 1666. The Prince and Duke of Albemarle (age 57) have got no great credit by this year's service. Our losses both of reputation and ships having been greater than is thought have ever been suffered in all ages put together before; being beat home, and fleeing home the first fight, and then losing so many ships then and since upon the sands, and some falling into the enemy's hands, and not one taken this yeare, but the Ruby, French prize, now at the end of the yeare, by the Frenchmen's mistake in running upon us. Great folly in both Houses of Parliament, several persons falling together by the eares, among others in the House of Lords, the Duke of Buckingham (age 38) and my Lord Ossory (age 32). Such is our case, that every body fears an invasion the next yeare; and for my part, I do methinks foresee great unhappiness coming upon us, and do provide for it by laying by something against a rainy day, dividing what I have, and laying it in several places, but with all faithfulness to the King (age 36) in all respects; my grief only being that the King (age 36) do not look after his business himself, and thereby will be undone both himself and his nation, it being not yet, I believe, too late if he would apply himself to it, to save all, and conquer the Dutch; but while he and the Duke of York (age 33) mind their pleasure, as they do and nothing else, we must be beaten. So late with my mind in good condition of quiet after the settling all my accounts, and to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 15 Nov 1666. Presently after the King (age 36) was come in, he took the Queene (age 56), and about fourteen more couple there was, and began the Bransles. As many of the men as I can remember presently, were, the King (age 36), Duke of York (age 33), Prince Rupert (age 46), Duke of Monmouth (age 17), Duke of Buckingham (age 38), Lord Douglas (age 20), Mr. [George] Hamilton (age 59), Colonell Russell (age 46), Mr. Griffith, Lord Ossory (age 32), Lord Rochester (age 19); and of the ladies, the Queene (age 56), Duchess of York (age 29), Mrs. Stewart (age 19), Duchess of Monmouth (age 15), Lady Essex Howard, Mrs. Temples (age 17), Swedes Embassadress, Lady Arlington (age 32); Lord George Barkeley's daughter (age 16) [Note. Assumed Elizabeth], and many others I remember not; but all most excellently dressed in rich petticoats and gowns, and dyamonds, and pearls.

Pepy's Diary. 19 Nov 1666. Here we walked to and again till one dropped away after another, and so I took coach to White Hall, and there visited my Lady Jemimah, at Sir G. Carteret's (age 56) lodgings. Here was Sir Thomas Crew (age 42), and he told me how hot words grew again to-day in the House of Lords between my Lord Ossory (age 32) and Ashly (age 45), the former saying that something said by the other was said like one of Oliver's Council. Ashly (age 45) said that he must give him reparation, or he would take it his owne way. The House therefore did bring my Lord Ossory (age 32) to confess his fault, and ask pardon for it, as he was also to my Lord Buckingham (age 38), for saying that something was not truth that my Lord Buckingham (age 38) had said. This will render my Lord Ossory (age 32) very little in a little time.

Pepy's Diary. 19 Dec 1666. Thence I up to the Lords' House to enquire for Lord Bellasses (age 52); and there hear how at a conference this morning between the two Houses about the business of the Canary Company, my Lord Buckingham (age 38) leaning rudely over my Lord Marquis Dorchester, my Lord Dorchester (age 60) removed his elbow. Duke of Buckingham (age 38) asked him whether he was uneasy; Dorchester replied, yes, and that he durst not do this were he any where else: Buckingham replied, yes he would, and that he was a better man than himself; Dorchester answered that he lyed. With this Buckingham struck off his hat, and took him by his periwigg, and pulled it aside, and held him. My Lord Chamberlain (age 64) and others interposed, and, upon coming into the House, the Lords did order them both to the Tower, whither they are to go this afternoon.

Pepy's Diary. 21 Jan 1667. Thence with them to Westminster Hall [Map], they setting me down at White Hall, where I missed of finding Sir G. Carteret (age 57), up to the Lords' House, and there come mighty seasonably to hear the Solicitor about my Lord Buckingham's (age 38) pretence to the title of Lord Rosse. Mr. Atturny Montagu (age 49) is also a good man, and so is old Sir P. Ball; but the Solicitor and Scroggs after him are excellent men.

Pepy's Diary. 27 Feb 1667. After dinner with my wife by coach abroad, and set Mr. Hunt down at the Temple [Map] and her at her brother's (age 27), and I to White Hall to meet Sir W. Coventry (age 39), but found him not, but met Mr. Cooling, who tells me of my Lord Duke of Buckingham's (age 39) being sent for last night, by a Serjeant at Armes, to the Tower [Map], for treasonable practices, and that the King (age 36) is infinitely angry with him, and declared him no longer one of his Council. I know not the reason of it, or occasion.

Pepy's Diary. 03 Mar 1667. From them I walked into the Parke, it being a fine but very cold day; and there took two or three turns the length of the Pell Mell [Map]: and there I met Serjeant Bearcroft, who was sent for the Duke of Buckingham (age 39), to have brought him prisoner to the Tower [Map]. He come to towne this day, and brings word that, being overtaken and outrid by the [his wife] Duchesse of Buckingham (age 28) within a few miles of the Duke's house of Westhorp [Map], he believes she got thither about a quarter of an hour before him, and so had time to consider; so that, when he come, the doors were kept shut against him. The next day, coming with officers of the neighbour market-town to force open the doors, they were open for him, but the Duke (age 39) gone; so he took horse presently, and heard upon the road that the Duke of Buckingham (age 39) was gone before him for London: so that he believes he is this day also come to towne before him; but no newes is yet heard of him. This is all he brings.

Pepy's Diary. 03 Mar 1667. Thence to my Chancellor's (age 58), and there, meeting Sir H. Cholmly (age 34), he and I walked in my Lord's garden, and talked; among other things, of the treaty: and he says there will certainly be a peace, but I cannot believe it. He tells me that the Duke of Buckingham (age 39) his crimes, as far as he knows, are his being of a caball with some discontented persons of the late House of Commons, and opposing the desires of the King (age 36) in all his matters in that House; and endeavouring to become popular, and advising how the Commons' House should proceed, and how he would order the House of Lords. And that he hath been endeavouring to have the King's nativity calculated; which was done, and the fellow now in the Tower about it; which itself hath heretofore, as he says, been held treason, and people died for it; but by the Statute of Treasons, in Queen Mary's times and since, it hath been left out. He tells me that this silly Lord hath provoked, by his ill-carriage, the Duke of York (age 33), my Chancellor (age 58), and all the great persons; and therefore, most likely, will die. He tells me, too, many practices of treachery against this King; as betraying him in Scotland, and giving Oliver an account of the King's private councils; which the King (age 36) knows very well, and hath yet pardoned him1.

Note 1. Two of our greatest poets have drawn the character of the Duke of Buckingham (age 39) in brilliant verse, and both have condemned him to infamy. There is enough in Pepys's reports to corroborate the main features of Dryden's (age 35) magnificent portrait of Zimri in "Absolom and Achitophel". "In the first rank of these did Zimri stand; A man so various that he seemed to be Not one, but all mankind's epitome; Stiff in opinions, always in the wrong; Was everything by starts, and nothing long, But, in the course of one revolving moon, Was chymist, fiddler, statesman, and buffoon; Then all for women, painting, rhyming, drinking, Besides ten thousand freaks that died in thinking, * * * * * * * He laughed himself from Court, then sought relief By forming parties, but could ne'er be chief". Pope's facts are not correct, and hence the effect of his picture is impaired. In spite of the duke's constant visits to the Tower, Charles II still continued his friend; but on the death of the King (age 36), expecting little from James, he retired to his estate at Helmsley, in Yorkshire, to nurse his property and to restore his constitution. He died on April 16th, 1687, at Kirkby Moorside, after a few days' illness, caused by sitting on the damp grass when heated from a fox chase. The scene of his death was the house of a tenant, not "the worst inn's worst room" ("Moral Essays", epist. iii.). He was buried in Westminster Abbey.

Pepy's Diary. 06 Mar 1667. Up, and with Sir W. Pen (age 45) to White Hall by coach, and by the way agreed to acquaint Sir W. Coventry (age 39) with the business of Mr. Carcasse, and he and I spoke to Sir W. Coventry (age 39) that we might move it to the Duke of York (age 33), which I did in a very indifferent, that is, impartial manner, but vexed I believe Lord Bruncker (age 47). Here the Duke of York (age 33) did acquaint us, and the King (age 36) did the like also, afterwards coming in, with his resolution of altering the manner of the war this year; that is, we shall keep what fleete we have abroad in several squadrons: so that now all is come out; but we are to keep it as close as we can, without hindering the work that is to be done in preparation to this. Great preparations there are to fortify Sheernesse [Map] and the yard at Portsmouth, Hampshire [Map], and forces are drawing down to both those places, and elsewhere by the seaside; so that we have some fear of an invasion; and the Duke of York (age 33) himself did declare his expectation of the enemy's blocking us up here in the River, and therefore directed that we should send away all the ships that we have to fit out hence. Sir W. Pen (age 45) told me, going with me this morning to White Hall, that for certain the Duke of Buckingham (age 39) is brought into the Tower [Map], and that he hath had an hour's private conference with the King (age 36) before he was sent thither. To Westminster Hall [Map]. There bought some news books, and, as every where else, hear every body complain of the dearness of coals, being at £4 per chaldron, the weather, too, being become most bitter cold, the King (age 36) saying to-day that it was the coldest day he ever knew in England.

Pepy's Diary. 06 Mar 1667. Thence by coach to my Lord Crew's (age 69), where very welcome. Here I find they are in doubt where the Duke of Buckingham (age 39) is; which makes me mightily reflect on the uncertainty of all history, when, in a business of this moment, and of this day's growth, we cannot tell the truth. Here dined my old acquaintance, Mr. Borfett, that was my Lord Sandwich's (age 41) chaplain, and my Lady Wright and Dr. Boreman, who is preacher at St. Gyles's in the Fields, who, after dinner, did give my Lord an account of two papist women lately converted, whereof one wrote her recantation, which he shewed under her own hand mighty well drawn, so as my Lord desired a copy of it, after he had satisfied himself from the Doctor, that to his knowledge she was not a woman under any necessity.

Pepy's Diary. 09 Mar 1667. But, Lord! to see how kind Sir W. Batten (age 66) and his Lady are to me upon this business of my standing by Sir W. Batten (age 66) against Carcasse, and I am glad of it. Captain Cocke (age 50), who was here to-night, did tell us that he is certain that yesterday a proclamation was voted at the Council, touching the proclaiming of my Lord Duke of Buckingham (age 39) a traytor, and that it will be out on Monday.

Pepy's Diary. 10 Mar 1667. Towards the evening comes Mr. Spong to see me, whose discourse about several things I proposed to him was very good, better than I have had with any body a good while. He gone, I to my business again, and anon comes my Lady Pen (age 43) and her son-in law (age 26) and daughter (age 16), and there we talked all the evening away, and then to supper; and after supper comes Sir W. Pen (age 45), and there we talked together, and then broke up, and so to bed. He tells me that our Mr. Turner has seen the proclamation against the Duke of Buckingham (age 39), and that therefore it is true what we heard last night. Yesterday and to-day I have been troubled with a hoarseness through cold that I could not almost speak.

Pepy's Diary. 11 Mar 1667. By and by comes Sir H. Cholmly (age 34) to me about Tangier business, and then talking of news he tells me how yesterday the King (age 36) did publiquely talk of the King of France's (age 28) dealing with all the Princes of Christendome. As to the States of Holland, he [the King of France (age 28)] hath advised them, on good grounds, to refuse to treat with us at the Hague, because of having opportunity of spies, by reason of our interest in the House of Orange; and then, it being a town in one particular province, it would not be fit to have it, but in a town wherein the provinces have equal interest, as at Mastricht, and other places named. That he advises them to offer no terms, nor accept of any, without his privity and consent, according to agreement; and tells them, if not so, he hath in his power to be even with them, the King (age 36) of England being come to offer him any terms he pleases; and that my Lord St. Albans (age 61) is now at Paris, Plenipotentiary, to make what peace he pleases; and so he can make it, and exclude them, the Dutch, if he sees fit. A copy of this letter of the King of France's (age 28) the Spanish Ambassador here gets, and comes and tells all to our King; which our King denies, and says the King of France (age 28) only uses his power of saying anything. At the same time, the King of France (age 28) writes to the Emperor, that he is resolved to do all things to express affection to the Emperor, having it now in his power to make what peace he pleases between the King of England (age 36) and him, and the States of the United Provinces; and, therefore, that he would not have him to concern himself in a friendship with us; and assures him that, on that regard, he will not offer anything to his disturbance, in his interest in Flanders, or elsewhere. He writes, at the same time, to Spayne, to tell him that he wonders to hear of a league almost ended between the Crown of Spayne and England, by my Lord Sandwich (age 41), and all without his privity, while he was making a peace upon what terms he pleased with England: that he is a great lover of the Crown of Spayne, and would take the King (age 36) and his affairs, during his minority, into his protection, nor would offer to set his foot in Flanders, or any where else, to disturb him; and, therefore, would not have him to trouble himself to make peace with any body; only he hath a desire to offer an exchange, which he thinks may be of moment to both sides: that is, that he [France] will enstate the King of Spayne (age 5) in the Kingdom of Portugall, and he and the Dutch will put him into possession of Lisbon; and, that being done, he [France] may have Flanders: and this, they say; do mightily take in Spayne, which is sensible of the fruitless expence Flanders, so far off, gives them; and how much better it would be for them to be master of Portugall; and the King of France (age 28) offers, for security herein, that the King (age 36) of England shall be bond for him, and that he will countersecure the King of England (age 36) with Amsterdam; and, it seems, hath assured our King, that if he will make a league with him, he will make a peace exclusive to the Hollander. These things are almost romantique, but yet true, as Sir H. Cholmly (age 34) tells me the King (age 36) himself did relate it all yesterday; and it seems as if the King of France (age 28) did think other Princes fit for nothing but to make sport for him: but simple Princes they are, that are forced to suffer this from him. So at noon with Sir W. Pen (age 45) by coach to the Sun in Leadenhall Street [Map]e, where Sir R. Ford (age 53), Sir W. Batten (age 66), and Commissioner Taylor (whose feast it was) were, and we dined and had a very good dinner. Among other discourses Sir R. Ford (age 53) did tell me that he do verily believe that the city will in few years be built again in all the greatest streets, and answered the objections I did give to it. Here we had the proclamation this day come out against the Duke of Buckingham (age 39), commanding him to come in to one of the Secretaries, or to the Lieutenant of the Tower (age 52). A silly, vain man to bring himself to this: and there be many hard circumstances in the proclamation of the causes of this proceeding of the King's, which speak great displeasure of the King's, and crimes of his. Then to discourse of the business of the day, that is, to see Commissioner Taylor's accounts for his ship he built, The Loyall London, and it is pretty to see how dully this old fellow makes his demands, and yet plaguy wise sayings will come from the man sometimes, and also how Sir R. Ford (age 53) and Sir W. Batten (age 66) did with seeming reliance advise him what to do, and how to come prepared to answer objections to the Common Council.

Pepy's Diary. 13 Mar 1667. So home to supper and to bed. The Duke of Buckingham (age 39) is concluded gone over sea, and, it is thought, to France.

Pepy's Diary. 17 Mar 1667. Thence away, and got a Hackney coach and carried my wife home, and there only drank, and myself back again to my Lord Treasurer's (age 60), where the King (age 36), Duke of York (age 33), and Sir G. Carteret (age 57) and Lord Arlington (age 49) were and none else, so I staid not, but to White Hall, and there meeting nobody I would speak with, walked into the Park and took two or three turns all alone, and then took coach and home, where I find Mercer, who I was glad to see, but durst [not] shew so, my wife being displeased with her, and indeed I fear she is grown a very gossip. I to my chamber, and there fitted my arguments which I had promised Mr. Gawden in his behalf in some pretences to allowance of the King (age 36), and then to supper, and so to my chamber a little again, and then to bed. Duke of Buckingham (age 39) not heard of yet.

Pepy's Diary. 07 Apr 1667. Thence back to White Hall, and there saw the King (age 36) come out of chapel after prayers in the afternoon, which he is never at but after having received the Sacrament: and the Court, I perceive, is quite out of mourning; and some very fine; among others, my Lord Gerard (age 49), in a very rich vest and coat. Here I met with my Lord Bellasses (age 52): and it is pretty to see what a formal story he tells me of his leaving, his place upon the death of my Lord Cleveland (deceased), by which he is become Captain of the Pensioners; and that the King (age 36) did leave it to him to keep the other or take this; whereas, I know the contrary, that they had a mind to have him away from Tangier. He tells me he is commanded by the King (age 36) to go down to the Northward to satisfy the Deputy Lieutenants of Yorkshire, who have desired to lay down their commissions upon pretence of having no profit by their places but charge, but indeed is upon the Duke of Buckingham's (age 39) being under a cloud (of whom there is yet nothing heard), so that the King (age 36) is apprehensive of their discontent, and sends him to pacify them, and I think he is as good a dissembler as any man else, and a fine person he is for person, and proper to lead the Pensioners, but a man of no honour nor faith I doubt.

Pepy's Diary. 09 Apr 1667. Up. and to the office a while, none of my fellow officers coming to sit, it being holiday, and so towards noon I to the Exchange [Map], and there do hear mighty cries for peace, and that otherwise we shall be undone; and yet I do suspect the badness of the peace we shall make. Several do complain of abundance of land flung up by tenants out of their hands for want of ability to pay their rents; and by name, that the Duke of Buckingham (age 39) hath £6000 so flung up. And my father writes, that Jasper Trice, upon this pretence of his tenants' dealing with him, is broke up housekeeping, and gone to board with his brother, Naylor, at Offord; which is very sad.

Pepy's Diary. 28 Jun 1667. Thence with him to the Treasury Chamber, and then to the Exchequer to inform ourselves a little about our warrant for £30,000 for Tangier, which vexes us that it is so far off in time of payment. Having walked two or three turns with him in the Hall we parted, and I home by coach, and did business at the office till noon, and then by water to White Hall to dinner to Sir G. Carteret (age 57), but he not at home, but I dined with my Lady and good company, and good dinner. My Lady and the family in very good humour upon this business of his parting with his place of Treasurer of the Navy, which I perceive they do own, and we did talk of it with satisfaction. They do here tell me that the Duke of Buckingham (age 39) hath surrendered himself to Secretary Morrice (age 64), and is going to the Tower [Map]. Mr. Fenn, at the table, says that he hath been taken by the watch two or three times of late, at unseasonable hours, but so disguised that they could not know him: and when I come home, by and by, Mr. Lowther (age 26) tells me that the Duke of Buckingham (age 39) do dine publickly this day at Wadlow's, at the Sun Tavern; and is mighty merry, and sent word to the Lieutenant of the Tower (age 52), that he would come to him as soon as he had dined. Now, how sad a thing it is, when we come to make sport of proclaiming men traitors, and banishing them, and putting them out of their offices, and Privy Council, and of sending to and going to the Tower: God have mercy on us!

Pepy's Diary. 28 Jun 1667. I then to Sir W. Pen (age 46), who continues a little ill, or dissembles it, the latter of which I am apt to believe. Here I staid but little, not meaning much kindness in it; and so to the office, and dispatched more business; and then home at night, and to supper with my wife, and who should come in but Mr. Pelling, and supped with us, and told us the news of the town; how the officers of the Navy are cried out upon, and a great many greater men; but do think that I shall do well enough; and I think, if I have justice, I shall. He tells me of my Lord Duke of Buckingham (age 39), his dining to-day at the Sun, and that he was mighty merry; and, what is strange, tells me that really he is at this day a very popular man, the world reckoning him to suffer upon no other account than that he did propound in Parliament to have all the questions that had to do with the receipt of the taxes and prizes; but they must be very silly that do think he can do any thing out of good intention. After a great deal of tittle-tattle with this honest man, he gone we to bed. We hear that the Dutch are gone down again; and thanks be to God! the trouble they give us this second time is not very considerable.

Pepy's Diary. 12 Jul 1667. And so Sir H. Cholmly (age 34) tells me they did all argue for peace, and so he do believe that the King (age 37) hath agreed to the three points Mr. Coventry (age 39) brought over, which I have mentioned before, and is gone with them back. He tells me further that the Duke of Buckingham (age 39) was before the Council the other day, and there did carry it very submissively and pleasingly to the King (age 37); but to my Lord Arlington (age 49), who do prosecute the business, he was most bitter and sharp, and very slighting. As to the letter about his employing a man to cast the King's nativity, says he to the King (age 37), "Sir", says he, "this is none of my hand, and I refer it to your Majesty whether you do not know this hand". the King (age 37) answered, that it was indeed none of his, and that he knew whose it was, but could not recall it presently. "Why", says he, "it is [his sister] my sister of Richmond's (age 45), some frolick or other of hers of some certain person; and there is nothing of the King's name in it, but it is only said to be his by supposition, as is said". the King (age 37), it seems, seemed not very much displeased with what the Duke (age 39) had said; but, however, he is still in the Tower, and no discourse of his being out in haste, though my Baroness Castlemayne (age 26) hath so far solicited for him that the King (age 37) and she are quite fallen out: he comes not to her, nor hath for some three or four days; and parted with very foul words, the King (age 37) calling her a whore, and a jade that meddled with things she had nothing to do with at all: and she calling him fool; and told him if he was not a fool, he would not suffer his businesses to be carried on by fellows that did not understand them, and cause his best subjects, and those best able to serve him, to be imprisoned; meaning the Duke of Buckingham (age 39).

Pepy's Diary. 17 Jul 1667. Home, and to dinner, and by and by comes Mr. Pierce, who is interested in the Panther, for some advice, and then comes Creed, and he and I spent the whole afternoon till eight at night walking and talking of sundry things public and private in the garden, but most of all of the unhappy state of this nation at this time by the negligence of the King (age 37) and his Council. The Duke of Buckingham (age 39) is, it seems, set at liberty, without any further charge against him or other clearing of him, but let to go out; which is one of the strangest instances of the fool's play with which all publick things are done in this age, that is to be apprehended. And it is said that when he was charged with making himself popular-as indeed he is, for many of the discontented Parliament, Sir Robert Howard (age 41) and Sir Thomas Meres, and others, did attend at the Council-chamber when he was examined-he should answer, that whoever was committed to prison by my Chancellor (age 58) or my Lord Arlington (age 49), could not want being popular. But it is worth considering the ill state a Minister of State is in, under such a Prince as ours is; for, undoubtedly, neither of those two great men would have been so fierce against the Duke of Buckingham (age 39) at the Council-table the other day, had they [not] been assured of the King's good liking, and supporting them therein: whereas, perhaps at the desire of my Baroness Castlemayne (age 26), who, I suppose, hath at last overcome the King (age 37), the Duke of Buckingham (age 39) is well received again, and now these men delivered up to the interest he can make for his revenge. He told me over the story of Mrs. Stewart (age 20), much after the manner which I was told it long since, and have entered it in this book, told me by Mr. Evelyn (age 46); only he says it is verily believed that the King (age 37) did never intend to marry her to any but himself, and that the Duke of York (age 33) and Chancellor (age 58) were jealous of it; and that Mrs. Stewart (age 20) might be got with child by the King (age 37), or somebody else, and the King (age 37) own a marriage before his contract, for it is but a contract, as he tells me, to this day, with the Queene (age 57), and so wipe their noses of the Crown; and that, therefore, the Duke of York (age 33) and Chancellor (age 58) did do all they could to forward the match with my Lord Duke of Richmond (age 28), that she might be married out of the way; but, above all, it is a worthy part that this good lady hath acted.

Pepy's Diary. 22 Jul 1667. So up to my Chancellor's (age 58), where was a Committee of Tangier in my Lord's roome, where he is to hear causes, where all the judges' pictures hang up, very fine. Here I read my letter to them, which was well received, and they did fall seriously to discourse the want of money and other particulars, and to some pretty good purpose. But to see how Sir W. Coventry (age 39) did oppose both my Chancellor (age 58) and the Duke of York (age 33) himself, about the Order of the Commissioners of the Treasury to me for not paying of pensions, and with so much reason, and eloquence so natural, was admirable. And another thing, about his pressing for the reduction of the charge of Tangier, which they would have put off to another time; "But", says he, "the King (age 37) suffers so much by the putting off of the consideration of reductions of charge, that he is undone; and therefore I do pray you, sir, to his Royal Highness, that when any thing offers of the kind, you will not let it escape you". Here was a great bundle of letters brought hither, sent up from sea, from a vessel of ours that hath taken them after they had been flung over by a Dutchman; wherein, among others, the Duke of York (age 33) did read the superscription of one to De Witt, thus "To the most wise, foreseeing and discreet, These, &c."; which, I thought with myself, I could have been glad might have been duly directed to any one of them at the table, though the greatest men in this kingdom. The Duke of York (age 33), the Chancellor (age 58), my Lord Duke of Albemarle (age 58), Arlington, Ashley, Peterborough, and Coventry (the best of them all for parts), I perceive they do all profess their expectation of a peace, and that suddenly, and do advise of things accordingly, and do all speak of it (and expressly, I remember, the Duke of Albemarle (age 58)), saying that they hoped for it. Letters were read at the table from Tangier that Guiland is wholly lost, and that he do offer Arzill to us to deliver it to us. But Sir W. Coventry (age 39) did declare his opinion that we should have nothing to do with it, and said that if Tangier were offered us now, as the King's condition is, he would advise against the taking it; saying, that the King's charge is too great, and must be brought down, it being, like the fire of this City, never to be mastered till you have brought it under you; and that these places abroad are but so much charge to the King (age 37), and we do rather hitherto strive to greaten them than lessen them; and then the King (age 37) is forced to part with them, "as", says he, "he did with Dunkirke", by my Lord Tiviott's making it so chargeable to the King (age 37) as he did that, and would have done Tangier, if he had lived: I perceive he is the only man that do seek the King's profit, and is bold to deliver what he thinks on every occasion. Having broke up here, I away with Mr. Gawden in his coach to the 'Change [Map], and there a little, and then home and dined, and then to the office, and by and by with my wife to White Hall (she to Unthanke's), and there met Creed and did a little business at the Treasury chamber, and then to walk in Westminster Hall [Map] an hour or two, with much pleasure reflecting upon our discourse to-day at the Tangier meeting, and crying up the worth of Sir W. Coventry (age 39). Creed tells me of the fray between the Duke of Buckingham (age 39) at the Duke's playhouse the last Saturday (and it is the first day I have heard that they have acted at either the King's or Duke's houses this month or six weeks) and Henry Killigrew (age 30), whom the Duke of Buckingham (age 39) did soundly beat and take away his sword, and make a fool of, till the fellow prayed him to spare his life; and I am glad of it; for it seems in this business the Duke of Buckingham (age 39) did carry himself very innocently and well, and I wish he had paid this fellow's coat well. I heard something of this at the 'Change [Map] to-day: and it is pretty to hear how people do speak kindly of the Duke of Buckingham (age 39), as one that will enquire into faults; and therefore they do mightily favour him. And it puts me in mind that, this afternoon, Billing (age 44), the Quaker, meeting me in the Hall, come to me, and after a little discourse did say, "Well", says he, "now you will be all called to an account"; meaning the Parliament is drawing near. This done I took coach and took up my wife, and so home, and after a little at the office I home to my chamber a while, and then to supper and to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 29 Jul 1667. But presently comes down the House of Commons, the King (age 37) having made then a very short and no pleasing speech to them at all, not at all giving them thanks for their readiness to come up to town at this busy time; but told them that he did think he should have had occasion for them, but had none, and therefore did dismiss them to look after their own occasions till October; and that he did wonder any should offer to bring in a suspicion that he intended to rule by an army, or otherwise than by the laws of the land, which he promised them he would do; and so bade them go home and settle the minds of the country in that particular; and only added, that he had made a peace which he did believe they would find reasonable, and a good peace, but did give them none of the particulars thereof. Thus they are dismissed again to their general great distaste, I believe the greatest that ever Parliament was, to see themselves so fooled, and the nation in certain condition of ruin, while the King (age 37), they see, is only governed by his lust, and women, and rogues about him. The Speaker, they found, was kept from coming in the morning to the House on purpose, till after the King (age 37) was come to the House of Lords, for fear they should be doing anything in the House of Commons to the further dissatisfaction of the King (age 37) and his courtiers. They do all give up the Kingdom for lost that I speak to; and do hear what the King (age 37) says, how he and the Duke of York (age 33) do do what they can to get up an army, that they may need no more Parliaments: and how my Baroness Castlemayne (age 26) hath, before the late breach between her and the King (age 37), said to the King (age 37) that he must rule by an army, or all would be lost, and that Bab. May (age 39) hath given the like advice to the King (age 37), to crush the English gentlemen, saying that £300 a-year was enough for any man but them that lived at Court. I am told that many petitions were provided for the Parliament, complaining of the wrongs they have received from the Court and courtiers, in city and country, if the Parliament had but sat: and I do perceive they all do resolve to have a good account of the money spent before ever they give a farthing more: and the whole kingdom is everywhere sensible of their being abused, insomuch that they forced their Parliament-men to come up to sit; and my cozen Roger (age 50) told me that (but that was in mirth) he believed, if he had not come up, he should have had his house burned. The Kingdom never in so troubled a condition in this world as now; nobody pleased with the peace, and yet nobody daring to wish for the continuance of the war, it being plain that nothing do nor can thrive under us. Here I saw old good Mr. Vaughan (age 63), and several of the great men of the Commons, and some of them old men, that are come 200 miles, and more, to attend this session-of Parliament; and have been at great charge and disappointments in their other private business; and now all to no purpose, neither to serve their country, content themselves, nor receive any thanks from the King (age 37). It is verily expected by many of them that the King (age 37) will continue the prorogation in October, so as, if it be possible, never to have [this] Parliament more. My Lord Bristoll (age 54) took his place in the House of Lords this day, but not in his robes; and when the King (age 37) come in, he withdrew but my Lord of Buckingham (age 39) was there as brisk as ever, and sat in his robes; which is a monstrous thing, that a man proclaimed against, and put in the Tower [Map], and all, and released without any trial, and yet not restored to his places.

Pepy's Diary. 26 Aug 1667. Then to the office, where we sat upon a particular business all the morning: and my Lord Anglesey (age 53) with us: who, and my Lord Bruncker (age 47), do bring us news how my Chancellor's (age 58) seal is to be taken away from him to-day. The thing is so great and sudden to me, that it put me into a very great admiration what should be the meaning of it; and they do not own that they know what it should be: but this is certain, that the King (age 37) did resolve it on Saturday, and did yesterday send the Duke of Albemarle (age 58), the only man fit for those works, to him for his purse: to which the Chancellor (age 58) answered, that he received it from the King (age 37), and would deliver it to the King's own hand, and so civilly returned the Duke of Albemarle (age 58) without it; and this morning my Chancellor (age 58) is to be with the King (age 37), to come to an end in the business. After sitting, we rose, and my wife being gone abroad with Mrs. Turner (age 44) to her washing at the whitster's, I dined at Sir W. Batten's (age 66), where Mr. Boreman was, who come from White Hall; who tells us that he saw my Chancellor (age 58) come in his coach with some of his men, without his Seal, to White Hall to his chamber; and thither the King (age 37) and Duke of York (age 33) come and staid together alone, an hour or more: and it is said that the King (age 37) do say that he will have the Parliament meet, and that it will prevent much trouble by having of him out of their enmity, by his place being taken away; for that all their enmity will be at him. It is said also that my Chancellor (age 58) answers, that he desires he may be brought to his trial, if he have done any thing to lose his office; and that he will be willing, and is most desirous, to lose that, and his head both together. Upon what terms they parted nobody knows but the Chancellor (age 58) looked sad, he says. Then in comes Sir Richard Ford (age 53), and says he hears that there is nobody more presses to reconcile the King (age 37) and Chancellor (age 58) than the Duke of Albemarle (age 58) and Duke of Buckingham (age 39): the latter of which is very strange, not only that he who was so lately his enemy should do it, but that this man, that but the other day was in danger of losing his own head, should so soon come to be a mediator for others: it shows a wise Government. They all say that he [Clarendon] is but a poor man, not worth above £3000 a-year in land; but this I cannot believe: and all do blame him for having built so great a house, till he had got a better estate. Having dined, Sir J. Minnes (age 68) and I to White Hall, where we could be informed in no more than we were told before, nobody knowing the result of the meeting, but that the matter is suspended. So I walked to the King's playhouse, there to meet Sir W. Pen (age 46), and saw "The Surprizall", a very mean play, I thought: or else it was because I was out of humour, and but very little company in the house. But there Sir W. Pen (age 46) and I had a great deal of discourse with Moll; who tells us that Nell (age 17) is already left by my Lord Buckhurst (age 24), and that he makes sport of her, and swears she hath had all she could get of him; and Hart1, her great admirer, now hates her; and that she is very poor, and hath lost my Baroness Castlemayne (age 26), who was her great friend also but she is come to the House, but is neglected by them all2. Thence with Sir W. Pen (age 46) home, and I to the office, where late about business, and then home to supper, and so to bed.

Note 1. Charles Hart, great-nephew of Shakespeare, a favourite actor. He is credited with being Nell Gwyn's (age 17) first lover (or Charles I, as the wits put it), and with having brought her on the stage. He died of stone, and was buried at Stanmore Magna, Middlesex, where he had a country house.

Note 2. Lord Buckhurst's (age 24) liaison with Nell Gwyn probably came to an end about this time. We learn from Pepys that in January, 1667-68, the King (age 37) sent several times for Nelly (age 17) (see January 11th, 1667-68). Nell's eldest son by Charles II, Charles Beauclerc, was not born till May 8th, 1670. He was created Earl of Burford in 1676 and Duke of St. Albans in 1684.

Pepy's Diary. 25 Sep 1667. Up as soon as I could see and to the office to write over fair with Mr. Hater my last night's work, which I did by nine o'clock, and got it signed, and so with Sir H. Cholmly (age 35), who come to me about his business, to White Hall: and thither come also my Lord Bruncker (age 47): and we by and by called in, and our paper read; and much discourse thereon by Sir G. Carteret (age 57), my Lord Anglesey (age 53), Sir W. Coventry (age 39), and my Lord Ashly (age 46), and myself: but I could easily discern that they none of them understood the business; and the King (age 37) at last ended it with saying lazily, "Why", says he, "after all this discourse, I now come to understand it; and that is, that there can nothing be done in this more than is possible", which was so silly as I never heard: "and therefore", says he, "I would have these gentlemen to do as much as possible to hasten the Treasurer's accounts; and that is all". And so we broke up: and I confess I went away ashamed, to see how slightly things are advised upon there. Here I saw the Duke of Buckingham (age 39) sit in Council again, where he was re-admitted, it seems, the last Council-day: and it is wonderful to see how this man is come again to his places, all of them, after the reproach and disgrace done him: so that things are done in a most foolish manner quite through. The Duke of Buckingham (age 39) did second Sir W. Coventry (age 39) in the advising the King (age 37) that he would not concern himself in the owning or not owning any man's accounts, or any thing else, wherein he had not the same satisfaction that would satisfy the Parliament; saying, that nothing would displease the Parliament more than to find him defending any thing that is not right, nor justifiable to the utmost degree but methought he spoke it but very poorly. After this, I walked up and down the Gallery till noon; and here I met with Bishop Fuller, who, to my great joy, is made, which I did not hear before, Bishop of Lincoln.

Pepy's Diary. 15 Nov 1667. They gone, towards night, I to the office awhile, and then home and to my chamber, where busy till by and by comes Mr. Moore, and he staid and supped and talked with me about many things, and tells me his great fear that all things will go to ruin among us, for that the King (age 37) hath, as he says Sir Thomas Crew (age 43) told him, been heard to say that the quarrel is not between my Chancellor (age 58) and him, but his brother and him; which will make sad work among us if that be once promoted, as to be sure it will, Buckingham (age 39) and Bristoll (age 55) being now the only counsel the King (age 37) follows, so as Arlington (age 49) and Coventry (age 39) are come to signify little. He tells me they are likely to fall upon my Lord Sandwich (age 42); but, for my part, sometimes I am apt to think they cannot do him much harm, he telling me that there is no great fear of the business of Resumption! By and by, I got him to read part of my Lord Cooke's chapter of treason, which is mighty well worth reading, and do inform me in many things, and for aught I see it is useful now to know what these crimes are.

Pepy's Diary. 15 Nov 1667. Thence to Westminster, and there I walked with several, and do hear that there is to be a conference between the two Houses today; so I stayed: and it was only to tell the Commons that the Lords cannot agree to the confining or sequestring of the Earle of Clarendon (age 58) from the Parliament, forasmuch as they do not specify any particular crime which they lay upon him and call Treason. This the House did receive, and so parted: at which, I hear, the Commons are like to grow very high, and will insist upon their privileges, and the Lords will own theirs, though the Duke of Buckingham (age 39), Bristoll (age 55), and others, have been very high in the House of Lords to have had him committed. This is likely to breed ill blood.

Pepy's Diary. 16 Nov 1667. Thence, it being too soon, I to Westminster Hall [Map], it being now about 7 at night, and there met Mr. Gregory, my old acquaintance, an understanding gentleman; and he and I walked an hour together, talking of the bad prospect of the times; and the sum of what I learn from him is this: That the King (age 37) is the most concerned in the world against the Chancellor (age 58), and all people that do not appear against him, and therefore is angry with the Bishops, having said that he had one Bishop on his side (Crofts ), and but one: that Buckingham (age 39) and Bristoll (age 55) are now his only Cabinet Council1 and that, before the Duke of York (age 34) fell sick, Buckingham (age 39) was admitted to the King (age 37) of his Cabinet, and there stayed with him several hours, and the Duke of York (age 34) shut out. That it is plain that there is dislike between the King (age 37) and Duke of York (age 34), and that it is to be feared that the House will go so far against the Chancellor (age 58), that they must do something to undo the Duke of York (age 34), or will not think themselves safe. That this Lord Vaughan (age 28), that is so great against the Chancellor (age 58), is one of the lewdest fellows of the age, worse than Sir Charles Sidly (age 28); and that he was heard to swear, God damn him, he would do my Lord Clarendon's (age 58) business. That he do find that my Lord Clarendon (age 58) hath more friends in both Houses than he believes he would have, by reason that they do see what are the hands that pull him down; which they do not like. That Harry Coventry (age 48) was scolded at by the King (age 37) severely the other day; and that his answer was that, if he must not speak what he thought in this business in Parliament, he must not come thither. And he says that by this very business Harry Coventry (age 48) hath got more fame and common esteem than any gentleman in England hath at this day, and is an excellent and able person. That the King (age 37), who not long ago did say of Bristoll (age 55), that he was a man able in three years to get himself a fortune in any kingdom in the world, and lose all again in three months, do now hug him, and commend his parts every where, above all the world. How fickle is this man [the King (age 37)], and how unhappy we like to be! That he fears some furious courses will be taken against the Duke of York (age 34); and that he hath heard that it was designed, if they cannot carry matters against the Chancellor (age 58), to impeach the Duke of York (age 34) himself, which God forbid! That Sir Edward Nicholas (age 74), whom he served while Secretary, is one of the best men in the world, but hated by the Queen-Mother (age 57), for a service he did the old King against her mind and her favourites; and that she and my Baroness Castlemayne (age 26) did make the King (age 37) to lay him aside: but this man says that he is one of the most perfect heavenly and charitable men in the whole world.

Note 1. The term Cabinet Council, as stated by Clarendon, originated thus, in 1640: "The bulk and burden of the state affairs lay principally upon the shoulders of the Archbishop of Canterbury, the Earl of Strafford, and the Lord Cottington; some others being joined to them, as the Earl of Northumberland for ornament, the Bishop of London for his place, the two Secretaries, Sir H. Vane and Sir Francis Windebank, for service and communication of intelligence: only the Marquis of Hamilton, indeed, by his skill and interest, bore as great a part as he had a mind to do, and had the skill to meddle no further than he had a mind. These persons made up the committee of state, which was reproachfully after called the junto, and enviously then in the Court the Cabinet Council" ("History of the Rebellion", vol. i., p. 211, edit. 1849).

Pepy's Diary. 17 Nov 1667. Lord's Day. Up, and to church with my wife. A dull sermon of Mr. Mills, and then home, without strangers to dinner, and then my wife to read, and I to the office, enter my journall to this day, and so home with great content that it is done, but with sorrow to my eyes. Then home, and got my wife to read to me out of Fuller's Church History, when by and by comes Captain Cocke (age 50), who sat with me all the evening, talking, and I find by him, as by all others, that we are like to expect great confusions, and most of our discourse was the same, and did agree with that the last night, particularly that about the difference between the King (age 37) and the Duke of York (age 34) which is like to be. He tells me that he hears that Sir W. Coventry (age 39) was, a little before the Duke of York (age 34) fell sick, with the Duke of York (age 34) in his closet, and fell on his knees, and begged his pardon for what he hath done to my Chancellor (age 58); but this I dare not soon believe. But he tells me another thing, which he says he had from the person himself who spoke with the Duke of Buckingham (age 39), who, he says, is a very sober and worthy man, that he did lately speak with the Duke of Buckingham (age 39) about his greatness now with the King (age 37), and told him-"But, sir, these things that the King (age 37) do now, in suffering the Parliament to do all this, you know are not fit for the King (age 37) to suffer, and you know how often you have said to me that the King (age 37) was a weak man, and unable to govern, but to be governed, and that you could command him as you listed; why do you suffer him to go on in these things?"-"Why", says the Duke of Buckingham (age 39), "I do suffer him to do this, that I may hereafter the better command him". This he swears to me the person himself to whom the Duke of Buckingham (age 39) said this did tell it him, and is a man of worth, understanding, and credit. He told me one odd passage by the Duke of Albemarle (age 58), speaking how hasty a man he is, and how for certain he would have killed Sir W. Coventry (age 39), had he met him in a little time after his shewing his letter in the House. He told me that a certain lady, whom he knows, did tell him that, she being certainly informed that some of the Duke of Albemarle's (age 58) family did say that the Earl of Torrington was a bastard, [she] did think herself concerned to tell the Duke of Albemarle (age 58) of it, and did first tell the Duchesse, and was going to tell the old man, when the Duchesse pulled her back by the sleeve, and hindered her, swearing to her that if he should hear it, he would certainly kill the servant that should be found to have said it, and therefore prayed her to hold her peace. One thing more he told me, which is, that Garraway (age 50) is come to town, and is thinking how to bring the House to mind the public state of the nation and to put off these particular piques against man and man, and that he propounding this to Sir W. Coventry (age 39), Sir W. Coventry (age 39) did give no encouragement to it: which he says is that by their running after other men he may escape. But I do believe this is not true neither. But however I am glad that Garraway (age 50) is here, and that he do begin to think of the public condition in reference to our neighbours that we are in, and in reference to ourselves, whereof I am mightily afeard of trouble.

Pepy's Diary. 21 Nov 1667. Up, and to the office, where all the morning, and at noon home, where my wife not very well, but is to go to Mr. Mills's child's christening, where she is godmother, Sir J. Minnes (age 68) and Sir R. Brookes (age 30) her companions. I left her after dinner (my clerks dining with me) to go with Sir J. Minnes (age 68), and I to the office, where did much business till after candlelight, and then my eyes beginning to fail me, I out and took coach to Arundell House [Map], where the meeting of Gresham College was broke up; but there meeting Creed, I with him to the taverne in St. Clement's Churchyard, where was Deane Wilkins (age 53), Dr. Whistler, Dr. Floyd (age 40), a divine admitted, I perceive, this day, and other brave men; and there, among other things of news, I do hear, that upon the reading of the House of Commons's Reasons of the manner of their proceedings in the business of my Chancellor (age 58), the Reasons were so bad, that my Lord Bristoll (age 55) himself did declare that he would not stand to what he had, and did still, advise the Lords to concur to, upon any of the Reasons of the House of Commons; but if it was put to the question whether it should be done on their Reasons, he would be against them; and indeed it seems the Reasons-however they come to escape the House of Commons, which shews how slightly the greatest matters are done in this world, and even in Parliaments were none of them of strength, but the principle of them untrue; they saying, that where any man is brought before a judge, accused of Treason in general, without specifying the particular, the judge do there constantly and is obliged to commit him. Whereas the question being put by the Lords to my Lord Keeper, he said that quite the contrary was true: and then, in the Sixth Article (I will get a copy of them if I can) there are two or three things strangely asserted to the diminishing of the King's power, as is said, at least things that heretofore would not have been heard of. But then the question being put among the Lords, as my Lord Bristoll (age 55) advised, whether, upon the whole matter and Reasons that had been laid before them, they would commit my Lord Clarendon (age 58), it was carried five to one against it; there being but three Bishops against him, of whom Cosens (age 72) and Dr. Reynolds were two, and I know not the third. This made the opposite Lords, as Bristoll (age 55) and Buckingham (age 39), so mad, that they declared and protested against it, speaking very broad that there was mutiny and rebellion in the hearts of the Lords, and that they desired they might enter their dissents, which they did do, in great fury.

Pepy's Diary. 27 Nov 1667. Up, and all the morning at my Lord Bruncker's (age 47) lodgings with Sir J. Minnes (age 68) and Sir W. Pen (age 46) about Sir W. Warren's accounts, wherein I do not see that they are ever very likely to come to an understanding of them, as Sir J. Minnes (age 68) hath not yet handled them. Here till noon, and then home to dinner, where Mr. Pierce comes to me, and there, in general, tells me how the King (age 37) is now fallen in and become a slave to the Duke of Buckingham (age 39), led by none but him, whom he, Mr. Pierce, swears he knows do hate the very person of the King (age 37), and would, as well as will, certainly ruin him. He do say, and I think with right, that the King (age 37) do in this do the most ungrateful part of a master to a servant that ever was done, in this carriage of his to my Chancellor (age 58): that, it may be, the Chancellor (age 58) may have faults, but none such as these they speak of; that he do now really fear that all is going to ruin, for he says he hears that Sir W. Coventry (age 39) hath been, just before his sickness, with the Duke of York (age 34), to ask his forgiveness and peace for what he had done; for that he never could foresee that what he meant so well, in the councilling to lay by the Chancellor (age 58), should come to this. As soon as dined, I with my boy Tom to my bookbinder's, where all the afternoon long till 8 or 9 at night seeing him binding up two or three collections of letters and papers that I had of him, but above all things my little abstract pocket book of contracts, which he will do very neatly. Then home to read, sup, and to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 06 Dec 1667. Up, and with Sir J. Minnes (age 68) to the Duke of York (age 34), the first time that I have seen him, or we waited on him, since his sickness; and, blessed be God! he is not at all the worse for the smallpox, but is only a little weak yet. We did much business with him, and so parted. My Lord Anglesey (age 53) told me how my Lord Northampton (age 45) brought in a Bill into the House of Lords yesterday, under the name of a Bill for the Honour and Privilege of the House, and Mercy to my Lord Clarendon (age 58): which, he told me, he opposed, saying that he was a man accused of treason by the House of Commons; and mercy was not proper for him, having not been tried yet, and so no mercy needful for him. However, the Duke of Buckingham (age 39) and others did desire that the Bill might be read; and it, was for banishing my Lord Clarendon (age 58) from all his Majesty's dominions, and that it should be treason to have him found in any of them: the thing is only a thing of vanity, and to insult over him, which is mighty poor I think, and so do every body else, and ended in nothing, I think.

Pepy's Diary. 07 Dec 1667. All the morning at the office, and at noon home to dinner with my clerks, and while we were at dinner comes Willet's aunt to see her and my wife; she is a very fine widow and pretty handsome, but extraordinary well carriaged and speaks very handsomely and with extraordinary understanding, so as I spent the whole afternoon in her company with my wife, she understanding all the things of note touching plays and fashions and Court and everything and speaks rarely, which pleases me mightily, and seems to love her niece very well, and was so glad (which was pretty odde) that since she came hither her breasts begin to swell, she being afeard before that she would have none, which was a pretty kind of content she gave herself. She tells us that Catelin is likely to be soon acted, which I am glad to hear, but it is at the King's house. But the King's house is at present and hath for some days been silenced upon some difference [between] Hart and Moone. She being gone I to the office, and there late doing business, and so home to supper and to bed. Only this evening I must remember that my Lady Batten sent for me, and it was to speak to me before her overseers about my bargain with Sir W. Batten about the prize, to which I would give no present answer, but am well enough contented that they begin the discourse of it, and so away to the office again, and then home to supper and to bed. Somebody told me this, that they hear that Thomson (age 60), with the wooden leg, and Wildman (age 46), the Fifth-Monarchy man, a great creature of the Duke of Buckingham's (age 39), are in nomination to be Commissioners, among others, upon the Bill of Accounts.

Pepy's Diary. 08 Dec 1667. At noon to dinner, where W. How with us, and after dinner, he being gone, I to my chamber again till almost night, and then took boat, the tide serving, and so to White Hall, where I saw the Duchesse of York (age 30), in a fine dress of second mourning for her mother, being black, edged with ermine, go to make her first visit to the Queene (age 58) since the Duke of York (age 34) was sick; and by and by, she being returned, the Queene (age 58) come and visited her. But it was pretty to observe that Sir W. Coventry (age 39) and I, walking an hour and more together in the Matted Gallery, he observed, and so did I, how the Duchesse, as soon as she spied him, turned her head a one side. Here he and I walked thus long, which we have not done a great while before. Our discourse was upon everything: the unhappiness of having our matters examined by people that understand them not; that it was better for us in the Navy to have men that do understand the whole, and that are not passionate; that we that have taken the most pains are called upon to answer for all crimes, while those that, like Sir W. Batten and Sir J. Minnes (age 68), did sit and do nothing, do lie still without any trouble; that, if it were to serve the King (age 37) and kingdom again in a war, neither of us could do more, though upon this experience we might do better than we did; that the commanders, the gentlemen that could never be brought to order, but undid all, are now the men that find fault and abuse others; that it had been much better for the King (age 37) to have given Sir J. Minnes (age 68) and Sir W. Batten £1000 a-year to have sat still, than to have had them in his business this war: that the serving a Prince that minds not his business is most unhappy for them that serve him well, and an unhappiness so great that he declares he will never have more to do with a war, under him. That he hath papers which do flatly contradict the Duke of Albemarle's (age 59) Narrative; and that he hath been with the Duke of Albemarle (age 59) and shewed him them, to prevent his falling into another like fault: that the Duke of Albemarle (age 59) seems to be able to answer them; but he thinks that the Duke of Albemarle (age 59) and the Prince are contented to let their Narratives sleep, they being not only contradictory in some things (as he observed about the business of the Duke of Albemarle's (age 59) being to follow the Prince upon dividing the fleete, in case the enemy come out), but neither of them to be maintained in others. That the business the other night of my Lord Anglesey (age 53) at the Council was happily got over for my Lord, by his dexterous silencing it, and the rest, not urging it further; forasmuch as, had the Duke of Buckingham (age 39) come in time enough, and had got it by the end, he, would have toused him in it; Sir W. Coventry (age 39) telling me that my Lord Anglesey (age 53) did, with such impudence, maintain the quarrel against the Commons and some of the Lords, in the business of my Lord Clarendon (age 58), that he believes there are enough would be glad but of this occasion to be revenged of him. He tells me that he hears some of the Thomsons (age 60) are like to be of the Commission for the Accounts, and Wildman (age 46), which he much wonders at, as having been a false fellow to every body, and in prison most of the time since the King's coming in. But he do tell me that the House is in such a condition that nobody can tell what to make of them, and, he thinks, they were never in before; that every body leads, and nobody follows; and that he do now think that, since a great many are defeated in their expectation of being of the Commission, now they would put it into such hands as it shall get no credit from: for, if they do look to the bottom and see the King's case, they think they are then bound to give the King (age 37) money; whereas, they would be excused from that, and therefore endeavour to make this business of the Accounts to signify little. I spoke with him about my Lord Sandwich's (age 42) business, in which he is very friendly, and do say that the unhappy business of the prizes is it that hath brought all this trouble upon him, and the only thing that made any thing else mentioned, and it is true. So having discoursed with him, I spent some time with Sir Stephen Fox (age 40) about the business of our adjusting the new method of the Excise between the Guards household and Tangier, the Lords Commissioners of the Treasury being now resolved to bring all their management into a course of payment by orders, and not by tallies, and I am glad of it, and so by water home late, and very dark, and when come home there I got my wife to read, and then come Captain Cocke (age 50) to me; and there he tells me, to my great satisfaction, that Sir Robert Brookes (age 30) did dine with him today; and that he told him, speaking of me, that he would make me the darling of the House of Commons, so much he is satisfied concerning me. And this Cocke (age 50) did tell me that I might give him thanks for it; and I do think it may do me good, for he do happen to be held a considerable person, of a young man, both for sobriety and ability. Then to discourse of business of his own about some hemp of his that is come home to receive it into the King's stores, and then parted, and by and by my wife and I to supper, she not being well, her flux being great upon her, and so to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 12 Dec 1667. Thence walked to my bookseller's, and there he did give me a list of the twenty who were nominated for the Commission in Parliament for the Accounts: and it is strange that of the twenty the Parliament could not think fit to choose their nine, but were fain to add three that were not in the list of the twenty, they being many of them factious people and ringleaders in the late troubles; so that Sir John Talbott did fly out and was very hot in the business of Wildman's being named, and took notice how he was entertained in the bosom of the Duke of Buckingham (age 39), a Privy-counsellor; and that it was fit to be observed by the House, and punished. The men that I know of the nine I like very well; that is, Mr. Pierrepont (age 59), Lord Brereton (age 36), and Sir William Turner (age 52); and I do think the rest are so, too; but such as will not be able to do this business as it ought to be, to do any good with. Here I did also see their votes against my Lord Chiefe Justice Keeling (age 60), that his proceedings were illegal, and that he was a contemner of Magna Charta (the great preserver of our lives, freedoms, and properties) and an introduction to arbitrary government; which is very high language, and of the same sound with that in the year 1640. I home, and there wrote my letters, and so to supper and to bed. This day my Chancellor's (age 58) letter was burned at the 'Change [Map].'

Pepy's Diary. 21 Dec 1667. At the office all the morning, and at noon home to dinner with my Clerks and Creed, who among other things all alone, after dinner, talking of the times, he tells me that the Nonconformists are mighty high, and their meetings frequented and connived at; and they do expect to have their day now soon; for my Lord of Buckingham (age 39) is a declared friend to them, and even to the Quakers, who had very good words the other day from the King (age 37) himself: and, what is more, the Archbishop of Canterbury (age 69) is called no more to the Cabal, nor, by the way, Sir W. Coventry (age 39); which I am sorry for, the Cabal at present being, as he says, the King (age 37), and Duke of Buckingham (age 39), and Lord Keeper (age 61), the Duke of Albemarle (age 59), and Privy Seale (age 61). The Bishops, differing from the King (age 37) in the late business in the House of Lords, having caused this and what is like to follow, for every body is encouraged nowadays to speak, and even to preach, as I have heard one of them, as bad things against them as ever in the year 1640; which is a strange change. He gone, I to the office, where busy till late at night, and then home to sit with my wife, who is a little better, and her cheek asswaged. I read to her out of "The History of Algiers", which is mighty pretty reading, and did discourse alone about my sister Pall's (age 27) match, which is now on foot with one Jackson (age 27), another nephew of Mr. Phillips's, to whom he hath left his estate.

Pepy's Diary. 30 Dec 1667. Thence to White Hall, and there to visit Sir G. Carteret (age 57), and there was with him a great while, and my Lady and they seem in very good humour, but by and by Sir G. Carteret (age 57) and I alone, and there we did talk of the ruinous condition we are in, the King (age 37) being going to put out of the Council so many able men; such as my Lord Anglesey (age 53), Ashly (age 46), Hollis (age 68), Secretary Morrice (age 65) (to bring in Mr. Trevor), and the Archbishop of Canterbury (age 69), and my Lord Bridgewater (age 44). He tells me that this is true, only the Duke of York (age 34) do endeavour to hinder it, and the Duke of York (age 34) himself did tell him so: that the King (age 37) and the Duke of York (age 34) do not in company disagree, but are friendly; but that there is a core in their hearts, he doubts, which is not to be easily removed; for these men do suffer only for their constancy to the Chancellor (age 58), or at least from the King's ill-will against him: that they do now all they can to vilify the clergy, and do accuse Rochester, Kent [Map] [Dolben]... and so do raise scandals, all that is possible, against other of the Bishops. He do suggest that something is intended for the Duke of Monmouth (age 18), and it may be, against the Queene (age 58) also: that we are in no manner sure against an invasion the next year: that the Duke of Buckingham (age 39) do rule all now, and the Duke of York (age 34) comes indeed to the Caball, but signifies little there. That this new faction do not endure, nor the King (age 37), Sir W. Coventry (age 39); but yet that he is so usefull that they cannot be without him; but that he is not now called to the Caball. That my Lord of Buckingham (age 39), Bristoll (age 55), and Arlington (age 49), do seem to agree in these things; but that they do not in their hearts trust one another, but do drive several ways, all of them. In short, he do bless himself that he is no more concerned in matters now; and the hopes he hath of being at liberty, when his accounts are over, to retire into the country. That he do give over the Kingdom for wholly lost. So after some other little discourse, I away, meeting with Mr. Cooling. I with him by coach to the Wardrobe, where I never was since the fire in Hatton Garden [Map], but did not 'light: and he tells me he fears that my Lord Sandwich (age 42) will suffer much by Mr. Townsend's being untrue to him, he being now unable to give the Commissioners of the Treasury an account of his money received by many thousands of pounds, which I am troubled for.

Pepy's Diary. 04 Jan 1668. Up, and there to the office, where we sat all the morning; at noon home to dinner, where my clerks and Mr. Clerke the sollicitor with me, and dinner being done I to the office again, where all the afternoon till late busy, and then home with my mind pleased at the pleasure of despatching my business, and so to supper and to bed, my thoughts full, how to order our design of having some dancing at our house on Monday next, being Twelfth-day. It seems worth remembering that this day I did hear my Lord Anglesey (age 53) at the table, speaking touching this new Act for Accounts, say that the House of Lords did pass it because it was a senseless, impracticable, ineffectual, and foolish Act; and that my Lord Ashly (age 46) having shown this that it was so to the House of Lords, the Duke of Buckingham (age 39) did stand up and told the Lords that they were beholden to my Lord Ashly (age 46), that having first commended them for a most grave and honourable assembly, he thought it fit for the House to pass this Act for Accounts because it was a foolish and simple Act: and it seems it was passed with but a few in the House, when it was intended to have met in a grand Committee upon it. And it seems that in itself it is not to be practiced till after this session of Parliament, by the very words of the Act, which nobody regarded, and therefore cannot come in force yet, unless the next meeting they do make a new Act for the bringing it into force sooner; which is a strange omission. But I perceive my Lord Anglesey (age 53) do make a mere laughing-stock of this Act, as a thing that can do nothing considerable, for all its great noise.

Pepy's Diary. 06 Jan 1668. Thence, after the play, stayed till Harris (age 34) was undressed, there being acted "The Tempest", and so he withall, all by coach, home, where we find my house with good fires and candles ready, and our Office the like, and the two Mercers, and Betty Turner (age 15), Pendleton, and W. Batelier. And so with much pleasure we into the house, and there fell to dancing, having extraordinary Musick, two viollins, and a base viollin, and theorbo, four hands, the Duke of Buckingham's (age 39) musique, the best in towne, sent me by Greeting, and there we set in to dancing.

Buckingham Shrewsbury Duel

On 16 Jan 1668 George Villiers 2nd Duke of Buckingham (age 39) fought a duel at Barn Elms with Francis Talbot 11th Earl of Shrewsbury (age 45) with whose wife Anna Maria Brudenell Countess Shrewsbury and Waterford (age 25) he was conducting a relationship. Francis Talbot 11th Earl of Shrewsbury (age 45) was fatally wounded dying two months later. Following the duel George Villiers 2nd Duke of Buckingham (age 39) commenced living with Shrewsbury's wife Anne Maria (age 25). His wife [his wife] Mary Fairfax Duchess Buckingham (age 29) returned to live with her parents.

Admiral Robert Holmes (age 46) and Jenkins acted as seconds to George Villiers 2nd Duke of Buckingham (age 39). Jenkins was killed.

John Talbot of Lacock (age 37) and Bernard Howard (age 27) acted as seconds to Francis Talbot 11th Earl of Shrewsbury (age 45). Note. Bernard Howard a guess based on name and age.

On 16 Mar 1668 Francis Talbot 11th Earl of Shrewsbury (age 45) died from wounds received duelling. He was buried at Albrighton, Shropshire. His son Charles Talbot 1st Duke Shrewsbury (age 7) succeeded 12th Earl of Shrewsbury, 12th Earl Waterford.

Pepy's Diary. 17 Jan 1668. Up, and by coach to White Hall to attend the Council there, and here I met first by Mr. Castle (age 39) the shipwright, whom I met there, and then from the whole house the discourse of the duell yesterday between the Duke of Buckingham (age 39), Holmes, and one Jenkins, on one side, and my Lord of Shrewsbury (age 45), Sir John Talbot (age 37), and one Bernard Howard (age 27), on the other side: and all about my Lady Shrewsbury (age 25)1, who is a whore, and is at this time, and hath for a great while been, a whore to the Duke of Buckingham (age 39). And so her husband (age 45) challenged him, and they met yesterday in a close near Barne-Elmes, and there fought: and my Lord Shrewsbury (age 45) is run through the body, from the right breast through the shoulder: and Sir John Talbot (age 37) all along up one of his armes; and Jenkins killed upon the place, and the rest all, in a little measure, wounded. This will make the world think that the King (age 37) hath good councillors about him, when the Duke of Buckingham (age 39), the greatest man about him, is a fellow of no more sobriety than to fight about a whore. And this may prove a very bad accident to the Duke of Buckingham (age 39), but that my Baroness Castlemayne (age 27) do rule all at this time as much as ever she did, and she will, it is believed, keep all matters well with the Duke of Buckingham (age 39): though this is a time that the King (age 37) will be very backward, I suppose, to appear in such a business. And it is pretty to hear how the King (age 37) had some notice of this challenge a week or two ago, and did give it to my Lord Generall (age 59) to confine the Duke (age 39), or take security that he should not do any such thing as fight: and the Generall trusted to the King (age 37) that he, sending for him, would do it, and the King (age 37) trusted to the Generall; and so, between both, as everything else of the greatest moment do, do fall between two stools. The whole House full of nothing but the talk of this business; and it is said that my Lord Shrewsbury's (age 45) case is to be feared, that he may die too; and that may make it much the worse for the Duke of Buckingham (age 39): and I shall not be much sorry for it, that we may have some sober man come in his room to assist in the Government. Here I waited till the Council rose, and talked the while, with Creed, who tells me of Mr. Harry Howard's' (age 39) giving the Royal Society a piece of ground next to his house, to build a College on, which is a most generous act. And he tells me he is a very fine person, and understands and speaks well; and no rigid Papist neither, but one that would not have a Protestant servant leave his religion, which he was going to do, thinking to recommend himself to his master by it; saying that he had rather have an honest Protestant than a knavish Catholique. I was not called into the Council; and, therefore, home, first informing myself that my Lord Hinchingbrooke (age 20) hath been married this week to my Lord Burlington's (age 55) daughter (age 23); so that that great business is over; and I mighty glad of it, though I am not satisfied that I have not a Favour sent me, as I see Attorney Montagu (age 50) and the Vice-Chamberlain have (age 58). But I am mighty glad that the thing is done.

Note 1. Anna Maria (age 25), daughter of Robert Brudenel, second Earl of Cardigan (age 60). Walpole says she held the Duke of Buckingham's (age 39) horse, in the habit of a page, while he was fighting the duel with her husband. She married, secondly, George Rodney Bridges, son of Sir Thomas Bridges of Keynsham, Somerset (age 51), Groom of the Bedchamber to Charles IL, and died April 20th, 1702. A portrait of the Countess of Shrewsbury, as Minerva, by Lely.

Pepy's Diary. 05 Feb 1668. Thence to other discourse, among others, he mightily commends my Lord Hinchingbroke's (age 20) match and Lady (age 23), though he buys her £10,000 dear, by the jointure and settlement his father (age 42) makes her; and says that the Duke of York (age 34) and Duchess of York (age 30) did come to see them in bed together, on their wedding-night, and how my Lord had fifty pieces of gold taken out of his pocket that night, after he was in bed. He tells me that an Act of Comprehension is likely to pass this Parliament, for admitting of all persuasions in religion to the public observation of their particular worship, but in certain places, and the persons therein concerned to be listed of this, or that Church; which, it is thought, will do them more hurt than good, and make them not own, their persuasion. He tells me that there is a pardon passed to the Duke of Buckingham (age 40), my Lord of Shrewsbury (age 45), and the rest, for the late duell and murder1 which he thinks a worse fault than any ill use my late Chancellor (age 58) ever put the Great Seal to, and will be so thought by the Parliament, for them to be pardoned without bringing them to any trial: and that my Lord Privy-Seal (age 62) therefore would not have it pass his hand, but made it go by immediate warrant; or at least they knew that he would not pass it, and so did direct it to go by immediate warrant, that it might not come to him. He tells me what a character my Lord Sandwich (age 42) hath sent over of Mr. Godolphin (age 33), as the worthiest man, and such a friend to him as he may be trusted in any thing relating to him in the world; as one whom, he says, he hath infallible assurances that he will remaine his friend which is very high, but indeed they say the gentleman is a fine man.

Note 1. The royal pardon was thus announced in the "Gazette" of February 24th, 1668: "This day his Majesty was pleased to declare at the Board, that whereas, in contemplation of the eminent services heretofore done to his Majesty by most of the persons who were engaged in the late duel, or rencounter, wherein William Jenkins was killed, he Both graciously pardon the said offence: nevertheless, He is resolved from henceforth that on no pretence whatsoever any pardon shall be hereafter granted to any person whatsoever for killing of any man, in any duel or rencounter, but that the course of law shall wholly take place in all such cases". The warrant for a pardon to George, Duke of Buckingham (age 40), is dated January 27th, 1668; and on the following day was issued, "Warrant for a grant to Francis, Earl of Shrewsbury (age 45), of pardon for killing William Jenkins, and for all duels, assaults, or batteries on George, Duke of Buckingham (age 40), Sir John Talbot, Sir Robert Holmes, or any other, whether indicted or not for the same, with restitution of lands, goods, &c". (Calendar of State Papers, 1667-68, pp. 192,193).

Calendars. 27 Jan 1688. Whitehall. Warrant for a pardon to George, Duke of Buckingham, of all treason, misprision of treason, felony, &c., especially concerning the killing of William Jenkins, and assaults on Francis Earl of Shrewsbury, - or Sir John Talbot (age 57), whether or not they have died or shall die of the same; with non-obstante of the statutes requiring security for good behaviour. [Ibid. No. 90.]

Calendars. 27 Jan 1688. Petition of John Bennett, high bailiff of the city and liberties of Westminster, to the King. By the accidental killing of William Jenkins, in a late duel between the Duke of Buckingham and Earl of Shrewsbury, the Duke forfeits all his goods, chattels, and personal estate to the King, a considerable part of which, being in Westminster, would come to the petitioner; but as he loses it by his Majesty's pardon to the Duke, he begs to be recommended to his Grace for some compensation. [Ibid. No. 93.]

Calendars. 28 Jan 1688. Whitehall. Warrant for a grant to Francis Earl of Shrewsbury of pardon for killing William Jenkins, and for all duels, assaults, or batteries on George Duke of Buckingham, Sir John Talbot (age 57), Sir Robert  Holmes (age 66), or any other, whether indicted or not for the same, with restitution of lands, goods, &. [S.P. Dom., Entry Book 28, f. 12.]

Adeline Horsey Recollections. The second Earl became a Roman Catholic, and spent most of his long life of 102 years at Deene [Map]. His daughter, Lady Anne Brudenell, was one of the most lovely of the beauties associated with the Court of Charles II She married the Earl of Shrewsbury, and the story is well known of how she, dressed as a page, held the Duke of Buckingham's horse whilst he fought with and slew her husband.

Pepy's Diary. 06 Feb 1668. Up, and to the office, where all the morning, and among other things Sir H. Cholmly (age 35) comes to me about a little business, and there tells me how the Parliament, which is to meet again to-day, are likely to fall heavy on the business of the Duke of Buckingham's (age 40) pardon; and I shall be glad of it: and that the King (age 37) hath put out of the Court the two Hides, my Chancellor's (age 58) two sons [Note. Henry Hyde 2nd Earl Clarendon and Lawrence Hyde 1st Earl Rochester (age 25)], and also the Bishops of Rochester (age 43) and Winchester (age 69), the latter of whom should have preached before him yesterday, being Ash Wednesday, and had his sermon ready, but was put by; which is great news.

Pepy's Diary. 06 Feb 1668. He gone, we sat at the office all the morning, and at noon home to dinner, and my wife being gone before, I to the Duke of York's playhouse; where a new play of Etherige's (age 32), called "She Would if she Could"; and though I was there by two o'clock, there was 1000 people put back that could not have room in the pit: and I at last, because my wife was there, made shift to get into the 18d. box, and there saw; but, Lord! how full was the house, and how silly the play, there being nothing in the world good in it, and few people pleased in it. The King (age 37) was there; but I sat mightily behind, and could see but little, and hear not all. The play being done, I into the pit to look (for) my wife, and it being dark and raining, I to look my wife out, but could not find her; and so staid going between the two doors and through the pit an hour and half, I think, after the play was done; the people staying there till the rain was over, and to talk with one another. And, among the rest, here was the Duke of Buckingham (age 40) to-day openly sat in the pit; and there I found him with my Lord Buckhurst (age 25), and Sidly (age 28), and Etherige (age 32), the poet; the last of whom I did hear mightily find fault with the actors, that they were out of humour, and had not their parts perfect, and that Harris (age 34) did do nothing, nor could so much as sing a ketch in it; and so was mightily concerned while all the rest did, through the whole pit, blame the play as a silly, dull thing, though there was something very roguish and witty; but the design of the play, and end, mighty insipid. At last I did find my wife staying for me in the entry; and with her was Betty Turner (age 15), Mercer, and Deb. So I got a coach, and a humour took us, and I carried them to Hercules Pillars, and there did give them a kind of a supper of about 7s., and very merry, and home round the town, not through the ruines; and it was pretty how the coachman by mistake drives us into the ruines from London-wall into Coleman Street: and would persuade me that I lived there. And the truth is, I did think that he and the linkman had contrived some roguery; but it proved only a mistake of the coachman; but it was a cunning place to have done us a mischief in, as any I know, to drive us out of the road into the ruines, and there stop, while nobody could be called to help us. But we come safe home, and there, the girls being gone home, I to the office, where a while busy, my head not being wholly free of my trouble about my prize business, I home to bed. This evening coming home I did put my hand under the coats of Mercer and did touch her thigh, but then she did put by my hand and no hurt done, but talked and sang and was merry.

Pepy's Diary. 15 May 1668. By and by the corpse went; and I, with my Lord Brouncker (age 48), and Dr. Clerke, and Mr. Pierce, as far as the foot of London-bridge; and there we struck off into Thames Street, the rest going to Redriffe [Map], where he is to be buried. And we 'light at the Temple [Map], and there parted; and I to the King's house, and there saw the last act of "The Committee", thinking to have seen Knepp there, but she did not act. And so to my bookseller's, and there carried home some books-among others, "Dr. Wilkins's Reall Character", and thence to Mrs. Turner's (age 45), and there went and sat, and she showed me her house from top to bottom, which I had not seen before, very handsome, and here supped, and so home, and got Mercer, and she and I in the garden singing till ten at night, and so home to a little supper, and then parted, with great content, and to bed. The Duchesse of Monmouth's hip is, I hear, now set again, after much pain. I am told also that the Countess of Shrewsbury is brought home by the Duke of Buckingham (age 40) to his house, where his Duchess saying that it was not for her and the other to live together in a house, he answered, Why, Madam, I did think so, and, therefore, have ordered your coach to be ready, to carry you to your father's, which was a devilish speech, but, they say, true; and my Lady Shrewsbury is there, it seems.

Pepy's Diary. 17 Jul 1668. So to White Hall, where waited on the Duke of York (age 34), and then the Council about that business; and I did discourse to their liking, only was too high to assert that nothing could be invented to secure the King (age 38) more in the business of tickets than there is; which the Duke of Buckingham (age 40) did except against, and I could have answered, but forbore; but all liked very well.

Pepy's Diary. 18 Jul 1668. So home and to my office, and then to walk in the garden, and home to supper and to bed. They say the King of France (age 29) is making a war again, in Flanders, with the King of Spain (age 6); the King of Spain (age 6) refusing to give him all that he says was promised him in the treaty. Creed told me this day how when the King (age 38) was at my Lord Cornwallis's when he went last to Newmarket, Suffolk, that being there on a Sunday, the Duke of Buckingham (age 40) did in the afternoon to please the King (age 38) make a bawdy sermon to him out of Canticles, and that my Lord Cornwallis did endeavour to get the King (age 38) a whore, and that must be a pretty girl the daughter of the parson of the place, but that she did get away, and leaped off of some place and killed herself, which if true is very sad.

Pepy's Diary. 22 Jul 1668. All the morning at the office. Dined at home, and then to White Hall with Symson the joyner, and after attending at the Committee of the Navy about the old business of tickets, where the only expedient they have found is to bind the Commanders and Officers by oaths. The Duke of York (age 34) told me how the Duke of Buckingham (age 40), after the Council the other day, did make mirth at my position, about the sufficiency of present rules in the business of tickets; and here I took occasion to desire a private discourse with the Duke of York (age 34), and he granted it to me on Friday next.

Pepy's Diary. 30 Aug 1668. Lord's Day. Walked to St. James's and Pell Mell [Map], and read over, with Sir W. Coventry (age 40), my long letter to the Duke of York (age 34), and which the Duke of York (age 34) hath, from mine, wrote to the Board, wherein he is mightily pleased, and I perceive do put great value upon me, and did talk very openly on all matters of State, and how some people have got the bit into their mouths, meaning the Duke of Buckingham (age 40) and his party, and would likely run away with all. But what pleased me mightily was to hear the good character he did give of my Lord Falmouth for his generosity, good-nature, desire of public good, and low thoughts of his own wisdom; his employing his interest in the King (age 38) to do good offices to all people, without any other fault than the freedom he, do learn in France of thinking himself obliged to serve his King in his pleasures: and was W. Coventry's (age 40) particular friend: and W. Coventry (age 40) do tell me very odde circumstances about the fatality of his death, which are very strange.

Pepy's Diary. 30 Aug 1668. So by water home, and did spend the evening with W. Hewer (age 26), telling him how we are all like to be turned out, Lord Brouncker (age 48) telling me this evening that the Duke of Buckingham (age 40) did, within few hours, say that he had enough to turn us all out which I am not sorry for at all, for I know the world will judge me to go for company; and my eyes are such as I am not able to do the business of my Office as I used, and would desire to do, while I am in it. So with full content, declaring all our content in being released of my employment, my wife and I to bed, and W. Hewer (age 26) home, and so all to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 09 Sep 1668. Thence to Westminster, to Sir R. Longs (age 68) Office: and, going, met Mr. George Montagu (age 46), who talked and complimented me mightily; and long discourse I had with him, who, for news, tells me for certain that Trevor do come to be Secretary at Michaelmas, and that Morrice (age 65) goes out, and he believes, without any compensation. He tells me that now Buckingham (age 40) does rule all; and the other day, in the King's journey he is now on, at Bagshot, and that way, he caused Prince Rupert's (age 48) horses to be turned out of an inne, and caused his own to be kept there, which the Prince complained of to the King (age 38), and the Duke of York (age 34) seconded the complaint; but the King (age 38) did over-rule it for Buckingham (age 40), by which there are high displeasures among them; and Buckingham and Arlington (age 50) rule all.

Pepy's Diary. 27 Sep 1668. Lord's Day. Up, and to my office to finish my journall for five days past, and so abroad and walked to White Hall, calling in at Somerset House [Map] Chapel, and also at the Spanish Embassador's at York House [Map], and there did hear a little masse: and so to White Hall; and there the King (age 38) being gone to Chapel, I to walk all the morning in the Park, where I met Mr. Wren; and he and I walked together in the Pell-Mell, it being most summer weather that ever was seen: and here talking of several things: of the corruption of the Court, and how unfit it is for ingenious men, and himself particularly, to live in it, where a man cannot live but he must spend, and cannot get suitably, without breach of his honour: and did thereupon tell me of the basest thing of my Lord Barkeley (age 66), one of the basest things that ever was heard of of a man, which was this: how the Duke of York's (age 34) Commissioners do let his wine-licenses at a bad rate, and being offered a better, they did persuade the Duke of York (age 34) to give some satisfaction to the former to quit it, and let it to the latter, which being done, my Lord Barkeley (age 66) did make the bargain for the former to have £1500 a-year to quit it; whereof, since, it is come to light that they were to have but £800 and himself £700, which the Duke of York (age 34) hath ever since for some years paid, though this second bargain hath been broken, and the Duke of York (age 34) lost by it, [half] of what the first was. He told me that there hath been a seeming accommodation between the Duke of York (age 34) and the Duke of Buckingham (age 40) and Lord Arlington (age 50), the two latter desiring it; but yet that there is not true agreement between them, but they do labour to bring in all new creatures into play, and the Duke of York (age 34) do oppose it, as particularly in this of Sir Prince.

Pepy's Diary. 28 Sep 1668. Thence to Westminster Hall [Map] and there walked a little, and to the Exchequer, and so home by water, and after eating a bit I to my vintner's, and there did only look upon su wife, which is mighty handsome; and so to my glove and ribbon shop, in Fenchurch Street [Map], and did the like there. And there, stopping against the door of the shop, saw Mrs. Horsfall, now a late widow, in a coach. I to her, and shook her by the hand, and so she away; and I by coach towards the King's playhouse, and meeting W. Howe took him with me, and there saw "The City Match"; not acted these thirty years, and but a silly play: the King (age 38) and Court there; the house, for the women's sake, mighty full. So I to White Hall, and there all the evening on the Queen's (age 29) side; and it being a most summerlike day, and a fine warm evening, the Italians come in a barge under the leads, before the Queen's (age 29) drawing-room; and so the Queen (age 29) and ladies went out, and heard them, for almost an hour: and it was indeed very good together; but yet there was but one voice that alone did appear considerable, and that was Seignor Joanni. This done, by and by they went in; and here I saw Mr. Sidney Montagu kiss the Queen's (age 29) hand, who was mighty kind to him, and the ladies looked mightily on him; and the King (age 38) come by and by, and did talk to him. So I away by coach with Alderman Backewell (age 50) home, who is mighty kind to me, more than ordinary, in his expressions. But I do hear this day what troubles me, that Sir W. Coventry (age 40) is quite out of play, the King (age 38) seldom speaking to him; and that there is a design of making a Lord Treasurer, and that my Lord Arlington (age 50) shall be the man; but I cannot believe it. But yet the Duke of Buckingham (age 40) hath it in his mind, and those with him, to make a thorough alteration in things; and, among the rest, Coventry (age 40) to be out. The Duke of York (age 34) did this day tell me how hot the whole party was in the business of GaudenGawden; and particularly, my Lord Anglesey (age 54) tells me, the Duke of Buckingham (age 40), for Child against Gawden; but the Duke of York (age 34) did stand stoutly to it.

Pepy's Diary. 12 Oct 1668. Up, and with Mr. Turner by water to White Hall, there to think to enquire when the Duke of York (age 34) will be in town, in order to Mr. Turner's going down to Audley Ends [Map] about his place; and here I met in St. James's Park with one that told us that the Duke of York (age 34) would be in town to-morrow, and so Turner parted and went home, and I also did stop my intentions of going to the Court, also this day, about securing Mr. Turner's place of Petty-purveyor to Mr. Hater. So I to my Lord Brouncker's (age 48), thinking to have gone and spoke to him about it, but he is gone out to town till night, and so, meeting a gentleman of my Lord Middleton's (age 60) looking for me about the payment of the £1000 lately ordered to his Lord, in advance of his pay, which shall arise upon his going Governor to Tangier, I did go to his Lord's lodgings, and there spoke the first time with him, and find him a shrewd man, but a drinking man, I think, as the world says; but a man that hath seen much of the world, and is a Scot. I offered him my service, though I can do him little; but he sends his man home with me, where I made him stay, till I had gone to Sir W. Pen (age 47), to bespeak him about Mr. Hater, who, contrary to my fears, did appear very friendly, to my great content; for I was afraid of his appearing for his man Burroughs. But he did not; but did declare to me afterwards his intentions to desire an excuse in his own business, to be eased of the business of the Comptroller, his health not giving him power to stay always in town, but he must go into the country. I did say little to him but compliment, having no leisure to think of his business, or any man's but my own, and so away and home, where I find Sir H. Cholmly (age 36) come to town; and is come hither to see me: and he is a man that I love mightily, as being, of a gentleman, the most industrious that ever I saw. He staid with me awhile talking, and telling me his obligations to my Lord Sandwich (age 43), which I was glad of; and that the Duke of Buckingham (age 40) is now chief of all men in this kingdom, which I knew before; and that he do think the Parliament will hardly ever meet again; which is a great many men's thoughts, and I shall not be sorry for it. He being gone, I with my Lord Middleton's (age 60) servant to Mr. Colvill's, but he was not in town, and so he parted, and I home, and there to dinner, and Mr. Pelling with us; and thence my wife and Mercer, and W. Hewer (age 26) and Deb., to the King's playhouse, and I afterwards by water with them, and there we did hear the Eunuch (who, it seems, is a Frenchman, but long bred in Italy) sing, which I seemed to take as new to me, though I saw him on Saturday last, but said nothing of it; but such action and singing I could never have imagined to have heard, and do make good whatever Tom Hill used to tell me. Here we met with Mr. Batelier and his sister, and so they home with us in two coaches, and there at my house staid and supped, and this night my bookseller Shrewsbury comes, and brings my books of Martyrs, and I did pay him for them, and did this night make the young women before supper to open all the volumes for me.

Pepy's Diary. 23 Oct 1668. So home, and there all alone to dinner, my wife and W. Hewer (age 26) being gone to Deptford, Kent [Map] to see her mother, and so I to the office all the afternoon. In the afternoon comes my cozen, Sidney Pickering (age 18), to bring my wife and me his sister's Favour for her wedding, which is kindly done, and he gone, I to business again, and in the evening home, made my wife read till supper time, and so to bed. This day Pierce do tell me, among other news, the late frolick and debauchery of Sir Charles Sidly (age 29) and Buckhurst (age 25), running up and down all the night with their arses bare, through the streets; and at last fighting, and being beat by the watch and clapped up all night; and how the King (age 38) takes their parts; and my Lord Chief Justice Keeling (age 61) hath laid the constable by the heels to answer it next Sessions: which is a horrid shame. How the King (age 38) and these gentlemen did make the fiddlers of Thetford, this last progress, to sing them all the bawdy songs they could think of. How Sir W. Coventry (age 40) was brought the other day to the Duchesse of York (age 31) by the Duke (age 35), to kiss her hand; who did acknowledge his unhappiness to occasion her so much sorrow, declaring his intentions in it, and praying her pardon; which she did give him upon his promise to make good his pretences of innocence to her family, by his faithfulness to his master, the Duke of York (age 35). That the Duke of Buckingham (age 40) is now all in all, and will ruin Coventry (age 40), if he can: and that W. Coventry (age 40) do now rest wholly upon the Duke of York (age 35) for his standing, which is a great turn. He tells me that my Baroness Castlemayne (age 27), however, is a mortal enemy to the Duke of Buckingham (age 40), which I understand not; but, it seems, she is disgusted with his greatness, and his ill usage of her. That the King (age 38) was drunk at Saxam with Sidly (age 29), Buckhurst (age 25), &c., the night that my Lord Arlington (age 50) come thither, and would not give him audience, or could not which is true, for it was the night that I was there, and saw the King (age 38) go up to his chamber, and was told that the King (age 38) had been drinking. He tells me, too, that the Duke of York (age 35) did the next day chide Bab. May (age 40) for his occasioning the King's giving himself up to these gentlemen, to the neglecting of my Lord Arlington (age 50): to which he answered merrily, that, by God, there was no man in England that had heads to lose, durst do what they do, every day, with the King (age 38), and asked the Duke of York's (age 35) pardon: which is a sign of a mad world. God bless us out of it!

Pepy's Diary. 29 Oct 1668. At the office all the morning, where Mr. Wren (age 39) first tells us of the order from the King (age 38), came last night to the Duke of York (age 35), for signifying his pleasure to the Sollicitor-General (age 46) for drawing up a Commission for suspending of my Lord Anglesey (age 54), and putting in Sir Thomas Littleton (age 47) and Sir Thomas Osborne, the former a creature of Arlington's (age 50), and the latter of the Duke of Buckingham's (age 40), during the suspension. The Duke of York (age 35) was forced to obey, and did grant it, he being to go to Newmarket, Suffolk this day with the King (age 38), and so the King (age 38) pressed for it. But Mr. Wren (age 39) do own that the Duke of York (age 35) is the most wounded in this, in the world, for it is done and concluded without his privity, after his appearing for Lord Anglesey (age 54), and that it is plain that they do ayme to bring the Admiralty into Commission too, and lessen the Duke of York (age 35). This do put strange apprehensions into all our Board; only I think I am the least troubled at it, for I care not at all for it: but my Lord Brouncker (age 48) and Pen do seem to think much of it.

Pepy's Diary. 30 Oct 1668. Up betimes; and Mr. Povy (age 54) comes to even accounts with me, which we did, and then fell to other talk. He tells, in short, how the King (age 38) is made a child of, by Buckingham (age 40) and Arlington (age 50), to the lessening of the Duke of York (age 35), whom they cannot suffer to be great, for fear of my Chancellor's (age 59) return, which, therefore, they make the King (age 38) violent against. That he believes it is impossible these two great men can hold together long: or, at least, that the ambition of the former is so great, that he will endeavour to master all, and bring into play as many as he can. That Anglesey (age 54) will not lose his place easily, but will contend in law with whoever comes to execute it. That the Duke of York (age 35), in all things but in his cod-piece, is led by the nose by his wife (age 31). That W. Coventry (age 40) is now, by the Duke of York (age 35), made friends with the Duchess (age 31); and that he is often there, and waits on her. That he do believe that these present great men will break in time, and that W. Coventry (age 40) will be a great man again; for he do labour to have nothing to do in matters of the State, and is so usefull to the side that he is on, that he will stand, though at present he is quite out of play. That my Baroness Castlemayne (age 27) hates the Duke of Buckingham (age 40). That the Duke of York (age 35) hath expressed himself very kind to my Lord Sandwich (age 43), which I am mighty glad of. That we are to expect more changes if these men stand. This done, he and I to talk of my coach, and I got him to go see it, where he finds most infinite fault with it, both as to being out of fashion and heavy, with so good reason that I am mightily glad of his having corrected me in it; and so I do resolve to have one of his build, and with his advice, both in coach and horses, he being the fittest man in the world for it, and so he carried me home, and said the same to my wife. So I to the office and he away, and at noon I home to dinner, and all the afternoon late with Gibson at my chamber about my present great business, only a little in the afternoon at the office about Sir D. Gawden's accounts, and so to bed and slept heartily, my wife and I at good peace, but my heart troubled and her mind not at ease, I perceive, she against and I for the girle, to whom I have not said anything these three days, but resolve to be mighty strange in appearance to her. This night W. Batelier come and took his leave of us, he setting out for France to-morrow.

Pepy's Diary. 04 Nov 1668. Up, and by coach to White Hall; and there I find the King (age 38) and Duke of York (age 35) come the last night, and every body's mouth full of my Lord Anglesey's (age 54) suspension being sealed; which it was, it seems, yesterday; so that he is prevented in his remedy at the Council; and, it seems, the two new Treasurers did kiss the King's hand this morning, brought in by my Lord Arlington (age 50). They walked up and down together the Court this day, and several people joyed them; but I avoided it, that I might not be seen to look either way. This day also I hear that my Lord Ormond (age 58) is to be declared in Council no more Deputy Governor of Ireland, his commission being expired: and the King (age 38) is prevailed with to take it out of his hands; which people do mightily admire, saying that he is the greatest subject of any Prince in Christendome, and hath more acres of land than any, and hath done more for his Prince than ever any yet did. But all will not do; he must down, it seems, the Duke of Buckingham (age 40) carrying all before him. But that, that troubles me most is, that they begin to talk that the Duke of York's (age 35) regiment is ordered to be disbanded; and more, that undoubtedly his Admiralty will follow: which do shake me mightily, and I fear will have ill consequences in the nation, for these counsels are very mad. The Duke of York (age 35) do, by all men's report, carry himself wonderfull submissive to the King (age 38), in the most humble manner in the world; but yet, it seems, nothing must be spared that tends to, the keeping out of the Chancellor (age 59); and that is the reason of all this. The great discourse now is, that the Parliament shall be dissolved and another called, which shall give the King (age 38) the Deane (age 34) and Chapter lands; and that will put him out of debt. And it is said that Buckingham do knownly meet daily with Wildman and other Commonwealth-men; and that when he is with them, he makes the King (age 38) believe that he is with his wenches; and something looks like the Parliament's being dissolved, by Harry Brouncker's (age 41) being now come back, and appears this day the first day at White Hall; but hath not been yet with the King (age 38), but is secure that he shall be well received, I hear. God bless us, when such men as he shall be restored! But that, that pleases me most is, that several do tell me that Pen is to be removed; and others, that he hath resigned his place; and particularly Spragg tells me for certain that he hath resigned it, and is become a partner with Gawden in the Victualling: in which I think he hath done a very cunning thing; but I am sure I am glad of it; and it will be well for the King (age 38) to have him out of this Office.

Pepy's Diary. 05 Nov 1668. Up, and Willet come home in the morning, and, God forgive me! I could not conceal my content thereat by smiling, and my wife observed it, but I said nothing, nor she, but away to the office. Presently up by water to White Hall, and there all of us to wait on the Duke of York (age 35), which we did, having little to do, and then I up and down the house, till by and by the Duke of York (age 35), who had bid me stay, did come to his closet again, and there did call in me and Mr. Wren; and there my paper, that I have lately taken pains to draw up, was read, and the Duke of York (age 35) pleased therewith; and we did all along conclude upon answers to my mind for the Board, and that that, if put in execution, will do the King's business. But I do now more and more perceive the Duke of York's (age 35) trouble, and that he do lie under great weight of mind from the Duke of Buckingham's (age 40) carrying things against him; and particularly when I advised that he would use his interest that a seaman might come into the room of W. Pen (age 47), who is now declared to be gone from us to that of the Victualling, and did shew how the Office would now be left without one seaman in it, but the Surveyour and the Controller, who is so old as to be able to do nothing, he told me plainly that I knew his mind well enough as to seamen, but that it must be as others will. And Wren did tell it me as a secret, that when the Duke of York (age 35) did first tell the King (age 38) about Sir W. Pen's (age 47) leaving of the place, and that when the Duke of York (age 35) did move the King (age 38) that either Captain Cox or Sir Jer. Smith might succeed him, the King (age 38) did tell him that that was a matter fit to be considered of, and would not agree to either presently; and so the Duke of York (age 35) could not prevail for either, nor knows who it shall be. The Duke of York (age 35) did tell me himself, that if he had not carried it privately when first he mentioned Pen's leaving his place to the King (age 38), it had not been done; for the Duke of Buckingham (age 40) and those of his party do cry out upon it, as a strange thing to trust such a thing into the hands of one that stands accused in Parliament: and that they have so far prevailed upon the King (age 38) that he would not have him named in Council, but only take his name to the Board; but I think he said that only D. Gawden's name shall go in the patent; at least, at the time when Sir Richard Browne (age 63) asked the King (age 38) the names of D. Gawden's security, the King (age 38) told him it was not yet necessary for him to declare them. And by and by, when the Duke of York (age 35) and we had done, and Wren brought into the closet Captain Cox and James Temple [Map] About business of the Guiney Company, and talking something of the Duke of Buckingham's (age 40) concernment therein, and says the Duke of York (age 35), "I will give the Devil his due, as they say the Duke of Buckingham (age 40) hath paid in his money to the Company", or something of that kind, wherein he would do right to him. The Duke of York (age 35) told me how these people do begin to cast dirt upon the business that passed the Council lately, touching Supernumeraries, as passed by virtue of his authority there, there being not liberty for any man to withstand what the Duke of York (age 35) advises there; which, he told me, they bring only as an argument to insinuate the putting of the Admiralty into Commission, which by all men's discourse is now designed, and I perceive the same by him. This being done, and going from him, I up and down the house to hear news: and there every body's mouth full of changes; and, among others, the Duke of York's (age 35) regiment of Guards, that was raised during the late war at sea, is to be disbanded: and also, that this day the King (age 38) do intend to declare that the Duke of Ormond (age 58) is no more Deputy of Ireland, but that he will put it into Commission. This day our new Treasurers did kiss the King's hand, who complimented them, as they say, very highly, that he had for a long time been abused in his Treasurer, and that he was now safe in their hands. I saw them walk up and down the Court together all this morning; the first time I ever saw Osborne, who is a comely gentleman. This day I was told that my Lord Anglesey (age 54) did deliver a petition on Wednesday in Council to the King (age 38), laying open, that whereas he had heard that his Majesty had made such a disposal of his place, which he had formerly granted him for life upon a valuable consideration, and that, without any thing laid to his charge, and during a Parliament's sessions, he prayed that his Majesty would be pleased to let his case be heard before the Council and the judges of the land, who were his proper counsel in all matters of right: to which, I am told, the King (age 38), after my Lord's being withdrawn, concluded upon his giving him an answer some few days hence; and so he was called in, and told so, and so it ended. Having heard all this I took coach and to Mr. Povy's (age 54), where I hear he is gone to the Swedes Resident in Covent Garden [Map], where he is to dine. I went thither, but he is not come yet, so I to White Hall to look for him, and up and down walking there I met with Sir Robert Holmes (age 46), who asking news I told him of Sir W. Pen's (age 47) going from us, who ketched at it so as that my heart misgives me that he will have a mind to it, which made me heartily sorry for my words, but he invited me and would have me go to dine with him at the Treasurer's, Sir Thomas Clifford (age 38), where I did go and eat some oysters; which while we were at, in comes my Lord Keeper and much company; and so I thought it best to withdraw. And so away, and to the Swedes Agent's, and there met Mr. Povy (age 54); where the Agent would have me stay and dine, there being only them, and Joseph Williamson (age 35), and Sir Thomas Clayton; but what he is I know not. Here much extraordinary noble discourse of foreign Princes, and particularly the greatness of the King of France (age 30), and of his being fallen into the right way of making the Kingdom great, which [none] of his ancestors ever did before. I was mightily pleased with this company and their discourse, so as to have been seldom so much in all my life, and so after dinner up into his upper room, and there did see a piece of perspective, but much inferior to Mr. Povy's (age 54).

Pepy's Diary. 13 Nov 1668. Thence I to the Three Tuns Tavern, by Charing Cross [Map], and there dined with W. Pen (age 47), Sir J. Minnes (age 69), and Commissioner Middleton; and as merry as my mind could be, that hath so much trouble upon it at home. And thence to White Hall, and there staid in Mr. Wren's chamber with him, reading over my draught of a letter, which Mr. Gibson then attended me with; and there he did like all, but doubted whether it would be necessary for the Duke to write in so sharp a style to the Office, as I had drawn it in; which I yield to him, to consider the present posture of the times and the Duke of York (age 35) and whether it were not better to err on that hand than the other. He told me that he did not think it was necessary for the Duke of York (age 35) to do so, and that it would not suit so well with his nature nor greatness; which last, perhaps, is true, but then do too truly shew the effects of having Princes in places, where order and discipline should be. I left it to him to do as the Duke of York (age 35) pleases; and so fell to other talk, and with great freedom, of public things; and he told me, upon my several inquiries to that purpose, that he did believe it was not yet resolved whether the Parliament should ever meet more or no, the three great rulers of things now standing thus:-The Duke of Buckingham (age 40) is absolutely against their meeting, as moved thereto by his people that he advises with, the people of the late times, who do never expect to have any thing done by this Parliament for their religion, and who do propose that, by the sale of the Church-lands, they shall be able to put the King (age 38) out of debt: my Lord Keeper is utterly against putting away this and choosing another Parliament, lest they prove worse than this, and will make all the King's friends, and the King (age 38) himself, in a desperate condition: my Lord Arlington (age 50) know not which is best for him, being to seek whether this or the next will use him worst. He tells me that he believes that it is intended to call this Parliament, and try them with a sum of money; and, if they do not like it, then to send them going, and call another, who will, at the ruin of the Church perhaps, please the King (age 38) with what he will for a time. And he tells me, therefore, that he do believe that this policy will be endeavoured by the Church and their friends-to seem to promise the King (age 38) money, when it shall be propounded, but make the King (age 38) and these great men buy it dear, before they have it. He tells me that he is really persuaded that the design of the Duke of Buckingham (age 40) is, by bringing the state into such a condition as, if the King (age 38) do die without issue, it shall, upon his death, break into pieces again; and so put by the Duke of York (age 35), who they have disobliged, they know, to that degree, as to despair of his pardon. He tells me that there is no way to rule the King (age 38) but by brisknesse, which the Duke of Buckingham (age 40) hath above all men; and that the Duke of York (age 35) having it not, his best way is what he practices, that is to say, a good temper, which will support him till the Duke of Buckingham (age 40) and Lord Arlington (age 50) fall out, which cannot be long first, the former knowing that the latter did, in the time of the Chancellor (age 59), endeavour with the Chancellor (age 59) to hang him at that time, when he was proclaimed against. And here, by the by, he told me that the Duke of Buckingham (age 40) did, by his friends, treat with my Chancellor (age 59), by the mediation of Matt. Wren (age 39) and Matt. Clifford, to fall in with my Chancellor (age 59); which, he tells me, he did advise my Chancellor (age 59) to accept of, as that, that with his own interest and the Duke of York's (age 35), would undoubtedly have assured all to him and his family; but that my Chancellor (age 59) was a man not to be advised, thinking himself too high to be counselled: and so all is come to nothing; for by that means the Duke of Buckingham (age 40) became desperate, and was forced to fall in with Arlington (age 50), to his [the Chancellor's (age 59)] ruin.

Evelyn's Diary. 14 Nov 1668. To London, invited to the consecration of that excellent person, the Dean of Ripon, Dr. Wilkins (age 54), now made Bishop of Chester; it was at Ely House, the Archbishop of Canterbury (age 70), Dr. Cosin (age 73), Bishop of Durham, the Bishops of Ely (age 77), Salisbury, Rochester (age 43), and others officiating. Dr. Tillotson (age 38) preached. Then, we went to a sumptuous dinner in the hall, where were the Duke of Buckingham (age 40), Judges, Secretaries of State, Lord-Keeper, Council, Noblemen, and innumerable other company, who were honorers of this incomparable man, universally beloved by all who knew him.

Pepy's Diary. 23 Nov 1668. So to White Hall, where a Committee of Tangier expected, but none met. I met with Mr. Povy (age 54), who I discoursed with about publick business, who tells me that this discourse which I told him of, of the Duke of Monmouth (age 19) being made Prince of Wales, hath nothing in it; though he thinks there are all the endeavours used in the world to overthrow the Duke of York (age 35). He would not have me doubt of my safety in the Navy, which I am doubtful of from the reports of a general removal; but he will endeavour to inform me, what he can gather from my Lord Arlington (age 50). That he do think that the Duke of Buckingham (age 40) hath a mind rather to overthrow all the Kingdom, and bring in a Commonwealth, wherein he may think to be General of their Army, or to make himself King, which, he believes, he may be led to, by some advice he hath had with conjurors, which he do affect.

Pepy's Diary. 25 Nov 1668. Thence walked with him to White Hall, where to the Duke of York (age 35); and there the Duke, and Wren, and I, by appointment in his closet, to read over our letter to the Office, which he heard, and signed it, and it is to my mind, Mr. Wren (age 39) having made it somewhat sweeter to the Board, and yet with all the advice fully, that I did draw it up with. He [the Duke] said little more to us now, his head being full of other business; but I do see that he do continue to put a value upon my advice; and so Mr. Wren (age 39) and I to his chamber, and there talked: and he seems to hope that these people, the Duke of Buckingham (age 40) and Arlington (age 50), will run themselves off of their legs; they being forced to be always putting the King (age 38) upon one idle thing or other, against the easiness of his nature, which he will never be able to bear, nor they to keep him to, and so will lose themselves. And, for instance of their little progress, he tells me that my Lord of Ormond (age 58) is like yet to carry it, and to continue in his command in Ireland; at least, they cannot get the better of him yet. But he tells me that the Keeper is wrought upon, as they say, to give his opinion for the dissolving of the Parliament, which, he thinks, will undo him in the eyes of the people. He do not seem to own the hearing or fearing of any thing to be done in the Admiralty, to the lessening of the Duke of York (age 35), though he hears how the town talk's full of it.

Pepy's Diary. 03 Dec 1668. Up betimes, and by water with W. Hewer (age 26) to White Hall, and there to Mr. Wren (age 39), who gives me but small hopes of the favour I hoped for Mr. Steventon, Will's uncle, of having leave, being upon the point of death, to surrender his place, which do trouble me, but I will do what I can. So back again to the Office, Sir Jer. Smith with me; who is a silly, prating, talking man; but he tells me what he hears, that Holmes and Spragg now rule all with the Duke of Buckingham (age 40), as to seabusiness, and will be great men: but he do prophesy what will be the fruit of it; so I do.

Pepy's Diary. 05 Dec 1668. Up, after a little talk with my wife, which troubled me, she being ever since our late difference mighty watchful of sleep and dreams, and will not be persuaded but I do dream of Deb., and do tell me that I speak in my dreams and that this night I did cry, Huzzy, and it must be she, and now and then I start otherwise than I used to do, she says, which I know not, for I do not know that I dream of her more than usual, though I cannot deny that my thoughts waking do run now and then against my will and judgment upon her, for that only is wanting to undo me, being now in every other thing as to my mind most happy, and may still be so but for my own fault, if I be catched loving any body but my wife again. So up and to the office, and at noon to dinner, and thence to office, where late, mighty busy, and despatching much business, settling papers in my own office, and so home to supper, and to bed. No news stirring, but that my Lord of Ormond (age 58) is likely to go to Ireland again, which do shew that the Duke of Buckingham (age 40) do not rule all so absolutely; and that, however, we shall speedily have more changes in the Navy: and it is certain that the Nonconformists do now preach openly in houses, in many places, and among others the house that was heretofore Sir G. Carteret's (age 58), in Leadenhall Street [Map]e, and have ready access to the King (age 38). And now the great dispute is, whether this Parliament or another; and my great design, if I continue in the Navy, is to get myself to be a Parliament-man.

Pepy's Diary. 07 Dec 1668. So to talk of general things: and telling him that, with all these doings, he, I thanked God, stood yet; he told me, Yes, but that he thought his continuing in, did arise from his enemies my Lord of Buckingham (age 40) and Arlington's (age 50) seeing that he cared so little if he was out; and he do protest to me that he is as weary of the Treasury, as ever he was of the Navy. He tells me that he do believe that their heat is over almost, as to the Navy, there being now none left of the old stock but my Lord Brouncker (age 48), J. Minnes (age 69), who is ready to leave the world, and myself. But he tells me that he do foresee very great wants and great disorders by reason thereof; insomuch, as he is represented to the King (age 38) by his enemies as a melancholy man, and one that is still prophesying ill events, so as the King (age 38) called him Visionaire, which being told him, he said he answered the party, that, whatever he foresaw, he was not afeard as to himself of any thing, nor particularly of my Lord Arlington (age 50), so much as the Duke of Buckingham (age 40) hath been, nor of the Duke of Buckingham (age 40), so much as my Lord Arlington (age 50) at this time is. But he tells me that he hath been always looked upon as a melancholy man; whereas, others that would please the King (age 38) do make him believe that all is safe: and so he hath heard my Chancellor (age 59) openly say to the King (age 38), that he was now a glorious Prince, and in a glorious condition, because of some one accident that hath happened, or some one rub that hath been removed; "when", says W. Coventry (age 40), "they reckoned their one good meal, without considering that there was nothing left in the cup board for to-morrow". After this and other discourse of this kind, I away, and walked to my Lord Sandwich's (age 43), and walked with him to White Hall, and took a quarter of an hour's walk in the garden with him, which I had not done for so much time with him since his coming into England; and talking of his own condition, and particularly of the world's talk of his going to Tangier. I find, if his conditions can be made profitable and safe as to money, he would go, but not else; but, however, will seem not averse to it, because of facilitating his other accounts now depending, which he finds hard to get through, but yet hath some hopes, the King (age 38), he says, speaking very kindly to him.

In 1669 Henry Savile (age 27) was sent to the Tower of London [Map] for a few days for having carried Thomas Coventry's (age 40) challenge to the Duke of Buckingham (age 40).

Pepy's Diary. 16 Jan 1669. Up, and to the office all the morning, dined at home with my people, and so all the afternoon till night at the office busy, and so home to supper and to bed. This morning Creed, and in the afternoon comes Povy (age 55), to advise with me about my answer to the Lords [Commissioners] of Tangier, about the propositions for the Treasurership there, which I am not much concerned for. But the latter, talking of publick things, told me, as Mr. Wren (age 40) also did, that the Parliament is likely to meets again, the King (age 38) being frighted with what the Speaker hath put him in mind of-his promise not to prorogue, but only to adjourne them. They speak mighty freely of the folly of the King (age 38) in this foolish woman's business, of my Lady Harvy (age 30). Povy (age 55) tells me that Sir W. Coventry (age 41) was with the King (age 38) alone, an hour this day; and that my Baroness Castlemayne (age 28) is now in a higher command over the King (age 38) than ever-not as a mistress, for she scorns him, but as a tyrant, to command him: and says that the Duchess of York (age 31) and the Duke of York (age 35) are mighty great with her, which is a great interest to my Chancellor's' (age 59) family; and that they do agree to hinder all they can the proceedings of the Duke of Buckingham (age 40) and Arlington (age 51): and so we are in the old mad condition, or rather worse than any; no man knowing what the French intend to do the next summer.

Pepy's Diary. 12 Feb 1669. Thence to the Treasurer's; and I and Sir J. Minnes (age 69) and Mr. Tippets down to the Lords Commissioners of the Treasury, and there had a hot debate from Sir Thomas Clifford (age 38) and my Lord Ashly (age 47) (the latter of which, I hear, is turning about as fast as he can to the Duke of Buckingham's (age 41) side, being in danger, it seems, of being otherwise out of play, which would not be convenient for him), against Sir W. Coventry (age 41) and Sir J. Duncomb, who did uphold our Office against an accusation of our Treasurers, who told the Lords that they found that we had run the King (age 38) in debt £50,000 or more, more than the money appointed for the year would defray, which they declared like fools, and with design to hurt us, though the thing is in itself ridiculous. But my Lord Ashly (age 47) and Clifford did most horribly cry out against the want of method in the Office. At last it come that it should be put in writing what they had to object; but I was devilish mad at it, to see us thus wounded by our own members, and so away vexed, and called my wife, and to Hercules Pillars, Tom and I, there dined; and here there coming a Frenchman by with his Shew, we did make him shew it us, which he did just as Lacy (age 54) acts it, which made it mighty pleasant to me. So after dinner we away and to Dancre's (age 44), and there saw our picture of Greenwich, Kent [Map] in doing, which is mighty pretty, and so to White Hall, my wife to Unthank's, and I attended with Lord Brouncker (age 49) the King (age 38) and Council, about the proposition of balancing Storekeeper's accounts and there presented Hosier's book, and it was mighty well resented and approved of. So the Council being up, we to the Queen's (age 30) side with the King (age 38) and Duke of York (age 35): and the Duke of York (age 35) did take me out to talk of our Treasurers, whom he is mighty angry with: and I perceive he is mighty desirous to bring in as many good motions of profit and reformation in the Navy as he can, before the Treasurers do light upon them, they being desirous, it seems, to be thought the great reformers: and the Duke of York (age 35) do well. But to my great joy he is mighty open to me in every thing; and by this means I know his whole mind, and shall be able to secure myself, if he stands. Here to-night I understand, by my Lord Brouncker (age 49), that at last it is concluded on by the King (age 38) and Buckingham that my Lord of Ormond (age 58) shall not hold his government of Ireland, which is a great stroke, to shew the power of Buckingham and the poor spirit of the King (age 38), and little hold that any man can have of him.

Pepy's Diary. 14 Feb 1669. At noon home, and pleased mightily with my morning's work, and coming home, I do find a letter from Mr. Wren (age 40), to call me to the Duke of York (age 35) after dinner. So dined in all haste, and then W. Hewer (age 27) and my wife and I out, we set her at my cozen Turner's while we to White Hall, where the Duke of York (age 35) expected me; and in his closet Wren and I He did tell me how the King (age 38) hath been acquainted with the Treasurers' discourse at the Lords Commissioners of the Treasury, the other day, and is dissatisfied with our running him in debt, which I removed; and he did, carry me to the King (age 38), and I did satisfy him also; but his satisfaction is nothing worth, it being easily got, and easily removed; but I do purpose to put in writing that which shall make the Treasurers ashamed. But the Duke of York (age 35) is horrid angry against them; and he hath cause, for they do all they can to bring dishonour upon his management, as do vainly appear in all they do. Having done with the Duke of York (age 35), who do repose all in me, I with Mr. Wren (age 40) to his, chamber, to talk; where he observed, that these people are all of them a broken sort of people, that have not much to lose, and therefore will venture all to make their fortunes better: that Sir Thomas Osborne is a beggar, having 11 of £1200 a-year, but owes above £10,000. The Duke of Buckingham's (age 41) condition is shortly this: that he hath about £19,600 a-year, of which he pays away about £7,000 a-year in interest, about £2000 in fee-farm rents to the King (age 38), about £6000 wages and pensions, and the rest to live upon, and pay taxes for the whole. Wren says, that for the Duke of York (age 35) to stir in this matter, as his quality might justify, would but make all things worse, and that therefore he must bend, and suffer all, till time works it out: that he fears they will sacrifice the Church, and that the King (age 38) will take anything, and so he will hold up his head a little longer, and then break in pieces. But Sir W. Coventry (age 41) did today mightily magnify my late Lord Treasurer, for a wise and solid, though infirm man: and, among other things, that when he hath said it was impossible in nature to find this or that sum of money, and my Chancellor (age 59) hath made sport of it, and tell the King (age 38) that when my Lord hath said it (was) impossible, yet he hath made shift to find it, and that was by Sir G. Carteret's (age 59) getting credit, my Lord did once in his hearing say thus, which he magnifies as a great saying-that impossible would be found impossible at last; meaning that the King (age 38) would run himself out, beyond all his credit and funds, and then we should too late find it impossible; which is, he says, now come to pass. For that Sir W. Coventry (age 41) says they could borrow what money they would, if they had assignments, and funds to secure it with, which before they had enough of, and then must spend it as if it would never have an end. From White Hall to my cozen Turner's, and there took up my wife; and so to my uncle Wight's (age 67), and there sat and supped, and talked pretty merry, and then walked home, and to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 01 Mar 1669. Up, and to White Hall to the Committee of Tangier, but it did not meet. But here I do hear first that my Lady Paulina Montagu (deceased) did die yesterday; at which I went to my Lord's lodgings, but he is shut up with sorrow, and so not to be spoken with: and therefore I returned, and to Westminster Hall [Map], where I have not been, I think, in some months. And here the Hall was very full, the King (age 38) having, by Commission to some Lords this day, prorogued the Parliament till the 19th of October next: at which I am glad, hoping to have time to go over to France this year. But I was most of all surprised this morning by my Lord Bellassis (age 54), who, by appointment, met me at Auditor Wood's, at the Temple [Map], and tells me of a duell designed between the Duke of Buckingham (age 41) and my Lord Halifax (age 35), or Sir W. Coventry (age 41); the challenge being carried by Harry Saville (age 27), but prevented by my Lord Arlington (age 51), and the King (age 38) told of it; and this was all the discourse at Court this day. But I, meeting Sir W. Coventry (age 41) in the Duke of York's (age 35) chamber, he would not own it to me, but told me that he was a man of too much peace to meddle with fighting, and so it rested: but the talk is full in the town of the business.

Pepy's Diary. 04 Mar 1669. Up, and a while at the office, but thinking to have Mr. Povy's (age 55) business to-day at the Committee for Tangier, I left the Board and away to White Hall, where in the first court I did meet Sir Jeremy Smith, who did tell me that Sir W. Coventry (age 41) was just now sent to the Tower, about the business of his challenging the Duke of Buckingham (age 41), and so was also Harry Saville (age 27) to the Gate-house; which, as [he is] a gentleman, and of the Duke of York's (age 35) bedchamber, I heard afterwards that the Duke of York (age 35) is mightily incensed at, and do appear very high to the King (age 38) that he might not be sent thither, but to the Tower [Map], this being done only in contempt to him. This news of Sir W. Coventry (age 41) did strike me to the heart, and with reason, for by this and my Lord of Ormond's (age 58) business, I do doubt that the Duke of Buckingham (age 41) will be so flushed, that he will not stop at any thing, but be forced to do any thing now, as thinking it not safe to end here; and, Sir W. Coventry (age 41) being gone, the King (age 38) will have never a good counsellor, nor the Duke of York (age 35) any sure friend to stick to him; nor any good man will be left to advise what is good. This, therefore, do heartily trouble me as any thing that ever I heard. So up into the House, and met with several people; but the Committee did not meet; and the whole House I find full of this business of Sir W. Coventry's (age 41), and most men very sensible of the cause and effects of it. So, meeting with my Lord Bellassis (age 54), he told me the particulars of this matter; that it arises about a quarrel which Sir W. Coventry (age 41) had with the Duke of Buckingham (age 41) about a design between the Duke and Sir Robert Howard, to bring him into a play at the King's house, which W. Coventry (age 41) not enduring, did by H. Saville (age 27) send a letter to the Duke of Buckingham (age 41), that he had a desire to speak with him. Upon which, the Duke of Buckingham (age 41) did bid Holmes (age 47), his champion ever since my Lord Shrewsbury's business1, go to him to know the business; but H. Saville (age 27) would not tell it to any but himself, and therefore did go presently to the Duke of Buckingham (age 41), and told him that his uncle Coventry (age 41) was a person of honour, and was sensible of his Grace's liberty taken of abusing him, and that he had a desire of satisfaction, and would fight with him. But that here they were interrupted by my Lord Chamberlain's (age 67) coming in, who was commanded to go to bid the Duke of Buckingham (age 41) to come to the King (age 38), Holmes (age 47) having discovered it. He told me that the King (age 38) did last night, at the Council, ask the Duke of Buckingham (age 41), upon his honour, whether he had received any challenge from W. Coventry (age 41)? which he confessed that he had; and then the King (age 38) asking W. Coventry (age 41), he told him that he did not owne what the Duke of Buckingham (age 41) had said, though it was not fit for him to give him a direct contradiction. But, being by the King (age 38) put upon declaring, upon his honour, the matter, he answered that he had understood that many hard questions had upon this business been moved to some lawyers, and that therefore he was unwilling to declare any thing that might, from his own mouth, render him obnoxious to his Majesty's displeasure, and, therefore, prayed to be excused: which the King (age 38) did think fit to interpret to be a confession, and so gave warrant that night for his commitment to the Tower. Being very much troubled at this, I away by coach homewards, and directly to the Tower, where I find him in one Mr. Bennet's house, son to Major Bayly, one of the Officers of the Ordnance, in the Bricke Tower [Map]2 where I find him busy with my Lord Halifax (age 35) and his brother (age 50); so I would not stay to interrupt them, but only to give him comfort, and offer my service to him, which he kindly and cheerfully received, only owning his being troubled for the King (age 38) his master's displeasure, which, I suppose, is the ordinary form and will of persons in this condition. And so I parted, with great content, that I had so earlily seen him there; and so going out, did meet Sir Jer. Smith going to meet me, who had newly been with Sir W. Coventry (age 41). And so he and I by water to Redriffe [Map], and so walked to Deptford, Kent [Map], where I have not been, I think, these twelve months: and there to the Treasurer's house, where the Duke of York (age 35) is, and his Duchess (age 31); and there we find them at dinner in the great room, unhung; and there was with them my Lady Duchess of Monmouth (age 31), the Countess of Falmouth (age 24), Castlemayne (age 28), Henrietta Hide (age 23) (my Lady Hinchingbroke's (age 24) sister), and my Lady Peterborough (age 47). And after dinner Sir Jer. Smith and I were invited down to dinner with some of the Maids of Honour, namely, Mrs. Ogle (age 17), Blake (age 16), and Howard (age 18), which did me good to have the honour to dine with, and look on; and the Mother of the Maids, and Mrs. Howard (age 43), the mother of the Maid of Honour of that name, and the Duke's housekeeper here. Here was also Monsieur Blancfort (age 28), Sir Richard Powell, Colonel Villers (age 48), Sir Jonathan Trelawny (age 46), and others. And here drank most excellent, and great variety, and plenty of wines, more than I have drank, at once, these seven years, but yet did me no great hurt. Having dined and very merry, and understanding by Blancfort (age 28) how angry the Duke of York (age 35) was, about their offering to send Saville to the Gate-house, among the rogues; and then, observing how this company, both the ladies and all, are of a gang, and did drink a health to the union of the two brothers, and talking of others as their enemies, they parted, and so we up; and there I did find the Duke of York (age 35) and Duchess (age 31), with all the great ladies, sitting upon a carpet, on the ground, there being no chairs, playing at "I love my love with an A, because he is so and so: and I hate him with an A, because of this and that:" and some of them, but particularly the Duchess (age 31) herself, and my Baroness Castlemayne (age 28), were very witty. This done, they took barge, and I with Sir J. Smith to Captain Cox's; and there to talk, and left them and other company to drink; while I slunk out to Bagwell's; and there saw her, and her mother, and our late maid Nell, who cried for joy to see me, but I had no time for pleasure then nor could stay, but after drinking I back to the yard, having a month's mind para have had a bout with Nell, which I believe I could have had, and may another time.

Note 1. Charles II wrote to his sister (age 24) (Henrietta, Duchess of Orléans), on March 7th, 1669: "I am not sorry that Sir Will. Coventry has given me this good occasion by sending my Lord of Buckingham (age 41) a challenge to turne him out of the Councill. I do intend to turn him allso out of the Treasury. The truth of it is, he has been a troublesome man in both places and I am well rid of him" (Julia Cartwright's "Madame", 1894, p. 283).

Note 2. The Brick Tower [Map] stands on the northern wall, a little to the west of Martin tower, with which it communicates by a secret passage. It was the residence of the Master of the Ordnance, and Raleigh was lodged here for a time.

Pepy's Diary. 06 Mar 1669. Up, and to the office, where all the morning, only before the Office I stepped to Sir W. Coventry (age 41) at the Tower, and there had a great deal of discourse with him; among others, of the King's putting him out of the Council yesterday, with which he is well contented, as with what else they can strip him of, he telling me, and so hath long done, that he is weary and surfeited of business; but he joins with me in his fears that all will go to naught, as matters are now managed. He told me the matter of the play that was intended for his abuse, wherein they foolishly and sillily bring in two tables like that which he hath made, with a round hole in the middle, in his closet, to turn himself in; and he is to be in one of them as master, and Sir J. Duncomb in the other, as his man or imitator: and their discourse in those tables, about the disposing of their books and papers, very foolish. But that, that he is offended with, is his being made so contemptible, as that any should dare to make a gentleman a subject for the mirth of the world: and that therefore he had told Tom Killigrew (age 57) that he should tell his actors, whoever they were, that did offer at any thing like representing him, that he would not complain to my Lord Camberlain, which was too weak, nor get him beaten, as Sir Charles Sidly is said to do, but that he would cause his nose to be cut. He told me the passage at the Council much like what my Lord Bellassis (age 54) told me. He told me how that the Duke of Buckingham (age 41) did himself, some time since, desire to join with him, of all men in England, and did bid him propound to himself to be Chief Minister of State, saying that he would bring it about, but that he refused to have anything to do with any faction; and that the Duke of Buckingham (age 41) did, within these few days, say that, of all men in England, he would have chosen W. Coventry (age 41) to have joined entire with. He tells me that he fears their prevailing against the Duke of York (age 35); and that their violence will force them to it, as being already beyond his pardon. He repeated to me many examples of challenging of Privy-Councillors and others; but never any proceeded against with that severity which he is, it never amounting to others to more than a little confinement. He tells me of his being weary of the Treasury, and of the folly, ambition, and desire of popularity of Sir Thomas Clifford (age 38); and yet the rudeness of his tongue and passions when angry. This and much more discourse being over I with great pleasure come home and to the office, where all the morning, and at noon home to dinner, and thence to the office again, where very hard at work all the afternoon till night, and then home to my wife to read to me, and to bed, my cold having been now almost for three days quite gone from me. This day my wife made it appear to me that my late entertainment this week cost me above £12, an expence which I am almost ashamed of, though it is but once in a great while, and is the end for which, in the most part, we live, to have such a merry day once or twice in a man's life.

Pepy's Diary. 07 Mar 1669. So to my cozen Turner's, and there staid talking a little, and then back to Suffolk Street, where they not being yet come home I to White Hall, and there hear that there are letters come from Sir Thomas Allen (age 36), that he hath made some kind of peace with Algiers; upon which the King (age 38) and Duke of York (age 35), being to go out of town to-morrow, are met at my Lord Arlington's (age 51): so I there, and by Mr. Wren (age 40) was desired to stay to see if there were occasion for their speaking with me, which I did, walking without, with Charles Porter (age 37)1, talking of a great many things: and I perceive all the world is against the Duke of Buckingham (age 41) his acting thus high, and do prophesy nothing but ruin from it: But he do well observe that the church lands cannot certainly come to much, if the King (age 38) shall [be] persuaded to take them; they being leased out for long leases.

Note 1. Charles Porter (age 37) "was the son of a prebend in Norwich, and a 'prentice boy in the city in the rebellious times. When the committee house was blown up, he was very active in that rising, and after the soldiers came and dispersed the rout, he, as a rat among joint stools, shifted to and fro among the shambles, and had forty pistols shot at him by the troopers that rode after him to kill him 24th April, 1648. In that distress he had the presence of mind to catch up a little child that, during the rout, was frighted, and stood crying in the streets, and, unobserved by the troopers, ran away with it. The people opened a way for him, saying, 'Make room for the poor child.' Thus he got off, and while search was made for him in the market-place, got into the Yarmouth [Map] ferry, and at Yarmouth [Map] took ship and went to Holland.... In Holland he trailed a pike, and was in several actions as a common soldier. At length he kept a cavalier eating-house; but, his customers being needy, he soon broke, and came for England, and being a genteel youth, was taken in among the chancery clerks, and got to be under a master.... His industry was great; and he had an acquired dexterity and skill in the forms of the court; and although he was a bon companion, and followed much the bottle, yet he made such dispatches as satisfied his clients, especially the clerks, who knew where to find him. His person was florid, and speech prompt and articulate. But his vices, in the way of women and the bottle, were so ungoverned, as brought him to a morsel.... When the Lord Keeper North had the Seal, who from an early acquaintance had a kindness for him which was well known, and also that he was well heard, as they call it, business flowed in to him very fast, and yet he could scarce keep himself at liberty to follow his business.... At the Revolution, when his interest fell from, and his debts began to fall upon him, he was at his wits' end.... His character for fidelity, loyalty, and facetious conversation was without exception"-Roger North's Lives of the Norths (Lord Keeper Guilford), ed. Jessopp, vol. i., pp. 381-2. He was originally made Chancellor (age 60) of Ireland in the reign of James II, during the viceroyalty of Lord Clarendon, 1686, when he was knighted. "He was", says Burnet, "a man of ready wit, and being poor was thought a person fit to be made a tool of. When Clarendon was recalled, Porter was also displaced, and Fitton was made Chancellor (age 60), a man who knew no other law than the King's pleasure" ("Own Time"). Sir Charles Porter (age 37) was again made Chancellor of Ireland in 1690, and in this same year he acted as one of the Lords Justices. This note of Lord Braybrooke's is retained and added to, but the reference may after all be to another Charles Porter. See vol. iii., p. 122, and vol. vi., p. 98.

Pepy's Diary. 07 Mar 1669. Lord's Day. Up, and to the office, busy till church time, and then to church, where a dull sermon, and so home to dinner, all alone with my wife, and then to even my Journall to this day, and then to the Tower, to see Sir W. Coventry (age 41), who had H. Jermin (age 33) and a great many more with him, and more, while I was there, come in; so that I do hear that there was not less than sixty coaches there yesterday, and the other day; which I hear also that there is a great exception taken at, by the King (age 38) and the Duke of Buckingham (age 41), but it cannot be helped.

Pepy's Diary. 10 Mar 1669. Up, and by Hackney-coach to Auditor Beale's Office, in Holborne, to look for records of the Navy, but he was out of the way, and so forced to go next to White Hall, to the Privy Seal; and, after staying a little there, then to Westminster, where, at the Exchequer, I met with Mr. Newport and Major Halsey; and, after doing a little business with Mr. Burges, we by water to White Hall, where I made a little stop: and so with them by coach to Temple Bar, where, at the Sugar Loaf we dined, and W. Hewer (age 27) with me; and there comes a companion of theirs, Colonel Vernon, I think they called him; a merry good fellow, and one that was very plain in cursing the Duke of Buckingham (age 41), and discoursing of his designs to ruin us, and that ruin must follow his counsels, and that we are an undone people. To which the others concurred, but not so plain, but all vexed at Sir W. Coventry's (age 41) being laid aside: but Vernon, he is concerned, I perceive, for my Lord Ormond's (age 58) being laid aside; but their company, being all old cavaliers, were very pleasant to hear how they swear and talk. But Halsey, to my content, tells me that my Lord Duke of Albemarle (age 60) says that W. Coventry (age 41) being gone, nothing will be well done at the Treasury, and I believe it; but they do all talk as that Duncombe, upon some pretence or other, must follow him.

Pepy's Diary. 16 Mar 1669. Thence to Deptford, Kent [Map], but staid not, Uthwayte being out of the way: and so home, and then to the Ship Tavern [Map], Morrice's, and staid till W. Hewer (age 27) fetched his uncle Blackburne by appointment to me, to discourse of the business of the Navy in the late times; and he did do it, by giving me a most exact account in writing, of the several turns in the Admiralty and Navy, of the persons employed therein, from the beginning of the King's leaving the Parliament, to his Son's coming in, to my great content; and now I am fully informed in all I at present desire. We fell to other talk; and I find by him that the Bishops must certainly fall, and their hierarchy; these people have got so much ground upon the King (age 38) and kingdom as is not to be got again from them: and the Bishops do well deserve it. But it is all the talk, I find, that Dr. Wilkins (age 55), my friend, the Bishop of Chester, shall be removed to Winchester, and be Lord Treasurer. Though this be foolish talk, yet I do gather that he is a mighty rising man, as being a Latitudinarian, and the Duke of Buckingham (age 41) his great friend. Here we staid talking till to at night, where I did never drink before since this man come to the house, though for his pretty wife's sake I do fetch my wine from this, whom I could not nevertheless get para see to-night, though her husband did seem to call for her. So parted here and I home, and to supper and to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 19 Mar 1669. Thence to the plaisterer's, and took my face, and my Duke of Albemarle's (age 60) home with me by coach, they being done to my mind; and mighty glad I am of understanding this way of having the pictures of any friends. At home to dinner, where Mr. Sheres dined with us, but after dinner I left him and my wife, and with Commissioner Middleton and Kempthorne (age 49) to a Court-martiall, to which, by virtue of my late Captainship, I am called, the first I was ever at; where many Commanders, and Kempthorne (age 49) president. Here was tried a difference between Sir L. Van Hemskirke, the Dutch Captain who commands "The Nonsuch", built by his direction, and his Lieutenant; a drunken kind of silly business. We ordered the Lieutenant to ask him pardon, and have resolved to lay before the Duke of York (age 35) what concerns the Captain, which was striking of his Lieutenant and challenging him to fight, which comes not within any article of the laws martiall. But upon discourse the other day with Sir W. Coventry (age 41), I did advise Middleton, and he and I did forbear to give judgment, but after the debate did withdraw into another cabin, the Court being held in one of the yachts, which was on purpose brought up over against St. Katharine's, it being to be feared that this precedent of our being made Captains, in order to the trying of the loss of "The Defyance", wherein we are the proper persons to enquire into the want of instructions while ships do lie in harbour, evil use might be hereafter made of the precedent by putting the Duke of Buckingham (age 41), or any of these rude fellows that now are uppermost, to make packed Courts, by Captains made on purpose to serve their turns. The other cause was of the loss of "The Providence" at Tangier, where the Captain's being by chance on shore may prove very inconvenient to him, for example's sake, though the man be a good man, and one whom, for Norwood's sake, I would be kind to; but I will not offer any thing to the excusing such a miscarriage. He is at present confined, till he can bring better proofs on his behalf of the reasons of his being on shore. So Middleton and I away to the Office; and there I late busy, making my people, as I have done lately, to read Mr. Holland's' Discourse of the Navy, and what other things I can get to inform me fully in all; and here late, about eight at night, comes Mr. Wren (age 40) to me, who had been at the Tower to Coventry. He come only to see how matters go, and tells me, as a secret, that last night the Duke of York's (age 35) closet was broken open, and his cabinets, and shut again, one of them that the rogue that did it hath left plate and a watch behind him, and therefore they fear that it was only for papers, which looks like a very malicious business in design, to hurt the Duke of York (age 35); but they cannot know that till the Duke of York (age 35) comes to town about the papers, and therefore make no words of it. He gone, I to work again, and then to supper at home, and to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 20 Mar 1669. Thence to the office, where sat all the forenoon, and then home to dinner, and so to the office, where late busy, and so home, mightily pleased with the news brought me to-night, that the King (age 38) and Duke of York (age 35) are come back this afternoon, and no sooner come, but a warrant was sent to the Tower for the releasing Sir W. Coventry (age 41); which do put me in some hopes that there may be, in this absence, some accommodation made between the Duke of York (age 35) and the Duke of Buckingham (age 41) and Arlington (age 51).

Pepy's Diary. 21 Mar 1669. Thence up and down the House. Met with Mr. May (age 47), who tells me the story of his being put by Sir John Denham's place, of Surveyor of the King's Works, who it seems, is lately dead, by the unkindness of the Duke Buckingham (age 41), who hath brought in Dr. Wren (age 45): though, he tells me, he hath been his servant for twenty years together in all his wants and dangers, saving him from want of bread by his care and management, and with a promise of having his help in his advancement, and an engagement under his hand for £1000 not yet paid, and yet the Duke of Buckingham (age 41) so ungrateful as to put him by: which is an ill thing, though Dr. Wren is a worthy man. But he tells me that the King (age 38) is kind to him, and hath promised him a pension of £300 a-year out of the Works; which will be of more content to him than the place, which, under their present wants of money, is a place that disobliges most people, being not able to do what they desire to their lodgings. Here meeting with Sir H. Cholmly (age 36) and Povy (age 55), that tell me that my Lord Middleton (age 61) is resolved in the Cabal that he shall not go to Tangier; and that Sir Edward Harlow [Harley], whom I know not, is propounded to go, who was Governor of Dunkirke, and, they say, a most worthy brave man, which I shall be very glad of.

Pepy's Diary. 29 Mar 1669. Thence home; and after dinner by water with Tom down to Greenwich, Kent [Map], he reading to me all the way, coming and going, my collections out of the Duke of York's (age 35) old manuscript of the Navy, which I have bound up, and do please me mightily. At Greenwich, Kent [Map] I come to Captain Cocke's (age 52), where the house full of company, at the burial of James Temple who, it seems, hath been dead these five days here I had a very good ring, which I did give my wife as soon as I come home. I spent my time there walking in the garden, talking with James Pierce, who tells me that he is certain that the Duke of Buckingham (age 41) had been with his wenches all the time that he was absent, which was all the last week, nobody knowing where he was. The great talk is of the King's being hot of late against Conventicles, and to see whether the Duke of Buckingham's (age 41) being returned will turn the King (age 38), which will make him very popular: and some think it is his plot to make the King (age 38) thus, to shew his power in the making him change his mind. But Pierce did tell me that the King (age 38) did certainly say, that he that took one stone from the Church, did take two from his Crown.

Pepy's Diary. 02 Apr 1669. Up, and by water to White Hall, and there with the Office attended the Duke of York (age 35), and staid in White Hall till about noon, and so with W. Hewer (age 27) to the Cocke (age 52), and there he and I dined alone with great content, he reading to me, for my memory's sake, my late collections of the history of the Navy, that I might represent the same by and by to the Duke of York (age 35); and so, after dinner, he and I to White Hall, and there to the Duke of York's (age 35) lodgings, whither he, by and by, by his appointment come: and alone with him an hour in his closet, telling him mine and W. Coventry's (age 41) advice touching the present posture of the Navy, as the Duke of Buckingham (age 41) and the rest do now labour to make changes therein; and that it were best for him to suffer the King (age 38) to be satisfied with the bringing in of a man or two which they desire. I did also give the Duke of York (age 35) a short account of the history of the Navy, as to our Office, wherewith he was very well satisfied: but I do find that he is pretty stiff against their bringing in of men against his mind, as the Treasures were, and particularly against Child's' coming in, because he is a merchant. After much discourse with him, we parted; and [he to] the Council, while I staid waiting for his telling me when I should be ready to give him a written account of the administration of the Navy. This caused me to wait the whole afternoon, till night. In the mean time, stepping to the Duchess of York's (age 32) side to speak with Lady Peterborough (age 47); I did see the young Duchess (age 6)1, a little child in hanging sleeves; dance most finely, so as almost to ravish me, her ears were so good: taught by a Frenchman that did heretofore teach the King (age 38), and all the King's children, and the Queen-Mother (age 59) herself, who do still dance well.

Note 1. The Princess Mary (age 6), afterwards Queen of England.

Pepy's Diary. 05 Apr 1669. Up, and by coach, it being very cold, to White Hall, expecting a meeting of Tangier, but it did not. But, however, did wait there all the morning, and, among other things, I spent a little time with Creed walking in the garden, and talking about our Office, and Child's coming in to be a Commissioner; and, being his friend, I did think he might do me a kindness to learn of him what the Duke of Buckingham (age 41) and the faction do design touching me, and to instil good words concerning me, which he says, and I believe he will: and it is but necessary; for I have not a mind indeed at this time to be put out of my Office, if I can make any shift that is honourable to keep it; but I will not do it by deserting the Duke of York (age 35).

Pepy's Diary. 17 Apr 1669. Thence with my wife in Hackney to Sir W. Coventry's (age 41), who being gone to the Park we drove after him, and there met him coming out, and followed him home, and there sent my wife to Unthanke's while I spent on hour with him reading over first my draught of the Administration of the Navy, which he do like very well; and so fell to talk of other things, and among the rest of the story of his late disgrace, and how basely and in what a mean manner the Duke of Buckingham (age 41) hath proceeded against him-not like a man of honour. He tells me that the King (age 38) will not give other answer about his coming to kiss his hands, than "Not yet". But he says that this that he desires, of kissing the King's hand, is only to show to the world that he is not discontented, and not in any desire to come again into play, though I do perceive that he speaks this with less earnestness than heretofore: and this, it may be, is, from what he told me lately, that the King (age 38) is offended at what is talked, that he hath declared himself desirous not to have to do with any employment more. But he do tell me that the leisure he hath yet had do not at all begin to be burdensome to him, he knowing how to spend his time with content to himself; and that he hopes shortly to contract his expence, so as that he shall not be under any straits in that respect neither; and so seems to be in very good condition of content.

Pepy's Diary. 20 Apr 1669. At noon comes my guest, Mr. Hugh May (age 47), and with him Sir Henry Capell (age 31), my old Lord Capel's son, and Mr. Parker; and I had a pretty dinner for them; and both before and after dinner had excellent discourse; and shewed them my closet and my Office, and the method of it to their great content; and more extraordinary, manly discourse and opportunity of shewing myself, and learning from others, I have not, in ordinary discourse, had in my life, they being all persons of worth, but especially Sir H. Capell (age 31), whose being a Parliament-man, and hearing my discourse in the Parliament-house, hath, as May (age 47) tells me, given him along desire to know and discourse with me. In the afternoon we walked to the Old Artillery-Ground near the Spitalfields, where I never was before, but now, by Captain Deane's (age 35) invitation, did go to see his new gun tryed, this being the place where the Officers of the Ordnance do try all their great guns; and when we come, did find that the trial had been made; and they going away with extraordinary report of the proof of his gun, which, from the shortness and bigness, they do call Punchinello. But I desired Colonel Legg to stay and give us a sight of her performance, which he did, and there, in short, against a gun more than as long and as heavy again, and charged with as much powder again, she carried the same bullet as strong to the mark, and nearer and above the mark at a point blank than theirs, and is more easily managed, and recoyles no more than that, which is a thing so extraordinary as to be admired for the happiness of his invention, and to the great regret of the old Gunners and Officers of the Ordnance that were there, only Colonel Legg did do her much right in his report of her. And so, having seen this great and first experiment, we all parted, I seeing my guests into a Hackney coach, and myself, with Captain Deane (age 35), taking a Hackney coach, did go out towards Bow, and went as far as Stratford, and all the way talking of this invention, and he offering me a third of the profit of the invention; which, for aught I know, or do at present think, may prove matter considerable to us: for either the King (age 38) will give him a reward for it, if he keeps it to himself, or he will give us a patent to make our profit of it: and no doubt but it will be of profit to merchantmen and others, to have guns of the same force at half the charge. This was our talk: and then to talk of other things, of the Navy in general: and, among other things, he did tell me that he do hear how the Duke of Buckingham (age 41) hath a spite at me, which I knew before, but value it not: and he tells me that Sir T. Allen (age 57) is not my friend; but for all this I am not much troubled, for I know myself so usefull that, as I believe, they will not part with me; so I thank God my condition is such that I can; retire, and be able to live with comfort, though not with abundance. Thus we spent the evening with extraordinary good discourse, to my great content, and so home to the Office, and there did some business, and then home, where my wife do come home, and I vexed at her staying out so late, but she tells me that she hath been at home with M. Batelier a good while, so I made nothing of it, but to supper and to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 21 Apr 1669. Thence the Duke of York (age 35) being gone, I did there stay walking with Sir H. Cholmly (age 36) in the Court, talking of news; where he told me, that now the great design of the Duke of Buckingham (age 41) is to prevent the meeting, since he cannot bring about with the King (age 38) the dissolving, of this Parliament, that the King (age 38) may not need it; and therefore my Lord St. Albans (age 64) is hourly expected with great offers of a million of money1, to buy our breach with the Dutch: and this, they do think, may tempt the King (age 38) to take the money, and thereby be out of a necessity of calling the Parliament again, which these people dare not suffer to meet again: but this he doubts, and so do I, that it will be to the ruin of the nation if we fall out with Holland. This we were discoursing when my boy comes to tell me that his mistress was at the Gate with the coach, whither I went, and there find my wife and the whole company. So she, and Mrs. Turner (age 46), and The. (age 17), and Talbot, in mine: and Joyce, W. Batelier, and I, in a Hackney, to Hyde Park, where I was ashamed to be seen; but mightily pleased, though troubled, with a drunken coachman that did not remember when we come to 'light, where it was that he took us up; but said at Hammersmith, and thither he was carrying of us when we come first out of the Park. So I carried them all to Hercules-Pillars, and there did treat them: and so, about ten at night, parted, and my wife, and I, and W. Batelier, home; and he gone, we to bed.

Note 1. From Louis XIV. See April 28th.

Pepy's Diary. 28 Apr 1669. Up, and was called upon by Sir H. Cholmly (age 36) to discourse about some accounts of his, of Tangier: and then other talk; and I find by him that it is brought almost effect ([through] the late endeavours of the Duke of York (age 35) and Duchess (age 32), the Queen-Mother (age 59), and my Lord St. Albans (age 64), together with some of the contrary faction, my Lord Arlington (age 51)), that for a sum of money we shall enter into a league with the King of France (age 30), wherein, he says, my Chancellor (age 60)1 is also concerned; and that he believes that, in the doing hereof, it is meant that he [Clarendon] shall come again, and that this sum of money will so help the King (age 38) that he will not need the Parliament; and that, in that regard it will be forwarded by the Duke of Buckingham (age 41) and his faction, who dread the Parliament. But hereby we must leave the Dutch, and that I doubt will undo us; and Sir H. Cholmly (age 36) says he finds W. Coventry (age 41) do think the like. Baroness Castlemayne (age 28) is instrumental in this matter, and, he say never more great with the King (age 38) than she is now. But this a thing that will make the Parliament and kingdom mad, and will turn to our ruine: for with this money the King (age 38) shall wanton away his time in pleasures, and think nothing of the main till it be too late. He gone, I to the office, where busy till noon, and then home to dinner, where W. Batelier dined with us, and pretty merry, and so I to the office again. This morning Mr. Sheres sent me, in two volumes, Mariana his History of Spaine, in Spanish, an excellent book; and I am much obliged for it to him.

Note 1. Clarendon (age 60); then an exile in France.

Pepy's Diary. 19 May 1669. By and by the Duke of York (age 35) comes, and readily took me to his closet, and received my petition, and discoursed about my eyes, and pitied me, and with much kindness did give me his consent to be absent, and approved of my proposition to go into Holland to observe things there, of the Navy; but would first ask the King's leave, which he anon did, and did tell me that the King (age 38) would be a good master to me, these were his words, about my eyes, and do like of my going into Holland, but do advise that nobody should know of my going thither, but pretend that I did go into the country somewhere, which I liked well. Glad of this, I home, and thence took out my wife, and to Mr. Holliard's (age 60) about a swelling in her cheek, but he not at home, and so round by Islington [Map] and eat and drink, and so home, and after supper to bed. In discourse this afternoon, the Duke of York (age 35) did tell me that he was the most amazed at one thing just now, that ever he was in his life, which was, that the Duke of Buckingham (age 41) did just now come into the Queen's (age 30) bed-chamber, where the King (age 38) was, and much mixed company, and among others, Tom Killigrew (age 57), the father of Harry (age 32), who was last night wounded so as to be in danger of death, and his man is quite dead; and [Buckingham (age 41)] there in discourse did say that he had spoke with some one that was by (which all the world must know that it must be his whore, my Lady Shrewsbury (age 27)), who says that they did not mean to hurt, but beat him, and that he did run first at them with his sword; so that he do hereby clearly discover that he knows who did it, and is of conspiracy with them, being of known conspiracy with her, which the Duke of York (age 35) did seem to be pleased with, and said it might, perhaps, cost him his life in the House of Lords; and I find was mightily pleased with it, saying it was the most impudent thing, as well as the most foolish, that ever he knew man do in all his life.

Andrew Marvell Letter to a friend 1671. 1671. The King (age 40) having, upon pretence of the great preparations of his neighbours, demanded three hundred thousand pounds for his navy, (though in conclusion he hath not sent out any) and that the Parliament should pay his debts, which the ministers would never particularize to the House of Commons, our house gave several bills. You see how far things were stretched beyond reason, there being no satisfaction how these debts were contracted, and all men foreseeing that what was given would not be applied to discharge the debts, which I hear are at this day risen to four millions.

Nevertheless, such was the number of the constant courtiers, increased by the apostate patriots, who were bought off for that turn, some at six, others at ten, one at fifteen thousand pounds, in money; besides which, offices, lands, and reversions to others, that it is a mercy they gave not away the whole land and liberty of England. The Duke of Buckingham (age 42) is again one hundred and forty thousand pounds in debt, and, by this prorogation, his creditors have time to tear all his lands in pieces. The House of Commons have run almost to the end of their time, and are grown extremely chargeable to the King (age 40), and odious to the people. They have signed and sealed ten thousand pounds a-year more to the Duchess of Cleveland (age 30), who has likewise ten thousand pounds out of the excise of beer and ale; five thousand pounds a year out of the post-office; and, they say, the reversion of all the king's leases, the reversion of all the places in the Customhouse, and, indeed, what not? All promotions, spiritual and temporal, pass under her cognizance.

Evelyn's Diary. 26 May 1671. The Earl of Bristol's (age 58) house in Queen's Street was taken for the Commissioners of Trade and Plantations, and furnished with rich hangings of the King's (age 40). It consisted of seven rooms on a floor, with a long gallery, gardens, etc. This day we met the Duke of Buckingham (age 43), Earl of Lauderdale (age 55), Lord Culpeper, Sir George Carteret (age 61), Vice-Chamberlain, and myself, had the oaths given us by the Earl of Sandwich (age 45), our President. It was to advise and counsel his Majesty (age 40), to the best of our abilities, for the well-governing of his Foreign Plantations, etc., the form very little differing from that given to the Privy Council. We then took our places at the Board in the Council-Chamber, a very large room furnished with atlases, maps, charts, globes, etc. Then came the Lord Keeper, Sir Orlando Bridgeman (age 65), Earl of Arlington (age 53), Secretary of State, Lord Ashley, Mr. Treasurer (age 40), Sir John Trevor (age 34), the other Secretary, Sir John Duncomb (age 49), Lord Allington (age 31), Mr. Grey, son to the Lord Grey, Mr. Henry Broncher, Sir Humphrey Winch (age 49), Sir John Finch, Mr. Waller (age 65), and Colonel Titus (age 48), of the bedchamber, with Mr. Slingsby, Secretary to the Council, and two Clerks of the Council, who had all been sworn some days before. Being all set, our Patent was read, and then the additional Patent, in which was recited this new establishment; then, was delivered to each a copy of the Patent, and of instructions: after which, we proceeded to business.

Evelyn's Diary. 21 Oct 1671. Quitting Euston, I lodged this night at Newmarket, Suffolk, where I found the jolly blades racing, dancing, feasting, and reveling; more resembling a luxurious and abandoned rout, than a Christian Court. The Duke of Buckingham (age 43) was now in mighty favor, and had with him that impudent woman, the Countess of Shrewsbury (age 29), with his band of fiddlers, etc.

On 07 Dec 1671 The Rehearsal, published anonymously, but likely to have been written by George Villiers 2nd Duke of Buckingham (age 43), was first performed at the Theatre Royal Drury Lane Convent Garden.

Evelyn's Diary. 14 Dec 1671. Went to see the Duke of Buckingham's (age 43) ridiculous farce and rhapsody, called the "The Recital" [Note. This is an error by Evelyn - he means the play The Rehearsal.] buffooning all plays, yet profane enough.

Around 1675 Peter Lely (age 56). Portrait of George Villiers 2nd Duke of Buckingham (age 46) wearing his Garter Collar.

Evelyn's Diary. 09 Aug 1675. Dr. Sprat (age 40), prebend of Westminster, and Chaplain to the Duke of Buckingham (age 47), preached on the 3d Epistle of Jude, showing what the primitive faith was, how near it and how excellent that of the Church of England, also the danger of departing from it.

Evelyn's Diary. 19 Sep 1676. To Lambeth, Surrey [Map], to that rare magazine of marble, to take order for chimney-pieces, etc., for Mr. Godolphin's (age 31) house. The owner of the works had built for himself a pretty dwelling house; this Dutchman had contracted with the Genoese for all their marble. We also saw the Duke of Buckingham's (age 48) glasswork, where they made huge vases of metal as clear, ponderous, and thick as crystal; also looking-glasses far larger and better than any that come from Venice.

Evelyn's Diary. 23 Jan 1678. Dined with the Duke of Norfolk (age 49), being the first time I had seen him since the death of his elder brother, who died at Padua in Italy, where he had resided above thirty years. The Duke (age 49) had now newly declared his marriage to his concubine (age 35), whom he promised me he never would marry. I went with him to see the Duke of Buckingham (age 49), thence to my Lord Sunderland (age 36), now Secretary of State, to show him that rare piece of Vosterman's (son of old Vosterman), which was a view, or landscape of my Lord's palace, etc., at Althorpe [Map] in Northamptonshire.

Evelyn's Diary. 23 Jul 1679. I went to Clifden [Map], that stupendous natural rock, wood, and prospect, of the Duke of Buckingham's (age 51), and buildings of extraordinary expense. The grots in the chalky rocks are pretty: it is a romantic object, and the place altogether answers the most poetical description that can be made of solitude, precipice, prospect, or whatever can contribute to a thing so very like their imaginations. The stand, somewhat like Frascati as to its front, and on the platform is a circular view to the utmost verge of the horizon, which, with the serpenting of the Thames, is admirable. The staircase is for its materials singular; the cloisters, descents, gardens, and avenue through the wood, august and stately; but the land all about wretchedly barren, and producing nothing but fern. Indeed, as I told his Majesty (age 49) that evening (asking me how I liked Clifden) without flattery, that it did not please me so well as Windsor, Berkshire [Map] for the prospect and park, which is without compare; there being but one only opening, and that narrow, which led one to any variety; whereas that of Windsor is everywhere great and unconfined.

Evelyn's Diary. 18 Nov 1679. I dined at my Lord Mayor's (age 50), being desired by the Countess of Sunderland (age 33) to carry her thither on a solemn day, that she might see the pomp and ceremony of this Prince of Citizens, there never having been any, who for the stateliness of his palace, prodigious feasting, and magnificence, exceeded him. This Lord Mayor's acquaintance had been from the time of his being apprentice to one Mr. Abbot, his uncle [Note. His mother's brother], who being a scrivener, and an honest worthy man, one who was condemned to die at the beginning of the troubles forty years past, as concerned in the commission of array for King Charles I had escaped with his life; I often used his assistance in money matters. Robert Clayton (age 50), then a boy, his nephew, became, after his uncle Abbot's death, so prodigiously rich and opulent, that he was reckoned one of the wealthiest citizens. He married a free-hearted woman, who became his hospitable disposition; and having no children, with the accession of his partner and fellow apprentice, who also left him his estate, he grew excessively rich. He was a discreet magistrate, and though envied, I think without much cause. Some believed him guilty of hard dealing, especially with the Duke of Buckingham (age 51), much of whose estate he had swallowed, but I never saw any ill by him, considering the trade he was of. The reputation and known integrity of his uncle, Abbot, brought all the royal party to him, by which he got not only great credit, but vast wealth, so as he passed this office with infinite magnificence and honor.

On 16 Apr 1687 George Villiers 2nd Duke of Buckingham (age 59) died. Duke of Buckingham, Marquess of Buckingham, Earl Buckingham extinct.

On 02 Jun 1687 George Villiers 2nd Duke of Buckingham was buried in the King Henry VII Chapel, Westminster Abbey [Map].

Evelyn's Diary. 11 Jun 1696. Dined at Lord Pembroke's (age 40), Lord Privy Seal, a very worthy gentleman. He showed me divers rare pictures of very many of the old and best masters, especially one of M. Angelo of a man gathering fruit to give to a woman, and a large book of the best drawings of the old masters. Sir John Fenwick (age 51), one of the conspirators, was taken. Great subscriptions in Scotland to their East India Company. Want of current money to carry on the smallest concerns, even for daily provisions in the markets. Guineas lowered to twenty-two shillings, and great sums daily transported to Holland, where it yields more, with other treasure sent to pay the armies, and nothing considerable coined of the new and now only current stamp, cause such a scarcity that tumults are every day feared, nobody paying or receiving money; so imprudent was the late Parliament to condemn the old though clipped and corrupted, till they had provided supplies. To this add the fraud of the bankers and goldsmiths, who having gotten immense riches by extortion, keep up their treasure in expectation of enhancing its icon. Duncombe, not long since a mean goldsmith, having made a purchase of the late Duke of Buckingham's estate at nearly £90,000, and reputed to have nearly as much in cash. Banks and lotteries every day set up.

On 20 Oct 1704 [his former wife] Mary Fairfax Duchess Buckingham (age 66) died.

Adeline Horsey Recollections. Allan Fea, in his interesting book, "Nooks and Corners of Old England", describes how, "some time before the poor little plain [his former wife] Duchess (of Buckingham) suspected that she had a formidable rival in the beautiful Countess, she was returning from a visit to Deene [Map] to her house at Stamford, where her reckless husband found it convenient to hide himself, as a warrant for high treason was out against him, when she noticed a suspicious little cavalcade travelling in the same direction. Ordering the horses to be whipped up, she arrived in time to give the alarm. The Duke had just then set out for Burleigh House with some ladies in his company, and the serjeant actually saw the Duke alight and lead a lady into the house, but he and his soldiers were not in time to force an entrance, and so the Duke escaped!".

Grammont. At this time the king's attachment to Miss Stewart was so public, that every person perceived, that if she was but possessed of art, she might become as absolute a mistress over his conduct as she was over his heart. This was a fine opportunity for those who had experience and ambition. The Duke of Buckingham formed the design of governing her, in order to ingratiate himself with the king: God knows what a governor he would have been, and what a head he was possessed of, to guide another; however, he was the properest man in the world to insinuate himself with Miss Stewart: she was childish in her behaviour, and laughed at everything, and her taste for frivolous amusements, though unaffected, was only allowable in a girl about twelve or thirteen years old. A child, however, she was, in every other respect, except playing with a doll: blind man's buff was her most favourite amusement: she was building castles of cards, while the deepest play was going on in her apartments, where you saw her surrounded by eager courtiers, who handed her the cards, or young architects, who endeavoured to imitate her.

Grammont. His ambition soaring still above these high stations, after having provided himself with a great number of fine maxims, and some historical anecdotes, he obtained an audience of Miss Stewart, in order to display them; at the same time offering her his most humble services, and best advice, to assist her in conducting herself in the situation to which it had pleased God and her virtue to raise her. But he was only in the preface of his speech, when she recollected that he was at the head of those whom the Duke of Buckingham used to mimic; and as his presence and his language exactly revived the ridiculous ideas that had been given her of him, she could not forbear bursting out into a fit of laughter in his face, so much the more violent as she had for a long time struggled to suppress it.

Grammont. The plot laid for Miss Blague was of a different kind: she had such faith in her charms, and was so confident of their effects, that she could believe anything. Brisacier, whom she looked upon as desperately smitten, had wit, which he set off with common-place talk, and with little sonnets: he sung out of tune most methodically, and was continually exerting one or other of these happy talents: the Duke of Buckingham did all he could to spoil him, by the praises he bestowed both upon his voice and upon his wit.

The History of King Richard the Third by Thomas More. Then on the morrow after, the Mayor with all the Aldermen and chief commoners of the city, in their best manner appareled, assembling themselves together, resorted unto Baynard's Castle [Map] where the Protector lay. To which place repaired also, according to their appointment, the Duke of Buckingham with diverse noble men with him, besides many knights and other gentlemen. And thereupon, the Duke sent word unto the Lord Protector of there being a great and honorable company to move a great matter unto his Grace.

Whereupon the Protector made difficulty to come out unto them unless he first knew some part of their errand, as though he doubted and partly distrusted the coming of such number unto him so suddenly without any warning or knowledge, whether they came for good or harm. Then the Duke, when he had showed this unto the Mayor and others, that they might thereby see how little the Protector expected this matter, they sent unto him by messenger such loving message again, and therewith so humbly besought him to graciously condescend so that they might come into his presence and propose their intent, of which they would unto none other person any part disclose, that at the last he came forth from his chamber, and yet not down unto them, but stood above in a gallery over them, where they might see him and speak to him, as though he would not yet come too near them till he knew what they meant.

And thereupon the Duke of Buckingham first made humble petition unto him, on behalf of them all, that his Grace would pardon them and give them permission to present unto his Grace the intent of their coming without his displeasure, without which pardon obtained, they dared not be bold to move him of that matter. In which, although they meant as much honor to his Grace as wealth to all the realm beside, yet were they not sure how his Grace would take it, whom they would in no way offend.

Then the Protector, as if he was very gentle himself and also longed sore to know what they meant, gave him leave to propose what he liked, verily trusting, because of the good mind that he bore them all, none of them would intend anything toward him wherewith he ought to be grieved.

When the Duke had this leave and pardon to speak, then grew he bold to show him their intent and purpose, with all the causes moving them thereto, as you before have heard, and finally to beseech his Grace that it would like him of his accustomed goodness and zeal unto the realm, now with his eye of pity, to behold the long continued distress and decay of the same, and to set his gracious hands to the redress and amendment thereof by taking upon him the crown and governance of this realm, according to his right and title lawfully descended unto him, and to the praise of God, profit of the land, and unto his Grace so much the more honor and less pain, in that never a prince reigned upon any people that were so glad to live under his rule as the people of this realm under his.

When the Protector had heard the proposition, he looked very strangely thereat and answered that although he partly knew the things by them alleged to be true, yet such entire love he bore unto King Edward and his children, that he so much more regarded his honor in other realms than the crown of any one, of which he was never desirous, that he could not find in his heart in this point to incline to their desire. For in all other nations, where the truth was not well known, it should perhaps be thought it were his own ambitious mind and device to depose the Prince and take for himself the crown. With such infamy he would not have his honor stained for any crown-a crown that he had ever perceived held much more labor and pain than pleasure to him that so would so use it, and he who would not use it were not worthy to have it. Not withstanding, he not only pardoned them the motion that they made him, but also thanked them for the love and hearty favor they bore him, praying them, for his sake, to give and bear the same to the Prince, under whom he was and would be content to live; and with his labor and counsel, as far as should the King like to use him, he would do his uttermost duty to set the realm in good state, which was already in this little while of his protectorship (the praise given to God) well begun, in that the malice of such as were before occasion of the contrary-and of new intended to be-were now, partly by good policy, partly more by God's special providence than man's provision, repressed.

Upon this answer given, the Duke, by the Protector's permission, a little whispered as well with other noble men about him, as with the Mayor and Recorder of London. And after that, upon like pardon desired and obtained, he showed aloud unto the Protector, for a final conclusion, that the realm was resolved King Edward's line should not any longer reign upon them, both because they had gone so far that there was now no safety to retreat, and because they thought it for the common good to take that way, although they had not yet begun it. Wherefore, if it would please his Grace to take the crown upon him, they would humbly beseech him thereunto. If he would give them a resolute answer to the contrary, which they would be loath to hear, then they must needs seek, and should not fail to find, some other noble man that would.

These words much moved the Protector, who else, as every man may know, would never of likelihood have inclined thereunto. But when he saw there was none other way, but either he must take it or else he and his both must go from it, he said unto the lords and commons: "Since we perceive well that all the realm is so set-whereof we be very sorry they will not suffer in any way King Edward's line to govern them, whom no earthly man can govern against their wills-and because we also perceive well that no man is there to whom the crown can by so just title appertain as to ourself as very right heir, lawfully begotten of the body of our most dear father, Richard, late Duke of York-to which title is now joined your election, the nobles and commons of this realm, which we of all titles possible take for most effectual-we be content and agree favorably to incline to your petition and request, and according to the same, here we take upon us the royal estate, preeminence, and kingdom of the two noble realms, England and France: the one from this day forward by us and our heirs to rule, govern and defend; the other, by God's grace and your good help, to get again and subdue and establish forever in due obedience unto this realm of England-the advancement-whereof we never ask of God longer to live than we intend to procure."

With this there was a great shout, crying, "Richard! King Richard!" And then the lords went up to the King (for so was he from that time called) and the people departed, talking diversely of the matter, every man as his fancy gave him.

But much they talked and marveled of the manner of this dealing, that the matter was on both parts made so strange, as though neither had ever communed thereof with the other before, when that they themselves well knew there was no man so dull who heard them, but he perceived well enough that all the matter was made between them. However, some excused that again and said all must be done in good order. And men must sometimes for the sake of manner not acknowledge what they know. For at the consecration of a bishop, every man knows well by the paying for his bulls that he purposes to be one, even though he pay for nothing else. And yet must he be twice asked whether he will be bishop or not, and he must twice say nay, and at the third time take it as compelled thereunto by his own will. And in a stage play all the people know right well that he who plays the sultan is perchance a shoemaker. Yet if one should be so foolish as to show out of turn what acquaintance he really has with him, and call him by his own name while he acts as his majesty, one of his tormentors might, by chance, break his head, and do so rightly for marring of the play. And so they said that these matters be kings' games, as it were, stage plays, and for the most part played upon scaffolds, in which poor men be but the on-lookers. And they that wise be, will meddle no further. For they who sometimes step up and play with them, when they cannot play their parts, they disorder the play and do themselves no good.

The History of King Richard the Third by Thomas More. Now was it before devised that in the speaking of these words the Protector should have come in among the people during the sermon, to the end that those words, meeting with his presence, might have been taken among the hearers as though the Holy Ghost had put them in the preacher's mouth and should have moved the people even there to cry, "King Richard! King Richard!"-that it might have been afterwards said that he was specially chosen by God and in manner by miracle.

But this device failed, either by the Protector's negligence, or the preacher's overmuch diligence. For while the Protector delayed along the way lest he should arrive before those words, and while the Doctor, fearing that the Protector should come before his sermon would come to those words, hasted his matter thereto, the preacher came to them and past them and entered into other matters before the Protector came. When the Doctor beheld his coming, he suddenly left the matter with which he was in hand, and without any deduction thereunto, out of all order, and out of all frame, began to repeat those words again: "This is the very noble prince, the special pattern of knightly prowess, which as well in all princely behavior, as in the lineaments and favor of his appearance, represents the very face of the noble Duke of York, his father. This is the father's own figure, this his own countenance, the very print of his visage, the sure undoubted image, the plain express likeness of the noble Duke, whose remembrance can never die while he lives."

While these words were in speaking, the Protector, accompanied with the Duke of Buckingham, went through the people into the place where the doctors commonly stand in the upper story, where he stood to hear the sermon. But the people were so far from crying "King Richard" that they stood as they had been turned into stone, for wonder of this shameful sermon. After which once ended, the preacher got himself home and never after dared look out for shame, but kept himself out of sight like an owl. And when he once asked one that had been his old friend what the people talked of him, although his own conscience well showed him that they talked no good, yet when the other answered him that there was in every man's mouth spoken of him much shame, it so struck him to the heart that within few days after, he withered and consumed away.

Then on the Tuesday following this sermon, there came unto the Guildhall in London the Duke of Buckingham, accompanied with diverse lords and knights, who more than by chance knew the message that they brought. And there in the east end of the hall where the Mayor keeps the Court of Hustings, the Mayor and all the Aldermen being assembled about him, all the commons of the city gathered before them, after silence commanded upon great pain in the Protector's name, the Duke stood up, and (as he was not unlearned and of nature marvelously well spoken) he said unto the people, with a clear and a loud voice, in this manner the following:

"Friends, for the zeal and hearty favor that we bear you, we come to reveal unto you, a matter right great and weighty, and no less weighty than pleasing to God and profitable to all the realm, nor to no part of the realm more profitable than to you, the citizens of this noble city. Why? That thing that we know well you have long time lacked and sore longed for, that you would have given great good for, that you would have gone far to fetch-that thing we come hither to bring you, without your labor, pain, cost, adventure, or jeopardy.

"What thing is that? Certainly, the surety of your own bodies, the quiet of your wives and your daughters, the safeguard of your goods: of all which things in times past you stood ever more in doubt. For who was there among you that would reckon himself lord of his own goods, among so many snares and traps as was set, among so much pillaging and extortion, among so many taxes and arbitrary ones at that-of which there was never end and oftentimes no need, or if any were, it rather grew of riot and unreasonable waste than any necessary or honorable charge? So that there was daily, pillaged from good and honest men, great substance of goods to be squandered out among prodigals so far forth that fifteenths sufficed not, nor any of the usual names of known taxes; but under an easy name of "benevolence and good will" the commissioners so much of every man took, as no man would with his good will have given-as though the name of "benevolence" had signified that every man should pay, not what he himself of his good will pleases to grant, but what the King of his good will pleases to take, who never asked little, but everything was hiked above the measure: adjudged punishments turned into fines, fines into ransoms, small trespass to imprisonment, imprisonment into treason.

Survey London Volume 4 Chelsea Part II. In the account in the Architectural Review (May, 1911) I have summarised the later history of the house as follows:-"After the great house had been occupied during the Commonwealth by the Parliamentary Commissioners, Sir Bulstrode Whitlocke and John Lisle, the second Duke of Buckingham regained possession. Lost to him, through his debts, the house ultimately passed (1674) into the hands of the trustees for George Digby, Earl of Bristol, and his Countess sold it in 1682 to Henry, Marquess of Worcester, afterwards Duke of Beaufort, the house remaining in his family until 1720. It was during this period, about the year 1699, that Kip's beautiful view of the mansion - now called Beaufort House - was published, a priceless record of the property, so ruthlessly defaced and destroyed by Sir Hans Sloane after he purchased it in 1737. Mr. Randall Davies, whom I have followed in the account of the occupants of the house, has printed the interesting conveyance of the property to Sloane, and if its description is carefully collated with the information in Kip's view, one is struck by the wonderful accuracy of the latter. Here is the great house as shown by Thorpe, its lodges and its forecourts, the wharf, with its brick towers east and west, the orchard and 'one garden environed with brick walls … and a terrace on the north end, with a banqueting house on the east end of the terrace,' as well as 'one great garden … extending from the terrace and banqueting house into the highway on the north.' This banqueting house is alike in detail to the sketch of 'a summer house, Chelsea,' in the Smithson collection of seventeenth-century drawings, now in the possession of Colonel Coke. But valuable as is the representation of the great house, the print has much more information to give us. The great park is there shown in all its original beauty; the Duke of Beaufort's stables and yard, since converted into the historic chapel and burying ground of the Moravians is to the west; and nearer the river the beautiful Jacobean house of Sir Arthur Gorges (our sole evidence of its character and design) and the house and gardens of the Earls of Lindsey. And to the east, below the wide area of Dovecote Close, laid out as a huge kitchen garden, are the fine pleasure grounds of Danvers House, which had been destroyed but three years before the drawing was published.".

The History of King Richard the Third by Thomas More. Upon the very Tower wharf so near the place where his head was off so soon after, there met he with one Hastings, a messenger of his own name. And of their meeting in that place, he was put in remembrance of another time, in which it had happened to them before, to meet in like manner together in the same place. At which other time the Lord Chamberlain had been accused unto King Edward by the Lord Rivers, the Queen's brother, in such a way that he was for the while (but it lasted not long) far fallen into the King's indignation, and stood in great fear of himself. And forasmuch as he now met this messenger in the same place, and that jeopardy so well past, it gave him great pleasure to talk with him thereof, with whom he had before talked thereof in the same place while he was therein.

And therefore he said: "Ah, Hastings [the messenger], art you remembered when I met thee here once with a heavy heart?"

"Yea, my Lord," said he, "that remember I well, and thanks be God they got no good, nor you none harm thereby."

"Thou would say so," said he, "if thou knew as much as I know, which few know else as yet, and more shall shortly." By that meant he the lords of the Queen's kindred that were taken before and should that day be beheaded at Pomfret, which he well knew, but was nothing aware that the axe hang over his own head. "In faith, man," said he, "I was never so sorry, nor never stood in so great dread in my life, as I did when thou and I met here. And lo how the world is turned; now stand mine enemies in that danger (as thou may by chance hear more hereafter) and I never in my life so merry, nor never in so great safety."

O good God, the blindness of our mortal nature: when he most feared, he was in good surety; when he reckoned himself most sure, he lost his life, and that within two hours after. Thus ended this honorable man, a good knight and a gentle one, of great authority with his prince, of living somewhat dissolute, plain and open to his enemy, and secret to his friend, easy to beguile, as he that of good heart and courage forestudied no perils; a loving man and passing well beloved; very faithful, and trusty enough, trusting too much. Now flew the fame of this lord's death swiftly through the city, and so forth further about like a wind in every man's ear. But the Protector, immediately after dinner, intending to set some color upon the matter, sent in all the haste for many substantial men out of the city into the Tower. And at their coming, he himself with the Duke of Buckingham stood armed in old ill-faring body armor, such as no man should suppose that they would have put upon their backs, except that some sudden necessity had constrained them. And then the Protector showed them that the Lord Chamberlain and others of his conspiracy had contrived to have suddenly destroyed him and the Duke there, the same day, in the Council. And what they intended further was as yet not well known. Of which their treason he never had knowledge before ten of the clock the same day before noon. Which sudden fear drove them to put on for their defense such armor as came next to hand. And so had God helped them that the mischief turned upon them that would have done it. And this he required them to report. Every man answered him fair, as though no man mistrusted the matter, which of truth no man believed.

Grammont. She had, however, a passion for music, and had some taste for singing. The Duke of Buckingham, who built the finest towers of cards imaginable, had an agreeable voice: she had no aversion to scandal: and the duke was both the father and the mother of scandal, he made songs, and invented old women's stories, with which she was delighted; but his particular talent consisted in turning into ridicule whatever was ridiculous in other people, and in taking them off, even in their presence, without their perceiving it: in short, he knew how to act all parts with so much grace and pleasantry, that it was difficult to do without him, when he had a mind to make himself agreeable; and he made himself so necessary to Miss Stewart's amusement, that she sent all over the town to seek for him, when he did not attend the king to her apartments.

He was extremely handsome, and still thought himself much more so than he really was: although he had a great deal of discernment, yet his vanity made him mistake some civilities as intended for his person, which were only bestowed on his wit and drollery: in short, being seduced by too good an opinion of his own merit, he forgot his first project and his Portuguese mistress, in order to pursue a fancy in which he mistook himself; for he no sooner began to act a serious part with Miss Stewart, than he met with so severe a repulse that he abandoned, at once, all his designs upon her: however, the familiarity she had procured him with the king, opened the way to those favours to which he was afterwards advanced.

Note. George Villiers, the second Duke of Buckingham, was born 30th January, 1627. Lord Orford observes, "When this extraordinary man, with the figure and genius of Alcibiades, could equally charm the presbyterian Fairfax and the dissolute Charles; when he alike ridiculed that witty king and his solemn chancellor: when he plotted the ruin of his country with a cabal of bad ministers, or, equally unprincipled, supported its cause with bad patriots,-one laments that such parts should have been devoid of every virtue: but when Alcibiades turns chemist; when he is a real bubble and a visionary miser; when ambition is but a frolic; when the worst designs are for the foolishest ends,-contempt extinguishes all reflection on his character."

Grammont. "Fortune may grow weary of befriending you at play. What would have become of you, if your last misfortune had happened to you, when your money had been at as low an ebb as I have known it? Attend carefully then to this necessary deity, and renounce the other. You will be missed at the court of France, before you grow weary of this: but be that as it may, lay up a good store of money: when a man is rich, he consoles himself for his banishment. I know you well, my dear Chevalier: if you take it into your head to seduce a lady, or to supplant a lover, your gains at play will by no means suffice for presents and for bribes: no, let play be as productive to you as it can be, you will never gain so much by it, as you will lose by love, if you yield to it.

"You are in possession of a thousand splendid qualifications which distinguish you here: generous, benevolent, elegant, and polite; and for your engaging wit, inimitable. Upon a strict examination, perhaps, all this would not be found literally true: but these are brilliant marks; and since it is granted that you possess them, do not shew yourself here in any other light: for, in love, if your manner of paying your addresses can be so denominated, you do not in the least resemble the picture I have just now drawn."

"My little philosophical monitor," said the Chevalier de Grammont, "you talk here as if you were the Cato of Normandy." "Do I say any thing untrue?" replied Saint Evremond: "is it not a fact, that as soon as a woman pleases you, your first care is to find out whether she has any other lover, and your second how to plague her; for the gaining her affection is the last thing in your thoughts. You seldom engage in intrigues, but to disturb the happiness of others: a mistress who has no lovers, would have no charms for you, and if she has, she would be invaluable. Do not all the places through which you have passed furnish me with a thousand examples? Shall I mention your coup d'essai at Turin? the trick you played at Fontainbleau, where you robbed the Princess Palatine's courier upon the highway? And for what purpose was this fine exploit, but to put you in possession of some proofs of her affection for another, in order to give her uneasiness and confusion by reproaches and menaces, which you had no right to use?

"Who but yourself ever took it into his head to place himself in ambush upon the stairs, to disturb a man in an intrigue, and to pull him back by the leg when he was half way up to his mistress's chamber? Yet did not you use your friend the Duke of Buckingham in this manner, when he was stealing at night to ------ although you were not in the least his rival? How many spies did not you send out after d'Olonne? How many tricks, frauds, and persecutions did you not practise for the Countess de Fiesque, who perhaps might have been constant to you, if you had not yourself forced her to be otherwise? But, to conclude, for the enumeration of your iniquities would be endless, give me leave to ask you, how you came here? Are not we obliged to that same evil genius of yours, which rashly inspired you to intermeddle even in the gallantries of your prince? Shew some discretion then on this point here, I beseech you: all the beauties of the court are already engaged; and however docile the English may be with respect to their wives, they can by no means bear the inconstancy of their mistresses, nor patiently suffer the advantages of a rival: suffer them, therefore, to remain in trailquillity, and do not gain their ill-will for no purpose.

"You certainly will meet with no success with such as are unmarried: honourable views, and good landed property, are required here: and you possess as much of the one as the other. Every country has its customs: in Holland, unmarried ladies are of easy access, and of tender dispositions; but as soon as ever they are married, they become like so many Lucretias: in France, the women are great coquettes before marriage, and still more so afterwards: but here it is a miracle if a young lady yields to any proposal but that of matrimony: and I do not believe you yet so destitute of grace as to think of that."

Such were Saint Evremond's lectures; but they were all to no purpose: the Chevalier de Grammont only attended to them for his amusement; and though he was sensible of the truth they contained, he paid little regard to them: in fact, being weary of the favours of fortune, he had just resolved to pursue those of love.

Grammont. Lord Arlington took up the project which the Duke of Buckingham had abandoned, and endeavoured to gain possession of the mind of the mistress, in order to govern the master. A man of greater merit% and Higher birth than himself might, however, have been satisfied with the fortune he had already acquired. His first negotiations were during the treaty of the Pyrenees: and though he was unsuccessful in his proceedings for his employer, yet he did not altogether lose his time; for he perfectly acquired, in his exterior, the serious air and profound gravity of the Spaniards, and imitated pretty well their tardiness in business: he had a scar across his nose, which was covered by a long patch, or rather by a small plaister, in form of a lozenge.

Grammont. Hamilton was, of all the courtiers, the best qualified to succeed in an enterprise, in which the Duke of Buckingham and Lord Arlington had miscarried: he was thinking upon it; but his natural coquetry traversed his intentions, and made him neglect the most advantageous prospects in the world, in order unnecessarily to attend to the advances and allurements thrown out to him by the Countess of Chesterfield. This was one of the most agreeable women in the world: she had a most exquisite shape, though she was not very tall; her complexion was extremely fair, with all the expressive charms of a brunette; she had large blue eyes, very tempting and alluring; her manners were engaging; her wit lively and amusing; but her heart, ever open to tender sentiments, was neither scrupulous in point of constancy, nor nice in point of sincerity. She was daughter to the Duke of Ormond, and Hamilton, being her cousin-german, they might be as much as they pleased in each other's company without being particular; but as soon as her eyes gave him some encouragement, he entertained no other thoughts than how to please her, without considering her fickleness, or the obstacles he had to encounter.

Note. This lady was Isabella, daughter to Lewis de Nassau, Lord Beverwaert, son to Maurice, Prince of Orange, and Count Nassau. By her, Lord Arlington had an only daughter, named Isabella.

Survey London Volume 4 Chelsea Part II. Cecil does not seem to have carried out his larger schemes and he sold the house to Henry Clinton, second Earl of Lincoln, in 1599.

Lincoln settled the estate on Sir Arthur Gorges, who had married his daughter. He lived in the house just mentioned, adjoining the great house, built for him by his father-in-law, and some four years after the latter's death in 1615, he sold Sir Thomas More's house to Lionel Cranfield, Earl of Middlesex. [See Close Roll, 18 Jas. I., pt. 18.] The new owner purchased several additions to the property, including "Brick Barn Close" and "The Sandhills," both north of the King's Road. These he converted into the Park, which is shown in Kip's view and was not built upon until after 1717. Cranfield fell under the displeasure of the King, and in consequence forfeited his property, which Charles I. granted in 1627 to [his father] George Villiers, Duke of Buckingham. After the Duke's assassination, the family continued to reside here until the outbreak of the Civil War, when the house was seized by the Parliament, and Mr. Randall Davies has referred to the record in the Perfect Occurrences of the petition in 1646 of the [his sister] Duchess of Lennox, Buckingham's daughter, for leave to come to London, or to her house in Chelsea, to be under Dr. Mayerne's hands for her health. The great physician was then living at Lindsey House, the old farmhouse belonging to the estate.

Grammont. Among the men were Francisco de Melo, brother to the Countess de Panétra; one Taurauvédez, who called himself Don Pedro Francisco Correo de Silva, extremely handsome, but a greater fool than all the Portuguese put together: he was more vain of his names than of his person; but the Duke of Buckingham, a still greater fool than he, though more addicted to raillery, gave him the additional name of Peter of the Wood. He was so enraged at this, that, after many fruitless complaints and ineffectual menaces, poor Pedro de Silva was obliged to leave England, while the happy duke kept possession of a Portuguese nymph more hideous than the queen's maids of honour, whom he had taken from him, as well as two of his names. Besides these, there were six chaplains, four bakers, a Jew perfumer, and a certain officer, probably without an office, who called himself her highness's barber. Katharine de Braganza was far from appearing with splendour in the charming court where she came to reign; however, in the end she was pretty successful. The Chevalier de Grammont, who had been long known to the royal family, and to most of the gentlemen of the court, had only to get acquainted with the ladies; and for this he wanted no interpreter: they all spoke French enough to explain themselves, and they all understood it sufficiently to comprehend what he had to say to them.

Grammont. The Duke of Buckingham and the Earl of St. Albans were the same in England as they appeared in France: the one full of wit and vivacity, dissipated, without splendour, an immense estate upon which he had just entered: the other, a man of no great genius, had raised himself a considerable fortune from nothing, and by losing at play, and keeping a great table, made it appear greater than it was.

Buckingham's Rebellion

The History of King Richard the Third by Thomas More. For hereupon, soon after, began the conspiracy, or rather good confederation, between the Duke of Buckingham and many other gentlemen against him. The occasion whereupon the King and the Duke fell out is by different folk, different ways presented. This duke, as I have for certain been informed, as soon as the Duke of Gloucester, upon the death of King Edward, came to York and there had solemn funeral service for King Edward, sent thither, in the most secret way he could, one Percival, his trusty servant, who came to John Ward, a chamber-man of like secret trust with the Duke of Gloucester, desiring that in the most close and covert manner he might be admitted to the presence and speech of his master. And the Duke of Gloucester, informed of his desire, caused him in the dead of the night, after all other folk left, to be brought unto him in his secret chamber, where Percival, after his master's recommendation, showed him what his master had secretly sent him to show him that in this new world he could take such part as he would, and Buckingham would wait upon him with a thousand good fellows if need were. The messenger, sent back with thanks and some secret instruction of the Protector's mind, yet he met him again with further message from the Duke, his master, within a few days after at Nottingham, to where the Protector from York with many gentlemen of the north country, up to the number of six hundred horse, was coming on his way to London. And after secret meeting and communication had, at once departed. Whereupon at Northampton the Duke met with the Protector himself, with three hundred horse, and from there still continued with him, partner of all his devices, such that after his coronation they departed, as it seemed, very great friends at Gloucester.

From whence, as soon as the Duke came home, he so lightly turned from him and so highly conspired against him that a man would marvel whereof the change grew.

And surely the occasion of their variance is of different men differently reported. Some I have heard say that the Duke-a little before the coronation, among other things-required of the Protector the Duke of Hereford's lands, to which he pretended himself just inheritor. And forasmuch as the title that he claimed by inheritance was somewhat interlaced with the title to the crown by the line of King Henry VI, before deprived, the Protector conceived such indignation that he rejected the Duke's request with many spiteful and threatening words, which so wounded his heart with hatred and mistrust that he never after could endure to look aright on King Richard, but ever feared his own life, so far forth that when the Protector rode through London toward his coronation, he feigned himself sick because he would not ride with him. And the other, taking it in evil part, sent him word to rise and come ride, or he would make him be carried. Whereupon he rode on with evil will and, that notwithstanding, on the morrow rose from the feast feigning himself sick, and King Richard said it was done in hatred and contempt of him. And they say that ever after, continually, each of them lived in such hatred and distrust of other that the Duke verily looked to have been murdered at Gloucester, from which, nevertheless, he in fair manner departed.

But surely some right from those days' secrets deny this; and many right wise men think it unlikely (the deep dissimulating nature of both those men considered, and what need in that green world the Protector had of the Duke, and in what peril the Duke stood if he fell once in suspicion of the tyrant) that either the Protector would give the Duke occasion of displeasure, or the Duke the Protector occasion of mistrust. And men in fact think that, if King Richard had any such opinion conceived of the Duke, he would never have suffered him to escape his hands.

Very truth it is, the Duke was a high-minded man and could ill bear the glory of another, so that I have heard of some who said they saw it that the Duke, at such time as the crown was first set upon the Protector's head, his eye could not abide the sight thereof, but turned his head another way. But men say that he was, of truth, not well at ease, and that to King Richard was both well known and not ill taken, nor any demand of the Duke's discourteously rejected, but he with great gifts and high promises both, in most loving trusty manner departed at Gloucester. But soon after his coming home to Brecknock, having there in his custody by the commandment of King Richard, Doctor Morton, Bishop of Ely, who as you heard before was taken in the Council at the Tower, growing familiar with him, whose wisdom deceived his pride-to his own deliverance and the Duke's destruction.

The Bishop was a man of great natural wit, very well learned, and honorable in behavior, lacking no wise ways to win favor. He had been loyal to the part of King Henry while that part was in wealth, and nevertheless left it not, nor forsook it in woe, but fled the realm with the Queen and the Prince, and while King Edward had the King in prison, he never came home but to the battlefield. After this loss, and that part was utterly subdued, King Edward, for Morton's steadfast faith and wisdom, not only was content to receive him, but also wooed him to come and had him from thence forth both in secret trust and very special favor, in which he nothing deceived. For he was, as you have heard, after King Edward's death, first taken by the tyrant for his loyalty to the King, but found the means to turn this Duke to his plans, joining gentlemen together in the aid of King Henry, devising first the marriage between him and King Edward's daughter, by which he declared his faith and good service to both his masters at once, with infinite benefit to the realm, by the conjunction of those two bloods in one, whose several titles had long left the land without quiet. Afterwards, he fled the realm, went to Rome, never minding more to meddle with the world till the noble prince, King Henry the Seventh, got him home again, made him Archbishop of Canterbury and Chancellor of England, whereunto the Pope joined the honor of Cardinal. Thus living many days in as much honor as one man might well wish, ended them so godly that his death, with God's mercy, well changed his life.

This man, therefore, as I was about to tell you, by long and often alternate proof, as well from prosperity as adverse fortune, had gotten by great experience, the very mother and mistress of wisdom, a deep insight in political, worldly drifts.

Whereby, perceiving now this Duke glad to come with him, he fed him with fair words and many pleasant praises. And perceiving by the process of their communications the Duke's pride now and then to let slip a little outburst of envy toward the glory of the King, and thereby feeling him easy to fall out if the matter were well handled, he craftily sought the ways to prick him forward, taking always the occasion of his coming, and so keeping himself close within his bonds that he rather seemed to follow him than to lead him.

For when the Duke first began to praise and boast of the King and show how much profit the realm should take by his reign, my Lord Morton answered, "Surely, my Lord, folly it were for me to lie, for if I would swear the contrary, your Lordship would not, I know, believe it, but that, if the world would have gone as I would have wished, King Henry's son had had the crown and not King Edward. But after God had ordered him to lose it, and King Edward to reign, I was never so mad that I would with a dead man strive against the living. So was I to King Edward faithful chaplain, and glad would have been that his child had succeeded him. However, if the secret judgment of God has otherwise provided, I propose not to spurn against a spur, nor labor to set up what God pulls down. And as for the late Protector and now King...." And even there he left off, saying that he had already meddled too much with the world and would from that day meddle with his book and his beads alone, and no further.

Then longed the Duke sore to hear what he would have said because he ended with the King and there so suddenly stopped, and so exhorted him familiarly between them to be so bold to say whatsoever he thought, whereof he faithfully promised there should never come hurt and perchance more good than he would know, and that he himself intended to use his faithful, secret advice and counsel; this counsel, he said, was the only cause for which he procured of the King to have him in his custody, where he might reckon himself at home, or else had he been put in the hands of them with whom he should not have found the like favor.

The Bishop right humbly thanked him and said, "In good faith, my Lord, I love not much to talk much of princes, as things not all out of peril even though the word be without fault-forasmuch as it shall not be taken as the party meant it, but as it pleases the prince to construe it. And ever I think on Aesop's tale, that one in which the lion had proclaimed on pain of death that no horned beast should abide in that wood. Then one who had on his forehead a lump of flesh fled away at great pace. The fox who saw him run so fast asked him why he made all that haste. And he answered: 'In faith, I neither know nor care, so I were once hence because of this proclamation made about horned beasts.'

"'What, fool!' said the fox. 'Thou may abide well enough; the lion meant not thee, for it is no horn that is on your head.'

"'No, marry,' said he. 'That know I well enough. But what if he call it a horn? Where am I then?'"

The Duke laughed merrily at the tale, and said, "My Lord, I warrant you, neither the lion nor the boar shall find any problem with anything here spoken, for it shall never come near their ear."

"In good faith, Sir," said the Bishop, "if it did, the thing that I was about to say, taken as well as before God as I meant it, could deserve but thanks. And yet taken as I know it would, might happen to turn me to little good and you to less."

Then longed the Duke yet much more to know what it was. Whereupon the Bishop said: "In good faith, my Lord, as for the late Protector, since he is now King in possession, I propose not to dispute his title. But for the welfare of this realm, whereof his Grace has now the governance and whereof I am myself one poor member, I was about to wish that to those good abilities, whereof he has already right many, little needing my praise, it might yet have pleased God for the better store to have given him some of such other excellent virtues suitable for the rule of a realm, as our Lord has planted in the person of your Grace."

Grammont. Miss Price was short and thick, and consequently no dancer, the Duke of Buckingham, who brought Brisacier forward as often as he could, came to desire him, on the part of the king, to dance with Miss Blague, without knowing what was then passing in this nymph's heart: Brisacier excused himself, on account of the contempt that he had for country dances: Miss Blague thought that it was herself that he despised; and, seeing that he was engaged in conversation with her mortal enemy, she began to dance, without knowing what she was doing. Though her indignation and jealousy were sufficiently remarkable to divert the court, none but Miss Hamilton and her accomplices, understood the joke perfectly: their pleasure was quite complete; for Lord Muskerry returned, still more confounded at the vision, of which the Chevalier de Grammont had given the description. He acquainted Miss Hamilton, that it was Lady Muskerry herself, a thousand times more ridiculous than she had ever been before, and that he had had an immense trouble to get her home, and place a sentry at her chamber door.

Royal Ancestors of George Villiers 2nd Duke of Buckingham 1628-1687

Kings Wessex: Great x 18 Grand Son of King Edmund "Ironside" I of England

Kings Gwynedd: Great x 15 Grand Son of Owain "Great" King Gwynedd

Kings Seisyllwg: Great x 21 Grand Son of Hywel "Dda aka Good" King Seisyllwg King Deheubarth

Kings Powys: Great x 16 Grand Son of Maredudd ap Bleddyn King Powys

Kings England: Great x 9 Grand Son of King Edward III of England

Kings Scotland: Great x 14 Grand Son of William "Lion" I King Scotland

Kings Franks: Great x 14 Grand Son of Louis VII King Franks

Kings France: Great x 11 Grand Son of Philip "The Fair" IV King France

Ancestors of George Villiers 2nd Duke of Buckingham 1628-1687

Great x 4 Grandfather: William Villiers

Great x 3 Grandfather: John Villiers

Great x 2 Grandfather: John Villiers

Great x 1 Grandfather: William Villiers of Brooksby Leicestershire

GrandFather: George Villiers of Brokesby

Great x 2 Grandfather: Richard Clarke

Great x 1 Grandmother: Collette Clarke

Father: George Villiers 1st Duke of Buckingham 8 x Great Grand Son of King Edward III of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: John Beaumont 5 x Great Grand Son of King Henry III of England

Great x 3 Grandfather: George Beaumont 4 x Great Grand Son of King Edward III of England

Great x 4 Grandmother: Joan Darcy 3 x Great Grand Daughter of King Edward III of England

Great x 2 Grandfather: William Beaumont 5 x Great Grand Son of King Edward III of England

Great x 3 Grandmother: George Pauncefote

Great x 1 Grandfather: Anthony Beaumont 6 x Great Grand Son of King Edward III of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: William Bassett 11 x Great Grand Son of King Henry I "Beauclerc" England

Great x 3 Grandfather: William Bassett 12 x Great Grand Son of King Henry I "Beauclerc" England

Great x 2 Grandmother: Mary Bassett 13 x Great Grand Daughter of King Henry I "Beauclerc" England

GrandMother: Mary Beaumont 1st Countess Buckingham 7 x Great Grand Daughter of King Edward III of England

Great x 2 Grandfather: Thomas Armstrong

Great x 1 Grandmother: Anne Armstrong

George Villiers 2nd Duke of Buckingham 9 x Great Grand Son of King Edward III of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: George Manners 11th Baron Ros Helmsley 6 x Great Grand Son of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England

Great x 3 Grandfather: Thomas Manners 1st Earl of Rutland 4 x Great Grand Son of King Edward III of England

Great x 4 Grandmother: Anne St Leger Baroness Ros of Helmsley 3 x Great Grand Daughter of King Edward III of England

Great x 2 Grandfather: Henry Manners 2nd Earl of Rutland 5 x Great Grand Son of King Edward III of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: William Paston

Great x 3 Grandmother: Eleanor Paston Countess Rutland

Great x 4 Grandmother: Bridget Heydon

Great x 1 Grandfather: John Manners 4th Earl of Rutland 6 x Great Grand Son of King Edward III of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: Ralph Neville 4 x Great Grand Son of King Edward III of England

Great x 3 Grandfather: Ralph Neville 4th Earl of Westmoreland 5 x Great Grand Son of King Edward III of England

Great x 4 Grandmother: Edith Sandys Baroness

Great x 2 Grandmother: Margaret Neville Countess Rutland 6 x Great Grand Daughter of King Edward III of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: Edward Stafford 3rd Duke of Buckingham 4 x Great Grand Son of King Edward III of England

Great x 3 Grandmother: Katherine Stafford Countess of Westmoreland 5 x Great Grand Daughter of King Edward III of England

Great x 4 Grandmother: Eleanor Percy Duchess Buckingham 4 x Great Grand Daughter of King Edward III of England

GrandFather: Francis Manners 6th Earl of Rutland 7 x Great Grand Son of King Edward III of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: William Charlton 12 x Great Grand Son of King Henry I "Beauclerc" England

Great x 3 Grandfather: Robert Charlton 13 x Great Grand Son of King Henry I "Beauclerc" England

Great x 2 Grandfather: Francis Charlton of Apsley Castle in Shropshire 14 x Great Grand Son of King Henry I "Beauclerc" England

Great x 1 Grandmother: Elizabeth Charlton Countess Rutland 15 x Great Grand Daughter of King Henry I "Beauclerc" England

Great x 3 Grandfather: John Fitton

Great x 2 Grandmother: Cecily Fitton

Great x 4 Grandfather: Andrew Brereton

Great x 3 Grandmother: Ellen Brereton

Mother: Katherine Manners Duchess Buckingham 8 x Great Grand Daughter of King Edward III of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: Edmund Knyvet 8 x Great Grand Son of King John "Lackland" of England

Great x 3 Grandfather: Thomas Knyvet 9 x Great Grand Son of King John "Lackland" of England

Great x 2 Grandfather: Henry Knyvet of Charlton Wiltshire 7 x Great Grand Son of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: Thomas Howard 2nd Duke of Norfolk 5 x Great Grand Son of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England

Great x 3 Grandmother: Muriel Howard Viscountess Lisle 6 x Great Grand Daughter of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England

Great x 4 Grandmother: Elizabeth Tilney Countess of Surrey 8 x Great Grand Daughter of King John "Lackland" of England

Great x 1 Grandfather: Henry Knyvet 8 x Great Grand Son of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: James Pickering 5 x Great Grand Son of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England

Great x 3 Grandfather: Christopher Pickering 6 x Great Grand Son of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England

Great x 2 Grandmother: Anne Pickering 7 x Great Grand Daughter of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: Roger Lewknor

Great x 3 Grandmother: Jane Lewknor 7 x Great Grand Daughter of King Henry III of England

Great x 4 Grandmother: Eleanor Tuchet 6 x Great Grand Daughter of King Henry III of England

GrandMother: Frances Knyvet Lady Bevill 9 x Great Grand Daughter of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England

Great x 1 Grandmother: Elizabeth Stumpe