Biography of George York 1st Duke of Clarence 1449-1478

Paternal Family Tree: Anjou aka Plantagenet

Maternal Family Tree: Katherine Roet Duchess Lancaster 1350-1403

Descendants Family Tree: George York 1st Duke of Clarence 1449-1478

1415 Southampton Plot

1460 Act of Accord 39 Hen VI

1460 Battle of Wakefield

1461 Creation of Garter Knights by Edward IV

1461 Edward IV marries Eleanor Talbot possibly

1461 Coronation of Edward IV

1467 Tournament Bastard of Burgundy

1469 Marriage of George Duke of Clarence and Isabel Neville

1469 Capture of Edward IV

1470 Welles' Rebellion and Battle of Losecoat Field aka Empingham

1470 Warwick returns to England

1470 Re-adeption of King Henry VI

1471 Battle of Barnet

1474 Anne Beauchamp declared Legally Dead

1476 Reburial of Richard and Edmund of York

1476 Trial and Execution of Ankarette Twynyho

1477 Execution of George Duke of Clarence's Servants

1478 Execution of George Duke of Clarence

After 21 Sep 1411 [his grandmother] Anne Mortimer (age 20) died from childbirth. Her son [his father] Richard Plantagenet 3rd Duke of York succeeded Heir to the Throne of England, 8th Earl Ulster.

Southampton Plot

On 05 Aug 1415 two executions of those involved in the Southampton Plot took place at the North Gate aka Bargate [Map]:

[his grandfather] Richard of Conisbrough 1st Earl Cambridge (age 30) was beheaded. His son [his father] Richard Plantagenet 3rd Duke of York (age 3) succeeded 2nd Earl Cambridge.

Henry Scrope 3rd Baron Scrope Masham (age 42) was beheaded. His brother John Scrope 4th Baron Scrope Masham (age 27) succeeded 4th Baron Scrope Masham.

On 18 Jan 1425 Edmund Mortimer 5th Earl March 7th Earl Ulster (age 33) died at Trim Castle. He was buried at Clare Priory, Suffolk [Map]. His nephew [his father] Richard Plantagenet 3rd Duke of York (age 13) succeeded 6th Earl March.

In Oct 1429 [his father] Richard Plantagenet 3rd Duke of York (age 18) and [his mother] Cecily "Rose of Raby" Neville Duchess York (age 14) were married. She by marriage Countess Cambridge Countess Ulster. She was the youngest sister of Richard's brother-in-arms [his uncle] Richard Neville Earl Salisbury (age 29). She the daughter of Ralph Neville 1st Earl of Westmoreland and Joan Beaufort Countess of Westmoreland (age 50). He the son of Richard of Conisbrough 1st Earl Cambridge and Anne Mortimer. They were second cousins. He a great grandson of King Edward III of England. She a great granddaughter of King Edward III of England.

On 21 Oct 1449 George York 1st Duke of Clarence was born to Richard Plantagenet 3rd Duke of York (age 38) and Cecily "Rose of Raby" Neville Duchess York (age 34) at Dublin Castle, Dublin. He a great x 2 grandson of King Edward III of England. Coefficient of inbreeding 2.42%.

Act of Accord 39 Hen VI

On 25 Oct 1460 Parliament enacted the Act of Accord 39 Hen VI by which [his father] Richard Plantagenet 3rd Duke of York (age 49) was declared heir to King Henry VI of England and II of France (age 38) disinheriting Edward of Westminster (age 7). At the same Parliament on 31 Oct 1460 Richard Plantagenet 3rd Duke of York (age 49) was created Prince of Wales, 1st Duke Cornwall. He was also appointed Lord Protector.

Battle of Wakefield

On 30 Dec 1460 the Lancastrian army took their revenge for the defeats of the First Battle of St Albans and the Battle of Northampton during the Battle of Wakefield at Sandal Castle [Map]. The Lancastrian army was commanded by Henry Holland 3rd Duke Exeter (age 30), Henry Beaufort 2nd or 3rd Duke of Somerset (age 24) and Henry Percy 3rd Earl of Northumberland (age 39), and included John Courtenay 15th Earl Devon (age 25) and William Gascoigne XIII (age 30), both knighted, and James Butler 1st Earl Wiltshire 5th Earl Ormonde (age 40), John "Butcher" Clifford 9th Baron Clifford (age 25), John Neville 1st Baron Neville of Raby (age 50), Thomas Ros 9th Baron Ros Helmsley (age 33), Henry Roos and Thomas St Leger (age 20).

The Yorkist army was heavily defeated.

[his father] Richard Plantagenet 3rd Duke of York (age 49) was killed. His son [his brother] King Edward IV of England (age 18) succeeded 4th Duke York, 7th Richard Plantagenet 3rd Duke of York (age 49), 9th Earl Ulster, 3rd Earl Cambridge.

Thomas Neville (age 30), and Edward Bourchier were killed.

Father and son Thomas Harrington (age 60) and John Harrington (age 36) were killed, the former dying of his wounds the day after.

William Bonville 6th Baron Harington (age 18) was killed. His daughter Cecily Bonville Marchioness Dorset succeeded 7th Baroness Harington.

Thomas Parr (age 53) fought in the Yorkist army.

Following the battle [his uncle] Richard Neville Earl Salisbury (age 60) was beheaded by Thomas "Bastard of Exeter" Holland. William Bonville (age 40) was executed.

[his brother] Edmund York 1st Earl of Rutland (age 17) was killed on Wakefield Bridge [Map] by John "Butcher" Clifford (age 25) by which he gained his sobriquet "Butcher". Earl of Rutland extinct.

In or after 1461 George York 1st Duke of Clarence (age 11) was created 1st Earl Richmond. The seventh creation was still extant being held by King Henry VII of England and Ireland (age 3) which was not recognised by the Yorkists.

1461 Creation of Garter Knights by Edward IV

In Apr 1461 [his brother] King Edward IV of England (age 18) appointed new Garter Knights:

185th George York 1st Duke of Clarence (age 11).

186th William Chamberlaine.

Edward IV marries Eleanor Talbot possibly

Around Jun 1461, the record is very vague, [his brother] King Edward IV (age 19) and Eleanor Talbot (age 25) were possibly secretly married by Bishop Robert Stillington (age 41). The marriage came to light after Edward's death. Bishop Robert Stillington (age 41) provided the information to the future [his brother] King Richard III of England (age 8) in 1483; Richard used the information to justify his succeeding to be King since Edward IV's (age 19) children with Elizabeth Woodville Queen Consort England (age 24) were, therefore, illegitimate as a result of their marriage being bigamous and George Duke of Clarence's (age 11) children were barred from the throne as a consequence of their father's attainder.

Coronation of Edward IV

Around Jun 1461, the time of his coronation, [his brother] King Edward IV of England (age 19) created his two brothers as Dukes ...

George York 1st Duke of Clarence (age 11) was created 1st Duke Clarence.

[his brother] King Richard III of England (age 8) was created 1st Duke Gloucester.

Warkworth's Chronicle 1461. 27 Jun 1461.... at the coronacyone1 of the forseyde Edwarde, he create and made dukes his two brythir, the eldere George (age 11) Duke of Clarence, and his yongere brothir [his brother] Richard (age 8) Duke of Gloucetre; and the Lord Montagu (age 30)2, the Earl of Warwick (age 32)'s brothere, the Earl of Northumberlonde; and one William Stafford squiere, Lord Stafforde of Southwyke; and Sere Herbard (age 38), Lorde Herbard, and after Lorde Earl of Penbroke3; and so the seide Lorde Stafforde (age 22) was made Earl of Devynschire4; the Lorde Gray Ryffyne (age 44), Earl of Kent6; the Lorde Bourchyer (age 57), Earl of Essex; the Lorde Jhon of Bokyngham (age 33), the Earl of Wyltschyre5; Sere Thomas [Walter] Blount (age 45), knyghte, Lord Mont[joy]; Sere Jhon Hawarde, Lorde Hawarde (age 36)8; William Hastynges (age 30) he made Lorde Hastynges and grete Chamberlayne; and the Lorde Ryvers; Denham squyere, Lorde Dynham; and worthy as is afore schewed; and othere of gentylmen and yomenne he made knyghtes and squyres, as they hade desserved.

Note 1. At the coronacyone. King Edward was crowned in Westminster Abbey, on the 29th of June 1461. Warkworth's first passage is both imperfect and incorrect, and would form a very bad specimen of the value of the subsequent portions of his narrative; yet we find it transferred to the Chronicle of Stowe. It must, however, be regarded rather as a memorandum of the various creations to the peerage made during Edward's reign, than as a part of the chronicle. Not even the third peerage mentioned, the Earldom of Northumberland, was conferred at the Coronation, but by patent dated 27 May 1464: and the only two Earldoms bestowed in Edward's first year (and probably at the Coronation) were, the Earldom of Essex, conferred on Henry Viscount Bourchier, Earl of Eu in Normandy, who had married the King's aunt, the Princess Isabel of York; and the Earldom of Kent, conferred on William Neville, Lord Fauconberg, one of King Edward's generals at Towton. The former creation is mentioned by Warkworth lower down in his list; the latter is omitted altogether. - J.G.N.

Note 2. The Lord Montagu. And then Kyng Edward, concidering the greate feate doon by the said Lord Montagu, made hym Earl of Northumberlond; and in July next folowyng th'Earl of Warwyk, with th'ayde of the said Earl of Northumberland, gate agayn the castell of Bamborugh, wheryn was taken Sir Raaf Gray (age 29), which said Ser Raaf (age 29) was after behedid and quartred at York. Also, in this yere, the first day of May, the Kyng wedded Dame Elizabeth Gray (age 24), late wif unto the lord Gray of Groby, and doughter to the Lord Ryvers." - The London Chronicle, MS. Cotton. Vitell. A. xvi. fol. 126, ro. The MS. of the London Chronicle, from which Sir Harris Nicolas printed his edition, does not contain this passage. It is almost unnecessary to remark the chronological incorrectness of the above, but it serves to show how carelessly these slight Chronicles were compiled. Cf. MS. Add. Mus. Brit. 6113, fol. 192, rº. and MS. Cotton. Otho, B. XIV. fol. 221, ro.

Note 3. Lord Earl of Pembroke. William Lord Herbert of Chepstow (age 38), the first of the long line of Herbert Earls of Pembroke, was so created the 27th May 1468. His decapitation by the Duke of Clarence at Northampton in 1469, is noticed by Warkworth in p. 7.-J.G.N.

Note 4. Earl of Devynschire. Humphery Stafford (age 22), created Baron Stafford of Southwick by patent 24th April 1464, was advanced to the Earldom of Devon 7th May 1469; but beheaded by the commons at Bridgwater before the close of the same year, as related by Warkworth, ubi supra. - J.G.N.

Note 5. Earl of Wyltschyre. John Stafford (age 33), created Earl of Wiltshire, 5th Jan. 1470; he died in 1473.—J.G.N.

Note 6. "The Lorde Gray Ryffyne, Earl of Kent". The Earl of Kent, of the family of Neville, died without male issue, a few months after his elevation to that dignity; and it was conferred on the 30th May 1465, on Edmund Lord Grey de Ruthyn (age 44), on occasion of the Queen's coronation. He was cousin-german to Sir John Grey, of Groby, the Queen's first husband. On the same occasion the Queen's son Sir Thomas Grey (age 6) was created Marquess of Dorset; her father Richard Wydevile (age 56) lord Ryvers was advanced to the dignity of Earl Ryvers; and her brother Anthony (age 21) married to the heiress of Scales, in whose right he was summoned to Parliament as a Baron. - J.G.N.

Note 7. Sere Thomas Blount (age 45). This should be Walter, created Lord Montjoy 20th June 1465; he died in 1474.-J.G.N.

Note 8. Sere Jhon Hawarde, Lord Hawarde. John Howard 1st Duke of Norfolk (age 36). This peerage dates its origin, by writ of summons to Parliament, during the short restoration of Henry VI. in 1470, a circumstance more remarkable as "evidence exists that he did not attach himself to the interest of that Prince, being constitued by Edward, in the same year, commander of his fleet." See Sir Harris Nicolas's memoir of this distinguished person (afterwards the first Duke of Norfolk) in Cartwright's History of the Rape of Bramber, p. 189.-J.G.N.

Calendars. 23 Jun 1463. Inspeximus and confirmation to the mayor, bailiffs and burgesses of Clyfton, Dertmuth and Hardenesse of (1) letters patent dated 14 December, 2 Richard II. inspecting and confirming a charter dated at the Tower of London, 14 April, 15 Edward III. [Charter Roll, 15 Edward III. No. 18,] and (2) a charter dated at Westminster, 5 November, 17 Richard II. [Charter Noll, 15-17 Richard II. No. 10]; and grant that the adjoining township of Southtouudertemouth shall henceforth be annexed to the said borough of Cliftondertemouth Hardenasse, in consideration of the fact that the burgesses keep watches against invaders on the confines of the township and beyond at a place called 'Galions Boure' but the inhabitants of the township contribute nothing because they do not enjoy the liberties of the borough. Th« mayor and bailiffs shall have return of writs and execution thereof within the said township and the liberty of the borough, saving always the right of the lord of the fee of the township, and all pleas real and personal and attachments and fines and amercements, and also view of frauk-pledge and all that peitains to it. And they may acquire, in mortmain, after inquisition, lands, tenements, rents and other possessions, not held in chief, to the value of 201. yearly. Witnesses: Th. archbishop of Canterbury (age 45), W. archbishop of York (age 75), G. Bishop of  Exeter (age 31), the chancellor, J. Bishop of  Carlisle, the king's brothers George, duke of Clarence (age 13), and [his brother] Richard, duke of Gloucester (age 10), the king's kinsmen [his future father-in-law] Richard, Earl of Warwick (age 34), and John, Earl of Worcester (age 36), treasurer of England, Robert Styllyngton (age 43), king's clerk, keeper of the privy seal, and William Hastynges of Hastynges (age 32), the king's chamberlain, and John Wenlok of Wenlok (age 63), knights.

After 1466 Thomas Burdett of Arrow in Warwickshire (age 41) was in the service of John Beauchamp 1st Baron Beauchamp Powick (age 57), Ralph Boteler 6th and 1st Baron Sudeley (age 77) and George York 1st Duke of Clarence (age 16).

Tournament Bastard of Burgundy

On 30 May 1467 George York 1st Duke of Clarence (age 17) and John "Butcher of England" Tiptoft 1st Earl of Worcester (age 40) visited Antoine "Bastard of Burgundy" (age 46) at his lodgings in Chelsea.

In 1468 Thomas Fitzgerald 7th Earl Desmond and Thomas Fitzgerald 7th Earl of Kildare (age 47) attended Parliament in Drogheda [Map] to answer charges of treason. Both were found guilty and attain. Thomas Fitzgerald 7th Earl Desmond sought sanctuary in Drogheda Priory [Map] where he was captured by John "Butcher of England" Tiptoft 1st Earl of Worcester (age 40). On 14 Feb 1468 Thomas Fitzgerald 7th Earl Desmond was summarily beheaded. He was buried initially in St Peter's Church Drogheda [Map] then Christ Church Cathedral, Oxford, Dublin [Map]. Some accounts claim John "Butcher of England" Tiptoft 1st Earl of Worcester (age 40) also murdered two of his young sons. Thomas Fitzgerald 7th Earl of Kildare (age 47) escaped and was subsequently pardoned and attainder reversed when King Edward IV found Ireland was ungovernable without him. In 1470 Thomas Fitzgerald 7th Earl of Kildare (age 49) was appointed Lord Deputy of Ireland under George York 1st Duke of Clarence (age 28) which position he held until the Duke's death in 1478.

Marriage of George Duke of Clarence and Isabel Neville

On 11 Jul 1469 George York 1st Duke of Clarence (age 19) and Isabel Neville Duchess Clarence (age 17) were married by Archbishop George Neville (age 37) at the Église Notre-Dame de Calais [Map] witnessed by Richard "Kingmaker" Neville Earl Warwick, 6th Earl Salisbury (age 40). She by marriage Duchess Clarence. She the daughter of Richard "Kingmaker" Neville Earl Warwick, 6th Earl Salisbury (age 40) and Anne Beauchamp 16th Countess Warwick (age 42). He the son of Richard Plantagenet 3rd Duke of York and Cecily "Rose of Raby" Neville Duchess York (age 54). They were first cousin once removed. He a great x 2 grandson of King Edward III of England. She a great x 3 granddaughter of King Edward III of England.

Warkworth's Chronicle 1469. 11 Jul 1469. And in the ix. yere of the regne of Kynge Edwarde, at myssomere, the Duke of Clarence (age 19) passede the see to Caleis to the Earl of Warwick (age 40), and there weddede his [his wife] doughter (age 17) by the ArcheBishop of Yorke (age 37) the Earl of Warwick (age 40) brothere, and afterwarde come overe ayene.

Capture of Edward IV

After 26 Jul 1469 [his brother] King Edward IV of England (age 27) was captured by his brother George (age 19) at Olney, Buckinghamshire [Map] after the Battle of Edgecote Moor.

Welles' Rebellion and Battle of Losecoat Field aka Empingham

Warkworth's Chronicle 1470. Feb 1470. And in the x. yere1 of Kynge Edwardes regne, in the moneth of Marche, the Lorde Willowby (age 42), the Lorde Welles his sonne2, Thomas Delalond knyght, and Sere Thomas Dymmoke (age 42) knyght, the Kynges Champyon, droff oute of Lyncolneschyre Sere Thomas à Burghe, a knyght of the Kynges howse, and pullede downe his place, and toke alle his goodes and cataylle that they mighte fynde, and they gaderid alle the comons of the schyre to the nowmbre of xxx. M¹., and cryed "Kynge Herry," and refused Kynge Edwarde. And the Duke of Clarence and the Earl of Warwick (age 41) causede alle this, lyke as they dyde Robyne of Riddesdale to ryse afore that at Banbury felde. And whenne Kynge Edwarde herde hereof, he made oute his commyssyons, and gaderyd a grete peple of menne, and sent his pardone to the Lorde Wyllowby (age 42), and a commaundement that they schuld come to hym, and so he dyd. And whenne the Kynge was sure of hym, he and alle his oste went towarde Lyncolneschyre, the Lord Welles, and alle the othere peple were gaderd togedere, and commawndede Lorde Wyllowby (age 42) to sende a lettere to hys sonne and to alle the peple that he gaderyde, that they schulde yelde them to hym as to ther sovereyne Lorde, or ellys he made a woue3 that the Lorde Willowby (age 42) schuld lese his hede; and he wrote and sent his lettere forthe, but therfor they wulde noʒt ceysse; wherfor the Kynge comawndyde the Lorde Wyllowhby hede for to be smytene of, notwithstondynge his pardone.

And so the Kynge toke his oste and went towarde his enemyes, and losyde his gonnys of his ordynaunce uppone them, and faught with them, and anone the comons fledde away; but ther was many manne slayne of Lyncolneschyre, and the Lorde Wellys, Sere Thomas Delalonde, and Sere Thomas Dymmoke, knights, takene and beheddede.

Note 1. And in the x. yere. It may be remarked that the regnal years of Edward IV. commence on the fourth of March, “quo die Rex Edwardus iiijtus. incepit regnare [On that day King Edward IV began to reign];" -MS. Magnus Rotulus Pipa, 1 Edw. IV, com. Cornub. Cf. MS. Bib. Geo. III. Mus. Brit. 52. fol. 33, rº.

Note 2. The Lorde Welles his sonne. See the Excerpta Historica, p. 282, for the confession of Sir Robert Welles, which throws very considerable light on this history. It appears that the Duke of Clarence (age 20) took a much more active part in the conspiracy than is generally supposed; that the motive which actuated the multitude was chiefly the fear of the King's vengeance; that a servant of Clarence's was in the battle, and afforded Welles considerable assisttance; that when Lord Welles went to London pursuant to the King's commands, he desired his son, in the event of his hearing that he was in danger, to hasten to his assistance with as many followers as possible; that the real object of the rebellion was to place the crown on Clarence's head; and that both Clarence and Warwick had, for some time, been urging Lord Welles, and his son, to continue firm to their cause.

The following documents are given from the Close Rolls of 10 Edw. IV. (m. 8. dorso.) and are valuable illustrations of the history of this insurrection.

"De proclamationibus faciendis. - Rex vicecomiti Warr' et Leicestr' salutem. Præcipimus tibi firmiter injungentes, quod statim, post receptionem præsentium, in singulis locis infra ballivam, tuam tam infra libertates quam extra, ubi magis expediens videris, ex parte nostra publicas proclamationes fieri facias, in hæc verba [Of making proclamations. - The King to the Sheriff of Warwick and Leicester, greetings. We strictly command you, that immediately upon the receipt hereof, in all places within your bailiwick, as well within liberties as without, where you deem it most expedient, you cause public proclamations to be made on our behalf, in these words]:

"For as moche as hit hath plesyd God, of his godeness and grace, to send to our soveraigne Lord the victorye of his Rebelles and Traitours of his shire of Lincolne, late assembled in grete nombre, leveyng werre ayenst his Highness, contrary to their ligeaunce and duete; Oure said Soveraigne Lord, therefore, not willing his subgettis, other than such as now attend upon his most Royall Person, to be putte to charge, labour, and businesse, by vertue of his commissions of array, and other writing, late addressed to dyvers shires, citees, and townes, for the resistens of the malicious and traiterous purpose of the said Rebelles, wolle, and in the most straitest wise chargeth, that noon of his subgettes presume, ne take uppon hym, to ryse, ne make any assemble or gadering, by reason of any of the seid commissions or writings, ne be moeving, steryng, writing, or commaundement ´made, or hereafter to be made, by any persone or persones of what estate, degree, or condition sooever he be of, lesse than hit bee by the Kinges commission, Prive Seal, or writyng under his signet, of new to be made aftir this the xiij. day of Marche. And if any persone or persones presume, or take uppon theym or hym, to doe the contrary hereof, Our Said Soveraigne Lord woll repute and take hym and them soo doyng as his ennemyes and Rebelles, and wool procede to their lawfull Punycion in the most streitest wise, according to his Lawes and Statutes in such case ordeyned.

"Et hoc nullatenus omittas. Teste Rege apud Stamford xiij °. die Martii.

"Per Ipsum Regem [By the King Himself]"

(Here follow the names of counties.)

"De proclamationibus faciendis. - Rex vicecomiti Eborum salutem. Præcipimus tibi, quod statim post receptionem presentium, in singulis locis infra ballivam tuam, tam infra libertates quam extra, ubi magis expediens videris, ex parte nostra publicas proclamationes fieri facias in hæc verba [Of making proclamations. - The King to the Sheriff of York, greetings. We command you that immediately upon the receipt of these presents, in all places within your bailiwick, as well within liberties as without, where you deem it most expedient, you cause public proclamations to be made on our behalf in these words]:

"Howbeit that the King our Soveraine Lord graunted unto Georg Duc of Clarence, and Richard Earl of Warwyk, his pardon generall of all offences committed and doon ayenst him, afore the fest of Christmasse last passed, trusting thereby to have caused theym to have shewed unto him their naturall love, ligeaunce, and duetie, and to have assisted his Highness, as well in subdueing insurrections and rebellions late made ayenst him in the countie of Lincolne, as in all other things concerning the suertie of his persone; and, in trust that they soo wold have done according to their promisses to hym made, his said Highness auctorized theym by his commission undre his grete seal to assemble his subgetts in certain shires, and theym to have brought to his said Highnes, to the entent aforesaid; yet the said Duc and Earl, unnaturally, unkindly, and untruly intending his destruction and the subversion of his reaume, and the commonwele of the same, and to make the said Duke King of this his said Reaume, ayenst Gods law, mannes law, and all reason and conscience, dissimiled with his seid Highness, and, under colour thereof, falsly and traiterously provoked and stured, as well by their writings as otherwise, Sir Robert Welles, late calling himselfe Great Capitayne of the Commons of the seid shire of Lincolne, to continue the said insurrections and rebellions, and to levee warre ayenst hym, as they, by the same, soe dyd with banners displayed, avauncing theymselfe in plain bataylle, unto the time his said Highnesse, by the help of God, put them to flight; wherein the said Duc and Earl promitted to the said Sir Robert and Commons to have yeven them their assistences to the uttermost of their powers, and soo wolde have done, if God ne had yeven unto hym the said victorie, as the same Sir Robert Welles, Sir Thomas de la Laund, Richard Wareyn, and other have openly confessed and shewed before his seid Highnes, the Lordes of his blood, and the multitude of his subgettis attending upon hym in his host at this tyme; which Sir Robert Welles, and the said other pety capitaynes, affirmed to be true at their dethes, uncompelled, unstirred, or undesired soo to doo; and as by the confession of the said Robert Welles, made under his writing and signe manuell, it apperith. And after that the said Duc and Earl, understanding and seing that this ther seid labours wold not serve to the perfourmyng of their fals and traiterous purpose afore declared, laboured by their writings and messages sent into Yorkeshire into divers persons there, theym straitly charging to doo make open proclamations in their owne names, without making mention of his seid Highnes, that all maner men upon peyn of deth shuld come unto theym, and yeve theym their assistences in resisting of hym; whereupon his seid Highnes sent unto the said Duc and Earl, by Garter King of Armes, summonicion and warnyng of their said accusations undir his prive seal, straitly charging theym to come unto his said Highnes, resonably accompanyed according to their astates and degrees, to answer unto their said accusations; which to doo they presumptuously refused, and withdrew themselfe, and fled with their felaship into Lancashire; soo as his said Highness with his host for lak of vitaill might not follow them, to the intent that they might gadre his subgettes in gretter nombre, and to be able to performe their said fals and traiterous purpose and entent; for the which causes they have deserved to be published as fals traitours and rebelles, and to have the uttermost punition of the law; yet, nathelesse, our said Soveraigne Lord considering the nighness of blood that they be of unto him, and the tendre love which he hath afore time borne to theym, were therefore loth to lese theym, if they wold submitt theym to his grace, and put hym in suertie of their good demeaning hereafter.

"Wherefore our said Sovereigne Lord woll, and in the most straitest wyse chargeth, the said Duc and Earl, that they, in their persones, come in humble and obeysant wyse, and appier afore his Highnes the xxviij. day of this present month of March, Wednesday next, or afore, wheresoever he than shall be, to answer unto the said accusations; which if they woll soo doo, and come declare theymselfe nat guilty, his Highness woll be thereof right glad, and have hem in his grace and favour; and if they refuse thus to doo, then our said Soveraigne Lord reputeth, taketh, and declareth thaym as his rebelles and traitoures, willing and straitly charging all his subgetts to doo the same, and that noon of his subgetts from that time forth receive theym, ne eyther of theym ayd, favour, or assist with mete, drink, ne money, or otherwise, ne noon other persone which, after the said Duc and Earl have refused to come to our said Soverain Lord as is aforesaid, abydeth with theym, or aydeth theym, or assisteth in any wise; but that every of the King's subgetts putte hem in effectuell devir to take the said Duc and Earl, and all other soo abyding with theym, or aiding or assisting theym, as is abovesaid, and theym suerly bring to his Highnes uppon peyn of deth; And he that taketh and bringeth the said Duc or Earl shall have for his reward, to hym and his heires, an C. li. worth of his lond of yerely value, or M¹. li. in redy money, at his election; and for a knyght xx.li. worth of his lond, or C. marc in money; and for a squyer x. li. worth of his lond, or xl. li. in money; and over that cause our said soveraigne Lord to have hym and theym soo doing in the more tendre favour of his good grace at all times hereafter.

"Et hoc sub periculo incumbenti nullatenus omittas. Teste Rege apud Eborum xxiiijo die Martii [And under the penalty incumbent, do not omit in any way. Witnessed by the King at York on the twenty-third day of March].

"Per Ipsum Regem [By the King Himself]".

"Consimilia brevia diriguntur vicecomitibus in Com' subscriptis sub data predicta, videlicet, Majori et vicecomitibus Civitatis London''." (&c.)

"Rex Vicecomiti Eborum Salutem. Præcipimus tibi firmiter injungentes, quod, statim post receptionem præsentium, in singulis locis infra ballivam tuam, tam infra libertates quam extra, ubi magis expediens videris, ex parte nostra publicas proclamationes fieri facias, in hæc verba-

"Howbeit that the King our Soveraigne Lord graunted unto Georg Duke of Clarence, and Richard Earl of Warrewyk, his pardon generall of all offences committed and doone ayenst him, afore the fest of Cristemasse last past; trusting thereby to have caused theym to have shewed unto hym theyr naturall love, ligeaunce, and duetee, and to have assisted his Highnesse, as well in subdueing insurrections and rebellyons late made ayenst him in the Counte of Lincolne, as in all other things concerning the suertee of his persone; and in trust that they wold soo have done according to their promisses to hym made, his said Highnesse auctorised theym, by his commission under his great seall, to assemble his subgietts in certain shires, and them to have brought unto his said Highnesse, to th'entent aforesaid; yet the said Duke and Earl unnaturally, unkindely, and untruly entending his destruction, and the subversion of his reaume, and the commonwele of the same, and to make the seid Duke King of this his said Reaume, ayenst God's lawe, mannes lawe, all reason and conscience, dissimiled with his said Highness; and under colour thereof, falsly and traiterously provoked, laboured, and stured, as well by their writings as otherwise, Sir Robert Welles, late calling himselfe Grete Capitayne of the commons of the said Shire of Lincolne, to continue the said insurrections and rebellions, and to levee werre ayenst him, as they by the same soo did, with banners displayed, avauncing theymselfe in pleyn bataille, unto the time his said Highness, by the help of God, put theym to flyght; wherein the said Duke and Earl promytted to the said Sir Robert and Commons to have yeven theym their assistences to the uttermost of their powers, and soo wold have doone, yf God ne had yeven unto hym the said victorye, as the same Sir Robert Welles, Sir Thomas de la Laund, Richard Waryng, and other, have openly confessed and shewed before his said Highness, the Lordes of his blode, and the multitude of his subgietts attending upon him in his host at this time; which Sir Robert Welles, and the other pety Captaynes, affermed to be true at their dethes, uncompelled, unstured, or undesired soo to doe; and as by the confession of the said Sir Robert Wells, made under his writyng and sign manuell, it appereth; and after that the said Duke and Earl, understanding and seing that this ther said labours wold not serve in the performing of their fals and traiterous purpose, afore declared, laboured, by their writings and messages sent into Yorkeshire to dyvers persones there, theym streitly charging to doo make open proclamations in their owne names, without mention makeing of his said Highness, that all manner men, uppon peyn of deth, should come unto theym, and yeve theym their assistence in resisting of him; whereupon his said Highnesse sent unto the said Duke and Earl, by Garter Kyng of Armes, summonition and warnyng of their said accusations undre his privie seal, straitly charging theym to come unto his said Highness resonably accompanyed, according to their astates and degrees, to answere to their said accusations; which to doo they presumptuously refused, and withdrewe themselfe, and fled with their felaship into Lancashire, soo as his said Highness with his host, for lake of vitayl, might not follow theym, to th'entent that they might gather his subgetts in greter noumbre, and to be hable to perfourme their said fals and trayterous purpose and entent; ffor which causes they have deserved to be published as fals traitours and rebells, and to have the uttermost punytion of the lawe. Yet nathelesse our said soveraigne Lord considered the nyghnesse of of blode which they be of unto him, and the tender love which he hath afore time borne to theym, therefore was loth to have lost theym, yf they would have submitted theym to his grace, and to have put hym in suertee of their good beryng hereafter; wherefore he sent his writts of proclamation unto dyvers open places, straitly charging theym to have come and appered in their persones afore his Highness in humble and obeysaunt wyse, the xxviijth, day of this present month of Marche or before, to have aunswered unto the said accusations, shewing by the same that yf they soo would have done, and could have declared theymselfe not guilty, his Highness would have be therewith right gladd, and have had theym in his grace and favour, and that, though they soo cowde not have doon, yet his Highness would not have forgeten their seid nighness of blode, ne the love and favour that he aforetime bare to theym, but wold have ministred to theym ryghtwyssely his lawes with favour and pitee shewyng; which they did not, but obstinately refused soo to doo, and dayly aftir withdrew theymself more and more from his Highness; and after the said proclamations, made as before, it hath be evidently shewed by open confessions made at his citee of Yorke, afore our said Soveraigne and his Lordes than there being with hym, by dyvers persones of grete reputation, that the seid Duke and Earl intended the finall destruction of his most royall persone, and the subversion of this his reaume, and the commonwele of the same, which confessions the said persones have affirmed by their solempne othes, made upon the receyving of the blessed sacrament, to bee faithfull and true; wherefore, the præmisses considered, and the grete obstinacy which they shewed hemself to be of, and yet doo contrarye to their ligeaunce, faith, and duetee, our said soveraigne Lord, to the example of all other like offenders, reputeth, taketh, and declareth the said Duke and Earl as his Rebelles and Traytours, willing and straitly charging all his subgetts to doo the same; and that noon of his said subgetts from hensforth receyve theym, ne eyther of theym, ayd, favour, or assist with mete, drynke, or money, or otherwise; nor noo other persone beyng with, or adhering to them, or either of theym, but that every of his said subgetts putt hem in effectuell devoyr to take the said Duke and Earl, and the seid persones soe being with hem, or adhering to theym, or either of theym, and hem surely bring to the King, upon peyn of deth, and forfaiture of all that they may forfait; and he that soo doth shall have for his reward of either of theym C. li. worth of land by yere to him, and to his heires, or a Ml li. in redy money at his election.

"Et hoc nullatenus omittas. Teste meipso apud Notingham xxxj °. die Martii.

"Per Ipsum Regem [By the King Himself]".

(Here follow the names of counties.)

(From Madox's transcripts in the British Museum. MS. Add. 4614.)

Note 3. Woue. So in MS. for vowe.

On 12 Mar 1470 [his brother] King Edward IV of England (age 27) commanded at the Battle of Losecoat Field (Empingham). The battle apparently didn't take place since the army of Robert Welles 8th Baron Willoughby 8th Baron Welles fled in the face of the Royal army. The name 'Losecoat' not contemporary; Battle of Empingham may be. Robert Welles 8th Baron Willoughby 8th Baron Welles was captured with documents describing the fomenting of rebellion by [his father-in-law] Richard "Kingmaker" Neville Earl Warwick, 6th Earl Salisbury (age 41) and George York 1st Duke of Clarence (age 20).

Around 14 Apr 1470 [his daughter] Anne York died.

Around 14 Apr 1470 [his daughter] Anne York was born to George York 1st Duke of Clarence (age 20) and [his wife] Isabel Neville Duchess Clarence (age 18). She a great x 3 granddaughter of King Edward III of England. Coefficient of inbreeding 5.41%.

Warwick returns to England

On 13 Sep 1470 [his father-in-law] Warwick the Kingmaker (age 41) and George (age 20) landed at Dartmouth, Devon and/or Plymouth, Devon [Map].

Re-adeption of King Henry VI

In Nov 1470 [his brother] King Edward IV of England (age 28) was attainted. George York 1st Duke of Clarence (age 21) was awarded the Duchy of York.

Battle of Barnet

On 14 Apr 1471 [his brother] Edward IV (age 28) commanded at the Battle of Barnet supported by his brothers George (age 21) and [his brother] Richard (age 18), John Babington (age 48), Wiliam Hastings (age 40) (commanded), Ralph Hastings, William Norreys (age 30), William Parr (age 37), John Savage (age 49), William Bourchier Viscount Bourchier (age 41), Thomas St Leger (age 31), John Tuchet 6th Baron Audley, 3rd Baron Tuchet (age 45), Thomas Burgh 1st Baron Burgh (age 40), John Scott Comptroller (age 48) and Thomas Strickland.

The Yorkists William Blount (age 29), Humphrey Bourchier (age 40), Humphrey Bourchier (age 36), Henry Stafford (age 46) and Thomas Parr were killed.

The Lancastrians ...

[his father-in-law] Warwick the Kingmaker (age 42) was killed. Earl Salisbury forfeit on the assumption he was attainted either before or after his death; the date of his attainder is unknown. If not attainted the Earldom may be in abeyance. Baron Montagu and Baron Montagu abeyant between his two daughters [his wife] Isabel Neville Duchess Clarence (age 19) and [his sister-in-law] Anne Neville Queen Consort England (age 14).

John Neville 1st Marquess Montagu (age 40) was killed. Marquess Montagu extinct. He was buried at Bisham Abbey [Map].

William Tyrrell was killed.

William Fiennes 2nd Baron Saye and Sele (age 43) was killed. His son Henry Fiennes 3rd Baron Saye and Sele (age 25) succeeded 3rd Baron Saye and Sele. Anne Harcourt Baroness Saye and Sele by marriage Baroness Saye and Sele.

Henry Holland 3rd Duke Exeter (age 40) commanded the left flank, was badly wounded and left for dead, Henry Stafford (age 46) and John Paston (age 27) were wounded, John de Vere 13th Earl of Oxford (age 28) commanded, and John Paston (age 29) and William Beaumont 2nd Viscount Beaumont (age 33) fought.

Robert Harleston (age 36) was killed.

Thomas Hen Salusbury (age 62) was killed.

Thomas Tresham (age 51) escaped but was subsequently captured and executed on 06 May 1471.

In 1472 George York 1st Duke of Clarence (age 22) was created 1st Earl Salisbury.

On 14 Aug 1473 [his daughter] Margaret York Countess of Salisbury was born to George York 1st Duke of Clarence (age 23) and [his wife] Isabel Neville Duchess Clarence (age 21) at Farleigh Hungerford Castle [Map]. She a great x 3 granddaughter of King Edward III of England. Coefficient of inbreeding 5.41%.

Anne Beauchamp declared Legally Dead

In 1474 Parliament declared [his mother-in-law] Anne Beauchamp 16th Countess Warwick (age 47) legally dead (she lived until 1492) so that [his brother] Edward IV's (age 31) two younger brothers George (age 24) and the [his brother] Richard (age 21), who had married Anne Beauchamp's (age 47) daughters, [his wife] Isabel (age 22) and [his sister-in-law] Anne (age 17) respectively, could enjoy the significant Beauchamp inheritance after her husband [his father-in-law] Richard "Kingmaker" Neville Earl Warwick, 6th Earl Salisbury had been killed at the Battle of Barnet in 1471.

Some of the inhertance should have been given to George Neville 1st Duke Bedford (age 13) but he was only thirteen at the time; his father John Neville 1st Marquess Montagu, younger brother of Warwick the Kingmaker, had also been killed at the Battle of Barnet. He, George Neville 1st Duke Bedford (age 13), died in 1483 aged twenty-one somewhat conveniently after the death of King Edward IV of England (age 31) and before King Richard III of England (age 21) acceded to the throne. Curiously the Act of Parliament described King Richard III of England (age 21) enjoying the inheritance as long as there were Neville living heirs male. Upon the death of George Neville 1st Duke Bedford (age 13) the Neville heir male was Richard Neville 2nd Baron Latimer of Snape (age 6) born 1468 whose wardship was held by Cardinal Thomas Bourchier (age 56).

Calendars. 06 Jun 1474. Westminster Palace [Map]. Exemplification at the request of [his brother] Richard Duke of Gloucester (age 21), of the tenour of an act (English) in the Parliament summoned at Westminster [Map], 6 October, 12 Edward IV, and continued to 9 May, 14 Edward IV, ordaining that George Duke Clarence (age 24), and [his wife] Isabel (age 22) his wife and Richard Duke of Gloucester, and [his sister-in-law] Anne (age 17) his wife, daughters and heirs to [his father-in-law] Richard Nevyle, late Earl of Warwick, and daughters and heirs apparent to [his mother-in-law] Anne Beauchamp (age 47), his wife should possess and enjoy as in the right of the said wives all possessions belonging to the said Countess as though she were naturally dead and that she should be barred and excluded therefrom, that they should make partition of the premises and the same partition should be good in law, that the said Dukes should enjoy for life all the possessions of their wives if they should outlive the latter, that the said George (age 24) and Isabel (age 22) should not make any alienation, grant, fine or recovery of any of the premises to the hurt of the said Richard (age 21) and Anne (age 17) or the latter to the hurt of the former, that if the said Richard and Anne be divorced and afterwards married this Act should hold good, that if they be divorced and he do his effectual diligence to be married to her and during her life be not wedded to any other woman he should enjoy as much of the premises as should appertain to her during his life, and that notwithstanding the restraint of alienation or recovery above specified the lordship, manor and wappentake of Chesterfield [Map] and Scarvesdale with the appurtenances and all the lands and tenements in Chesterfield [Map] and Scarvesdale sometime of Ales, late Countess of Salisbury, might be given to the King and his heirs in exchange for other lands and tenements, which shall however be subject of this Act.Anne Beauchamp declared Legally Dead.

On 25 Feb 1475 [his son] Edward "Last Plantagenet" York 17th Earl Warwick was born to George York 1st Duke of Clarence (age 25) and [his wife] Isabel Neville Duchess Clarence (age 23) at Warwick Castle [Map]. He a great x 3 grandson of King Edward III of England. Coefficient of inbreeding 5.41%.

Reburial of Richard and Edmund of York

On 29 Jul 1476 Edward I's paternal grand-father Edward of York, [his father] Richard of York and his younger brother [his brother] Edmund were reburied at St Mary and All Saints in Fotheringhay [Map] in a ceremony attended by [his brother] King Edward IV of England (age 34), George York 1st Duke of Clarence (age 26), Thomas Grey 1st Marquess Dorset (age 21), William Hastings 1st Baron Hastings (age 45), Anthony Woodville 2nd Earl Rivers (age 36).

Thomas Whiting, Chester Harald wrote:

n 24 July [1476] the bodies were exhumed, that of the Duke, "garbed in an ermine furred mantle and cap of maintenance, covered with a cloth of gold" lay in state under a hearse blazing with candles, guarded by an angel of silver, bearing a crown of gold as a reminder that by right the Duke had been a king. On its journey, Richard, Duke of Gloucester, with other lords and officers of arms, all dressed in mourning, followed the funeral chariot, drawn by six horses, with trappings of black, charged with the arms of France and England and preceded by a knight bearing the banner of the ducal arms. Fotheringhay was reached on 29 July, where members of the college and other ecclesiastics went forth to meet the cortege. At the entrance to the churchyard, King Edward waited, together with the Duke of Clarence, the Marquis of Dorset, Earl Rivers, Lord Hastings and other noblemen. Upon its arrival the King 'made obeisance to the body right humbly and put his hand on the body and kissed it, crying all the time.' The procession moved into the church where two hearses were waiting, one in the choir for the body of the Duke and one in the Lady Chapel for that of the Earl of Rutland, and after the King had retired to his 'closet' and the princes and officers of arms had stationed themselves around the hearses, masses were sung and the King's chamberlain offered for him seven pieces of cloth of gold 'which were laid in a cross on the body.' The next day three masses were sung, the Bishop of Lincoln preached a 'very noble sermon' and offerings were made by the Duke of Gloucester and other lords, of 'The Duke of York's coat of arms, of his shield, his sword, his helmet and his coursers on which rode Lord Ferrers in full armour, holding in his hand an axe reversed.' When the funeral was over, the people were admitted into the church and it is said that before the coffins were placed in the vault which had been built under the chancel, five thousand persons came to receive the alms, while four times that number partook of the dinner, served partly in the castle and partly in the King's tents and pavilions. The menu included capons, cygnets, herons, rabbits and so many good things that the bills for it amounted to more than three hundred pounds.

On 06 Oct 1476 [his son] Richard York was born to George York 1st Duke of Clarence (age 26) and [his wife] Isabel Neville Duchess Clarence (age 25) at Tewkesbury Abbey [Map]. He a great x 3 grandson of King Edward III of England. Coefficient of inbreeding 5.41%.

Trial and Execution of Ankarette Twynyho

On 22 Dec 1476 [his wife] Isabel Neville Duchess Clarence (age 25) died from childbirth. The cause of death unknown but likely a consequence of the birth of her fourth child Richard in early October. She was buried in Tewkesbury Abbey [Map]. George York 1st Duke of Clarence (age 27) believed she had been murdered by Ankarette Hawkeston aka Twynyho. See Trial and Execution of Ankarette Twynyho.

Ankarette Hawkeston aka Twynyho: Around 1435 William Twynyho and she were married.

On 12 Apr 1477 Ankarette Hawkeston aka Twynyho was arrested at Keyford, Somerset and taken to Bath, Somerset [Map]. George York 1st Duke of Clarence (age 27) believed she had murdered his wife Isabel Neville Duchess Clarence who had died four months before.

On 13 Apr 1477 Ankarette Hawkeston aka Twynyho taken to Cirencester, Gloucestershire [Map].

On 15 Apr 1477 Ankarette Hawkeston aka Twynyho and John Thursby were hanged at Myton Gallows, Warwick [Map].

On 01 Jan 1477 [his son] Richard York died at Warwick Castle [Map]. He was buried at Warwick Castle [Map].

Execution of George Duke of Clarence's Servants

Croyland Chronicle. [Around Jun 1477]. The arrest of the duke (age 27) for the purpose of compelling him to answer the charges brought against him, happened under the following circumstances. One Master John Stacy, a person who was called an astronomer, when in reality he was rather a great sorcerer, formed a plot in conjunction with one Burdet (age 52), an esquire, and one of the said duke's household; upon which, he was accused, among numerous other charges, of having made leaden images and other things to procure thereby the death of Richard, lord Beauchamp (age 42), at the request of his adulterous wife (age 42). Upon being questioned in a very severe examination as to his practice of damnable arts of this nature, he made confession of many matters, which told both against himself and the said Thomas Burdet. The consequence was, that Thomas was arrested as well; and at last judgment of death was pronounced upon them both, at Westminster, from the Bench of our lord the king, the judges being there seated, together with nearly all the lords temporal of the kingdom. Being drawn to the gallows at Tyburn, they were permitted briefly to say what they thought fit before being put to death; upon which, they protested their innocence, Stacy indeed but faintly; while, on the other hand, Burdet spoke at great length, and with much spirit, and, as his last words, exclaimed with Susanna,1 ''Behold! I must die; whereas I never did such things as these".

Note 1. Hist. Susanna, v. 43.

Before 13 Jun 1477 two servants of George York 1st Duke of Clarence (age 27) were hanged at Tyburn [Map] for being sorcerers and planning the murder of Richard Beauchamp 2nd Baron Beauchamp Powick (age 42).

John Stacy and Thomas Burdett of Arrow in Warwickshire (age 52) were hanged.

Croyland Chronicle. Before 18 Feb 1478. The indignation of the duke (age 28) was probably still further increased by this; and now each began to look upon the other with no very fraternal eyes. You might then have seen, (as such men are generally to be found in the courts of all princes), flatterers running to and fro, from the one side to the other, and carrying backwards and forwards the words which had fallen from the two brothers, even if they had happened to be spoken in the most secret closet. The arrest of the duke for the purpose of compelling him to answer the charges brought against him, happened under the following circumstances. One Master John Stacy, a person who was called an astronomer, when in reality he was rather a great sorcerer, formed a plot in conjunction with one Burdet, an esquire, and one of the said duke's (age 28) household; upon which, he was accused, among numerous other charges, of having made leaden images and other things to procure thereby the death of Richard, lord Beauchamp (age 43), at the request of his adulterous wife1. Upon being questioned in a very severe examination as to his practice of damnable arts of this nature, he made confession of many matters, which told both against himself and the said Thomas Burdet. The consequence was, that Thomas was arrested as well; and at last judgment of death was pronounced upon them both, at Westminster, from the Bench of our lord the king, the judges being there seated, together with nearly all the lords temporal of the kingdom. Being drawn to the gallows at Tyburn [Map], they were permitted briefly to say what they thought fit before being put to death; upon which, they protested their innocence, Stacy indeed but faintly; while, on the other hand, Burdet spoke at great length, and with much spirit, and, as his last words, exclaimed with Susanna28, 'Behold! I must die; whereas I never did such things as these."

Note 28. History of Susanna, verse. 43.

Note 1. This is somewhat confusing since Elizabeth Stafford (age 43), wife of Richard Beauchamp 2nd Baron Beauchamp Powick (age 43) is reported by some sources as dying on 27 Jan 1466?

Croyland Chronicle. [Around Jun 1477]. On the following day, the duke of Clarence (age 27) came to the council-chamber at Westminster, bringing with him a famous Doctor of the order of Minorites, Master William Goddard by name, in order that he might read the confession and declaration of innocence above-mentioned before the lords in the said council assembled ; which he accordingly did, and then withdrew. The king was then at Windsor, but when he was informed of this circumstance, he was greatly displeased thereat, and recalling to mind the information formerly laid against his brother, and which he had long kept treasured up in lus breast, he summoned the duke to appear on a certain day in the royal palace of Westminster : upon which, in presence of the Mayor and aldermen of the city of London, the king began, with his own lips, amongst other matters, to inveigh against the conduct of the before-named duke, as being derogatory to the laws of the realm, and most dangerous to judges and jurors throughout the kingdom. But why enlarge? The duke was placed in custody, and from that day up to the time of his death never was known to have regained his liberty.

Execution of George Duke of Clarence

Croyland Chronicle. Jan 1478. The circumstances that happened in the ensuing Parliament my mind quite shudders to enlarge upon, for then was to be witnessed a sad strife carried on before these two brethren of such high estate.1 For not a single person uttered a word against the duke [George York 1st Duke of Clarence (age 28)], except the king ; not one individual made answer to the king except the duke. Some parties wera introduced, however, as to whom it was greatly doubted by many, whether they fllled the office of accusers rather, or of witnesses : these two offices not being exactly suited to the same person in the same cause. The duke met all the charges made against him with a denial, and ofered, if he could only obtain a hearing, to defend his cause with his own hand. But why delay in using many words? Parliament, being of opinion that the informations which they had heard were established, passed sentence upon him of condemnation, the same being pronounced by the mouth of Henry, duke of Buckingham (age 23), who was appointed Seneschal of England for the occasion.

Note 1. One would think that "tantae hnmanitatis," can hardly mean "of such humanity" when applied to such persons as Edward the Fourth and his brother Clarence.

After 16 Jan 1478 and before 07 Feb 1478. The original act doesn't contain a date. Parliament opened on 16 Jan 1478. On 07 Feb 1478 Henry Stafford 2nd Duke of Buckingham (age 23) was appointed Steward of England for the purpose of effecting the exection. George York 1st Duke of Clarence (age 28) was attainted by Parliament. The wording of the attainder as follows:

The [his brother] Kyng (age 35), oure Sovereigne Lorde, hath called to his Remembraunce the manyfold grete Conspiracies, malicious and heynous Ttresons, that hertofore hath be compassed by dyverse persones his unnaturall Subgetts, Rebelles and Traytoures, wherby Commocions and Insurrections have been made within this his Royaulme, for entent and purpose to have destroyed his moost Roiall persone, and with that to have subverted the state, wele publique and politic of all his said Royaulme; ne had so been, that by th'elp of Almyghty God, with the grete laboures and diligences and uttermost explette of his persone by Chevalrye and Werr, he had mightly and graciously repressed the same. Wherthrogh grete nowmbre of the said his Rebelles and Traytours he hath at dyverse tymes punysshed, as well by swerd as other punysshments, in exemple to others to have been ware of suche attempting hereafter. And yet as a benigne and a gracious Prince moeved unto pitie, after his grete Victories sent hym by God, not oonly he hath spared the multitudes in theire feldes and assembles overcomen, but thaym and certeyn other, the grete movers, sturters and executours of suche haynous Tresons, at the reverence of God, he hath taken to his mercy and clerly pardoned, as may not be unknowen to all the Worlde.

This notwithstondyng, it is comen nowe of late to his knowlage, howe that agaynst his mooste Royall persone, and agaynst the persones of the blessed Princesse oure alther soveraigne and Liege Lady the Quene, of my Lorde the Prince theire son and Heire, and of all the other of thaire moost noble issue, and also against the grete parte of the Noble of this Lande, the good rule, politike and wele publique of the same, hath been conspired, compassed and purposed a moch higher, moch more malicious, more unnaturall and lothely Treason than atte eny tyme hertoforn hath been compassed, purposed and conspired, from the Kyng's first Reigne hiderto; which Treason is, and must be called, so moche and more henyous, unnaturell and lothely, for that not oonly it hath proceded of the moost extreme purpensed malice, incomparably excedyng eny other that hath been aforn, but also for that it hath been contryved, imagined and conspired, by the persone that of all erthely creatures, beside the dutie of ligeaunce, by nature, by benefette, by gratitude, and by yeftes and grauntes of Goodes and Possessions, hath been moost bounden and behalden to have dradde, loved, honoured, and evere thanked the kyng more largely, than evere was eny other bounden or beholden, whom to name it gretely aggruggeth the hert of oure said Sovereigne Lorde, sauf oonly that he is of necessite compelled, for the suertie, wele and tranquillite of hym and all this Royaulme, which were full neer the poynt of perdicion, ne were the help and grace of Almyghty God:

He sheweth you therefore, that all this hath been entended by his Brother, George, the Duke of Clarence (age 28). Wherein it is to be remembered that the Kynges Highnesse, of tendre youthe unto now of late, hath evere loved and cherysshed hym, as tenderly and as kynderly, as eny creature myght his naturell Brother, as well it may be declared, by that that he beyng right yonge, not borne to have eny lifelode, butt oonly of the Kynges grace he yave hym soo large porcion of Possessions that noo memorie is of, or seldom hath been seen, that eny Kyng of Englande hertoforn within his Royaulme yave soo largely to eny his Brothers. And not oonly that, butt above that, he furnyssed hym plenteously of all manere stuff, that to a right grete Prynce myght well suffice; so that aftre the Kynges, his lifelode and richesse notably exceded any other within his Lande at thatt tyme.

And yet the kyng, not herewith content, butt beyng ryght desirous to make hym of myght and puissance excedyng others, caused the greate parte of all the Nobles of this Lande to be assured unto hym next his Highnesse; trustyng that not oonly by the bond of nature, butt also by the bondes of soo grete benefitt, he shulde be more than others loving, helping, assisting and obeissaunt to all the Kyngs good pleasures and commaundments, and to all that myght be to the politik wele of his Lande.

All this notwithstondyng, it is to remember, the large grace and foryevnesse that he yave hym uppon, and for that at dyverse tyme sith he gretely offended the Kyng, as in jupartyng the Kyngs Royall estate, persone and life, in straite warde, puttyng hym thereby from all his libertie, aftre procuryng grete Commocions, and sith the voydaunce oute of his Royaulme, assistyng yevyng to his enemies mortall, the usurpers, laboryng also by Parlement to exclude hym and all his from the Regalie, and enabling hymself to the same, and by dyverse weyes otherwyse attemptyng; which all the Kyng, by nature and love moeved, utterly foryave, entendyng to have putte all in perpetuell oblivion.

The said Duke, nathelesse for all this, noo love encreasyng, but growyng daily in more and more malice, hath not left to consedre and conspire newe Treasons, more haynous and lothely than ever aforn, how that the said Duke falsly and traitrously entended, and puposed fermely, th'extreme distruction and disherityng of the Kyng and his Issue, and to subverte all the polityk rule of this Royaulme, by myght to be goten as well outewarde as inward, which false purpose the rather to brynge aboute, he cast and compassed the moyans to enduce the Kynges naturell Subgetts to withdrawe theire herts, loves and affections from the Kyng, theire naturell Sovereigne Lorde, by many subtill, contryved weyes, as in causyng dyverse his Servauntes, suche as he coude imagyne moste apte to sowe sedicion and aggrugge amonge the People, to goo into diverse parties of this Royaulme, and to laboure to enforme the People largely in every place where they shulde come, that Thomas Burdett, his Servaunte, which was lawefully and truly atteynted of Treason, was wrongefully putte to Deth; to some his Servauntes of suche like disposicion, he yave large Money, Veneson, therewith to assemble the Kynges Subgects to Feste theym and chere theym, and by theire policies and resonyng, enduce hem to beleve that the said Burdett was wrongfully executed, and so to putte it in noyse and herts of the People;

he saide and laboured also to be noysed by such his Servauntez apte for that werk, that the Kyng, oure Sovereigne Lorde, wroght by Nygromancye, and used Crafte to poyson his Subgettes, suche as hym pleased; to th'entent to desclaundre the Kyng in the moost haynous wyse he couth in the sight and conceipt of his Subgetts, and thefore to encorage theym to hate, despice and aggrugge theire herts agaynst hym, thynkyng that he ne lived ne dealid with his Subgettes as a Christien Prynce.

And overe this, the said duke beyng in full purpose to exalte hymself and his Heires to the Regallye and Corone of Englande, and clerely in opinion to putte aside from the same for ever the said Corone from the Kyng and his Heirez, uppon oon the falsest and moost unnaturall coloured pretense that man myght imagine, falsely and untruely noysed, published and saide, that the Kyng oure Sovereigne Lorde was a Bastard, and not begottone to reigne uppon us; and to contynue and procede ferther in this his moost malicious and traytorous purpose, after this lothely, false and sedicious langage shewed and declared amonge the People, he enduced dyverse of the Kynges naturall Subgetts to be sworne uppon the blessed Sacrament to be true to hym and his heires, noon exception reserved of theire liegeaunce; and after the same Othe soo made, he shewed to many other, and to certayn persones, that suche Othe had made, that the Kyng had taken his lifelode from hym and his men, and disheryed theym, and he wolde utterly endevoire hym to gete hem theire enheritaunce as he wolde doo for his owen.

He shewed also that the Kyng entended to consume hym in like wyse as a Candell consumeth in brennyng, wherof he wolde in brief tyme quyte hym. And overe this, the said Duke continuyng ín his false purpose, opteyned and gate an exemplificacion undre the Grete Seall of Herry the Sexte, late in dede and not in right Kyng of this Lande, wherin were conteyned alle suche appoyntements as late was made betwene the said Duke and Margaret, callyng herself Quene of this Lande, and other; amonges whiche it was conteyned, that if the said Herry, and Edward, his first begoton Son, died withoute Issue Male of theire Bodye, that the seid Duke and his Heires shulde be Kyng of this Lande; which exemplificacion the said Duke hath kepyd with hymself secrete, not doyng the Kyng to have eny knowlegge therof, therby to have abused the Kynges true Subgetts for the rather execucion of his said false purpose.

And also, the same Duke purposyng to accomplisse his said false and untrue entent, and to inquiete and trouble the Kynge, oure said Sovereigne Lorde, his Leige People and this his Royaulme, nowe of late willed and desired the Abbot of Tweybury, Mayster John Tapton, Clerk, and Roger Harewell Esquier, to cause a straunge childe to have be brought into his Castell of Warwyk, and there to have beputte and kept in likelinesse of his Sonne and Heire, and that they shulde have conveyed and sent his said Sonne and Heire into Ireland, or into Flaundres, oute of this Lande, whereby he myght have goten hym assistaunce and favoure agaynst oure said Sovereigne Lorde; and for the execucion of the same, sent oon John Taylour, his Servaunte, to have had delyveraunce of his said Sonne and Heire, for to have conveyed hym; the whiche Mayster John Tapton and Roger Harewell denyed the delyveraunce of the said Childe, and soo by Goddes grace his said false and untrue entent was lette and undoon.

And also, the same Duke purposyng to accomplisse his said false and untrue entent, and to inquiete and trouble the Kynge, oure said Sovereigne Lorde, his Leige People and this his Royaulme, nowe of late willed and desired the Abbot of Tweybury, Mayster John Tapton, Clerk, and Roger Harewell Esquier, to cause a straunge childe to have be brought into his Castell of Warwyk, and there to have beputte and kept in likelinesse of his Sonne and Heire, and that they shulde have conveyed and sent his said Sonne and Heire into Ireland, or into Flaundres, oute of this Lande, whereby he myght have goten hym assistaunce and favoure agaynst oure said Sovereigne Lorde; and for the execucion of the same, sent oon John Taylour, his Servaunte, to have had delyveraunce of his said Sonne and Heire, for to have conveyed hym; the whiche Mayster John Tapton and Roger Harewell denyed the delyveraunce of the said Childe, and soo by Goddes grace his said false and untrue entent was lette and undoon.

The Kyng, remembryng over, that to side the neernesse of Blode, howe be nature he myght be kynde to his Brother; the tendre love also, whiche of youthe he bare unto hym, couthe have founden in his hert, uppon due submission, to have yet foryeven hym estsones, ne were, furst that his said Brother by his former dedes, and nowe by this conspiracye, sheweth hymself to be incorrigible, and in noo wyse reducible to that by bonde of nature, and of the grete benefices aforn reherced, he were moost soveraynly beholden of all Creature: Secondly, ne were the grete juparty of effusion of Christien blode, which most likkely shulde therof ensue: And thridenly and principally, the bond of his Conscience, wherby and by solempne Othe, he is bounden anenst God, uppon the peryll of everlastyng dampnacion, to provyde and defende, first the suertie of hymself and his moste Royall Issue, secondly, the tranquilite of Goddes Churche within this, his Royaulme, and after that, the wele publique, peas and tranquilite of all his Lordez, Noblemen, Comens and others of every degree and condicion, whiche all shulde necessarily stande in extreme jupartie, yf Justice and due punyshement of soo lothely offencez shulde be pardoned; in pernicious example to all mysdoers, theves, traytours, rebelles and all other suche as lightly wolde therby bee encoraged and enbolded to spare noo manner of wikkednesse.

Wherfore thof all [sic]11 the Kynges Highnesse be right sory to determyne hymself to the contrarie, yet consideryng that Justice is a vertue excellently pleasyng Almyghty God, wherby Reaulmes stande, Kynges and Pryncez reign and governe, all goode rule, polyce and publique wele is mayteigned; and that this vertue standeth not oonly in retribucion and rewarde for goode dedes, butt also in correccion and punysshement of evil doers, after the qualitees of theire mysdoyngs. For whiche premissez and causez the Kyng, by the avyse and assent of his Lordes Speretuell and Temporell, and by the Commons, in this present parliament assembled, and by the auctorite of the same, ordeyneth, enacteth and establith that the said George, Duke of Clarence, be convicte and atteyntit of Heigh Treason commyttet and doon agaynst the Kynges moost Royall persone; and that the same Duke, by the said auctorite, forfett from hym and his heyres for ever the Honoure, Estate, Dignite and name of Duke1. And also that the same Duke, by the said auctorite, forfett from hym and his heyres for ever, all Castelles, Honoures, Maners, Landes, Tenements, Rents, Advousons, Hereditaments and Possessions that the same Duke nowe hath by eny of the Kynges Lettrez Patents to his owen use, or that any other persone nowe hath to the use of the same Duke by eny of the Kynges Letterez Patents, or that passed to hym fro the Kyng by the same: And that all Lettrez Patents made by the kyng to the said Duke bee from henseforthe utterly voyde and of noon effecte.

And that it be also ordeigned by the same auctorite that noo Castelles, Honoures, Maners, Landez, Tenementz, Rents, Advousons, Hereditaments or Possessions that the same duke nowe hath joyntly with other, or sole to hymself, to the use of eny other persone, be forfett, nor conteyned by or in this present Acte; but that by the said auctoritee, every other persone to whose use the said Duke is sole seised in eny Castelles, Honoures, Maners, Landez, Tenements, Rents, Advousons, Hereditaments and Possessions, otherwyse than by the Kyngs Lettres Patents, have power and auctorite by this present Acte lawefully to entre into theym, and theym to have and holde after the entent and trust that the said Duke nowe hath theryn. And also where the same Duke is joyntly seased with any other persone in any Castells, Maners, Landez, Tenementz, Rents, Hereditaments or Possessions to the use of eny other persone, otherwyse than by the Kyngs Lettrez Patents: that by the said auctorite, the said joynt feffez stonde and be feoffez to the same use and entent as they nowe arre and be; and that suche right, interest and title as the same Duke nowe hath with theym in the same premyssez, by the said auctorite, be in his cofeffez to the same entent as the same Duke nowe ys: Savyng to every of the Kynges Liege people, other than the said Duke and his Heyrez, and all other persone and persones that clayme or have eny tytell of interest in eny of the premyssez by the same Duke, suche right, tytle and interest as they owe or shulde have in eny of the premyssez, as if this Acte had never been made.

A cest Bille les Comunez sont assentuz.

Le Roy le voet.

Note 1. It is interesting that he forfeits the title of Duke rather than the usual attainted in the blood which may have debarred his children from inheriting the crown.

On 18 Feb 1478 George York 1st Duke of Clarence (age 28) was drowned in a butt of wine (Malmsey) wine in the Bowyer Tower in the Tower of London [Map]. Duke Clarence, Earl Salisbury extinct. "in a butt of Malmsey wine" may refer to 1 a butt full of Malmsey wine or 2 a butt that once contained Malmsey wine that was subsequently re-used for another purpose such as washing or bathing.

William Hussey (age 35) conducted the impeachment of the Duke of Clarence for treason.

[his brother] Richard, Duke of Gloucester (age 25) succeeded 2nd Earl Richmond.

The only other person known to have been executed, or ritually killed, by drowning in a butt of wine is Muirchertach mac Muiredaig High King of Ireland (as reported by the Annals of Ulster) in his case at Newgrange Passage Tomb [Map].

The History of King Richard the Third by Thomas More. George, Duke of Clarence (age 28), was a goodly noble prince, and at all points fortunate, if either his own ambition had not set him against his [his brother] brother (age 35), or the envy of his enemies had not set his brother against him. For were it by the Queen (age 41) and the lords of her blood, who highly maligned the King's kindred (as women commonly, not of malice but of nature, hate them whom their husbands love), or were it a proud appetite of the Duke (age 28) himself intending to be king, in any case, heinous treason was there laid to his charge, and, finally, were he faulty or were he faultless, attainted was he by Parliament and judged to the death, and thereupon hastily drowned in a butt of malmesey, whose death, King Edward (although he commanded it), when he knew it was done, piteously bewailed and sorrowfully repented. .

Chronicle of Robert Fabyan 1478. This yere, that is to meane ye xviii. daye of February, the Duke of Clarence (age 28) and .... 2brother to the King, thanne being prysoner in ye Tower [Map], was secretely put to deth and drowned in a barell of maluesye within the said Tower. And this mayer this yere pursued also the reparacyon of the wallys, but nat so dylygently as his predccessour dyd, wherfore it was nat spedde as it might haue been, and also he was a syke and a feble man, and hadde not so sharpe and quycke mynde as that other hadde. And one other cause was, whiche ensuythe of a generaltie, that for the more partie one mayer wyll nat fynesshe that thing whiche that other begynneth, for then they thynke, be the dede neuer so good and profitable, that the honoure therof shalbe ascribed to the begynner, and nat to the fynyssher, whiche lacke of charytie and deSire of veingiory causeth many good actes and dedys to dye and growe out of minde, to the great decaye of the cōmon weale of the cytie.

Note 2. second brother. edit. 1542. 1559.

Croyland Chronicle. 18 Feb 1478. After this, execution [of George York 1st Duke of Clarence (age 28)] was delayed for a considerable time; until the Speaker of the Commons, coming to the upper house with his fellows, made a fresh request that the matter might be brought to a conclusion. In consequence of this, in a few days after, the execution, whatever its nature may have been, took place, (and would that it had ended these troubles!) in the Tower of London, it being the year of our Lord, 1478, and the eighteenth of the reign of king Edward.

Croyland Chronicle. The circumstances that happened in the ensuing Parliament my mind quite shudders to enlarge upon, for then was to be witnessed a sad strife carried on before these two brethren of such high estate.29 For not a single person uttered a word against the duke (age 28), except the [his brother] king (age 35); not one individual made answer to the king except the duke (age 28). Some parties were introduced, however, as to whom it was greatly doubted by many, whether they filled the office of accusers rather, or of witnesses: these two offices not being exactly suited to the same person in the same cause. The duke met all the charges made against him with a denial, and offered, if he could only obtain a hearing, to defend his cause with his own hand. But why delay in using many words? Parliament, being of opinion that the informations which they had heard were established, passed sentence upon him of condemnation, the same being pronounced by the mouth of Henry, duke of Buckingham (age 23), who was appointed Seneschal of England for the occasion. After this, execution was delayed for a considerable time; until the Speaker of the Commons, coming to the upper house with his fellows, made a fresh request that the matter might be brought to a conclusion. In consequence of this, in a few days after, the execution, whatever its nature may have been, took place, (and would that it had ended these troubles!) in the Tower of London [Map], it being the year of our Lord, 1478, and the eighteenth of the reign of king Edward.

Note 29. One would think that "tantae himanitatis," can hardly mean "of such humanity," when applied to such persons as Edward the Fourth and his brother Clarence.

Chronicle of Jean Molinet Chapter 94. [18 Feb 1478]. His brother, the Duke of Clarence (age 28), rebelled against his mother-in-law, and was defeated by trial, and sentenced to die, except by the grace of this king who would not grant him any other mercy, except to choose his preferred method of death; he prayed to die by drowning in a butt2 of Malvasia wine, and so it happened.

Son frère, le duc de Clarence, querella contre sa marastre, et fut vaincu par procès, et jugé à mourir, saulf la grâce d'icelui roy qui ne lui voulut faire aullre miséricorde, sinon de choisir telle mort qu'il lui plairoit; et pria qu'il peut mourir en une pippe plaine de malvoisie, et ainsi en advint.

Note 1. "marastre". Typically step-mother, or bad-mother. In this context this appears to refer to his mother-in-law Anne Neville who had been declared legally dead so that George could enjoy the benfit of the estates and wealth of the Earldom of Warwick.

Note 2. A French "pipe" or is an English "butt", which holds 108 gallons, around, 500 litres, half a Tun. Typicially around 125cm aka 4ft high.

Chronicle of Napoli by Giacomo. On the 7th day of March, 1478, the Most Serene King Edward, King of England, caused his brother [George York 1st Duke of Clarence (deceased)] to die inside a vat of hot Greek wine, and then he made him bleed from certain veins, and it was because he wanted to remove him from the state. And in the month of April of the same year, Lord Carlo de Monfreda, Lord of Faenza, arrived in Naples and stayed at the house of Baptista Vaxallo.

Adi vii de marzo. 1478. lo Serenissimo Re Aduardo Re de Inghilterra fe morire el fratello dentro vna bocte de greco caldo et depo lo fe sanguinare dacerte vene et fo per causa delo stato li voleua leuare et del mese de aprile eiusdem anni venne innapoli lo Signore Carllo de monfreda Signore de faenza et allogio alle case de baptista vaxallo:

Calendars. 07 Feb 1478. Appointment of the king's kinsman Henry, duke of Buckingham (age 23), to the Parliament office of steward of England for the execution of the judgment on George, duke of Clarence (age 28), attainted of high treason by authority of Parliament. By K.

Calendars. 14 Feb 1478. Appointment of Thomas Vaughan, knight, treasurer of the king's Westminster, chamber and chamberlain of the king's son the prince, John Say, knight, under treasurer of England, John Elryngton, knight, treasurer of the household, Robert Wyngfeld, Wyngfeld, knight, controller of the household, and Henry Boteler, recorder of Coventry, to examine the accounts of John Hewyke, one of the auditors of a parcel of the lands of George, late duke of Clarence (age 28), and Peter Beaupe, one of the clerks of the green cloth, to whom the king ordered the said John to deliver the books and accounts, and of other auditors, receivers or bailiffs concerning the lands and possessions of the said duke and to certify thereon to the king.

Calendars. 17 Feb 1478. Grant for life to Richard Ferrers of the off of steward of lordship Westminster, of Fawnhope, co. Hereford, in the king's hands by reason of the minority of [his son] Edward (age 2) son of George, late duke of Clarence (age 28), with the accustomed fees. By p.s.

Note. The date here somewhat confusing since George York 1st Duke of Clarence (age 28) wasn't executed until a day later on 18 Feb 1478.

Croyland Chronicle. Before 18 Feb 1478. On the following day, the duke of Clarence (age 28) came to the council-chamber at Westminster, bringing with him a famous Doctor of the order of Minorites, Master William Goddard by name, in order that he might read the confession and declaration of innocence above-mentioned before the lords in the said council assembled; which he accordingly did, and then withdrew. The [his brother] king (age 35) was then at Windsor, but when he was informed of this circumstance, he was greatly displeased thereat, and recalling to mind the information formerly laid against his brother, and which he had long kept treasured up in his breast, he summoned the duke to appear on a certain day in the royal palace of Westminster: upon which, in presence of the Mayor and aldermen of the city of London, the king began, with his own lips, amongst other matters, to inveigh against the conduct of the before-named duke, as being derogatory to the laws of the realm, and most dangerous to judges and jurors throughout the kingdom. But why enlarge? The duke was placed in custody, and from that day up to the time of his death never was known to have regained his liberty.

Croyland Chronicle. After the perpetration of this deed, many persons left king Edward, fully persuaded that he would be able to lord it over the whole kingdom at his will and pleasure, all those idols being now removed, towards the faces of whom the eyes of the multitude, ever desirous of change, had been in the habit of turning in times past. They regarded as idols of this description, the earl of Warwick, the duke of Clarence (age 28), and any other great person there might then happen to be in the kingdom, who had withdrawn himself from the king's intimacy. The king however, although, as I really believe, he inwardly repented very often of this act, after this period, performed the duties of his office with such a high hand, that he appeared to be dreaded by all his subjects, while he himself stood in fear of no one. For, as he had taken care to distribute the most trustworthy of his servants throughout all parts of the kingdom, as keepers of castles, manors, forests, and parks, no attempt whatever could be made in any part of the kingdom by any person, however shrewd he might be, but what he was immediately charged with the same to his face.

Calendars. 21 Feb 1478. Grant for life to Robert Pemberton (age 34), one of the ushers of the king's Westminster chamber, of the office of steward of the lordship of Neuport Paynell [Map], in the king's hands by the forfeiture of George, late duke of Clarence (deceased), receiving the accustomed fees from the issues of the lordship, with all other profits. By K.

Calendars. 02 Mar 1478. Grant for life to the king's counsellor John Audeley, lord Audeley (age 52), of the office of steward of all lordships, manors and lands in the county of Dorset late of George, late duke of Clarence (deceased), and in the king's hands by his forfeiture, with 20 marks yearly from the issues of the lordship of Halisbere, co. Dorset; grant to him, during minority, of the office of steward of all lordships, manors and lands in the said county in the king's hands by reason of the minority of [his son] Edward (age 3), son of the said George (deceased), with 10 marks yearly from the issues of the premises; and grant to him for life of the office of constable and the custody of the castle of Warden and the office of constable and the custody of the castle of Corffe, with the accustomed fees from the issues of the king's lordships there and all other profits. By p.s.

Calendars. 03 Mar 1478. Grant to the king's servant Thomas Patyngeham, one of the yeomen of the king's chamber, of the offices of bailiff of the king's lordships of Walsale, Perybarre and Patyngeham and the custody of the park of Walsale in the counties of Stafford and Warwick during the minority of [his son] Edward (age 3), son and heir of George, late duke of Clarence (deceased), with the accustomed fees from the issues of the lordships and all other profits. By p.s.

Before 06 Mar 1478 Bishop Robert Stillington (age 58) was imprisoned as a result of an unknown association with George York 1st Duke of Clarence (deceased) but speculated to be about Edward IV King England 1442-1483's pre-contract with Eleanor Butler. See Stonor Letters 06 Mar 1478.

The Huntingdon Peerage Chapter IX Ferdinando Sixth Earl of Huntingdon. The loss of two sons, it may be conceived, was sufficiently distressing to a parent's feelings, but a still severer trial was reserved for them. Little more than two years after, on the 24th of June, 1649, Lord Henry, the eldest son, just in the flower of youth, and the love and admiration of all who knew him, was also cut off. He died of the small-pox, in his twentieth year, under the additional grief to his parents of his being then an only son, and, for a climax of affliction, on the very eve of his nuptials. The premature death of is amiable young nobleman, who, to the sweetest disposition and the most polished manners, added great proficiency in literature and a promise of uncommon talents, was a subject of universal lamentation and sympathy. Several of the most distinguished characters of that period, whether for worth, abilities, or elevated rank, joined the homage of their regrets, and paid "the meed of a melodious tear" to his Lordship's memory. Nearly an hundred elegiac poems were composed on the melancholy occasion, and afterwards published under the title of "Lachrymae Musarum; the Tears of the Muses; expressed in Elegies written by divers Persona of Nobility and Worth, upon the Death of the most hopeful Henry, Lord Hastings, only Son of the Right Honourable Ferdinando Earl of Huntingdon, Heir-general to the high-born Prince George, Duke of Clarence, Brother to King Edward the Fourth: collected and set forth by R. B. 1649". Among the eminent names, contributors to this collection, we find Lord Falkland, Dryden, Marvel, Herrick, Denham, the Honourable Ralph Montagu, and many others who emulated each other in celebrating the virtues of the deceased, and enshrining his character in immortal verse. A few select flowers, transplanted from this funereal garland of the Muses, cannot be deemed exotics here.

The following epitaphs were proposed:

Here lies the age's paramount, the store Of Albion's shame, because it mourns no more, And since the fate is so, if for his fall We cannot weep enough, our children shall. J. Rossz.

Tread off, profaner feet! forbear To press this hallowed mould, where lies Firm virtue's and high honour's heir, The darling of the courteous skies, Who, by rare parts, the flight of fame In life outwent; in death his name. Thomas Bancroft.

Three royal Henries, sprung from Huntingdon, We saw alive: the first and last are gone Bright saints to heaven, above all fancy'd spheres. To meet their sovereign in that House of Peers. The third God's hand by wonder hath preserved. In whom their honour trebly is reserved. So Sybil's books consumed, the last contains Their precious truths, and treble value gains. Howe'er we sadly mourn, his nephew's fate Makes widowed England still more desolate. Oh, never such a son to parent's mind! Oh, never subject loyaller inclined! Oh, none more pious, none more man, so soon Ripe for his set, ere raised to half his noon. That mightier hand that stopped the mighty sun. Canst thou his circle sooner make him run? A varied fever had surprised his head. And death ensued when royal blood he bled; Bodies live not when head and heart decays. Where all their veins are right Basilicas; The fountain dried, how should the channel run? Good night to stars when darkened is the sun. Thus royal, loyal, leam'd, lov'd Hastings lies, All good men's loss, to saints a glorious prize." Thomas Pestellus, filius.

Upon the Death of Lord Hastings, by Dryden. Must noble Hastings immaturely die, The honour of his ancient family. Beauty and learning thus together meet. To bring a winding for a wedding sheet? Must virtue prove death's harbinger? must she. With him expiring, feel mortality? Is death, sin's wages, grace's now? shall art Make us more learned, only to depart? If merit be disease; if virtue death; To be good, not to be; who'd then bequeath Himself to discipline? who'd not esteem Labour a crime? study self-murther deem?Our noble youth.now have pretence to be Dunces securely, ignorant heathily. Rare linguist whose worth speaks itself whose praise Though not his own, all tongues besides do raise: Than whom great Alexander miay seem less; Who conquer'd mens but not their languages. In his mouth nations spake; his tongue might be Interpreter to Greece, France, Italy. His native soil Was the four parts o' the earth; All Europe was too narrow for his birth. A young apostle; and, with reverence may I speak't inspir'd with gift of tongues, as they. Nature gave him, a child, what men in vain Oft strive, by art though furthered, to obtain. His body was an orb, his sublime soul Did move on virtue's and on learning's pole: Whose regular motions better to our view. Than Archimedes' sphere, the heavens did shew. Graces and virtues, languages and arts. Beauty and learning, fill'd up all the parts. Heaven's gifts, which do like falling stars appear Scatter'd in others; all, as in their sphere. Were fix'd, conglobate in his soul: and thence Shone through his body, with sweet influence; Letting their glories so on each limb fall. The whole frame rendered was celestial. Come, learned Ptolemy, and trial make. If thou this hero's altitude cans't take: But that transcends thy skill; thrice happy all. Could we but prove thus astronomical. Liv'd Tycho now, struck with this ray, which shone More bright i' the morn', than others beam at noon, He'd take his astrolabe, and seek out here What new star 'twas did gild our hemisphere. Replenish'd then with such rare gifts as these. Where was room left for such a foul disease? The nation's sin hath drawn that veil, which shrouds Our day-spring in so sad benighting clouds. Heaven would no longer trust its pledge; but thus Recall'd it; rapt its Ganymede from us. Was there no milder way but the small-pox, The very filthiness of Pandora's box? So many spots, like næves on Venus* soil. One jewel set off with so many a foil; Blisters with pride swell'd, which through's flesh did sprout Like rose-buds, stuck i' the lilly skin about. Each little pimple had a tear in it, To wail the fault its rising did commit: Which, rebel like, with its own lord at strife, Thus made an insurrection 'gainst his life. Or were these gems sent to adorn his skin. The cabinet of a richer soul within? No comet need foretel his change drew on. Whose corpse might seem a constellation. O! had he died of old, how great a strife Had been, who from his death should draw their life? Who should, by one rich draught, become whate'er Seneca, Cato, Numa, Csesar, were? Learn'd, virtuous, pious, great; and have by this An universal metempsychosis. Must all these aged sires in one funeral Expire? all die in one so young, so small? Who, had he liv'd his life out, his great fame Had swol'n 'bove any Greek or Roman name. But hasty winter, with one blast, hath brought The hopes of autumn, summer, spring, to nought Thus fades the oak i' the sprig, i' the blade the corn. Thus without young, this Phoenix dies, new bom. Must then old three-legg'd grey-beards with their gout, Catarrhs, rheums, aches, live three ages out? Time's offals, only fit for the hospital! Or to hang antiquaries' rooms withal! Must drunkards, lechers, spent with sinning, live With such helps as broths, possets, physic give? None live, but such as should die? shall we meet With none but ghostly fathers in the street? Grief makes me rail; sorrow will force its way; And show'rs of tears tempestuous sighs best lay. The tongue may fail; but overflowing eyes Will weep out lasting streams of elegies.

But thou, O virgin-widow, left alone Now thy belov'd, heaven-ravish'd spouse is gone, Whose skilful sire in vain strove to apply Med'cines, when thy balm was no remedy. With greater than Platonic love, O wed His soul, though not his body, to thy bed: Let that make thee a mother; bring thou forth The ideas of his virtue, knowledge, worth; Transcribe the original in new copies; give Hastings o' the better part: so shall he live In's nobler half; and the great grandsire be Of an heroic divine progeny: An issue, which to eternity shall last, Yet but the irradiations which he cast. Erect no mausoleums: for his best Monument is his spouse's marble breast.

The History of King Richard the Third by Thomas More. Some wise men also think that his plan-covertly conveyed-lacked not in helping his brother Clarence to his death, which he resisted openly, although somewhat (as men judged) more faintly than one who was heartily concerned for his welfare. And they who thus judged, they think he for a long time during King Edward's life forethought to be king in case the King his brother (whose life he looked to, so that evil diet should shorten it) should happen to die (as indeed he did) while his children were young. And they judged that for this reason: he was glad of his brother's death, that Duke of Clarence, whose life must needs have hindered his plans, whether the same Duke of Clarence had kept himself true to his nephew the young King, or enterprised to be king himself. But of all this point, is there no certainty, and whosoever divines upon conjectures may as well shoot too far as too short. However, this have I by credible information learned, that the same night in which King Edward died, one Mistlebrook, long before morning, came in great haste to the house of one Potter, dwelling in Redcross Street without Cripplegate [Map], and when he was with hasty rapping quickly let in, he revealed unto Potter that [his brother] King Edward was departed. "By my truth man," said Potter, "then will my master the Duke of Gloucester be king." What cause he had so to think it is hard to say: whether he, being well disposed toward him, knew anything about such a thing the Duke had purposed, or otherwise he had any inkling thereof, for he was not ever likely to speak of it.

The History of King Richard the Third by Thomas More. [his father] Richard, Duke of York, a noble man and a mighty, had begun not by war but by law to challenge the crown, putting his claim into the Parliament. There his cause was either for right or favor so far forth advanced that King Henry (although he had a goodly prince utterly rejected his own blood; the crown was by authority of Parliament entailed unto the Duke of York, and his male issue in remainder, immediately after the death of King Henry. But the Duke, not enduring so long to tarry, but intending under pretext of dissension and debate arising in the realm, to reign before his time and to take upon him the rule in King Henry's life, was with many nobles of the realm at Wakefield slain, leaving three sons - [his brother] Edward, George, and Richard.

All three, as they were great states of birth, so were they great and stately of stomach, greedy and ambitious of authority, and impatient of partners. Edward, revenging his father's death, deprived King Henry and attained the crown.

George York 1st Duke of Clarence 1449-1478 appears on the following Descendants Family Trees:

King Edward III of England 1312-1377

John of Gaunt 1st Duke Lancaster 1340-1399

Ralph Neville 1st Earl of Westmoreland 1364-1425

Cecily "Rose of Raby" Neville Duchess York 1415-1495

Joan Beaufort Countess of Westmoreland 1379-1440

John Neville 3rd Baron Neville of Raby 1337-1388

Maud Percy Baroness Neville Raby

Eleanor Plantagenet Countess Arundel and Surrey 1318-1372

Richard Fitzalan 10th Earl of Arundel 8th Earl of Surrey 1306-1376

Thomas Holland 2nd Earl Kent 1350-1397

Richard Plantagenet 3rd Duke of York 1411-1460

Katherine Roet Duchess Lancaster 1350-1403

Philippa of Hainault Queen Consort England 1314-1369

Royal Ancestors of George York 1st Duke of Clarence 1449-1478

Kings Wessex: Great x 12 Grand Son of King Edmund "Ironside" I of England

Kings Gwynedd: Great x 9 Grand Son of Owain "Great" King Gwynedd

Kings Seisyllwg: Great x 15 Grand Son of Hywel "Dda aka Good" King Seisyllwg King Deheubarth

Kings Powys: Great x 10 Grand Son of Maredudd ap Bleddyn King Powys

Kings England: Great x 2 Grand Son of King Edward III of England

Kings Scotland: Great x 10 Grand Son of Malcolm III King Scotland

Kings Franks: Great x 8 Grand Son of Louis VII King Franks

Kings France: Great x 4 Grand Son of Philip "The Fair" IV King France

Royal Descendants of George York 1st Duke of Clarence 1449-1478

Queen Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom x 1

Diana Spencer Princess Wales x 2

Ancestors of George York 1st Duke of Clarence 1449-1478

Great x 4 Grandfather: King Edward "Longshanks" I of England Son of King Henry III of England

Great x 3 Grandfather: King Edward II of England Son of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England

Great x 4 Grandmother: Eleanor of Castile Queen Consort England 2 x Great Grand Daughter of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 2 Grandfather: King Edward III of England Son of King Edward II of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: Philip "The Fair" IV King France 3 x Great Grand Son of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 3 Grandmother: Isabella of France Queen Consort England 4 x Great Grand Daughter of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 4 Grandmother: Joan Blois I Queen Navarre 3 x Great Grand Daughter of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 1 Grandfather: Edmund of Langley 1st Duke of York Son of King Edward III of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: John Hainault II Count Hainault II Count Holland 5 x Great Grand Son of King William "Conqueror" I of England

Great x 3 Grandfather: William Hainault I Count Hainault III Count Avesnes III Count Holland II Count Zeeland 6 x Great Grand Son of King William "Conqueror" I of England

Great x 4 Grandmother: Philippa Luxemburg Countess Hainault and Holland 5 x Great Grand Daughter of King William "Conqueror" I of England

Great x 2 Grandmother: Philippa of Hainault Queen Consort England 5 x Great Grand Daughter of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: Charles Valois I Count Valois 3 x Great Grand Son of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 3 Grandmother: Joan Valois Countess Zeeland Holland Avesnes and Hainault 4 x Great Grand Daughter of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 4 Grandmother: Margaret Capet Countess Valois 3 x Great Grand Daughter of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

GrandFather: Richard of Conisbrough 1st Earl Cambridge Grand Son of King Edward III of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: Ferdinand IV King Castile IV King Leon 4 x Great Grand Son of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 3 Grandfather: Alfonso "Avenger" XI King Castile 4 x Great Grand Son of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 4 Grandmother: Constance Burgundy Queen Consort Castile Queen Consort Leon 3 x Great Grand Daughter of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 2 Grandfather: Peter "Cruel" I King Castile 5 x Great Grand Son of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: Alfonso "Brave" IV King Portugal 3 x Great Grand Son of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 3 Grandmother: Maria Burgundy Queen Consort Castile 4 x Great Grand Daughter of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 4 Grandmother: Beatrice Ivrea Queen Consort Portugal 4 x Great Grand Daughter of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 1 Grandmother: Isabella of Castile Duchess York 6 x Great Grand Daughter of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: Garcia Padilla

Great x 3 Grandfather: Juan García Padilla 1st Lord Villagera

Great x 2 Grandmother: Maria Padilla

Great x 4 Grandfather: Fernán González Henestrosa

Great x 3 Grandmother: María González Henestrosa Lady Villagera

Father: Richard Plantagenet 3rd Duke of York Great Grand Son of King Edward III of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: Edmund Mortimer 4 x Great Grand Son of King John "Lackland" of England

Great x 3 Grandfather: Roger Mortimer 2nd Earl March 5 x Great Grand Son of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 4 Grandmother: Elizabeth Badlesmere Countess Northampton 4 x Great Grand Daughter of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 2 Grandfather: Edmund Mortimer 3rd Earl March, Earl Ulster 6 x Great Grand Son of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: William Montagu 1st Earl Salisbury

Great x 3 Grandmother: Philippa Montagu Countess March

Great x 1 Grandfather: Roger Mortimer 4th Earl March 6th Earl Ulster Great Grand Son of King Edward III of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: King Edward III of England Son of King Edward II of England

Great x 3 Grandfather: Lionel Plantagenet 1st Duke of Clarence Son of King Edward III of England

Great x 4 Grandmother: Philippa of Hainault Queen Consort England 5 x Great Grand Daughter of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 2 Grandmother: Philippa Plantagenet Countess March 5th Countess Ulster Grand Daughter of King Edward III of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: William Donn Burgh 3rd Earl Ulster Great Grand Son of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England

Great x 3 Grandmother: Elizabeth Burgh Duchess of Clarence 2 x Great Grand Daughter of King Henry III of England

Great x 4 Grandmother: Maud Plantagenet Countess Ulster Great Grand Daughter of King Henry III of England

GrandMother: Anne Mortimer 2 x Great Grand Daughter of King Edward III of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: Robert Holland 1st Baron Holand

Great x 3 Grandfather: Thomas Holland 1st Earl Kent 4 x Great Grand Son of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 4 Grandmother: Maud Zouche Baroness Holand 3 x Great Grand Daughter of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 2 Grandfather: Thomas Holland 2nd Earl Kent Great Grand Son of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: Edmund of Woodstock 1st Earl Kent Son of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England

Great x 3 Grandmother: Joan "Fair Maid of Kent" Princess Wales Grand Daughter of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England

Great x 4 Grandmother: Margaret Wake Countess Kent 3 x Great Grand Daughter of King John "Lackland" of England

Great x 1 Grandmother: Eleanor Holland Countess March and Ulster 2 x Great Grand Daughter of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: Edmund Fitzalan 9th Earl of Arundel 4 x Great Grand Son of King John "Lackland" of England

Great x 3 Grandfather: Richard Fitzalan 10th Earl of Arundel 8th Earl of Surrey 5 x Great Grand Son of King John "Lackland" of England

Great x 4 Grandmother: Alice Warenne Countess Arundel

Great x 2 Grandmother: Alice Fitzalan Countess Kent 2 x Great Grand Daughter of King Henry III of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: Henry Plantagenet 3rd Earl of Leicester 3rd Earl Lancaster Grand Son of King Henry III of England

Great x 3 Grandmother: Eleanor Plantagenet Countess Arundel and Surrey Great Grand Daughter of King Henry III of England

Great x 4 Grandmother: Maud Chaworth

George York 1st Duke of Clarence 2 x Great Grand Son of King Edward III of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: Robert Neville

Great x 3 Grandfather: Ralph Neville 1st Baron Neville of Raby

Great x 2 Grandfather: Ralph Neville 2nd Baron Neville of Raby 8 x Great Grand Son of King Henry I "Beauclerc" England

Great x 4 Grandfather: Robert Fitzroger 5th Baron Warkworth

Great x 3 Grandmother: Euphemia Clavering Baroness Neville Raby 7 x Great Grand Daughter of King Henry I "Beauclerc" England

Great x 4 Grandmother: Margaret Zouche Baroness Warkworth 6 x Great Grand Daughter of King Henry I "Beauclerc" England

Great x 1 Grandfather: John Neville 3rd Baron Neville of Raby 4 x Great Grand Son of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: James Audley

Great x 3 Grandfather: Hugh Audley 1st Baron Audley of Stratton Audley 2 x Great Grand Son of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 4 Grandmother: Ela Longespée Great Grand Daughter of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 2 Grandmother: Alice Audley Baroness Greystoke and Neville 3 x Great Grand Daughter of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: Edmund Mortimer 2nd Baron Mortimer of Wigmore 2 x Great Grand Son of King John "Lackland" of England

Great x 3 Grandmother: Iseult Mortimer 3 x Great Grand Daughter of King John "Lackland" of England

Great x 4 Grandmother: Margaret Fiennes 4 x Great Grand Daughter of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

GrandFather: Ralph Neville 1st Earl of Westmoreland 5 x Great Grand Son of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 2 Grandfather: Henry Percy 10th and 2nd Baron Percy 5 x Great Grand Son of King John "Lackland" of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: Richard Fitzalan 8th Earl of Arundel 3 x Great Grand Son of King John "Lackland" of England

Great x 3 Grandmother: Eleanor Fitzalan Baroness Percy 4 x Great Grand Daughter of King John "Lackland" of England

Great x 4 Grandmother: Alice Saluzzo Countess Arundel 6 x Great Grand Daughter of King William "Conqueror" I of England

Great x 1 Grandmother: Maud Percy Baroness Neville Raby 5 x Great Grand Daughter of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: Roger Clifford

Great x 3 Grandfather: Robert Clifford 1st Baron Clifford 6 x Great Grand Son of King Henry I "Beauclerc" England

Great x 4 Grandmother: Isabella Vipont 5 x Great Grand Daughter of King Henry I "Beauclerc" England

Great x 2 Grandmother: Idonia Clifford Baroness Percy 4 x Great Grand Daughter of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: Thomas de Clare 4 x Great Grand Son of King Henry I "Beauclerc" England

Great x 3 Grandmother: Maud Clare Baroness Clifford Baroness Welles 3 x Great Grand Daughter of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 4 Grandmother: Juliana Fitzgerald 2 x Great Grand Daughter of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Mother: Cecily "Rose of Raby" Neville Duchess York Great Grand Daughter of King Edward III of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: King Edward "Longshanks" I of England Son of King Henry III of England

Great x 3 Grandfather: King Edward II of England Son of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England

Great x 4 Grandmother: Eleanor of Castile Queen Consort England 2 x Great Grand Daughter of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 2 Grandfather: King Edward III of England Son of King Edward II of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: Philip "The Fair" IV King France 3 x Great Grand Son of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 3 Grandmother: Isabella of France Queen Consort England 4 x Great Grand Daughter of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 4 Grandmother: Joan Blois I Queen Navarre 3 x Great Grand Daughter of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 1 Grandfather: John of Gaunt 1st Duke Lancaster Son of King Edward III of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: John Hainault II Count Hainault II Count Holland 5 x Great Grand Son of King William "Conqueror" I of England

Great x 3 Grandfather: William Hainault I Count Hainault III Count Avesnes III Count Holland II Count Zeeland 6 x Great Grand Son of King William "Conqueror" I of England

Great x 4 Grandmother: Philippa Luxemburg Countess Hainault and Holland 5 x Great Grand Daughter of King William "Conqueror" I of England

Great x 2 Grandmother: Philippa of Hainault Queen Consort England 5 x Great Grand Daughter of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: Charles Valois I Count Valois 3 x Great Grand Son of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 3 Grandmother: Joan Valois Countess Zeeland Holland Avesnes and Hainault 4 x Great Grand Daughter of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 4 Grandmother: Margaret Capet Countess Valois 3 x Great Grand Daughter of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

GrandMother: Joan Beaufort Countess of Westmoreland Grand Daughter of King Edward III of England

Great x 2 Grandfather: Giles "Payne" Roet

Great x 1 Grandmother: Katherine Roet Duchess Lancaster