Biography of Henry Bennet 1st Earl Arlington 1618-1685

Paternal Family Tree: Bennett

Maternal Family Tree: Frideswide Frowyk 1528

1666 St James' Day Battle

1666 Holme's Bonfire

1666 Great Fire of London

In 1618 Henry Bennet 1st Earl Arlington was born to John Bennet (age 55) and Dorothy Crofts (age 30).

In 1618 Henry Bennet 1st Earl Arlington was baptised at Little Saxham, Suffolk.

On 15 Feb 1626 [his father] John Bennet (age 63) died.

Around 1628 Henry Bennet 1st Earl Arlington (age 10) educated at Westminster School [Map].

Around 1633 Henry Bennet 1st Earl Arlington (age 15) educated at Christ Church College, Oxford University.

In 1644 Henry Bennet 1st Earl Arlington (age 26) was wounded on the bridge of his nose during a skirmish at Andover, Hampshire [Map].

Calendars. 24 Dec 1644. Warrant for a commission to Sir Henry Bennet (age 26) to be Comptroller of all manner of prize ships and goods, adjudged in the Admiralty Court to belong to the King; he is to assist the Commissioners, have what officers he requires under him, keep counterparts of all indentures, inventories, &c., and accounts of all expenses, [Ent. Book 16, pp. 299-300. ]

On 06 May 1651 Mary Walters was born illegitimately to King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 20) and Lucy Walter (age 21) at The Hague. King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 20) didn't acknowledge her. Her father is some somewhat speculative; he may have been Theobald Taaffe 1st Earl Carlingford (age 48) or Henry Bennet 1st Earl Arlington (age 33).

In Mar 1655 Henry Bennet 1st Earl Arlington (age 37) and Elisabeth Nassau Beverweert Countess Arlington (age 21) were married.

Calendars. 29 May 1655. Royal Charles. 75. Earl of Falmouth (age 25) to Lord Arlington (age 37). They sail to-morrow for Sole Bay [Map], Sir George Downing's letter making them wish to be in deeper water. Hopes to meet the Dutch half seas over. Great skill will be necessary to get men. The decay by sickness and colliers is greater than could be imagined. Hopes soon to be the bringer of good news.

Calendars. 29 May 1655. Royal Charles. 76. Sir William Coventry (age 27) to Lord Arlington (age 37). Capt. Langhorne has arrived with seven ships, and reports the taking of the Hamburg fleet, with the man-of-war their convoy; mistaking the Dutch fleet for the English, they fell into it. Will sail to-morrow for Southwold [Map] Bay, and there finish taking in victuals.

In Mar 1657 Henry Bennet 1st Earl Arlington (age 39) was knighted.

In 1659 [his mother] Dorothy Crofts (age 71) died.

In 1660 Joseph Williamson (age 26) entered the service of the Secretary of State for the Southern Department, Sir Edward Nicholas (age 66), retaining his position under the succeeding secretary, Sir Henry Bennet (age 42), afterwards Earl of Arlington.

In 1661 Henry Bennet 1st Earl Arlington (age 43) was appointed Keeper of the Privy Purse.

In 1661 Henry Bennet 1st Earl Arlington (age 43) was elected MP Callington.

Evelyn's Diary. 01 Oct 1661. On Thursday his Majesty (age 31) sent one of the pages of the back stairs for me to wait on him with my papers, in his cabinet where was present only Sir Henry Bennett (age 43) (Privy-Purse), when beginning to read to his Majesty (age 31) what I had drawn up, by the time I had read half a page, came in Mr. Secretary Morice (age 58) with a large paper, desiring to speak with his Majesty (age 31), who told him he was now very busy, and therefore ordered him to come again some other time; the Secretary replied that what he had in his hand was of extraordinary importance. So the King (age 31) rose up, and, commanding me to stay, went aside to a corner of the room with the Secretary; after a while, the Secretary being dispatched, his Majesty (age 31) returning to me at the table, a letter was brought him from Madame out of France;68 this he read and then bid me proceed from where I left off. This I did till I had ended all the narrative, to his Majesty's (age 31) great satisfaction; and, after I had inserted one or two more clauses, in which his Majesty (age 31) instructed me, commanded that it should that night be sent to the posthouse, directed to the Lord Ambassador at Paris (the Earl of St. Alban's), and then at leisure to prepare him a copy, which he would publish. This I did, and immediately sent my papers to the Secretary of State, with his Majesty's (age 31) express command of dispatching them that night for France. Before I went out of the King's (age 31) closet, he called me back to show me some ivory statues, and other curiosities that I had not seen before.

Evelyn's Diary. 03 Oct 1661. Next evening, being in the withdrawing-room adjoining the bedchamber, his Majesty (age 31) espying me came to me from a great crowd of noblemen standing near the fire, and asked me if I had done; and told me he feared it might be a little too sharp, on second thoughts, for he had that morning spoken with the French Ambassador, who it seems had palliated the matter, and was very tame; and therefore directed me where I should soften a period or two, before it was published (as afterward it was). This night also he spoke to me to give him a sight of what was sent, and to bring it to him in his bedchamber; which I did, and received it again from him at dinner, next day. By Saturday, having finished it with all his Majesty's (age 31) notes, the King (age 31) being gone abroad, I sent the papers to Sir Henry Bennett (age 43) (Privy-Purse and a great favorite), and slipped home, being myself much indisposed and harassed with going about, and sitting up to write.

Evelyn's Diary. 02 Nov 1661. Came Sir Henry Bennett (age 43), since Lord Arlington, to visit me, and to acquaint me that his Majesty (age 31) would do me the honor to come and see my garden; but, it being then late, it was deferred.

Evelyn's Diary. 17 Feb 1662. I went with my Lord of Bristol (age 49) to see his house at Wimbledon, Surrey, newly bought of the Queen-Mother (age 52), to help contrive the garden after the modern. It is a delicious place for prospect and the thickets, but the soil cold and weeping clay. Returned that evening with Sir Henry Bennett (age 44).

Pepy's Diary. 16 Oct 1662. I hear Mr. Moore is in a way of recovery. Sir H. Bennet (age 44) made Secretary of State in Sir Edward Nicholas's stead; not known whether by consent or not.

Pepy's Diary. 16 Oct 1662. Thence with Mr. Creed to Westminster Hall [Map], and by and by thither comes Captn. Ferrers, upon my sending for him, and we three to Creed's chamber, and there sat a good while and drank chocolate. Here I am told how things go at Court; that the young men get uppermost, and the old serious lords are out of favour; that Sir H. Bennet (age 44), being brought into Sir Edward Nicholas's place, Sir Charles Barkeley (age 32) is made Privy Purse; a most vicious person, and one whom Mr. Pierce, the surgeon, to-day (at which I laugh to myself), did tell me that he offered his wife £300 per annum to be his mistress. He also told me that none in Court hath more the King's ear now than Sir Charles Barkeley (age 32), and Sir H. Bennet (age 44), and my Baroness Castlemaine's (age 21), whose interest is now as great as ever and that Mrs. Haslerigge1, the great beauty, is got with child, and now brought to bed, and lays it to the King (age 32) or the Duke of York (age 29)2. He tells me too that my Lord St. Albans' is like to be Lord Treasurer: all which things do trouble me much. Here I staid talking a good while, and so by water to see Mr. Moore, who is out of bed and in a way to be well, and thence home, and with ComMr. Pett (age 52) by water to view Wood's masts that he proffers to sell, which we found bad, and so to Deptford, Kent [Map] to look over some businesses, and so home and I to my office, all our talk being upon Sir J. M. and Sir W. B.'s base carriage against him at their late being at Chatham, Kent [Map], which I am sorry to hear, but I doubt not but we shall fling Sir W. B. upon his back ere long.

Note 1. TT. Not clear which Mrs Haselbrigge this refers to. There are two possible Mrs Haselrigge's but neither appear to have married their resppective Haselrigge husbands before 1664: Elizabeth Fenwick (age 37) and Bridget Rolle.

Note 2. The child was owned by neither of the royal brothers. B.

Pepy's Diary. 27 Oct 1662. For Dunkirk; he wonders any wise people should be so troubled thereat, and scorns all their talk against it, for that he says it was not Dunkirk, but the other places, that did and would annoy us, though we had that, as much as if we had it not. He also took notice of the new Ministers of State, Sir H. Bennet (age 44) and Sir Charles Barkeley (age 32), their bringing in, and the high game that my Baroness Castlemaine's (age 21) plays at Court (which I took occasion to mention as that that the people do take great notice of), all which he confessed.

Pepy's Diary. 30 Oct 1662. So I went; and the guard at the Tower Gate, making me leave my sword at the gate, I was forced to stay so long in the ale-house hard by, till my boy run home for my cloak, that my Lord Mayor that now is, Sir John Robinson (age 47), Lieutenant of the Tower, with all his company, was gone with their coaches to his house in Minchen Lane. So my cloak being come, I walked thither; and there, by Sir G. Carteret's (age 52) means, did presently speak with Sir H. Bennet (age 44), who did show and give me the King's warrant to me and Mr. Leigh, and another to himself, for the paying of £2,000 to my Lord, and other two to the discoverers. After a little discourse, dinner come in; and I dined with them. There was my Lord Mayor, my Lord Lauderdale, Mr. Secretary Morris, to whom Sir H. Bennet (age 44) would give the upper hand; Sir Wm. Compton, Sir G. Carteret (age 52), and myself, and some other company, and a brave dinner.

Pepy's Diary. 30 Oct 1662. Could sleep but little to-night for thoughts of my business. So up by candlelight and by water to Whitehall, and so to my Lord Sandwich (age 37), who was up in his chamber and all alone, did acquaint me with his business; which was, that our old acquaintance Mr. Wade (in Axe Yard [Map]) hath discovered to him £7,000 hid in the Tower, of which he was to have two for discovery; my Lord himself two, and the King (age 32) the other three, when it was found; and that the King's warrant runs for me on my Lord's part, and one Mr. Lee for Sir Harry Bennet (age 44), to demand leave of the Lieutenant of the Tower for to make search. After he had told me the whole business, I took leave and hastened to my office, expecting to be called by a letter from my Lord to set upon the business, and so there I sat with the officers all the morning.

Pepy's Diary. 30 Oct 1662. At noon when we were up comes Mr. Wade with my Lord's letter, and tells me the whole business. So we consulted for me to go first to Sir H. Bennet (age 44), who is now with many of the Privy Counsellors at the Tower, examining of their late prisoners, to advise with him when to begin.

Pepy's Diary. 30 Oct 1662. After dinner, Sir H. Bennet (age 44) did call aside the Lord Mayor and me, and did break the business to him, who did not, nor durst appear the least averse to it, but did promise all assistance forthwith to set upon it. So Mr. Lee and I to our office, and there walked till Mr. Wade and one Evett his guide did come, and W. Griffin, and a porter with his picke-axes, &c.; and so they walked along with us to the Tower, and Sir H. Bennet (age 44) and my Lord Mayor did give us full power to fall to work.

Pepy's Diary. 30 Oct 1662. So our guide demands, a candle, and down into the cellars he goes, inquiring whether they were the same that Baxter1 always had. We went into several little cellars, and then went out a-doors to view, and to the Cole Harbour; but none did answer so well to the marks which was given him to find it by, as one arched vault. Where, after a great deal of council whether to set upon it now, or delay for better and more full advice, we set to it, to digging we went to almost eight o'clock at night, but could find nothing. But, however, our guides did not at all seem discouraged; for that they being confident that the money is there they look for, but having never been in the cellars, they could not be positive to the place, and therefore will inform themselves more fully now they have been there, of the party that do advise them. So locking the door after us, we left work to-night, and up to the Deputy Governor (my Lord Mayor, and Sir H. Bennet (age 44), with the rest of the company being gone an hour before); and he do undertake to keep the key of the cellars, that none shall go down without his privity.

Note 1. Intended for John Barkstead, Lieutenant of the Tower under Cromwell. Committed to the Tower (see March 17th, 1661-62).

Pepy's Diary. 31 Oct 1662. I am now also busy in a discovery for my Lord Sandwich (age 37) and Sir H. Bennett (age 44) by Mr. Wade's means of some of Baxter's [Barkstead] money hid in one of his cellars in the Tower. If we get it it may be I may be 10 or £20 the better for it. I thank God I have no crosses, but only much business to trouble my mind with. In all other things as happy a man as any in the world, for the whole world seems to smile upon me, and if my house were done that I could diligently follow my business, I would not doubt to do God, and the King (age 32), and myself good service.

Pepy's Diary. 01 Nov 1662. Thence to my office, sent for to meet Mr. Leigh again; from Sir H. Bennet (age 44). And he and I, with Wade and his intelligencer and labourers, to the Tower cellars, to make one tryall more; where we staid two or three hours digging, and dug a great deal all under the arches, as it was now most confidently directed, and so seriously, and upon pretended good grounds, that I myself did truly expect to speed; but we missed of all: and so we went away the second time like fools. And to our office, whither, a coach being come, Mr. Leigh goes home to Whitehall; and I by appointment to the Dolphin Tavern, to meet Wade and the other, Captn. Evett, who now do tell me plainly, that he that do put him upon this is one that had it from Barkestead's own mouth, and was advised with by him, just before the King's coming in, how to get it out, and had all the signs told him how and where it lay, and had always been the great confident of Barkestead even to the trusting him with his life and all he had. So that he did much convince me that there is good ground for what we go about. But I fear it may be that he did find some conveyance of it away, without the help of this man, before he died. But he is resolved to go to the party once more, and then to determine what we shall do further. So we parted, and I to my office, where after sending away my letters to the post I do hear that Sir J. Minnes (age 63) is resolved to turn part of our entry into a room and to divide the back yard between Sir W. Pen (age 41) and him, which though I do not see how it will annoy me much particularly, yet it do trouble me a little for fear it should, but I do not see how it can well unless in his desiring my coming to my back stairs, but for that I shall do as well as himself or Sir W. Pen (age 41), who is most concerned to look after it.

Pepy's Diary. 16 Dec 1662. So to the office, and hence, having done some business, by coach to White Hall to Secretary Bennet's (age 44), and agreed with Mr. Lee to set upon our new adventure at the Tower to-morrow. Hence to Col. Lovelace (age 41) in Cannon Row about seeing how Sir R. Ford (age 48) did report all the officers of the navy to be rated for the Loyal Sufferers, but finding him at the Rhenish wine-house I could not have any answer, but must take another time.

Pepy's Diary. 23 Dec 1662. By and by comes James Pearce Surgeon, who among other things tells me that my Baroness Castlemaine's (age 22) interest at Court increases, and is more and greater than the Queen's (age 24); that she hath brought in Sir H. Bennet (age 44), and Sir Charles Barkeley (age 32); but that the Queen (age 24) is a most good lady, and takes all with the greatest meekness that may be. He tells me too that Mr. Edward Montagu (age 27) is quite broke at Court with his repute and purse; and that he lately was engaged in a quarrell against my Lord Chesterfield (age 28): but that the King (age 32) did cause it to be taken up. He tells me, too, that the King (age 32) is much concerned in the Chancellor's (age 53) sickness, and that the Chancellor (age 53) is as great, he thinks, as ever he was with the King (age 32). He also tells me what the world says of me, "that Mr. Coventry (age 34) and I do all the business of the office almost:" at which I am highly proud. He being gone I fell to business, which was very great, but got it well over by nine at night, and so home, and after supper to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 31 Dec 1662. By my last year's diligence in my office, blessed be God! I am come to a good degree of knowledge therein; and am acknowledged so by all-the world, even the Duke himself, to whom I have a good access and by that, and my being Commissioner with him for Tangier, he takes much notice of me; and I doubt not but, by the continuance of the same endeavours, I shall in a little time come to be a man much taken notice of in the world, specially being come to so great an esteem with Mr. Coventry (age 34). The only weight that lies heavy upon my mind is the ending the business with my uncle Thomas about my-dead uncle's estate, which is very ill on our side, and I fear when all is done I must be forced to maintain my father myself, or spare a good deal towards it out of my own purse, which will be a very great pull back to me in my fortune. But I must be contented and bring it to an issue one way or other. Publique matters stand thus: the King (age 32) is bringing, as is said, his family, and Navy, and all other his charges, to a less expence. In the mean time, himself following his pleasures more than with good advice he would do; at least, to be seen to all the world to do so. His dalliance with my Baroness Castlemaine's (age 22) being publique, every day, to his great reproach; and his favouring of none at Court so much as those that are the confidants of his pleasure, as Sir H. Bennet (age 44) and Sir Charles Barkeley (age 32); which, good God! put it into his heart to mend, before he makes himself too much contemned by his people for it! The Duke of Monmouth (age 13) is in so great splendour at Court, and so dandled by the King (age 32), that some doubt, if the King (age 32) should have no child by the Queen (age 24) (which there is yet no appearance of), whether he would not be acknowledged for a lawful son; and that there will be a difference follow upon it between the Duke of York (age 29) and him; which God prevent!

Pepy's Diary. 17 Feb 1663. And after much talk (among other things Mr. Montagu telling him that there was a fellow in the town, naming me, that had done ill offices, and that if he knew it to be so, he would have him cudgelled) my Lord did promise him that, if upon account he saw that there was not many tradesmen unpaid, he would sign the books; but if there was, he could not bear with taking too great a debt upon him. So this day he sent him an account, and a letter assuring him there was not above £200 unpaid; and so my Lord did sign to the Exchequer books. Upon the whole, I understand fully what a rogue he is, and how my Lord do think and will think of him for the future; telling me that thus he has served his father my Lord Manchester (age 61), and his whole family, and now himself: and which is worst, that he hath abused, and in speeches every day do abuse, my Chancellor (age 53), whose favour he hath lost; and hath no friend but Sir H. Bennet (age 45), and that (I knowing the rise of the friendship) only from the likeness of their pleasures, and acquaintance, and concernments, they have in the same matters of lust and baseness; for which, God forgive them! But he do flatter himself, from promises of Sir H. Bennet (age 45), that he shall have a pension of £2000 per annum, and be made an Earl.

Pepy's Diary. 17 Feb 1663. Coming home I brought Mr. Pickering as far as the Temple [Map], who tells me the story is very true of a child being dropped at the ball at Court; and that the King (age 32) had it in his closett a week after, and did dissect it; and making great sport of it, said that in his opinion it must have been a month and three hours old; and that, whatever others think, he hath the greatest loss (it being a boy, as he says), that hath lost a subject by the business. He tells me, too, that the other story, of my Baroness Castlemaine's (age 22) and Stuart's (age 15) marriage, is certain, and that it was in order to the King's coming to Stuart, as is believed generally. He tells me that Sir H. Bennet (age 45) is a Catholique, and how all the Court almost is changed to the worse since his coming in, they being afeard of him. And that the Queen-Mother's (age 53) Court is now the greatest of all; and that our own Queen (age 24) hath little or no company come to her, which I know also to be very true, and am sorry to see it.

Pepy's Diary. 16 Mar 1663. Up very betimes and to my office, where, with several Masters of the King's ships, Sir J. Minnes (age 64) and I advising upon the business of Slopps, wherein the seaman is so much abused by the Pursers, and that being done, then I home to dinner, and so carried my wife to her mother's, set her down and Ashwell to my Lord's lodging, there left her, and I to the Duke (age 29), where we met of course, and talked of our Navy matters. Then to the Commission of Tangier, and there, among other things, had my Lord Peterborough's (age 41) Commission read over; and Mr. Secretary Bennet (age 45) did make his querys upon it, in order to the drawing one for my Lord Rutherford more regularly, that being a very extravagant thing. Here long discoursing upon my Lord Rutherford's despatch, and so broke up, and so going out of the Court I met with Mr. Coventry (age 35), and so he and I walked half an hour in the long Stone Gallery, where we discoursed of many things, among others how the Treasurer doth intend to come to pay in course, which is the thing of the world that will do the King (age 32) the greatest service in the Navy, and which joys my heart to hear of. He tells me of the business of Sir J. Minnes (age 64) and Sir W. Pen (age 41), which I knew before, but took no notice or little that I did know it. But he told me it was chiefly to make Mr. Pett's (age 52) being joyned with Sir W. Batten (age 62) to go down the better, and do tell me how he well sees that neither one nor the other can do their duties without help. But however will let it fall at present without doing more in it to see whether they will do their duties themselves, which he will see, and saith they do not. We discoursed of many other things to my great content and so parted, and I to my wife at my Lord's lodgings, where I heard Ashwell play first upon the harpsicon, and I find she do play pretty well, which pleaseth me very well.

Pepy's Diary. 08 Apr 1663. After sermon I went up and saw the ceremony of the Bishop of Peterborough's (age 72) paying homage upon the knee to the King (age 32), while Sir H. Bennet (age 45), Secretary, read the King's grant of the Bishopric of Lincoln, to which he is translated. His name is Dr. Lany (age 72).

Pepy's Diary. 29 Apr 1663. But I perceive great differences there are at Court; and Sir H. Bennet (age 45) and my Lord Bristol (age 50), and their faction, are likely to carry all things before them (which my Lord's judgment is, will not be for the best), and particularly against the Chancellor (age 54), who, he tells me, is irrecoverably lost: but, however, that he will not actually joyne in anything against the Chancellor (age 54), whom he do own to be his most sure friend, and to have been his greatest; and therefore will not openly act in either, but passively carry himself even.

Pepy's Diary. 29 Apr 1663. Up betimes, and after having at my office settled some accounts for my Lord Sandwich (age 37), I went forth, and taking up my father at my brother's, took coach and towards Chelsey, 'lighting at an alehouse near the Gatehouse at Westminster to drink our morning draught, and so up again and to Chelsey, where we found my Lord all alone at a little table with one joynt of meat at dinner; we sat down and very merry talking, and mightily extolling the manner of his retirement, and the goodness of his diet, which indeed is so finely dressed: the mistress of the house, Mrs. Becke, having been a woman of good condition heretofore, a merchant's wife, and hath all things most excellently dressed; among others, her cakes admirable, and so good that my Lord's words were, they were fit to present to my Baroness Castlemaine's (age 22). From ordinary discourse my Lord fell to talk of other matters to me, of which chiefly the second part of the fray, which he told me a little while since of, between Mr. Edward Montagu (age 28) and himself, which is that after that he had since been with him three times and no notice taken at all of any difference between them, and yet since that he hath forborn coming to him almost two months, and do speak not only slightly of my Lord every where, but hath complained to my Chancellor (age 54) of him, and arrogated all that ever my Lord hath done to be only by his direction and persuasion. Whether he hath done the like to the King (age 32) or no, my Lord knows not; but my Lord hath been with the King (age 32) since, and finds all things fair; and my Chancellor (age 54) hath told him of it, but with so much contempt of Mr. Montagu, as my Lord knows himself very secure against any thing the fool can do; and notwithstanding all this, so noble is his nature, that he professes himself ready to show kindness and pity to Mr. Montagu on any occasion. My Lord told me of his presenting Sir H. Bennet (age 45) with a gold cupp of £100, which he refuses, with a compliment; but my Lord would have been glad he had taken it, that he might have had some obligations upon him which he thinks possible the other may refuse to prevent it; not that he hath any reason to doubt his kindness.

Pepy's Diary. 15 May 1663. After dinner I went up to Sir Thomas Crew (age 39), who lies there not very well in his head, being troubled with vapours and fits of dizziness: and there I sat talking with him all the afternoon from one discourse to another, the most was upon the unhappy posture of things at this time; that the King (age 32) do mind nothing but pleasures, and hates the very sight or thoughts of business; that my Baroness Castlemaine's (age 22) rules him, who, he says, hath all the tricks of Aretin1 that are to be practised to give pleasure. In which he is too able .... but what is the unhappiness in that, as the Italian proverb says, "lazzo dritto non vuolt consiglio [Translation: An erection seeks no advice]". If any of the sober counsellors give him good advice, and move him in anything that is to his good and honour, the other part, which are his counsellers of pleasure, take him when he is with my Baroness Castlemaine's (age 22), and in a humour of delight, and then persuade him that he ought not to hear nor listen to the advice of those old dotards or counsellors that were heretofore his enemies: when, God knows! it is they that now-a-days do most study his honour. It seems the present favourites now are my Lord Bristol (age 50), Duke of Buckingham (age 35), Sir H. Bennet (age 45), my Lord Ashley (age 41), and Sir Charles Barkeley (age 33); who, among them, have cast my Chancellor (age 54) upon his back, past ever getting up again; there being now little for him to do, and he waits at Court attending to speak to the King (age 32) as others do: which I pray God may prove of good effects, for it is feared it will be the same with my Lord Treasurer (age 56) shortly. But strange to hear how my Lord Ashley (age 41), by my Lord Bristol's (age 50) means (he being brought over to the Catholique party against the Bishopps, whom he hates to the death, and publicly rails against them; not that he is become a Catholique, but merely opposes the Bishopps; and yet, for aught I hear, the Bishopp of London (age 64) keeps as great with the King (age 32) as ever) is got into favour, so much that, being a man of great business and yet of pleasure, and drolling too, he, it is thought, will be made Lord Treasurer (age 56) upon the death or removal of the good old man. My Lord Albemarle (age 54), I hear, do bear through and bustle among them, and will not be removed from the King's good opinion and favour, though none of the Cabinett; but yet he is envied enough. It is made very doubtful whether the King (age 32) do not intend the making of the Duke of Monmouth (age 14) legitimate2; but surely the Commons of England will never do it, nor the Duke of York (age 29) suffer it, whose lady (age 26), I am told, is very troublesome to him by her jealousy.

Note 1. An allusion to Aretin's infamous letters and sonnets accompanying the as infamous "Postures" engraved by Marc Antonio from the designs of Julio Romano (Steinman's "Memoir of Barbara, Duchess of Cleveland", privately printed, 1871).

Note 2. Thomas Ross, Monmouth's tutor, put the idea into his head that Charles II had married his mother. The report was sedulously spread abroad, and obtained some kind of credence, until, in June, 1678, the King (age 32) set the matter at rest by publishing a declaration, which was entered in the Council book and registered in Chancery. The words of the declaration are: "That to avoid any dispute which might happen in time to come concerning the succession of the Crown, he (Charles) did declare, in the presence of Almighty God, that he never gave, nor made any contract of marriage, nor was married to Mrs. Barlow, alias Waters, the Duke of Monmouth's (age 14) mother, nor to any other woman whatsoever, but to his present wife, Queen (age 24) Catherine, then living".

Pepy's Diary. 10 Jul 1663. Up to the Lobby, and there sent out for Mr. Coventry (age 35) and Sir W. Batten (age 62), and told them if they thought convenient I would go to Chatham, Kent [Map] today, Sir John Minnes (age 64) being already there at a Pay, and I would do such and such business there, which they thought well of, and so I went home and prepared myself to go after, dinner with Sir W. Batten (age 62). Sir W. Batten (age 62) and Mr. Coventry (age 35) tell me that my Lord Bristoll (age 50) hath this day impeached my Chancellor (age 54) in the House of Lords of High Treason. The chief of the articles are these:

Note 1st. That he should be the occasion of the peace made with Holland lately upon such disadvantageous terms, and that he was bribed to it.

Note 2d. That Dunkirke was also sold by his advice chiefly, so much to the damage of England.

Note 3d. That he had £6000 given him for the drawing-up or promoting of the Irish declaration lately, concerning the division of the lands there.

Note 4th. He did carry on the design of the Portugall match, so much to the prejudice of the Crown of England, notwithstanding that he knew the Queen (age 24) is not capable of bearing children.

Note 5th. That the Duke's (age 29) marrying of his daughter (age 26) was a practice of his, thereby to raise his family; and that it was done by indirect courses.

Note 6th. That the breaking-off of the match with Parma, in which he was employed at the very time when the match with Portugall was made up here, which he took as a great slur to him, and so it was; and that, indeed, is the chief occasion of all this fewde.

Note 7th. That he hath endeavoured to bring in Popery, and wrote to the Pope for a cap for a subject of the King (age 33) of England's (my Lord Aubigny (age 43) ); and some say that he lays it to the Chancellor (age 54), that a good Protestant Secretary (Sir Edward Nicholas) was laid aside, and a Papist, Sir H. Bennet (age 45), put in his room: which is very strange, when the last of these two is his own creature, and such an enemy accounted to the Chancellor (age 54), that they never did nor do agree; and all the world did judge the Chancellor (age 54) to be falling from the time that Sir H. Bennet (age 45) was brought in. Besides my Lord Bristoll (age 50) being a Catholique himself, all this is very strange.

Pepy's Diary. 30 Jul 1663. By and by Mr. Coventry (age 35) only came (Sir John Minnes (age 64) and Sir William Batten (age 62) being gone this morning to Portsmouth, Hampshire [Map] to pay some ships and the yard there), and after doing a little business he and I down to Woolwich, Kent [Map], and there up and down the yard, and by and by came Sir G. Carteret (age 53) and we all looked into matters, and then by water back to Deptford, where we dined with him at his house, a very good dinner and mightily tempted with wines of all sorts and brave French Syder, but I drunk none. But that which is a great wonder I find his little daughter Betty, that was in hanging sleeves but a month or two ago, and is a very little young child; married, and to whom, but to young Scott, son to Madam Catharine Scott, that was so long in law, and at whose triall I was with her husband; he pleading that it was unlawfully got and would not own it, she, it seems, being brought to bed of it, if not got by somebody else at Oxford, but it seems a little before his death he did own the child, and hath left him his estate, not long since. So Sir G. Carteret (age 53) hath struck up of a sudden a match with him for his little daughter. He hath about £2000 per annum; and it seems Sir G. Carteret (age 53) hath by this means over-reached Sir H. Bennet (age 45), who did endeavour to get this gentleman for a sister of his, but Sir G. Carteret (age 53) I say has over-reached him. By this means Sir G. Carteret (age 53) hath married two daughters this year both very well.

Pepy's Diary. 31 Jul 1663. But he tells me my Lord hath lost much honour in standing so long and so much for that coxcomb Pickering, and at last not carrying it for him; but hath his name struck out by the King (age 33) and Queen (age 24) themselves after he had been in ever since the Queen's (age 24) coming. But he tells me he believes that either Sir H. Bennet (age 45), my Baroness Castlemaine (age 22), or Sir Charles Barkeley (age 33) had received some money for the place, and so the King (age 33) could not disappoint them, but was forced to put out this fool rather than a better man.

Pepy's Diary. 10 Aug 1663. Thence by coach with my Lords Peterborough (age 41) and Sandwich to my Lord Peterborough's house; and there, after an hour's looking over some fine books of the Italian buildings, with fine cuts; and also my Lord Peterborough's (age 41) bowes and arrows, of which he is a great lover, we sat down to dinner, my Lady (age 41) coming down to dinner also, and there being Mr. Williamson (age 30), that belongs to Sir H. Bennet (age 45), whom I find a pretty understanding and accomplished man, but a little conceited.

Pepy's Diary. 06 Nov 1663. Thence, after walking a good while in the Long gallery, home to my Lord's lodging, my Lord telling me how my father did desire him to speak to me about my giving of my sister something, which do vex me to see that he should trouble my Lord in it, but however it is a good occasion for me to tell my Lord my condition, and so I was glad of it. After that we begun to talk of the Court, and he tells me how Mr. Edward Montagu (age 28) begins to show respect to him again after his endeavouring to bespatter him all was, possible; but he is resolved never to admit him into his friendship again. He tells me how he and Sir H. Bennet (age 45), the Duke of Buckingham (age 35) and his Duchesse (age 25), was of a committee with somebody else for the getting of Mrs. Stewart (age 16) for the King (age 33); but that she proves a cunning slut, and is advised at Somerset House [Map] by the Queene-Mother (age 24), and by her mother (age 53), and so all the plot is spoiled and the whole committee broke. Mr. Montagu (age 28) and the Duke of Buckingham (age 35) fallen a-pieces, the Duchesse (age 25) going to a nunnery; and so Montagu begins to enter friendship with my Lord, and to attend the Chancellor (age 54) whom he had deserted. My Lord tells me that Mr. Montagu (age 28), among other things, did endeavour to represent him to the Chancellor's (age 54) sons as one that did desert their father in the business of my Lord of Bristol (age 51); which is most false, being the only man that hath several times dined with him when no soul hath come to him, and went with him that very day home when the Earl impeached him in the Parliament House, and hath refused ever to pay a visit to my Lord of Bristol (age 51), not so much as in return to a visit of his. So that the Chancellor (age 54) and my Lord are well known and trusted one by another. But yet my Lord blames the Chancellor (age 54) for desiring to have it put off to the next Session of Parliament, contrary to my Lord Treasurer's (age 56) advice, to whom he swore he would not do it: and, perhaps, my Chancellor (age 54), for aught I see by my Lord's discourse, may suffer by it when the Parliament comes to sit. My Lord tells me that he observes the Duke of York (age 30) do follow and understand business very well, and is mightily improved thereby.

Pepy's Diary. 22 Feb 1664. This evening came Mr. Alsopp the King's brewer, with whom I spent an houre talking and bewailing the posture of things at present; the King (age 33) led away by half-a-dozen men, that none of his serious servants and friends can come at him. These are Lauderdale (age 47), Buckingham (age 36), Hamilton, Fitz-Harding (age 34) (to whom he hath, it seems, given £2,000 per annum in the best part of the King's estate); and that that the old Duke of Buckingham could never get of the King (age 33). Progers is another, and Sir H. Bennett (age 46). He loves not the Queen (age 25) at all, but is rather sullen to her; and she, by all reports, incapable of children. He is so fond of the Duke of Monmouth (age 14), that every body admires it; and he says the Duke hath said, that he would be the death of any man that says the King (age 33) was not married to his mother: though Alsopp says, it is well known that she was a common whore before the King (age 33) lay with her. But it seems, he says, that the King (age 33) is mighty kind to these his bastard children; and at this day will go at midnight to my Baroness Castlemaine's (age 23) nurses, and take the child and dance it in his arms: that he is not likely to have his tables up again in his house1, for the crew that are about him will not have him come to common view again, but keep him obscurely among themselves. He hath this night, it seems, ordered that the Hall (which there is a ball to be in to-night before the King (age 33)) be guarded, as the Queen-Mother's (age 54) is, by his Horse Guards; whereas heretofore they were by the Lord Chamberlain or Steward, and their people. But it is feared they will reduce all to the soldiery, and all other places taken away; and what is worst of all, that he will alter the present militia, and bring all to a flying army.

Note 1. The tables at which the King (age 33) dined in public.-B.

Evelyn's Diary. 27 Apr 1664. Saw a facetious comedy, called "Love in a Tub"; and supped at Mr. Secretary Bennett's (age 46).

Evelyn's Diary. 05 May 1664. Went with some company a journey of pleasure on the water, in a barge, with music, and at Mortlake had a great banquet, returning late. The occasion was, Sir Robert Carr (age 27) now courting [his sister] Mrs. Bennett, sister to the Secretary of State (age 46).

Pepy's Diary. 20 Jun 1664. Thence to my Lord's lodgings; and were merry with the young ladies, who make a great story of their appearing before their mother the morning after we carried them, the last week, home so late; and that their mother took it very well, at least without any anger. Here I heard how the rich widow, my Lady Gold (age 20), is married to one Neale, after he had received a box on the eare by her brother [either John Garrard 3rd Baronet (age 26) or Samuel Garrard 4th Baronet (age 14)] (who was there a sentinel, in behalf of some courtier) at the door; but made him draw, and wounded him. She called Neale up to her, and sent for a priest, married presently, and went to bed. The brother sent to the Court, and had a serjeant sent for Neale; but Neale sent for him up to be seen in bed, and she owned him for her husband: and so all is past. It seems Sir H. Bennet (age 46) did look after her. My Lady very pleasant.

Calendars. 14 Jul 1664. 65. Duke of Albemarle (age 55) to Capt. Basset, officer-in-chief of the King's troop. He is to send a corporal to receive from Sir Henry Bennet (age 46) orders to the Lieutenant of the Tower to deliver to him Robert Atkinson, and to the Keeper of the Gatehouse to deliver Rich. Oldroyd, and appoint six troopers to convey them to Northampton, and there deliver them to the chief officer of Col. Frescheville's (age 56) troop, to convey them to York. Sec. Bennet (age 46) will deliver him moneys for the whole journey, and post warrants for horses, which he is to transfer to Col. Frescheville (age 56). [Copy.]

Pepy's Diary. 15 Jul 1664. Up, and to my Lord Sandwich's (age 38); where he sent for me up, and I did give my Lord an account of what had passed with my Chancellor (age 55) yesterday; with which he was well pleased, and advised me by all means to study in the best manner I could to serve him in this business. After this discourse ended, he begun to tell me that he had now pitched upon his day of going to sea upon Monday next, and that he would now give me an account how matters are with him. He told me that his work now in the world is only to keep up his interest at Court, having little hopes to get more considerably, he saying that he hath now about £8,000 per annum. It is true, he says, he oweth about £10,000; but he hath been at great charges in getting things to this pass in his estate; besides his building and good goods that he hath bought. He says he hath now evened his reckonings at the Wardrobe till Michaelmas last, and hopes to finish it to Ladyday before he goes. He says now there is due, too, £7,000 to him there, if he knew how to get it paid, besides £2000 that Mr. Montagu do owe him. As to his interest, he says that he hath had all the injury done him that ever man could have by another bosom friend that knows all his secrets, by Mr. Montagu; but he says that the worst of it all is past, and he gone out and hated, his very person by the King (age 34), and he believes the more upon the score of his carriage to him; nay, that the Duke of Yorke (age 30) did say a little while since in his closett, that he did hate him because of his ungratefull carriage to my Lord of Sandwich (age 38). He says that he is as great with the Chancellor (age 55), or greater, than ever in his life. That with the King (age 34) he is the like; and told me an instance, that whereas he formerly was of the private council to the King (age 34) before he was last sicke, and that by the sickness an interruption was made in his attendance upon him; the King (age 34) did not constantly call him, as he used to do, to his private council, only in businesses of the sea and the like; but of late the King (age 34) did send a message to him by Sir Harry Bennet (age 46), to excuse the King (age 34) to my Lord that he had not of late sent for him as he used to do to his private council, for it was not out of any distaste, but to avoid giving offence to some others whom he did not name; but my Lord supposes it might be Prince Rupert (age 44), or it may be only that the King (age 34) would rather pass it by an excuse, than be thought unkind: but that now he did desire him to attend him constantly, which of late he hath done, and the King (age 34) never more kind to him in his life than now.

Pepy's Diary. 15 Jul 1664. The Duke of Yorke (age 30), as much as is possible; and in the business of late, when I was to speak to my Lord about his going to sea, he says that he finds the Duke did it with the greatest ingenuity and love in the world; "and whereas", says my Lord, "here is a wise man hard by that thinks himself so, and would be thought so, and it may be is in a degree so (naming by and by my Lord Crew (age 66)), would have had me condition with him that neither Prince Rupert (age 44) nor any body should come over his head, and I know not what". The Duke himself hath caused in his commission, that he be made Admirall of this and what other ships or fleets shall hereafter be put out after these; which is very noble. He tells me in these cases, and that of Mr. Montagu's, and all others, he finds that bearing of them patiently is his best way, without noise or trouble, and things wear out of themselves and come fair again. But, says he, take it from me, never to trust too much to any man in the world, for you put yourself into his power; and the best seeming friend and real friend as to the present may have or take occasion to fall out with you, and then out comes all. Then he told me of Sir Harry Bennet (age 46), though they were always kind, yet now it is become to an acquaintance and familiarity above ordinary, that for these months he hath done no business but with my Lord's advice in his chamber, and promises all faithfull love to him and service upon all occasions. My Lord says, that he hath the advantage of being able by his experience to helpe and advise him; and he believes that that chiefly do invite Sir Harry to this manner of treating him. "Now", says my Lord, "the only and the greatest embarras that I have in the world is, how to behave myself to Sir H. Bennet (age 46) and my Chancellor (age 55), in case that there do lie any thing under the embers about my Lord Bristoll (age 51), which nobody can tell; for then", says he, "I must appear for one or other, and I will lose all I have in the world rather than desert my Chancellor (age 55): so that", says he, "I know not for my life what to do in that case". For Sir H. Bennet's (age 46) love is come to the height, and his confidence, that he hath given my Lord a character, and will oblige my Lord to correspond with him. "This", says he, "is the whole condition of my estate and interest; which I tell you, because I know not whether I shall see you again or no". Then as to the voyage, he thinks it will be of charge to him, and no profit; but that he must not now look after nor think to encrease, but study to make good what he hath, that what is due to him from the Wardrobe or elsewhere may be paid, which otherwise would fail, and all a man hath be but small content to him. So we seemed to take leave one of another; my Lord of me, desiring me that I would write to him and give him information upon all occasions in matters that concern him; which, put together with what he preambled with yesterday, makes me think that my Lord do truly esteem me still, and desires to preserve my service to him; which I do bless God for. In the middle of our discourse my Baroness Crew came in to bring my Lord word that he hath another son, my Lady being brought to bed just now, I did not think her time had been so nigh, but she's well brought to bed, for which God be praised! and send my Lord to study the laying up of something the more! Then with Creed to St. James's, and missing Mr. Coventry (age 36), to White Hall; where, staying for him in one of the galleries, there comes out of the chayre-room Mrs. Stewart (age 17), in a most lovely form, with her hair all about her eares, having her picture taking there. There was the King (age 34) and twenty more, I think, standing by all the while, and a lovely creature she in this dress seemed to be.

Evelyn's Diary. 29 Oct 1664. Was the most magnificent triumph by water and land of the Lord Mayor. I dined at Guildhall [Map] at the upper table, placed next to Sir H. Bennett (age 46), Secretary of State, opposite to my Lord Chancellor (age 55) and the Duke of Buckingham (age 36), who sat between Monsieur Comminges, the French Ambassador, Lord Treasurer (age 57), the Dukes of Ormond (age 54) and Albemarle (age 55), Earl of Manchester (age 62), Lord Chamberlain, and the rest of the great officers of state. My Lord Mayor came twice up to us, first drinking in the golden goblet his Majesty's (age 34) health, then the French King's as a compliment to the Ambassador; we returned my Lord Mayor's health, the trumpets and drums sounding. The cheer was not to be imagined for the plenty and rarity, with an infinite number of persons at the tables in that ample hall. The feast was said to cost £1,000. I slipped away in the crowd, and came home late.

Pepy's Diary. 04 Nov 1664. Waked very betimes and lay long awake, my mind being so full of business. Then up and to St. James's, where I find Mr. Coventry (age 36) full of business, packing up for his going to sea with the Duke (age 31). Walked with him, talking, to White Hall, where to the Duke's lodgings, who is gone thither to lodge lately. I appeared to the Duke (age 31), and thence Mr. Coventry (age 36) and I an hour in the Long gallery, talking about the management of our office, he tells me the weight of dispatch will lie chiefly on me, and told me freely his mind touching Sir W. Batten (age 63) and Sir J. Minnes (age 65), the latter of whom, he most aptly said, was like a lapwing; that all he did was to keepe a flutter, to keepe others from the nest that they would find. He told me an old story of the former about the light-houses, how just before he had certified to the Duke (age 31) against the use of them, and what a burden they are to trade, and presently after, at his being at Harwich [Map], comes to desire that he might have the setting one up there, and gets the usefulness of it certified also by the Trinity House, Deptford [Map]. After long discoursing and considering all our stores and other things, as how the King (age 34) hath resolved upon Captain Taylor1 and Colonell Middleton, the first to be Commissioner for Harwich [Map] and the latter for Portsmouth, Hampshire [Map], I away to the 'Change [Map], and there did very much business, so home to dinner, and Mr. Duke, our Secretary for the Fishery, dined with me.

Note 1. Coventry (age 36), writing to Secretary Bennet (age 46) (November 14th, 1664), refers to the objections made to Taylor, and adds: "Thinks the King (age 34) will not easily consent to his rejection, as he is a man of great abilities and dispatch, and was formerly laid aside at Chatham, Kent [Map] on the Duchess of Albemarle's (age 45) earnest interposition for another. He is a fanatic, it is true, but all hands will be needed for the work cut out; there is less danger of them in harbour than at sea, and profit will convert most of them" ("Calendar of State Papers", Domestic, 1664-65, p. 68).

Calendars. 13 Nov 1664. 93. William Coventry (age 36) to [Sec. Bennet (age 46)]. Hopes the wind will change, and bring the Charles and the other ships out of the river; will not then fear what Opdam can do, though the men are raw, and need a little time at sea. The Ruby and Happy Return have brought some supernumeraries, but 500 more are wanted; 200 are expected from Plymouth, but till some runaways are hanged, the ships cannot be kept well manned. Sends a list of some fit to be made examples of in the several counties where they were pressed, with the names of those who pressed them. The Dutch ship named before is brought in, and two others are stayed at Cowes, Isle of Wight by virtue of the embargo, the order in Council making no exception for foreigners, The King's pleasure should be known therein, as the end, which is to gather seamen, does not seem to require the stopping of foreigners. Prize officers must- be sent speedily to [Portsmouth], Dover, and Deal. Those at Deal, Kent [Map] should have men in readiness to carry prizes up the river, that the men belonging to the fleet be not scattered. Persons should also be hastened to 'take care of the sick and wounded. The Duke (age 31) intends to appoint Erwin captain of the ship hired to go to St. Helena; he is approved by the East India Company, which is important, trade being intermixed with convoy, and they find fault if a commander of the King's ships bring home any little matter privately bought. The Duke has divided the fleet into squadrons, assigning to each a vice and rear adiniral; Sir John Lawson (age 49) and Sir William Berkeley to his own, Mennes (age 65) and Sansum to Prince Rupert's (age 44), Sir George Aiscue (age 48) [Ayscough] and Teddeman to the Earl of Sandwich. Hopes in a few days to be in much better order, if good men can be got. Will send a list of the squadrons. The Guernsey is damaged by running aground. Rear-Admiral Teddeman, with 4 or 5 ships, has gone to course in the Channel, and if he meet any refractory Dutchmen, will teach them their duty. The King's declaration for encouraging seamen has much revived the men, and added to their courage. [Four pages.]

Calendars. 14 Nov 1664. 104. William Coventry (age 36) to [Sec. Bennet. (age 46)] Believes nothing short of hanging will secure the pressed men. Lord St. John's news can hardly be believed, but the report will do no harm, for if the Dutch begin so roughly, seamen will be unwilling to go on merchantmen, and so cannot live without going on men-of-war. Hears that Taylor was objected to by the Committee [for Maritime Affairs] as a [Navy] Commissioner; he was chosen without contradiction by Sir John Mennes (age 65), Sir John Lawson (age 49), and Sir William Penn (age 43), and the warrants sent for him and others to the Attorney-General, as was usual in Lord Northumberland's time. Thinks the King will not easily consent to his rejection, as he is a man of great abilities and dispatch, and was formerly laid aside at Chatham [Map], on the Duchess of Albemarle's (age 45) earnest interposition for another. He is a fanatic, it is true, but all hands will be needed for the work cut out; there is less danger of them in harbour than at sea, and profit will convert most of them. The weather is bad; wonders the Scotchmen have not got to the Hope. The new ship is nearly ready, but has no guns; some spare ones should be sent in some man-of-war. [Two pages.]

Pepy's Diary. 16 Nov 1664. Up and to my business, and then to White Hall, there to attend the Lords Commissioners, and so directly home and dined with Sir W. Batten (age 63) and my Lady, and after dinner had much discourse tending to profit with Sir W. Batten (age 63), how to get ourselves into the prize office1 or some other fair way of obliging the King (age 34) to consider us in our extraordinary pains.

Note 1. The Calendars of State Papers are full of references to applications for Commissionerships of the Prize Office. In December, 1664, the Navy Committee appointed themselves the Commissioners for Prize Goods, Sir Henry Bennet (age 46) being appointed Comptroller, and Lord Ashley (age 43) treasurer.

Pepy's Diary. 21 Nov 1664. I to the 'Change [Map] and there staid long doing business, and this day for certain newes is come that Teddiman hath brought in eighteen or twenty Dutchmen, merchants, their Bourdeaux fleete, and two men of wary to Portsmouth, Hampshire [Map]1.

Note 1. Captain Sir Thomas Captain Sir Thomas Teddiman (or Tyddiman) had been appointed Rear-Admiral of Lord Sandwich's (age 39) squadron of the English fleet. In a letter from Sir William Coventry (age 36) to Secretary Bennet (age 46), dated November 13th, 1664, we read, "Rear Admiral Teddeman with four or five ships has gone to course in the Channel, and if he meet any refractory Dutchmen will teach them their duty" (Calendar of State Papers, Domestic, 1664.-65, p. 66).

Pepy's Diary. 16 Jan 1665. To the office a while, then to supper and to bed. This afternoon Secretary Bennet (age 47) read to the Duke of Yorke (age 31) his letters, which say that Allen (age 53)1 has met with the Dutch Smyrna fleet at Cales2, and sunk one and taken three. How true or what these ships are time will show, but it is good newes and the newes of our ships being lost is doubted at dales and Malaga. God send it false!

Note 1. Among the State Papers is a letter from Captain Thomas Allin (age 53) to Sir Richard Fanshaw (age 36), dated from "The Plymouth, Cadiz Bay", December 25th, 1664, in which he writes: "On the 19th attacked with his seven ships left, a Dutch fleet of fourteen, three of which were men-of- war; sunk two vessels and took two others, one a rich prize from Smyrna; the others retired much battered. Has also taken a Dutch prize laden with iron and planks, coming from Lisbon (Calendar, Domestic, 1664-65, p. 122).

Note 2. The old form of the name Cádiz.

On 14 Mar 1665 Henry Bennet 1st Earl Arlington (age 47) was created 1st Baron Arlington of Arlington in Middlesex with a special remainder allowing it to pass to both male and female descendants. [his wife] Elisabeth Nassau Beverweert Countess Arlington (age 31) by marriage Baroness Arlington of Arlington in Middlesex.

Pepy's Diary. 20 Mar 1665. So to White Hall to the Committee of Tangier, where there were present, my Lord of Albemarle (age 56), my Lord Peterborough (age 43), Sandwich, Barkeley (age 63), FitzHarding (age 35), Secretary Bennet (age 47), Sir Thomas Ingram (age 50), Sir John Lawson (age 50), Povy (age 51) and I Where, after other business, Povy (age 51) did declare his business very handsomely; that he was sorry he had been so unhappy in his accounts, as not to give their Lordships the satisfaction he intended, and that he was sure his accounts are right, and continues to submit them to examination, and is ready to lay down in ready money the fault of his account; and that for the future, that the work might be better done and with more quiet to him, he desired, by approbation of the Duke (age 31), he might resign his place to Mr. Pepys. Whereupon, Secretary Bennet (age 47) did deliver the Duke's (age 31) command, which was received with great content and allowance beyond expectation; the Secretary repeating also the Duke's character of me. And I could discern my Lord FitzHarding (age 35) was well pleased with me, and signified full satisfaction, and whispered something seriously of me to the Secretary. And there I received their constitution under all their hands presently; so that I am already confirmed their Treasurer, and put into a condition of striking of tallys1 and all without one harsh word or word of dislike, but quite the contrary; which is a good fortune beyond all imagination. Here we rose, and Povy (age 51) and Creed and I, all full of joy, thence to dinner, they setting me down at Sir J. Winter's, by promise, and dined with him; and a worthy fine man he seems to be, and of good discourse, our business was to discourse of supplying the King (age 34) with iron for anchors, if it can be judged good enough, and a fine thing it is to see myself come to the condition of being received by persons of this rank, he being, and having long been, Secretary to the Queene-Mother (age 26).

Note 1. The practice of striking tallies at the Exchequer was a curious survival of an ancient method of keeping accounts. The method adopted is described in Hubert Hall's "Antiquities and Curiosities of the Exchequer", 1891. The following account of the use of tallies, so frequently alluded to in the Diary, was supplied by Lord Braybrooke. Formerly accounts were kept, and large sums of money paid and received, by the King's Exchequer, with little other form than the exchange or delivery of tallies, pieces of wood notched or scored, corresponding blocks being kept by the parties to the account; and from this usage one of the head officers of the Exchequer was called the tallier, or teller. These tallies were often negotiable; Adam Smith, in his "Wealth of Nations", book ii., ch. xi., says that "in 1696 tallies had been at forty, and fifty, and sixty per cent. discount, and bank-notes at twenty per cent". The system of tallies was discontinued in 1824; and the destruction of the old Houses of Parliament, in the night of October 16th, 1834, is thought to have been occasioned by the overheating of the flues, when the furnaces were employed to consume the tallies rendered useless by the alteration in the mode of keeping the Exchequer accounts.

Pepy's Diary. 20 Mar 1665. Thence to St. James's, and there was in great doubt of Brunkerd (age 38), but at last I hear that Brunkerd desists. The Duke (age 31) did direct Secretary Bennet (age 47), who was there, to declare his mind to the Tangier Committee, that he approves of me for Treasurer; and with a character of me to be a man whose industry and discretion he would trust soon as any man's in England: and did the like to my Lord Sandwich (age 39).

Pepy's Diary. 27 Mar 1665. Thence, and did the same to Sir H. Bennet (age 47), who did the like to me very fully, and did give me all his letters lately come from hence for me to read, which I returned in the afternoon to him.

Evelyn's Diary. 29 Mar 1665. Went to Goring House [Map], now Mr. Secretary Bennet's (age 47), ill-built, but the place capable of being made a pretty villa. His Majesty (age 34) was now finishing the Decoy in the Park.

Evelyn's Diary. 20 Apr 1665. To Whitehall [Map], to the King (age 34), who called me into his bedchamber as he was dressing, to whom, I showed the letter written to me from the Duke of York (age 31) from the fleet, giving me notice of young Evertzen, and some considerable commanders newly taken in fight with the Dartmouth and Diamond frigates, whom he had sent me as prisoners at war; I went to know of his Majesty (age 34) how he would have me treat them, when he commanded me to bring the young captain to him, and to take the word of the Dutch Ambassador (who yet remained here) for the other, that he should render himself to me whenever I called on him, and not stir without leave. Upon which I desired more guards, the prison being Chelsea House. I went also to Lord Arlington (age 47) (the Secretary Bennet lately made a Lord) about other business. Dined at my Lord Chancellor's (age 56); none with him but Sir Sackville Crowe (age 69), formerly Ambassador at Constantinople; we were very cheerful and merry.

Pepy's Diary. 19 May 1665. Up, and to White Hall, where the Committee for Tangier met, and there, though the case as to the merit of it was most plain and most of the company favourable to our business, yet it was with much ado that I got the business not carried fully against us, but put off to another day, my Lord Arlington (age 47) being the great man in it, and I was sorry to be found arguing so greatly against him. The business I believe will in the end be carried against us, and the whole business fall; I must therefore endeavour the most I can to get money another way. It vexed me to see Creed so hot against it, but I cannot much blame him, having never declared to him my being concerned in it. But that that troubles me most is my Lord Arlington (age 47) calls to me privately and asks me whether I had ever said to any body that I desired to leave this employment, having not time to look after it. I told him, No, for that the thing being settled it will not require much time to look after it. He told me then he would do me right to the King (age 34), for he had been told so, which I desired him to do, and by and by he called me to him again and asked me whether I had no friend about the Duke, asking me (I making a stand) whether Mr. Coventry (age 37) was not my friend. I told him I had received many friendships from him. He then advised me to procure that the Duke would in his next letter write to him to continue me in my place and remove any obstruction; which I told him I would, and thanked him.

Pepy's Diary. 19 May 1665. So parted, vexed at the first and amazed at this business of my Lord Arlington's (age 47).

Pepy's Diary. 19 May 1665. Being come home, I much troubled out again by coach (for company taking Sir W. Warren with me), intending to have spoke to my Lord Arlington (age 47) to have known the bottom of it, but missed him, and afterwards discoursing the thing as a confidant to Sir W. Warren, he did give me several good hints and principles not to do anything suddenly, but consult my pillow upon that and every great thing of my life, before I resolve anything in it.

Calendars. 13 Jun 1665. Royal Charles. Southwold Bay [Map]. 7. Sir William Coventry (age 37) to Lord Arlington (age 47). The sea there causing delay in refitting the ships, some are to be sent to Ousley Bay, the Rolling Grounds, Harwich [Map], and the buoy of the Nore, to be in smoother water. The Duke (age 31) is sailing for London. Capt. Holmes asked to be rear-admiral of the white squadron, in place of Sansum who was killed, but the Duke (age 31) gave the place to Capt. Harman (age 40), on which Holmes delivered up his commission, which the Duke (age 31) received, and put Capt. Langhorne in his stead. [2 pages.]

Pepy's Diary. 16 Jun 1665. By and by saw Mr. Coventry (age 37), which rejoiced my very heart. Anon he and I, from all the rest of the company, walked into the Matted Gallery; where after many expressions of love, we fell to talk of business. Among other things, how my Lord Sandwich (age 39), both in his counsells and personal service, hath done most honourably and serviceably. Sir J. Lawson (age 50) is come to Greenwich, Kent [Map]; but his wound in his knee yet very bad. Jonas Poole, in the Vantguard, did basely, so as to be, or will be, turned out of his ship. Captain Holmes (age 43)1 expecting upon Sansum's death to be made Rear-admirall to the Prince (age 45) (but Harman (age 40)2 is put in) hath delivered up to the Duke (age 31) his commission, which the Duke (age 31) took and tore. He, it seems, had bid the Prince, who first told him of Holmes's intention, that he should dissuade him from it; for that he was resolved to take it if he offered it. Yet Holmes would do it, like a rash, proud coxcombe. But he is rich, and hath, it seems, sought an occasion of leaving the service. Several of our captains have done ill. The great ships are the ships do the business, they quite deadening the enemy. They run away upon sight of "The Prince3".

Note 1. Captain Robert Holmes (age 43) (afterwards knighted). Sir William Coventry (age 37), in a letter to Lord Arlington (age 47) (dated from "The Royal Charles", Southwold Bay, June 13th), writes: "Capt. Holmes asked to be rear admiral of the white squadron in place of Sansum who was killed, but the Duke gave the place to Captain Harman (age 40), on which he delivered up his commission, which the Duke received, and put Captain Langhorne in his stead" (Calendar of State Papers, Domestic, 1664-65, p. 423).

Note 2. John Harman (age 40), afterwards knighted. He had served with great reputation in several naval fights, and was desperately wounded in 1673, while.

Note 3. "The Prince" was Lord Sandwich's (age 39) ship; the captain was Roger Cuttance. It was put up at Chatham, Kent [Map] for repair at this date.

Pepy's Diary. 30 Jun 1665. Up and to White Hall, to the Duke of Albemarle (age 56), who I find at Secretary Bennet's (age 47), there being now no other great Statesman, I think, but my Chancellor (age 56), in towne. I received several commands from them; among others, to provide some bread and cheese for the garrison at Guernsey [Map], which they promised to see me paid for.

Pepy's Diary. 30 Jun 1665. So I back again, walking both forward and backward, and left my wife to come by water. I straight to White Hall, late, to Secretary Bennet's (age 47) to give him an account of the business I received from him to-day, and there staid weary and sleepy till past 12 at night. Then writ my mind to him, and so back by water and in the dark and against tide shot the bridge, groping with their pole for the way, which troubled me before I got through.

Pepy's Diary. 23 Jul 1665. I followed the King (age 35) to chappell, and there hear a good sermon; and after sermon with my Lord Arlington (age 47), Sir Thomas Ingram (age 51) and others, spoke to the Duke (age 31) about Tangier, but not to much purpose. I was not invited any whither to dinner, though a stranger, which did also trouble me; but yet I must remember it is a Court, and indeed where most are strangers; but, however, Mr. Cutler carried me to Mr. Marriott's the house-keeper, and there we had a very good dinner and good company, among others Lilly (age 46), the painter.

Pepy's Diary. 19 Aug 1665. Slept till 8 o'clock, and then up and met with letters from the King (age 35) and Lord Arlington (age 47), for the removal of our office to Greenwich, Kent [Map]. I also wrote letters, and made myself ready to go to Sir G. Carteret (age 55), at Windsor; and having borrowed a horse of Mr. Blackbrough, sent him to wait for me at the Duke of Albemarle's (age 56) door: when, on a sudden, a letter comes to us from the Duke of Albemarle (age 56), to tell us that the fleete is all come back to Solebay [Map], and are presently to be dispatched back again. Whereupon I presently by water to the Duke of Albemarle (age 56) to know what news; and there I saw a letter from my Lord Sandwich (age 40) to the Duke of Albemarle (age 56), and also from Sir W. Coventry (age 37) and Teddiman; how my Lord having commanded Teddiman with twenty-two ships1.

Note 1. A news letter of August 19th (Salisbury), gives the following account of this affair:-"The Earl of Sandwich being on the Norway coast, ordered Sir Thomas Teddeman with 20 ships to attack 50 Dutch merchant ships in Bergen harbour; six convoyers had so placed themselves that only four or five of the ships could be reached at once. The Governor of Bergen fired on our ships, and placed 100 pieces of ordnance and two regiments of foot on the rocks to attack them, but they got clear without the loss of a ship, only 500 men killed or wounded, five or six captains among them. The fleet has gone to Sole Bay to repair losses and be ready to encounter the Dutch fleet, which is gone northward" (Calendar of State Papers, 1664-65, pp. 526, 527). Medals were struck in Holland, the inscription in Dutch on one of these is thus translated: "Thus we arrest the pride of the English, who extend their piracy even against their friends, and who insulting the forts of Norway, violate the rights of the harbours of King Frederick; but, for the reward of their audacity, see their vessels destroyed by the balls of the Dutch" (Hawkins's "Medallic Illustrations of the History of Great Britain and Ireland", ed. Franks and Grueber, 1885, vol. i., p. 508). Sir Gilbert Talbot's "True Narrative of the Earl of Sandwich's Attempt upon Bergen with the English Fleet on the 3rd of August, 1665, and the Cause of his Miscarriage thereupon", is in the British Museum (Harl. MS., No. 6859). It is printed in "Archaeologia", vol. xxii., p. 33. The Earl of Rochester, Kent [Map] also gave an account of the action in a letter to his mother (Wordsworth's "Ecclesiastical Biography", fourth edition, vol. iv., p. 611). Sir John Denham (age 50), in his "Advice to a Painter", gives a long satirical account of the affair. A coloured drawing of the attack upon Bergen, on vellum, showing the range of the ships engaged, is in the British Museum. Shortly after the Bergen affair forty of the Dutch merchant vessels, on their way to Holland, fell into the hands of the English, and in Penn's "Memorials of Sir William Pen (age 44)", vol. ii., p. 364, is a list of the prizes taken on the 3rd and 4th September. The troubles connected with these prizes and the disgrace into which Lord Sandwich (age 40) fell are fully set forth in subsequent pages of the Diary. Evelyn writes in his Diary (November 27th, 1665): "There was no small suspicion of my Lord Sandwich (age 40) having permitted divers commanders who were at ye taking of ye East India prizes to break bulk and take to themselves jewels, silkes, &c., tho' I believe some whom I could name fill'd their pockets, my Lo. Sandwich himself had the least share. However, he underwent the blame, and it created him enemies, and prepossess'd ye Lo. Generall (Duke of Albemarle (age 56)), for he spake to me of it with much zeale and concerne, and I believe laid load enough on Lo. Sandwich at Oxford". (of which but fifteen could get thither, and of those fifteen but eight or nine could come up to play) to go to Bergen; where, after several messages to and fro from the Governor of the Castle, urging that Teddiman ought not to come thither with more than five ships, and desiring time to think of it, all the while he suffering the Dutch ships to land their guns to their best advantage; Teddiman on the second pretence, began to play at the Dutch ships, (wherof ten East India-men,) and in three hours' time (the town and castle, without any provocation, playing on our ships,) they did cut all our cables, so as the wind being off the land, did force us to go out, and rendered our fire-ships useless; without doing any thing, but what hurt of course our guns must have done them: we having lost five commanders, besides Mr. Edward Montagu, and Mr. Windham. This Mr. Windham had entered into a formal engagement with the Earl of Rochester, Kent [Map], "not without ceremonies of religion, that if either of them died, he should appear, and give the other notice of the future state, if there was any". He was probably one of the brothers of Sir William Wyndham, Bart. See Wordsworth's "Ecclesiastical Biography", fourth. edition, vol. iv., p. 615. B.

Pepy's Diary. 07 Sep 1665. After all this, and ending the chief business to my content about getting a promise of some money of him, we took leave, being exceedingly well treated here, and a most pleasant journey we had back, Povy (age 51) and I, and his company most excellent in anything but business, he here giving me an account of as many persons at Court as I had a mind or thought of enquiring after. He tells me by a letter he showed me, that the King (age 35) is not, nor hath been of late, very well, but quite out of humour; and, as some think, in a consumption, and weary of every thing. He showed me my Lord Arlington's (age 47) house that he was born in, in a towne called Harlington: and so carried me through a most pleasant country to Brainford [Map], and there put me into my boat, and good night. So I wrapt myself warm, and by water got to Woolwich, Kent [Map] about one in the morning, my wife and all in bed.

Pepy's Diary. 25 Oct 1665. That my Chancellor (age 56) do from hence begin to be cold to him, because of his seeing him and Arlington (age 47) so great: that nothing at Court is minded but faction and pleasure, and nothing intended of general good to the Kingdom by anybody heartily; so that he believes with me, in a little time confusion will certainly come over all the nation. He told me how a design was carried on a while ago, for the Duke of Yorke (age 32) to raise an army in the North, and to be the Generall of it, and all this without the knowledge or advice of the Duke of Albemarle (age 56), which when he come to know, he was so vexed, they were fain to let it fall to content him: that his matching with the family of Sir G. Carteret (age 55) do make the difference greater between Coventry (age 37) and him, they being enemies; that the Chancellor (age 56) did, as every body else, speak well of me the other day, but yet was, at the Committee for Tangier, angry that I should offer to suffer a bill of exchange to be protested.

Pepy's Diary. 25 Oct 1665. By and by comes down my Lord, and then he and I an houre together alone upon private discourse. He tells me that Mr. Coventry (age 37) and he are not reconciled, but declared enemies: the only occasion of it being, he tells me, his ill usage from him about the first fight, wherein he had no right done him, which, methinks, is a poor occasion, for, in my conscience, that was no design of Coventry's. But, however, when I asked my Lord whether it were not best, though with some condescension, to be friends with him, he told me it was not possible, and so I stopped. He tells me, as very private, that there are great factions at the Court between the King's party and the Duke of Yorke's (age 32), and that the King (age 35), which is a strange difficulty, do favour my Lord in opposition to the Duke's party; that my Chancellor (age 56), being, to be sure, the patron of the Duke's, it is a mystery whence it should be that Mr. Coventry (age 37) is looked upon by him [Clarendon] as an enemy to him; that if he had a mind himself to be out of this employment, as Mr. Coventry (age 37), he believes, wishes, and himself and I do incline to wish it also, in many respects, yet he believes he shall not be able, because of the King (age 35), who will keepe him in on purpose, in opposition to the other party; that Prince Rupert (age 45) and he are all possible friends in the world; that Coventry (age 37) hath aggravated this business of the prizes, though never so great plundering in the world as while the Duke and he were at sea; and in Sir John Lawson's time he could take and pillage, and then sink a whole ship in the Streights, and Coventry (age 37) say nothing to it; that my Lord Arlington (age 47) is his fast friend; that the Chancellor (age 56) is cold to him, and though I told him that I and the world do take my Chancellor (age 56), in his speech the other day, to have said as much as could be wished, yet he thinks he did not.

Pepy's Diary. 06 Nov 1665. But, for all this, the King (age 35) is most firme to my Lord, and so is my Chancellor (age 56), and my Lord Arlington (age 47).

Pepy's Diary. 22 Jan 1666. At noon my Lord Bruncker (age 46) did come, but left the keys of the chests we should open, at Sir G. Carteret's (age 56) lodgings, of my Lord Sandwich's (age 40), wherein Howe's supposed jewells are; so we could not, according to my Lord Arlington's (age 48) order, see them today; but we parted, resolving to meet here at night: my Lord Bruncker (age 46) being going with Dr. Wilkins, Mr. Hooke (age 30), and others, to Colonell Blunts, to consider again of the business of charriots, and to try their new invention. Which I saw here my Lord Bruncker (age 46) ride in; where the coachman sits astride upon a pole over the horse, but do not touch the horse, which is a pretty odde thing; but it seems it is most easy for the horse, and, as they say, for the man also.

Evelyn's Diary. 29 Jan 1666. I went to wait on his Majesty (age 35), now returned from Oxford, Oxfordshire [Map] to Hampton-Court [Map], where the Duke of Albemarle (age 57) presented me to him; he ran toward me, and in a most gracious manner gave me his hand to kiss, with many thanks for my care and faithfulness in his service in a time of such great danger, when everybody fled their employments; he told me he was much obliged to me, and said he was several times concerned for me, and the peril I underwent, and did receive my service most acceptably (though in truth I did but do my duty, and O that I had performed it as I ought!). After this, his Majesty (age 35) was pleased to talk with me alone, near an hour, of several particulars of my employment, and ordered me to attend him again on the Thursday following at Whitehall [Map]. Then the Duke (age 57) came toward me, and embraced me with much kindness, telling me if he had thought my danger would have been so great, he would not have suffered his Majesty (age 35) to employ me in that station. Then came to salute me my Lord of St. Albans (age 60), Lord Arlington (age 48), Sir William Coventry (age 38), and several great persons; after which, I got home, not being very well in health.

Pepy's Diary. 25 Feb 1666. He tells me my Lord of Suffolke (age 47), Lord Arlington (age 48), Archbishop of Canterbury (age 67), Lord Treasurer (age 58), Mr. Atturny Montagu (age 48), Sir Thomas Clifford (age 35) in the House of Commons, Sir G. Carteret (age 56), and some others I cannot presently remember, are friends that I may rely on for him. He tells me my Chancellor (age 57) seems his very good friend, but doubts that he may not think him so much a servant of the Duke of Yorke's (age 32) as he would have him, and indeed my Lord tells me he hath lately made it his business to be seen studious of the King's favour, and not of the Duke's, and by the King (age 35) will stand or fall, for factions there are, as he tells me, and God knows how high they may come.

Pepy's Diary. 11 Jul 1666. Thence to Westminster, doing several things by the way, and there failed of meeting Mrs. Lane, and so by coach took up my wife at her sister's, and so away to Islington [Map], she and I alone, and so through Hackney, and home late, our discourse being about laying up of some money safe in prevention to the troubles I am afeard we may have in the state, and so sleepy (for want of sleep the last night, going to bed late and rising betimes in the morning) home, but when I come to the office, I there met with a command from my Lord Arlington (age 48), to go down to a galliott at Greenwich, Kent [Map], by the King's particular command, that is going to carry the Savoy Envoye over, and we fear there may be many Frenchmen there on board; and so I have a power and command to search for and seize all that have not passes from one of the Secretarys of State, and to bring them and their papers and everything else in custody some whither. So I to the Tower, and got a couple of musquetiers with me, and Griffen and my boy Tom and so down; and, being come, found none on board but two or three servants, looking to horses and doggs, there on board, and, seeing no more, I staid not long there, but away and on shore at Greenwich, Kent [Map], the night being late and the tide against us; so, having sent before, to Mrs. Clerke's and there I had a good bed, and well received, the whole people rising to see me, and among the rest young Mrs. Daniel, whom I kissed again and again alone, and so by and by to bed and slept pretty well,

Pepy's Diary. 12 Jul 1666. She being gone, I to White Hall and there to Lord Arlington's (age 48), and met Mr. Williamson (age 32), and find there is no more need of my trouble about the Galliott, so with content departed, and went straight home, where at the office did the most at the office in that wearied and sleepy state I could, and so home to supper, and after supper falling to singing with Mercer did however sit up with her, she pleasing me with her singing of "Helpe, helpe", 'till past midnight and I not a whit drowsy, and so to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 12 Jul 1666. But was up again by five o'clock, and was forced to rise, having much business, and so up and dressed myself (enquiring, was told that Mrs. Tooker was gone hence to live at London) and away with Poundy to the Tower [Map], and thence, having shifted myself, but being mighty drowsy for want of sleep, I by coach to St. James's, to Goring House [Map], there to wait on my Lord Arlington (age 48) to give him an account of my night's worke, but he was not up, being not long since married: so, after walking up and down the house below,-being the house I was once at Hartlib's sister's wedding, and is a very fine house and finely furnished,-and then thinking it too much for me to lose time to wait my Lord's rising, I away to St. James's, and there to Sir W. Coventry (age 38), and wrote a letter to my Lord Arlington (age 48) giving him an account of what I have done, and so with Sir W. Coventry (age 38) into London, to the office. And all the way I observed him mightily to make mirth of the Duke of Albemarle (age 57) and his people about him, saying, that he was the happiest man in the world for doing of great things by sorry instruments. And so particularized in Sir W. Clerke (deceased), and Riggs, and Halsey, and others. And then again said that the only quality eminent in him was, that he did persevere; and indeed he is a very drudge, and stands by the King's business. And this he said, that one thing he was good at, that he never would receive an excuse if the thing was not done; listening to no reasoning for it, be it good or bad. But then I told him, what he confessed, that he would however give the man, that he employs, orders for removing of any obstruction that he thinks he shall meet with in the world, and instanced in several warrants that he issued for breaking open of houses and other outrages about the business of prizes, which people bore with either for affection or fear, which he believes would not have been borne with from the King (age 36), nor Duke (age 32), nor any man else in England, and I thinke he is in the right, but it is not from their love of him, but from something else I cannot presently say. Sir W. Coventry (age 38) did further say concerning Warcupp, his kinsman, that had the simplicity to tell Sir W. Coventry (age 38), that the Duke (age 32) did intend to go to sea and to leave him his agent on shore for all things that related to the sea. But, says Sir W. Coventry (age 38), I did believe but the Duke of Yorke (age 32) would expect to be his agent on shore for all sea matters. And then he begun to say what a great man Warcupp was, and something else, and what was that but a great lyer; and told me a story, how at table he did, they speaking about antipathys, say, that a rose touching his skin any where, would make it rise and pimple; and, by and by, the dessert coming, with roses upon it, the Duchesse (age 29) bid him try, and they did; but they rubbed and rubbed, but nothing would do in the world, by which his lie was found at then.

St James' Day Battle

Evelyn's Diary. 25 Jul 1666. The fleets engaged. I dined at Lord Berkeley's (age 38), at St. James's, where dined my Lady Harrietta Hyde (age 20), Lord Arlington (age 48), and Sir John Duncomb (age 44).

Holme's Bonfire

Pepy's Diary. 15 Aug 1666. Mighty sleepy; slept till past eight of the clock, and was called up by a letter from Sir W. Coventry (age 38), which, among other things, tells me how we have burned one hundred and sixty ships of the enemy within the Fly1. I up, and with all possible haste, and in pain for fear of coming late, it being our day of attending the Duke of Yorke (age 32), to St. James's, where they are full of the particulars; how they are generally good merchant ships, some of them laden and supposed rich ships. We spent five fire-ships upon them. We landed on the Schelling (Sir Philip Howard (age 35) with some men, and Holmes (age 44), I think; with others, about 1000 in all), and burned a town; and so come away.

Note 1. On the 8th August the Duke of Albemarle (age 57) reported to Lord Arlington (age 48) that he had "sent 1000 good men under Sir R. Holmes (age 44) and Sir William Jennings to destroy the islands of Vlie and Schelling". On the 10th James Hayes wrote to Williamson: "On the 9th at noon smoke was seen rising from several places in the island of Vlie, and the 10th brought news that Sir Robert had burned in the enemy's harbour 160 outward bound valuable merchant men and three men-of-war, and taken a little pleasure boat and eight guns in four hours. The loss is computed at a million sterling, and will make great confusion when the people see themselves in the power of the English at their very doors. Sir Robert then landed his forces, and is burning the houses in Vlie and Schelling as bonfires for his good success at sea" (Calendar of State Papers, 1666-67, pp. 21,27).

Pepy's Diary. 26 Aug 1666. Thence to discourse of the times; and he tells me he believes both my Lord Arlington (age 48) and Sir W. Coventry (age 38), as well as my Lord Sandwich (age 41) and Sir G. Carteret (age 56), have reason to fear, and are afeard of this Parliament now coming on. He tells me that Bristoll's (age 53) faction is getting ground apace against my Chancellor (age 57). He told me that my old Lord Coventry was a cunning, crafty man, and did make as many bad decrees in Chancery as any man; and that in one case, that occasioned many years' dispute, at last when the King (age 36) come in, it was hoped by the party grieved, to get my Chancellor (age 57) to reverse a decree of his. Sir W. Coventry (age 38) took the opportunity of the business between the Duke of Yorke (age 32) and the Duchesse (age 29), and said to my Chancellor (age 57), that he had rather be drawn up Holborne to be hanged, than live to see his father pissed upon (in these very terms) and any decree of his reversed. And so the Chancellor (age 57) did not think fit to do it, but it still stands, to the undoing of one Norton, a printer, about his right to the printing of the Bible, and Grammar, &c.

Pepy's Diary. 26 Aug 1666. But, however, I was in pain, after we come out, to know how I had done; and hear well enough. But, however, it shall be a caution to me to prepare myself against a day of inquisition. Being come out, I met with Mr. Moore, and he and I an houre together in the Gallery, telling me how far they are gone in getting my Lord [Sandwich's] pardon, so as the Chancellor (age 57) is prepared in it; and Sir H. Bennet (age 48) do promote it, and the warrant for the King's signing is drawn. The business between my Lord Hinchingbrooke (age 18) and Mrs. Mallett (age 15) is quite broke off; he attending her at Tunbridge [Map], and she declaring her affections to be settled; and he not being fully pleased with the vanity and liberty of her carriage. He told me how my Lord has drawn a bill of exchange from Spayne of £1200, and would have me supply him with £500 of it, but I avoyded it, being not willing to embarke myself in money there, where I see things going to ruine.

Great Fire of London

Pepy's Diary. 02 Sep 1666. So I was called for, and did tell the King (age 36) and Duke of Yorke (age 32) what I saw, and that unless his Majesty did command houses to be pulled down nothing could stop the fire. They seemed much troubled, and the King (age 36) commanded me to go to my Lord Mayor (age 46)1 from him, and command him to spare no houses, but to pull down before the fire every way. The Duke of York (age 32) bid me tell him that if he would have any more soldiers he shall; and so did my Lord Arlington (age 48) afterwards, as a great secret2.

Note 1. Sir Thomas Bludworth (age 46). See June 30th, 1666.

Note 2. Sir William Coventry wrote to Lord Arlington on the evening of this day, "The Duke of York (age 32) fears the want of workmen and tools to-morrow morning, and wishes the deputy lieutenants and justices of peace to summon the workmen with tools to be there by break of day. In some churches and chapels are great hooks for pulling down houses, which should be brought ready upon the place to-night against the morning" (Calendar of State Papers, 1666-66, p. 95).

Pepy's Diary. 15 Sep 1666. In the evening there comes to me Captain Cocke (age 49), and walked a good while in the garden. He says he hath computed that the rents of houses lost by this fire in the City comes to £600,000 per annum; that this will make the Parliament, more quiet than otherwise they would have been, and give the King (age 36) a more ready supply; that the supply must be by excise, as it is in Holland; that the Parliament will see it necessary to carry on the warr; that the late storm hindered our beating the Dutch fleete, who were gone out only to satisfy the people, having no business to do but to avoid us; that the French, as late in the yeare as it is, are coming; that the Dutch are really in bad condition, but that this unhappinesse of ours do give them heart; that there was a late difference between my Lord Arlington (age 48) and Sir W. Coventry (age 38) about neglect in the last to send away an express of the other's in time; that it come before the King (age 36), and the Duke of Yorke (age 32) concerned himself in it; but this fire hath stopped it.

Evelyn's Diary. 27 Nov 1666. Sir Hugh Pollard (age 63), Comptroller of the Household, died at Whitehall [Map], and his Majesty (age 36) conferred the white staff on my brother Commissioner for sick and wounded, Sir Thomas Clifford (age 36), a bold young gentleman, of a small fortune in Devon, but advanced by Lord Arlington (age 48), Secretary of State, to the great astonishment of all the Court. This gentleman (age 36) was somewhat related to me by the marriage of his mother to my nearest kinsman, Gregory Coale, and was ever my noble friend, a valiant and daring person, but by no means fit for a supple and flattering courtier.

Evelyn's Diary. 02 Dec 1666. Dined with me Monsieur Kiviet (age 39), a Dutch gentleman-pensioner of Rotterdam, who came over for protection, being of the Prince of Orange's (age 16) party, now not welcome in Holland. The King (age 36) knighted him for some merit in the Prince's (age 16) behalf. He should, if caught, have been beheaded with Monsieur Buat, and was brother-in-law to Van Tromp, the sea-general. With him came Mr. Gabriel Sylvius, and Mr. Williamson (age 33), secretary to Lord Arlington (age 48); M. Kiviet (age 39) came to examine whether the soil about the river of Thames would be proper to make clinker bricks, and to treat with me about some accommodation in order to it.

Pepy's Diary. 14 Feb 1667. But going, after the business of money was over, to other businesses, of settling the garrison, he did fling out, and so did the Duke of York (age 33), two or three severe words touching my Lord Bellasses (age 52): that he would have no Governor come away from thence in less than three years; no, though his lady were with child. "And", says the Duke of York (age 33), "there should be no Governor continue so, longer than three years". "Nor", says Lord Arlington (age 49), "when our rules are once set, and upon good judgment declared, no Governor should offer to alter them".-"We must correct the many things that are amiss there; for", says the Chancellor (age 57), "you must think we do hear of more things amisse than we are willing to speak before our friends' faces". My Lord Bellasses (age 52) would not take notice of their reflecting on him, and did wisely, but there were also many reflections on him.

Pepy's Diary. 17 Feb 1667. At home, by appointment, comes Captain Cocke (age 50) to me, to talk of State matters, and about the peace; who told me that the whole business is managed between Kevet, Burgomaster of Amsterdam, and my Lord Arlington (age 49), who hath, by the interest of his wife there, some interest. We have proposed the Hague, but know not yet whether the Dutch will like it; or; if they do, whether the French will. We think we shall have the help of the information of their affairs and state, and the helps of the Prince of Orange (age 16) his faction; but above all, that De Witt, who hath all this while said he cannot get peace, his mouth will now be stopped, so that he will be forced to offer fit terms for fear of the people; and, lastly, if France or Spayne do not please us, we are in a way presently to clap up a peace with the Dutch, and secure them. But we are also in treaty with France, as he says: but it must be to the excluding our alliance with the King (age 36) of Spayne or House of Austria; which we do not know presently what will be determined in. He tells me the Vice-Chamberlaine is so great with the King (age 36), that, let the Duke of York (age 33), and Sir W. Coventry (age 39), and this office, do or say what they will, while the King (age 36) lives, Sir G. Carteret (age 57) will do what he will; and advises me to be often with him, and eat and drink with him.; and tells me that he doubts he is jealous of me, and was mighty mad to-day at our discourse to him before the Duke of York (age 33). But I did give him my reasons that the office is concerned to declare that, without money, the King's work cannot go on.

Pepy's Diary. 24 Feb 1667. In the afternoon away to White Hall by water, and took a turn or two in the Park, and then back to White Hall, and there meeting my Lord Arlington (age 49), he, by I know not what kindness, offered to carry me along with him to my Lord Treasurer's (age 59), whither, I told him, I was going. I believe he had a mind to discourse of some Navy businesses, but Sir Thomas Clifford (age 36) coming into the coach to us, we were prevented; which I was sorry for, for I had a mind to begin an acquaintance with him. He speaks well, and hath pretty slight superficial parts, I believe.

Pepy's Diary. 04 Mar 1667. Up, and with Sir J. Minnes (age 68) and Sir W. Batten (age 66) by barge to Deptford, Kent [Map] by eight in the morning, where to the King's yard a little to look after business there, and then to a private storehouse to look upon some cordage of Sir W. Batten's (age 66), and there being a hole formerly made for a drain for tarr to run into, wherein the barrel stood still, full of stinking water, Sir W. Batten (age 66) did fall with one leg into it, which might have been very bad to him by breaking a leg or other hurt, but, thanks be to God, he only sprained his foot a little. So after his shifting his stockings at a strong water shop close by, we took barge again, and so to Woolwich, Kent [Map], where our business was chiefly to look upon the ballast wharfe there, which is offered us for the King's use to hire, but we do not think it worth the laying out much money upon, unless we could buy the fee-simple of it, which cannot be sold us, so we wholly flung it off: So to the Dockyard, and there staid a while talking about business of the yard, and thence to the Rope-yard [Map], and so to the White Hart [Map] and there dined, and Captain Cocke (age 50) with us, whom we found at the Rope-yard [Map], and very merry at dinner, and many pretty tales of Sir J. Minnes (age 68), which I have entered in my tale book. But by this time Sir W. Batten (age 66) was come to be in much pain in his foot, so as he was forced to be carried down in a chair to the barge again, and so away to Deptford, Kent [Map], and there I a little in the yard, and then to Bagwell's (age 30), where I find his wife washing, and also I did 'hazer tout que je voudrais con' [Note. have all that I wanted with] her, and then sent for her husband (age 30), and discoursed of his going to Harwich [Map] this week to his charge of the new ship building there, which I have got him, and so away, walked to Redriffe [Map], and there took boat and away home, and upon Tower Hill [Map], near the ticket office, meeting with my old acquaintance Mr. Chaplin (age 40), the cheesemonger, and there fell to talk of news, and he tells me that for certain the King of France (age 28) is denied passage with his army through Flanders, and that he hears that the Dutch do stand upon high terms with us, and will have a promise of not being obliged to strike the flag to us before they will treat with us, and other high things, which I am ashamed of and do hope will never be yielded to. That they do make all imaginable preparations, but that he believes they will be in mighty want of men; that the King of France (age 28) do court us mightily. He tells me too that our Lord-Treasurer is going to lay down, and that Lord Arlington (age 49) is to be Lord Treasurer, but I believe nothing of it, for he is not yet of estate visible enough to have the charge I suppose upon him.

Pepy's Diary. 17 Mar 1667. Thence away, and got a Hackney coach and carried my wife home, and there only drank, and myself back again to my Lord Treasurer's (age 60), where the King (age 36), Duke of York (age 33), and Sir G. Carteret (age 57) and Lord Arlington (age 49) were and none else, so I staid not, but to White Hall, and there meeting nobody I would speak with, walked into the Park and took two or three turns all alone, and then took coach and home, where I find Mercer, who I was glad to see, but durst [not] shew so, my wife being displeased with her, and indeed I fear she is grown a very gossip. I to my chamber, and there fitted my arguments which I had promised Mr. Gawden in his behalf in some pretences to allowance of the King (age 36), and then to supper, and so to my chamber a little again, and then to bed. Duke of Buckingham (age 39) not heard of yet.

Pepy's Diary. 18 Mar 1667. They gone I to the office, where all the afternoon very busy, and among other things comes Captain Jenifer to me, a great servant of my Lord Sandwich's (age 41), who tells me that he do hear for certain, though I do not yet believe it, that Sir W. Coventry (age 39) is to be Secretary of State, and my Lord Arlington (age 49) Lord Treasurer. I only wish that the latter were as fit for the latter office as the former is for the former, and more fit than my Lord Arlington (age 49). Anon Sir W. Pen (age 45) come and talked with me in the garden, and tells me that for certain the Duke of Richmond (age 28) is to marry Mrs. Stewart (age 19), he having this day brought in an account of his estate and debts to the King (age 36) on that account.

Pepy's Diary. 19 Mar 1667. This afternoon I am told again that the town do talk of my Lord Arlington's (age 49) being to be Lord Treasurer, and Sir W. Coventry (age 39) to be Secretary of State; and that for certain the match is concluded between the Duke of Richmond (age 28) and Mrs. Stewart (age 19), which I am well enough pleased with; and it is pretty to consider how his quality will allay people's talk; whereas, had a meaner person married her, he would for certain have been reckoned a cuckold at first-dash.

Pepy's Diary. 24 Mar 1667. Away thence, and met with Sir H. Cholmly (age 34), who tells me that he do believe the government of Tangier is bought by my Lord Allington (age 27) for a sum of money to my Lord Arlington (age 49), and something to Lord Bellasses (age 52), who (he did tell me particularly how) is as very a false villain as ever was born, having received money of him here upon promise and confidence of his return, forcing him to pay it by advance here, and promising to ask no more there, when at the same time he was treating with my Lord Allington (age 27) to sell his command to him, and yet told Sir H. Cholmly (age 34) nothing of it, but when Sir H. Cholmly (age 34) told him what he had heard, he confessed that my Lord Allington (age 27) had spoken to him of it, but that he was a vain man to look after it, for he was nothing fit for it, and then goes presently to my Lord Allington (age 27) and drives on the bargain, yet tells Lord Allington what he himself had said of him, as [though] Sir H. Cholmly (age 34) had said them. I am glad I am informed hereof, and shall know him for a Lord, &c. Sir H. Cholmly (age 34) tells me further that he is confident there will be a peace, and that a great man did tell him that my Lord Albemarle (age 58) did tell him the other day at White Hall as a secret that we should have a peace if any thing the King of France (age 28) can ask and our King can give will gain it, which he is it seems mad at.

Pepy's Diary. 24 Mar 1667. By and by to the Duke of York (age 33), where we all met, and there was the King (age 36) also; and all our discourse was about fortifying of the Medway and Harwich [Map], which is to be entrenched quite round, and Portsmouth, Hampshire [Map]: and here they advised with Sir Godfry Lloyd and Sir Bernard de Gum, the two great engineers, and had the plates drawn before them; and indeed all their care they now take is to fortify themselves, and are not ashamed of it: for when by and by my Lord Arlington (age 49) come in with letters, and seeing the King (age 36) and Duke of York (age 33) give us and the officers of the Ordnance directions in this matter, he did move that we might do it as privately as we could, that it might not come into the Dutch Gazette presently, as the King's and Duke of York's (age 33) going down the other day to Sheerenesse [Map] was, the week after, in the Harlem Gazette. The King (age 36) and Duke of York (age 33) both laughed at it, and made no matter, but said, "Let us be safe, and let them talk, for there is nothing will trouble them more, nor will prevent their coming more, than to hear that we are fortifying ourselves". And the Duke of York (age 33) said further, "What said Marshal Turenne, when some in vanity said that the enemies were afraid, for they entrenched themselves? 'Well,' says he, 'I would they were not afraid, for then they would not entrench themselves, and so we could deal with them the better.'"

Pepy's Diary. 26 Apr 1667. By the way, he tells me, that of all the great men of England there is none that endeavours more to raise those that he takes into favour than my Lord Arlington (age 49); and that, on that score, he is much more to be made one's patron than my Chancellor (age 58), who never did, nor never will do, any thing, but for money! After having this long discourse we parted, about one of the clock, and so away by water home, calling upon Michell, whose wife and girle are pretty well, and I home to dinner, and after dinner with Sir W. Batten (age 66) to White Hall, there to attend the Duke of York (age 33) before council, where we all met at his closet and did the little business we had, and here he did tell us how the King of France (age 28) is intent upon his design against Flanders, and hath drawn up a remonstrance of the cause of the war, and appointed the 20th of the next month for his rendezvous, and himself to prepare for the campaign the 30th, so that this, we are in hopes, will keep him in employment. Turenne is to be his general. Here was Carcasses business unexpectedly moved by him, but what was done therein appears in my account of his case in writing by itself. Certain newes of the Dutch being abroad on our coast with twenty-four great ships.

Pepy's Diary. 26 Apr 1667. By and by we discoursed of Sir Thomas Clifford (age 36), whom I took for a very rich and learned man, and of the great family of that name. He tells me he is only a man of about seven-score pounds a-year, of little learning more than the law of a justice of peace, which he knows well: a parson's son, got to be burgess in a little borough in the West, and here fell into the acquaintance of my Lord Arlington (age 49), whose creature he is, and never from him; a man of virtue, and comely, and good parts enough; and hath come into his place with a great grace, though with a great skip over the heads of a great many, as Chichly and Duncum, and some Lords that did expect it.

Pepy's Diary. 29 Apr 1667. After dinner Sir G. Carteret (age 57) and I alone in his closet an hour or more talking of my Lord Sandwich's (age 41) coming home, which, the peace being likely to be made here, he expects, both for my Lord's sake and his own (whose interest he wants) it will be best for him to be at home, where he will be well received by the King (age 36); he is sure of his service well accepted, though the business of Spain do fall by this peace. He tells me my Lord Arlington (age 49) hath done like a gentleman by him in all things. He says, if my Lord [Sandwich] were here, he were the fittest man to be Lord Treasurer (age 60) of any man in England; and he thinks it might be compassed; for he confesses that the King's matters do suffer through the inability of this man, who is likely to die, and he will propound him to the King (age 36). It will remove him from his place at sea, and the King (age 36) will have a good place to bestow. He says to me, that he could wish, when my Lord comes, that he would think fit to forbear playing, as a thing below him, and which will lessen him, as it do my Lord St. Albans (age 62), in the King's esteem: and as a great secret tells me that he hath made a match for my Lord Hinchingbrooke (age 19) to a daughter (age 22) of my Lord Burlington's (age 54), where there is a great alliance, £10,000 portion; a civil family, and relation to my Chancellor (age 58), whose son (age 5) hath married one of the daughters (age 4); and that my Chancellor (age 58) do take it with very great kindness, so that he do hold himself obliged by it. My Lord Sandwich (age 41) hath referred it to my Lord Crew (age 69), Sir G. Carteret (age 57), and Mr. Montagu (age 49), to end it. My Lord Hinchingbrooke (age 19) and the lady know nothing yet of it. It will, I think, be very happy. Very glad of this discourse, I away mightily pleased with the confidence I have in this family, and so away, took up my wife, who was at her mother's, and so home, where I settled to my chamber about my accounts, both Tangier and private, and up at it till twelve at night, with good success, when news is brought me that there is a great fire in Southwarke [Map]: so we up to the leads, and then I and the boy down to the end of our, lane, and there saw it, it seeming pretty great, but nothing to the fire of London, that it made me think little of it. We could at that distance see an engine play-that is, the water go out, it being moonlight.

Pepy's Diary. 01 May 1667. Then to talk of my Lord Sandwich (age 41), whom my Lord Crew (age 69) hath a great desire might get to be Lord Treasurer (age 60) if the present Lord should die, as it is believed he will, in a little time; and thinks he can have no competitor but my Lord Arlington (age 49), who, it is given out, desires it: but my Lord thinks it is not so, for that the being Secretary do keep him a greater interest with the King (age 36) than the other would do at least, do believe, that if my Lord would surrender him his Wardrobe place, it would be a temptation to Arlington (age 49) to assist my Lord in getting the Treasurer's. I did object to my Lord [Crew] (age 69) that it would be no place of content, nor safety, nor honour for my Lord, the State being so indigent as it is, and the [King] so irregular, and those about him, that my Lord must be forced to part with anything to answer his warrants; and that, therefore, I do believe the King (age 36) had rather have a man that may be one of his vicious caball, than a sober man that will mind the publick, that so they may sit at cards and dispose of the revenue of the Kingdom. This my Lord was moved at, and said he did not indeed know how to answer it, and bid me think of it; and so said he himself would also do. He do mightily cry out of the bad management of our monies, the King (age 36) having had so much given him; and yet, when the Parliament do find that the King (age 36) should have £900,000 in his purse by the best account of issues they have yet seen, yet we should report in the Navy a debt due from the King (age 36) of £900,000; which, I did confess, I doubted was true in the first, and knew to be true in the last, and did believe that there was some great miscarriages in it: which he owned to believe also, saying, that at this rate it is not in the power of the Kingdom to make a war, nor answer the King's wants.

Pepy's Diary. 15 May 1667. Yet, Lord! to see how our silly Lord Bruncker (age 47) would have stood to have justified this rogue, though to the reproach of all us who have signed, which I shall never forget to have been a most malicious or a most silly act, and I do think it is as much the latter as the other, for none but a fool could have done as this silly Lord hath done in this business. So the Duke of York (age 33) did like our report, and ordered his being secured till he did give his security, which did fully content me, and will I hope vindicate the office. It happened that my Lord Arlington (age 49) coming in by chance was at the hearing of all this, which I was not sorry for, for he did move or did second the Duke of York (age 33) that this roguery of his might be put in the News-book that it might be made publique to satisfy for the wrong the credit of this office hath received by this rogue's occasion.

Pepy's Diary. 16 May 1667. Thence we to Islington, to the Old House, and there eat and drank, and then it being late and a pleasant evening, we home, and there to my chamber, and to bed. It is remarkable that this afternoon Mr. Moore come to me, and there, among other things, did tell me how Mr. Moyer, the merchant, having procured an order from the King (age 36) and Duke of York (age 33) and Council, with the consent of my Chancellor (age 58), and by assistance of Lord Arlington (age 49), for the releasing out of prison his brother, Samuel Moyer, who was a great man in the late times in Haberdashers'-hall, and was engaged under hand and seal to give the man that obtained it so much in behalf of my Chancellor (age 58); but it seems my Lady Duchess of Albemarle (age 48) had before undertaken it for so much money, but hath not done it. The Duke of Albemarle (age 58) did the next day send for this Moyer, to tell him, that notwithstanding this order of the King (age 36) and Council's being passed for release of his brother, yet, if he did not consider the pains of some friends of his, he would stop that order. This Moyer being an honest, bold man, told him that he was engaged to the hand that had done the thing to give him a reward; and more he would not give, nor could own any kindness done by his Grace's interest; and so parted. The next day Sir Edward Savage did take the said Moyer in tax about it, giving ill words of this Moyer and his brother; which he not being able to bear, told him he would give to the person that had engaged him what he promised, and not any thing to any body else; and that both he and his brother were as honest men as himself, or any man else; and so sent him going, and bid him do his worst. It is one of the most extraordinary cases that ever I saw or understood; but it is true.

Pepy's Diary. 22 May 1667. Thence I to Westminster Hall [Map] with Sir G. Carteret (age 57) to the Chequer Chamber to hear our cause of the Lindeboome prize there before the Lords of Appeal, where was Lord Ashly (age 45), Arlington (age 49), Barkely (age 65), and Sir G. Carteret (age 57), but the latter three signified nothing, the former only either minding or understanding what was said. Here was good pleading of Sir Walter Walker's and worth hearing, but little done in our business.

Pepy's Diary. 16 Jun 1667. At noon home to dinner, and much good discourse with him, he being mighty sensible of our misery and mal-administration. Talking of these straits we are in, he tells me that my Lord Arlington (age 49) did the last week take up £12,000 in gold, which is very likely, for all was taken up that could be. Discoursing afterwards with him of our family he told me, that when I come to his house he will show me a decree in Chancery, wherein there was twenty-six men all housekeepers in the town of Cottenham, in Queene Elizabeth's time, of our name. He to church again in the afternoon, I staid at home busy, and did show some dalliance to my maid Nell, speaking to her of her sweetheart which she had, silly girle.

Pepy's Diary. 19 Jun 1667. And after Sir W. Coventry's (age 39) telling them what orders His Royal Highness had made for the safety of the Medway, I told them to their full content what we had done, and showed them our letters. Then was Peter Pett (age 56) called in, with the Lieutenant of the Tower (age 52). He is in his old clothes, and looked most sillily. His charge was chiefly the not carrying up of the great ships, and the using of the boats in carrying away his goods; to which he answered very sillily, though his faults to me seem only great omissions. Lord Arlington (age 49) and Coventry (age 39) very severe against him; the former saying that, if he was not guilty, the world would think them all guilty1. The latter urged, that there must be some faults, and that the Admiral must be found to have done his part. I did say an unhappy word, which I was sorry for, when he complained of want of oares for the boats: and there was, it seems, enough, and good enough, to carry away all the boats with from the King's occasions. He said he used never a boat till they were all gone but one; and that was to carry away things of great value, and these were his models of ships; which, when the Council, some of them, had said they wished that the Dutch had had them instead of the King's ships, he answered, he did believe the Dutch would have made more advantage of the models than of the ships, and that the King (age 37) had had greater loss thereby; this they all laughed at.

Note 1. Pett (age 56) was made a scapegoat. This is confirmed by Marvel: "After this loss, to relish discontent, Some one must be accused by Parliament; All our miscarriages on Pett (age 56) must fall, His name alone seems fit to answer all. Whose counsel first did this mad war beget? Who all commands sold through the Navy? Pett. Who would not follow when the Dutch were beat? Who treated out the time at Bergen? Pett. Who the Dutch fleet with storms disabled met, And, rifling prizes, them neglected? Pett. Who with false news prevented the Gazette, The fleet divided, writ for Ruhert? Pett. Who all our seamen cheated of their debt? And all our prizes who did swallow? Pett. Who did advise no navy out to set? And who the forts left unprepared? Pett. Who to supply with powder did forget Languard, Sheerness, Gravesend, Kent [Map], and Upnor? Pett. Who all our ships exposed in Chatham, Kent [Map] net? Who should it be but the fanatick Pett? Pett, the sea-architect, in making ships, Was the first cause of all these naval slips. Had he not built, none of these faults had been; If no creation, there had been no sin But his great crime, one boat away he sent, That lost our fleet, and did our flight prevent". Instructions to a Painter.-B.

Pepy's Diary. 19 Jun 1667. While we were discoursing over our publique misfortunes, I am called in to a large Committee of the Council: present the Duke of Albemarle (age 58), Anglesey (age 52), Arlington (age 49), Ashly (age 45), Carteret (age 57), Duncomb (age 44), Coventry (age 39), Ingram (age 52), Clifford (age 36), Lauderdale (age 51), Morrice (age 64), Manchester (age 65), Craven (age 59), Carlisle (age 38), Bridgewater (age 44).

Pepy's Diary. 19 Jun 1667. After having heard him for an hour or more, they bid him withdraw. I all this while showing him no respect, but rather against him, for which God forgive me! for I mean no hurt to him, but only find that these Lords are upon their own purgation, and it is necessary I should be so in behalf of the office. He being gone, they caused Sir Richard Browne (age 62) to read over his minutes; and then my Lord Arlington (age 49) moved that they might be put into my hands to put into form, I being more acquainted with such business; and they were so.

Pepy's Diary. 24 Jun 1667. He tells me, speaking of the horrid effeminacy of the King (age 37), that the King (age 37) hath taken ten times more care and pains in making friends between my Baroness Castlemayne (age 26) and Mrs. Stewart (age 19), when they have fallen out, than ever he did to save his kingdom; nay, that upon any falling out between my Baroness Castlemayne's (age 26) nurse and her woman, my Lady hath often said she would make the King (age 37) to make them friends, and they would be friends and be quiet; which the King (age 37) hath been fain to do: that the King (age 37) is, at this day, every night in Hyde Park with the Duchesse of Monmouth (age 16), or with my Baroness Castlemaine's (age 26): that he [Povy (age 53)] is concerned of late by my Lord Arlington (age 49) in the looking after some buildings that he is about in Norfolke, where my Lord is laying out a great deal of money; and that he, Mr. Povy (age 53), considering the unsafeness of laying out money at such a time as this, and, besides, the enviousness of the particular county, as well as all the Kingdom, to find him building and employing workmen, while all the ordinary people of the country are carried down to the seasides for securing the land, he thought it becoming him to go to my Lord Arlington (age 49) (Sir Thomas Clifford (age 36) by), and give it as his advice to hold his hands a little; but my Lord would not, but would have him go on, and so Sir Thomas Clifford (age 36) advised also, which one would think, if he were a statesman worth a fart should be a sign of his foreseeing that all shall do well. But I do forbear concluding any such thing from them. He tells me that there is not so great confidence between any two men of power in the nation at this day, that he knows of, as between my Lord Arlington (age 49) and Sir Thomas Clifford (age 36); and that it arises by accident only, there being no relation nor acquaintance between them, but only Sir Thomas Clifford's (age 36) coming to him, and applying himself to him for favours, when he come first up to town to be a Parliament-man. He tells me that he do not think there is anything in the world for us possibly to be saved by but the King of France's (age 28) generousnesse to stand by us against the Dutch, and getting us a tolerable peace, it may be, upon our giving him Tangier and the islands he hath taken, and other things he shall please to ask. He confirms me in the several grounds I have conceived of fearing that we shall shortly fall into mutinys and outrages among ourselves, and that therefore he, as a Treasurer, and therefore much more myself, I say, as being not only a Treasurer but an officer of the Navy, on whom, for all the world knows, the faults of all our evils are to be laid, do fear to be seized on by some rude hands as having money to answer for, which will make me the more desirous to get off of this Treasurership as soon as I can, as I had before in my mind resolved.

Pepy's Diary. 26 Jun 1667. So we parted, and I to White Hall, as I said before, and there met with Sir Stephen Fox (age 40) and Mr. Scawen, who both confirm the news of the Parliament's meeting. Here I staid for an order for my Tangier money, £30,000, upon the 11 months' tax, and so away to my Lord Arlington's (age 49) office, and there spoke to him about Mr. Lanyon's business, and received a good answer, and thence to Westminster Hall [Map] and there walked a little, and there met with Colonell Reames (age 53), who tells me of a letter come last night, or the day before, from my Lord St. Albans (age 62), out of France, wherein he says, that the King of France (age 28) did lately fall out with him, giving him ill names, saying that he had belied him to our King, by saying that he had promised to assist our King, and to forward the peace; saying that indeed he had offered to forward the peace at such a time, but it was not accepted of, and so he thinks himself not obliged, and would do what was fit for him; and so made him to go out of his sight in great displeasure: and he hath given this account to the King (age 37), which, Colonell Reymes tells me, puts them into new melancholy at Court, and he believes hath forwarded the resolution of calling the Parliament.

Pepy's Diary. 29 Jun 1667. Up, and by coach to St. James's, and there find Sir W. Coventry (age 39) and Sir W. Pen (age 46) above stairs, and then we to discourse about making up our accounts against the Parliament; and Sir W. Coventry (age 39) did give us the best advice he could for us to provide for our own justification, believing, as everybody do, that they will fall heavily upon us all, though he lay all upon want of money, only a little, he says (if the Parliament be in any temper), may be laid upon themselves for not providing money sooner, they being expressly and industriously warned thereof by him, he says, even to the troubling them, that some of them did afterwards tell him that he had frighted them. He says he do prepare to justify himself, and that he hears that my Chancellor (age 58), my Lord Arlington (age 49), the Vice Chamberlain and himself are reported all up and down the Coffee houses to be the four sacrifices that must be made to atone the people.

Evelyn's Diary. 02 Jul 1667. Called upon my Lord Arlington (age 49), as from his Majesty (age 37), about the new fuel. The occasion why I was mentioned, was from what I said in my Sylva three years before, about a sort of fuel for a need, which obstructed a patent of Lord Carlingford (age 64), who had been seeking for it himself; he was endeavoring to bring me into the project, and proffered me a share. I met my Lord; and, on the 9th, by an order of Council, went to my Lord Mayor, to be assisting. In the meantime they had made an experiment of my receipt of houllies, which I mention in my book to be made at Maestricht, with a mixture of charcoal dust and loam, and which was tried with success at Gresham College (then being the exchange for the meeting of the merchants since the fire) for everybody to see. This done, I went to the Treasury for £12,000 for the sick and wounded yet on my hands.

Next day, we met again about the fuel at Sir J. Armourer's in the Mews.

Pepy's Diary. 03 Jul 1667. Thence, not pleased, away to White Hall to Mr. Williamson (age 33), and by and by my Lord Arlington (age 49) about Mr. Lanyon's business, and it is pretty to see how Mr. Williamson (age 33) did altogether excuse himself that my business was not done when I come to my Lord and told him my business; "Why", says my Lord, "it hath been done, and the King (age 37) signed it several days ago", and so it was and was in Mr. Williamson's (age 33) hands, which made us both laugh, and I in innocent mirth, I remember, said, it is pretty to see in what a condition we are that all our matters now-a-days are undone, we know not how, and done we know not when. He laughed at it, but I have since reflected on it, and find it a severe speech as it might be taken by a chief minister of state, as indeed Mr. Williamson (age 33) is, for he is indeed the Secretary. But we fell to other pleasant talk, and a fine gentleman he is, and so gave him £5 for his fee, and away home, and to Sir W. Batten's (age 66) to talk a little, and then to the office to do a little business, and so home to supper and read myself asleep, and then to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 12 Jul 1667. And so Sir H. Cholmly (age 34) tells me they did all argue for peace, and so he do believe that the King (age 37) hath agreed to the three points Mr. Coventry (age 39) brought over, which I have mentioned before, and is gone with them back. He tells me further that the Duke of Buckingham (age 39) was before the Council the other day, and there did carry it very submissively and pleasingly to the King (age 37); but to my Lord Arlington (age 49), who do prosecute the business, he was most bitter and sharp, and very slighting. As to the letter about his employing a man to cast the King's nativity, says he to the King (age 37), "Sir", says he, "this is none of my hand, and I refer it to your Majesty whether you do not know this hand". the King (age 37) answered, that it was indeed none of his, and that he knew whose it was, but could not recall it presently. "Why", says he, "it is my sister of Richmond's (age 45), some frolick or other of hers of some certain person; and there is nothing of the King's name in it, but it is only said to be his by supposition, as is said". the King (age 37), it seems, seemed not very much displeased with what the Duke (age 39) had said; but, however, he is still in the Tower, and no discourse of his being out in haste, though my Baroness Castlemayne (age 26) hath so far solicited for him that the King (age 37) and she are quite fallen out: he comes not to her, nor hath for some three or four days; and parted with very foul words, the King (age 37) calling her a whore, and a jade that meddled with things she had nothing to do with at all: and she calling him fool; and told him if he was not a fool, he would not suffer his businesses to be carried on by fellows that did not understand them, and cause his best subjects, and those best able to serve him, to be imprisoned; meaning the Duke of Buckingham (age 39).

Pepy's Diary. 17 Jul 1667. Home, and to dinner, and by and by comes Mr. Pierce, who is interested in the Panther, for some advice, and then comes Creed, and he and I spent the whole afternoon till eight at night walking and talking of sundry things public and private in the garden, but most of all of the unhappy state of this nation at this time by the negligence of the King (age 37) and his Council. The Duke of Buckingham (age 39) is, it seems, set at liberty, without any further charge against him or other clearing of him, but let to go out; which is one of the strangest instances of the fool's play with which all publick things are done in this age, that is to be apprehended. And it is said that when he was charged with making himself popular-as indeed he is, for many of the discontented Parliament, Sir Robert Howard (age 41) and Sir Thomas Meres, and others, did attend at the Council-chamber when he was examined-he should answer, that whoever was committed to prison by my Chancellor (age 58) or my Lord Arlington (age 49), could not want being popular. But it is worth considering the ill state a Minister of State is in, under such a Prince as ours is; for, undoubtedly, neither of those two great men would have been so fierce against the Duke of Buckingham (age 39) at the Council-table the other day, had they [not] been assured of the King's good liking, and supporting them therein: whereas, perhaps at the desire of my Baroness Castlemayne (age 26), who, I suppose, hath at last overcome the King (age 37), the Duke of Buckingham (age 39) is well received again, and now these men delivered up to the interest he can make for his revenge. He told me over the story of Mrs. Stewart (age 20), much after the manner which I was told it long since, and have entered it in this book, told me by Mr. Evelyn (age 46); only he says it is verily believed that the King (age 37) did never intend to marry her to any but himself, and that the Duke of York (age 33) and Chancellor (age 58) were jealous of it; and that Mrs. Stewart (age 20) might be got with child by the King (age 37), or somebody else, and the King (age 37) own a marriage before his contract, for it is but a contract, as he tells me, to this day, with the Queene (age 57), and so wipe their noses of the Crown; and that, therefore, the Duke of York (age 33) and Chancellor (age 58) did do all they could to forward the match with my Lord Duke of Richmond (age 28), that she might be married out of the way; but, above all, it is a worthy part that this good lady hath acted.

Evelyn's Diary. 08 Aug 1667. Visited Mr. Oldenburg (age 48), a close prisoner in the Tower [Map], being suspected of writing intelligence. I had an order from Lord Arlington (age 49), Secretary of State, which caused me to be admitted. This gentleman was secretary to our Society, and I am confident will prove an innocent person.

Pepy's Diary. 31 Aug 1667. After having wrote my letters at the office in the afternoon, I in the evening to White Hall to see how matters go, and there I met with Mr. Ball, of the Excise-office, and he tells me that the Seal is delivered to Sir Orlando Bridgeman (age 61); the man of the whole nation that is the best spoken of, and will please most people; and therefore I am mighty glad of it. He was then at my Lord Arlington's (age 49), whither I went, expecting to see him come out; but staid so long, and Sir W. Coventry (age 39) coming thither, whom I had not a mind should see me there idle upon a post-night, I went home without seeing him; but he is there with his Seal in his hand. So I home, took up my wife, whom I left at Unthanke's, and so home, and after signing my letters to bed. This day, being dissatisfied with my wife's learning so few songs of Goodgroome, I did come to a new bargain with him to teach her songs at so much, viz.; 10s. a song, which he accepts of, and will teach her.

Pepy's Diary. 25 Oct 1667. Another by Crispin, the waterman, who said he was upon "The Charles"; and spoke to Lord Bruncker (age 47) coming by in his boat, to know whether they should carry up "The Charles", they being a great many naked men without armes, and he told them she was well as she was. Both these have little in them indeed, but yet both did stick close against him; and he is the weakest man in the world to make his defence, and so is like to have much fault laid on him therefrom. Spragg (age 47) was in with them all the afternoon, and hath much fault laid on him for a man that minded his pleasure, and little else of his whole charge. I walked in the lobby, and there do hear from Mr. Chichly (age 53) that they were (the Commissioners of the Ordnance) shrewdly put to it yesterday, being examined with all severity and were hardly used by them, much otherwise than we, and did go away with mighty blame; and I am told by every body that it is likely to stick mighty hard upon them: at which every body is glad, because of Duncomb's pride, and their expecting to have the thanks of the House whereas they have deserved, as the Parliament apprehends, as bad as bad can be. Here is great talk of an impeachment brought in against my Lord Mordaunt (age 41), and that another will be brought in against my Chancellor (age 58) in a few days. Here I understand for certain that they have ordered that my Lord Arlington's (age 49) letters, and Secretary Morrice's (age 64) letters of intelligence, be consulted, about the business of the Dutch fleete's coming abroad, which is a very high point, but this they have done, but in what particular manner I cannot justly say, whether it was not with the King's leave first asked. Here late, as I have said, and at last they broke up, and we had our commissions again, and I do hear how Birch (age 52) is the high man that do examine and trouble every body with his questions, and they say that he do labour all he can to clear Pett, but it seems a witness has come in tonight, C. Millett, who do declare that he did deliver a message from the Duke of Albemarle (age 58) time enough for him to carry up "The Charles", and he neglected it, which will stick very hard, it seems, on him. So Sir W. Pen (age 46) and I in his coach home, and there to supper, a good supper, and so weary, and my eyes spent, to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 28 Oct 1667. Up, and by water to White Hall (calling at Michell's and drank a dram of strong water, but it being early I did not see his wife), and thence walked to Sir W. Coventry's (age 39) lodging, but he was gone out, and so going towards St. James's I find him at his house which is fitting for him; and there I to him, and was with him above an hour alone, discoursing of the matters of the nation, and our Office, and himself. He owns that he is, at this day, the chief person aymed at by the Parliament-that is, by the friends of my Chancellor (age 58), and also by the Duke of Albemarle (age 58), by reason of his unhappy shewing of the Duke of Albemarle's (age 58) letter, the other day, in the House; but that he thinks that he is not liable to any hurt they can fasten on him for anything, he is so well armed to justify himself in every thing, unless in the old business of selling places, when he says every body did; and he will now not be forward to tell his own story, as he hath been; but tells me he is grown wiser, and will put them to prove any thing, and he will defend himself: besides that, he will dispute the statute, thinking that it will not be found to reach him. We did talk many things, which, as they come into my mind now, I shall set down without order: that he is weary of public employment; and neither ever designed, nor will ever, if his commission were brought to him wrapt in gold, would he accept of any single place in the State, as particularly Secretary of State; which, he says, the world discourses Morrice is willing to resign, and he thinks the King (age 37) might have thought of him, but he would not, by any means, now take it, if given him, nor anything, but in commission with others, who may bear part of the blame; for now he observes well, that whoever did do anything singly are now in danger, however honest and painful they were, saying that he himself was the only man, he thinks, at the council-board that spoke his mind clearly, as he thought, to the good of the King (age 37); and the rest, who sat silent, have nothing said to them, nor are taken notice of. That the first time the King (age 37) did take him so closely into his confidence and ministry of affairs was upon the business of Chatham, Kent [Map], when all the disturbances were there, and in the Kingdom; and then, while everybody was fancying for himself, the King (age 37) did find him to persuade him to call for the Parliament, declaring that it was against his own proper interest, forasmuch as [it was] likely they would find faults with him, as well as with others, but that he would prefer the service of the King (age 37) before his own: and, thereupon, the King (age 37) did take him into his special notice, and, from that time to this, hath received him so; and that then he did see the folly and mistakes of the Chancellor (age 58) in the management of things, and saw that matters were never likely to be done well in that sort of conduct, and did persuade the King (age 37) to think fit of the taking away the seals from the Chancellor (age 58), which, when it was done, he told me that he himself, in his own particular, was sorry for it; for, while he stood, there was he and my Lord Arlington (age 49) to stand between him and harm: whereas now there is only my Lord Arlington (age 49), and he is now down, so that all their fury is placed upon him but that he did tell the King (age 37), when he first moved it, that, if he thought the laying of him, W. Coventry, aside, would at all facilitate the removing of the Chancellor (age 58), he would most willingly submit to it, whereupon the King (age 37) did command him to try the Duke of York (age 34) about it, and persuade him to it, which he did, by the King's command, undertake, and compass, and the Duke of York (age 34) did own his consent to the King (age 37), but afterwards was brought to be of another mind for the Chancellor (age 58), and now is displeased with him, and [so is] the Duchesse, so that she will not see him; but he tells me the Duke of York (age 34) seems pretty kind, and hath said that he do believe that W. Coventry did mean well, and do it only out of judgment. He tells me that he never was an intriguer in his life, nor will be, nor of any combination of persons to set up this, or fling down that, nor hath, in his own business, this Parliament, spoke to three members to say any thing for him, but will stand upon his own defence, and will stay by it, and thinks that he is armed against all they can [say], but the old business of selling places, and in that thinks they cannot hurt him. However, I do find him mighty willing to have his name used as little as he can, and he was glad when I did deliver him up a letter of his to me, which did give countenance to the discharging of men by ticket at Chatham, Kent [Map], which is now coming in question; and wherein, I confess, I am sorry to find him so tender of appearing, it being a thing not only good and fit, all that was done in it, but promoted and advised by him. But he thinks the House is set upon wresting anything to his prejudice that they can pick up. He tells me he did never, as a great many have, call the Chancellor (age 58) rogue and knave, and I know not what; but all that he hath said, and will stand by, is, that his counsels were not good, nor the manner of his managing of things. I suppose he means suffering the King (age 37) to run in debt; for by and by the King (age 37) walking in the parke, with a great crowd of his idle people about him, I took occasion to say that it was a sorry thing to be a poor King, and to have others to come to correct the faults of his own servants, and that this was it that brought us all into this condition. He answered that he would never be a poor King, and then the other would mend of itself. "No", says he, "I would eat bread and drink water first, and this day discharge all the idle company about me, and walk only with two footmen; and this I have told the King (age 37), and this must do it at last". I asked him how long the King (age 37) would suffer this. He told me the King (age 37) must suffer it yet longer, that he would not advise the King (age 37) to do otherwise; for it would break out again worse, if he should break them up before the core be come up. After this, we fell to other talk, of my waiting upon him hereafter, it may be, to read a chapter in Seneca, in this new house, which he hath bought, and is making very fine, when we may be out of employment, which he seems to wish more than to fear, and I do believe him heartily.

Pepy's Diary. 15 Nov 1667. They gone, towards night, I to the office awhile, and then home and to my chamber, where busy till by and by comes Mr. Moore, and he staid and supped and talked with me about many things, and tells me his great fear that all things will go to ruin among us, for that the King (age 37) hath, as he says Sir Thomas Crew (age 43) told him, been heard to say that the quarrel is not between my Chancellor (age 58) and him, but his brother and him; which will make sad work among us if that be once promoted, as to be sure it will, Buckingham (age 39) and Bristoll (age 55) being now the only counsel the King (age 37) follows, so as Arlington (age 49) and Coventry (age 39) are come to signify little. He tells me they are likely to fall upon my Lord Sandwich (age 42); but, for my part, sometimes I am apt to think they cannot do him much harm, he telling me that there is no great fear of the business of Resumption! By and by, I got him to read part of my Lord Cooke's chapter of treason, which is mighty well worth reading, and do inform me in many things, and for aught I see it is useful now to know what these crimes are.

Pepy's Diary. 30 Dec 1667. Thence to White Hall, and there to visit Sir G. Carteret (age 57), and there was with him a great while, and my Lady and they seem in very good humour, but by and by Sir G. Carteret (age 57) and I alone, and there we did talk of the ruinous condition we are in, the King (age 37) being going to put out of the Council so many able men; such as my Lord Anglesey (age 53), Ashly (age 46), Hollis (age 68), Secretary Morrice (age 65) (to bring in Mr. Trevor), and the Archbishop of Canterbury (age 69), and my Lord Bridgewater (age 44). He tells me that this is true, only the Duke of York (age 34) do endeavour to hinder it, and the Duke of York (age 34) himself did tell him so: that the King (age 37) and the Duke of York (age 34) do not in company disagree, but are friendly; but that there is a core in their hearts, he doubts, which is not to be easily removed; for these men do suffer only for their constancy to the Chancellor (age 58), or at least from the King's ill-will against him: that they do now all they can to vilify the clergy, and do accuse Rochester, Kent [Map] [Dolben]... and so do raise scandals, all that is possible, against other of the Bishops. He do suggest that something is intended for the Duke of Monmouth (age 18), and it may be, against the Queene (age 58) also: that we are in no manner sure against an invasion the next year: that the Duke of Buckingham (age 39) do rule all now, and the Duke of York (age 34) comes indeed to the Caball, but signifies little there. That this new faction do not endure, nor the King (age 37), Sir W. Coventry (age 39); but yet that he is so usefull that they cannot be without him; but that he is not now called to the Caball. That my Lord of Buckingham (age 39), Bristoll (age 55), and Arlington (age 49), do seem to agree in these things; but that they do not in their hearts trust one another, but do drive several ways, all of them. In short, he do bless himself that he is no more concerned in matters now; and the hopes he hath of being at liberty, when his accounts are over, to retire into the country. That he do give over the Kingdom for wholly lost. So after some other little discourse, I away, meeting with Mr. Cooling. I with him by coach to the Wardrobe, where I never was since the fire in Hatton Garden [Map], but did not 'light: and he tells me he fears that my Lord Sandwich (age 42) will suffer much by Mr. Townsend's being untrue to him, he being now unable to give the Commissioners of the Treasury an account of his money received by many thousands of pounds, which I am troubled for.

Around 1668 [his daughter] Isabella Bennet Duchess Grafton was born to Henry Bennet 1st Earl Arlington (age 50) and [his wife] Elisabeth Nassau Beverweert Countess Arlington (age 34).

Pepy's Diary. 31 Jan 1668. Thence to talk of other things, and the want of money and he told me of the general want of money in the country; that land sold for nothing, and the many pennyworths he knows of lands and houses upon them, with good titles in his country, at 16 years' purchase: "and", says he, "though I am in debt, yet I have a mind to one thing, and that is a Bishop's lease"; but said, "I will yet choose such a lease before any other, yes", says he, plainly, "because I know they cannot stand, and then it will fall into the King's hands, and I in possession shall have an advantage by it". "And", says he, "I know they must fall, and they are now near it, taking all the ways they can to undo themselves, and showing us the way"; and thereupon told the a story of the present quarrel between the Bishop (age 75) and Deane of Coventry and Lichfield (age 61); the former of which did excommunicate the latter, and caused his excommunication to be read in the Church while he was there; and, after it was read, the Deane (age 61) made the service be gone through with, though himself, an excommunicate, was present, which is contrary to the Canon, and said he would justify the quire therein against the Bishop (age 75); and so they are at law in the Arches about it; which is a very pretty story. He tells me that the King (age 37) is for Toleration, though the Bishops be against it: and that he do not doubt but it will be carried in Parliament; but that he fears some will stand for the tolerating of Papists with the rest; and that he knows not what to say, but rather thinks that the sober party will be without it, rather than have it upon those terms; and I do believe so. Here we broke off, and I home to dinner, and after dinner set down my wife and Deb. at the 'Change [Map], and I to make a visit to Mr. Godolphin (age 32)1 at his lodgings, who is lately come from Spain from my Lord Sandwich (age 42), and did, the other day, meeting me in White Hall, compliment me mightily, and so I did offer him this visit, but missed him, and so back and took up my wife and set her at Mrs. Turner's (age 45), and I to my bookbinder's, and there, till late at night, binding up my second part of my Tangier accounts, and I all the while observing his working, and his manner of gilding of books with great pleasure, and so home, and there busy late, and then to bed. This day Griffin did, in discourse in the coach, put me in the head of the little house by our garden, where old goodman Taylor puts his brooms and dirt, to make me a stable of, which I shall improve, so as, I think, to be able to get me a stable without much charge, which do please me mightily. He did also in discourse tell me that it is observed, and is true, in the late fire of London, that the fire burned just as many Parish-Churches as there were hours from the beginning to the end of the fire; and, next, that there were just as many Churches left standing as there were taverns left standing in the rest of the City that was not burned, being, I think he told me, thirteen in all of each: which is pretty to observe.

Note 1. William Godolphin (age 32), descended from a younger branch of that family, which was afterwards ennobled in the person of Sidney, Earl Godolphin, Lord Treasurer (age 22). William Godolphin was of Christ Church, Oxford, and graduated M.A., January 14th, 1660-61. He was afterwards secretary to Sir H. Bennet (age 50) (Lord Arlington), and M.P. for Camelford. He was a great favourite at Court, and was knighted on August 28th, 1668. In the spring of 1669 he returned to Spain as Envoy Extraordinary, and in 1671 he became Ambassador. On July 11th, 1696, he died at Madrid, having been for some years a Roman Catholic.

Pepy's Diary. 10 Feb 1668. Thence with Cocke (age 51) home to his house and there left him, and I home, and there got my wife to read a book I bought to-day, and come out to-day licensed by Joseph Williamson (age 34) for Lord Arlington (age 50), shewing the state of England's affairs relating to France at this time, and the whole body of the book very good and solid, after a very foolish introduction as ever I read, and do give a very good account of the advantage of our league with Holland at this time. So, vexed in my mind with the variety of cares I have upon me, and so to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 13 Feb 1668. Thence took up my wife, and home, and there busy late at the office writing letters, and so home to supper and to bed. The House was called over to-day. This morning Sir G. Carteret (age 58) come to the Office to see and talk with me: and he assures me that to this day the King (age 37) is the most kind man to my Lord Sandwich (age 42) in the whole world; that he himself do not now mind any publick business, but suffers things to go on at Court as they will, he seeing all likely to come to ruin: that this morning the Duke of York (age 34) sent to him to come to make up one of a Committee of the Council for Navy Affairs; where, when he come, he told the Duke of York (age 34) that he was none of them: which shews how things are now-a-days ordered, that there should be a Committee for the Navy; and the Lord Admiral not know the persons of it! And that Sir G. Carteret (age 58) and my Lord Anglesey (age 53) should be left out of it, and men wholly improper put into it. I do hear of all hands that there is a great difference at this day between my Lord Arlington (age 50) and Sir W. Coventry (age 40), which I am sorry for.

Pepy's Diary. 17 Feb 1668. Thence to the Committee, where I did deliver the several things they expected from me, with great respect and show of satisfaction, and my mind thereby eased of some care. But thence I to Westminster Hall [Map], and there spent till late at night walking to and again with many people, and there in general I hear of the great high words that were in the House on Saturday last, upon the first part of the Committee's Report about the dividing of the fleete; wherein some would have the counsels of the King (age 37) to be declared, and the reasons of them, and who did give them; where Sir W. Coventry (age 40) laid open to them the consequences of doing that, that the King (age 37) would never have any honest and wise men ever to be of his Council. They did here in the House talk boldly of the King's bad counsellors, and how they must be all turned out, and many of them, and better; brought in: and the proceedings of the Long-Parliament in the beginning of the war were called to memory: and the King's bad intelligence was mentioned, wherein they were bitter against my Lord Arlington (age 50), saying, among other things, that whatever Morrice's was, who declared he had but £750 a-year allowed him for intelligence, the King (age 37) paid too dear for my Lord Arlington's (age 50), in giving him £10,000 and a barony for it. Sir W. Coventry (age 40) did here come to his defence, in the business of the letter that was sent to call back Prince Rupert (age 48), after he was divided from the fleete, wherein great delay was objected; but he did show that he sent it at one in the morning, when the Duke of York (age 34) did give him the instructions after supper that night, and did clear himself well of it: only it was laid as a fault, which I know not how he removes, of not sending it by an express, but by the ordinary post; but I think I have heard he did send it to my Lord Arlington's (age 50); and that there it lay for some hours; it coming not to Sir Philip Honiwood's hand at Portsmouth, Hampshire [Map] till four in the afternoon that day, being about fifteen or sixteen hours in going; and about this, I think, I have heard of a falling out between my Lord Arlington (age 50), heretofore, and W. Coventry (age 40). Some mutterings I did hear of a design of dissolving the Parliament; but I think there is no ground for it yet, though Oliver would have dissolved them for half the trouble and contempt these have put upon the King (age 37) and his councils. The dividing of the fleete, however, is, I hear, voted a miscarriage, and the not building a fortification at Sheernesse [Map]: and I have reason every hour to expect that they will vote the like of our paying men off by ticket; and what the consequence of that will be I know not, but I am put thereby into great trouble of mind. I did spend a little time at the Swan [Map], and there did kiss the maid, Sarah.

Pepy's Diary. 21 Feb 1668. At noon by coach towards Westminster, and met my Lord Brouncker (age 48), and W. Pen, and Sir T. Harvey, in King's Street, coming away from the Parliament House; and so I to them, and to the French ordinary, at the Blue Bells, in Lincolne's Inn Fields, and there dined and talked. And, among other things, they tell me how the House this day is still as backward for giving any money as ever, and do declare they will first have an account of the disposals of the last Poll-bill, and eleven months' tax: and it is pretty odde that the very first sum mentioned in the account brought in by Sir Robert Long (age 68), of the disposal of the Poll-bill money, is £5000 to my Lord Arlington (age 50) for intelligence; which was mighty unseasonable, so soon after they had so much cried out against his want of intelligence. The King (age 37) do also own but £250,000, or thereabouts, yet paid on the Poll-bill, and that he hath charged £350,000 upon it. This makes them mad; for that the former Poll-bill, that was so much less in its extent than the last, which took in all sexes and qualities, did come to £350,000. Upon the whole, I perceive they are like to do nothing in this matter to please the King (age 37), or relieve the State, be the case never so pressing; and, therefore, it is thought by a great many that the King (age 37) cannot be worse if he should dissolve them: but there is nobody dares advise it, nor do he consider any thing himself.

Pepy's Diary. 15 Mar 1668. So to White Hall, and there walked with this man and that man till chapel done, and, the King (age 37) dined and then Sir Thomas Clifford (age 37), the Comptroller, took me with him to dinner to his lodgings, where my Lord Arlington (age 50) and a great deal of good and great company; where I very civilly used by them, and had a most excellent dinner: and good discourse of Spain, Mr. Godolphin (age 33) being there; particularly of the removal of the bodies of all the dead Kings of Spain that could be got together, and brought to the Pantheon at the Escuriall, when it was finished, and there placed before the altar, there to lie for ever; and there was a sermon made to them upon this text, "Arida ossa, audite verbum Dei"; and a most eloquent sermon, as they say, who say they have read it.

Pepy's Diary. 17 Mar 1668. Up betimes and to the office, where all the morning busy, and then at noon home to dinner, and so again to the office awhile, and then abroad to the Excize-Office, where I met Mr. Ball, and did receive the paper I went for; and there fell in talk with him, who, being an old cavalier, do swear and curse at the present state of things, that we should be brought to this, that we must be undone and cannot be saved; that the Parliament is sitting now, and will till midnight, to find how to raise this £300,000, and he doubts they will not do it so as to be seasonable for the King (age 37): but do cry out against our great men at Court; how it is a fine thing for a Secretary of State to dance a jigg, and that it was not so heretofore; and, above all, do curse my Lord of Bristol (age 55), saying the worst news that ever he heard in his life, or that the Devil could ever bring us, was this Lord's coming to prayers the other day in the House of Lords, by which he is coming about again from being a Papist, which will undo this nation; and he says he ever did say, at the King's first coming in, that this nation could not be safe while that man was alive. Having done there, I away towards Westminster, but seeing by the coaches the House to be up, I stopped at the 'Change [Map] (where, I met Mrs. Turner (age 45), and did give her a pair of gloves), and there bought several things for my wife, and so to my bookseller's, and there looked for Montaigne's Essays1, which I heard by my Lord Arlington (age 50) and Lord Blaney so much commended, and intend to buy it, but did not now, but home, where at the office did some business, as much as my eyes would give leave, and so home to supper, Mercer with us talking and singing, and so to bed. The House, I hear, have this day concluded upon raising £100,000 of the £300,000 by wine, and the rest by a poll-[tax], and have resolved to excuse the Church, in expectation that they will do the more of themselves at this juncture; and I do hear that Sir W. Coventry (age 40) did make a speech in behalf of the Clergy.

Note 1. This must have been Florio's translation, as Cotton's was not published until 1685.

Pepy's Diary. 30 Mar 1668. Up betimes, and so to the office, there to do business till about to o'clock, and then out with my wife and Deb. and W. Hewer (age 26) by coach to Common-garden Coffee-house, where by appointment I was to meet Harris (age 34); which I did, and also Mr. Cooper, the great painter, and Mr. Hales (age 68): and thence presently to Mr. Cooper's house, to see some of his work, which is all in little, but so excellent as, though I must confess I do think the colouring of the flesh to be a little forced, yet the painting is so extraordinary, as I do never expect to see the like again. Here I did see Mrs. Stewart's (age 20) picture as when a young maid, and now just done before her having the smallpox: and it would make a man weep to see what she was then, and what she is like to be, by people's discourse, now. Here I saw my Lord Generall's picture, and my Lord Arlington (age 50) and Ashly's, and several others; but among the rest one Swinfen, that was Secretary to my Lord Manchester (age 66), Lord Chamberlain, with Cooling, done so admirably as I never saw any thing: but the misery was, this fellow died in debt, and never paid Cooper (age 59) for his picture; but, it being seized on by his creditors, among his other goods, after his death, Cooper (age 59) himself says that he did buy it, and give £25 out of his purse for it, for what he was to have had but £30. Being infinitely satisfied with this sight, and resolving that my wife shall be drawn by him when she comes out of the country, I away with Harris (age 34) and Hales to the Coffee-house, sending my people away, and there resolve for Hales to begin Harris's (age 34) head for me, which I will be at the cost of.

Pepy's Diary. 22 Apr 1668. So to the fishmonger's, and bought a couple of lobsters, and over to the sparagus garden, thinking to have met Mr. Pierce, and his wife and Knepp; but met their servant coming to bring me to Chatelin's, the French house, in Covent Garden [Map], and there with musick and good company, Manuel and his wife, and one Swaddle, a clerk of Lord Arlington's (age 50), who dances, and speaks French well, but got drunk, and was then troublesome, and here mighty merry till ten at night, and then I away, and got a coach, and so home, where I find Balty (age 28) and his wife come to town, and did sup with them, and so they to bed. This night the Duke of Monmouth (age 19) and a great many blades were at Chatelin's, and I left them there, with a Hackney-coach attending him.

Pepy's Diary. 19 May 1668. Thence W. Coventry (age 40) and I in the Matted Gallery, and there he did talk very well to me about the way to save the credit of the officers of the Navy, and their places too, by making use of this interval of Parliament to be found to be mending of matters in the Navy, and that nothing but this will do it, and gives an instance in themselves of the Treasury, whereof himself and Sir John Duncombe (age 45) all the world knows have enemies, and my Lord Ashly (age 46) a man obnoxious to most, and Sir Thomas Clifford (age 37) one that as a man suddenly rising and a creature of my Lord Arlington's (age 50) hath enemies enough (none of them being otherwise but the Duke of Albemarle (age 59)), yet with all this fault they hear nothing of the business of the Treasury, but all well spoken of there. He is for the removal of Sir John Minnes (age 69), thinking that thereby the world will see a greater change in the hands than now they do; and I will endeavour it, and endeavour to do some good in the office also.

Pepy's Diary. 04 Aug 1668. Up, and to my office a little, and then to White Hall about a Committee for Tangier at my Lord Arlington's (age 50), where, by Creed's being out of town, I have the trouble given me of drawing up answers to the complaints of the Turks of Algiers, and so I have all the papers put into my hand. Here till noon, and then back to the Office, where sat a little, and then to dinner, and presently to the office, where come to me my Lord Bellassis (age 54), Lieutenant-Colonell Fitzgerald, newly come from Tangier, and Sir Arthur Basset, and there I received their informations, and so, they being gone, I with my clerks and another of Lord Brouncker's, Seddon, sat up till two in the morning, drawing up my answers and writing them fair, which did trouble me mightily to sit up so long, because of my eyes.

Pepy's Diary. 05 Aug 1668. So to bed about two o'clock, and then up about seven and to White Hall, where read over my report to Lord Arlington (age 50) and Berkeley (age 66), and then afterward at the Council Board with great good liking, but, Lord! how it troubled my eyes, though I did not think I could have done it, but did do it, and was not very bad afterward.

Pepy's Diary. 10 Aug 1668. Up, and by water to White Hall, and thence to Sir W. Coventry (age 40), but he is gone out of town this morning, so thence to my Lord Arlington's (age 50) house, the first time I there since he come thither, at Goring House [Map], a very fine, noble place; and there he received me in sight of several Lords with great respect. I did give him an account of my journey; and here, while I waited for him a little, my Lord Orrery (age 47) took notice of me, and begun discourse of hangings, and of the improvement of shipping: I not thinking that he knew me, but did then discover it, with a mighty compliment of my abilities and ingenuity, which I am mighty proud of; and he do speak most excellently.

Pepy's Diary. 29 Aug 1668. Thence carried Harris (age 34) to his playhouse, where, though four o'clock, so few people there at "The Impertinents", as I went out; and do believe they did not act, though there was my Lord Arlington (age 50) and his company there. So I out, and met my wife in a coach, and stopped her going thither to meet me; and took her, and Mercer, and Deb., to Bartholomew Fair, and there did see a ridiculous, obscene little stage-play, called "Marry Andrey"; a foolish thing, but seen by every body; and so to Jacob Hall's dancing of the ropes; a thing worth seeing, and mightily followed, and so home and to the office, and then to bed. Writing to my father to-night not to unfurnish our house in the country for my sister (age 27), who is going to her own house, because I think I may have occasion myself to come thither; and so I do, by our being put out of the Office, which do not at all trouble me to think of.

Pepy's Diary. 09 Sep 1668. Thence to Westminster, to Sir R. Longs (age 68) Office: and, going, met Mr. George Montagu (age 46), who talked and complimented me mightily; and long discourse I had with him, who, for news, tells me for certain that Trevor do come to be Secretary at Michaelmas, and that Morrice (age 65) goes out, and he believes, without any compensation. He tells me that now Buckingham (age 40) does rule all; and the other day, in the King's journey he is now on, at Bagshot, and that way, he caused Prince Rupert's (age 48) horses to be turned out of an inne, and caused his own to be kept there, which the Prince complained of to the King (age 38), and the Duke of York (age 34) seconded the complaint; but the King (age 38) did over-rule it for Buckingham (age 40), by which there are high displeasures among them; and Buckingham and Arlington (age 50) rule all.

Pepy's Diary. 25 Sep 1668. Up, and Sir D. Gauden with me betimes to confer again about this business, and he gone I all the morning finishing our answer, which I did by noon, and so to dinner, and W. Batelier with me, who is lately come from Impington, beyond which I perceive he went not, whatever his pretence at first was; and so he tells me how well and merry all are there, and how nobly used by my cozen. He gone, after dinner I to work again, and Gibson having wrote our answer fair and got Brouncker (age 48) and the rest to sign it, I by coach to White Hall to the Committee of the Council, which met late, and Brouncker (age 48) and J. Minnes (age 69) with me, and there the Duke of York (age 34) present (but not W. Coventry (age 40), who I perceive do wholly avoid to have to do publickly in this business, being shy of appearing in any Navy business, which I telling him the other day that I thought the King (age 38) might suffer by it, he told me that the occasion is now so small that it cannot be fatal to the service, and for the present it is better for him not to appear, saying that it may fare the worse for his appearing in it as things are now governed), where our answer was read and debated, and some hot words between the Duke of York (age 34) and Sir T. Clifford, the first for and the latter against Gawden, but the whole put off to to-morrow's Council, for till the King (age 38) goes out of town the next week the Council sits every day. So with the Duke of York (age 34) and some others to his closet, and Alderman Backewell (age 50) about a Committee of Tangier, and there did agree upon a price for pieces of eight at 4s. 6d. Present the Duke of York (age 34), Arlington (age 50), Berkeley, Sir J. Minnes (age 69), and myself. They gone, the Duke of York (age 34) did tell me how hot Clifford is for Child (age 37), and for removing of old Officers, he saying plainly to-night, that though Prince was a man that had done the best service that he believed any man, or any ten men, could have done, yet that it was for the King's interest not to let it lie too long in one hand, lest nobody should be able to serve him but one. But the Duke of York (age 34) did openly tell him that he was not for removing of old servants that have done well, neither in this place, nor in any other place, which is very nobly said. It being 7 or 8 at night, I home with Backewell by coach, and so walked to D. Gawden's, but he not at home, and so back to my chamber, the boy to read to me, and so to supper and to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 27 Sep 1668. Lord's Day. Up, and to my office to finish my journall for five days past, and so abroad and walked to White Hall, calling in at Somerset House [Map] Chapel, and also at the Spanish Embassador's at York House [Map], and there did hear a little masse: and so to White Hall; and there the King (age 38) being gone to Chapel, I to walk all the morning in the Park, where I met Mr. Wren; and he and I walked together in the Pell-Mell, it being most summer weather that ever was seen: and here talking of several things: of the corruption of the Court, and how unfit it is for ingenious men, and himself particularly, to live in it, where a man cannot live but he must spend, and cannot get suitably, without breach of his honour: and did thereupon tell me of the basest thing of my Lord Barkeley (age 66), one of the basest things that ever was heard of of a man, which was this: how the Duke of York's (age 34) Commissioners do let his wine-licenses at a bad rate, and being offered a better, they did persuade the Duke of York (age 34) to give some satisfaction to the former to quit it, and let it to the latter, which being done, my Lord Barkeley (age 66) did make the bargain for the former to have £1500 a-year to quit it; whereof, since, it is come to light that they were to have but £800 and himself £700, which the Duke of York (age 34) hath ever since for some years paid, though this second bargain hath been broken, and the Duke of York (age 34) lost by it, [half] of what the first was. He told me that there hath been a seeming accommodation between the Duke of York (age 34) and the Duke of Buckingham (age 40) and Lord Arlington (age 50), the two latter desiring it; but yet that there is not true agreement between them, but they do labour to bring in all new creatures into play, and the Duke of York (age 34) do oppose it, as particularly in this of Sir Prince.

Pepy's Diary. 28 Sep 1668. Thence to Westminster Hall [Map] and there walked a little, and to the Exchequer, and so home by water, and after eating a bit I to my vintner's, and there did only look upon su wife, which is mighty handsome; and so to my glove and ribbon shop, in Fenchurch Street [Map], and did the like there. And there, stopping against the door of the shop, saw Mrs. Horsfall, now a late widow, in a coach. I to her, and shook her by the hand, and so she away; and I by coach towards the King's playhouse, and meeting W. Howe took him with me, and there saw "The City Match"; not acted these thirty years, and but a silly play: the King (age 38) and Court there; the house, for the women's sake, mighty full. So I to White Hall, and there all the evening on the Queen's (age 29) side; and it being a most summerlike day, and a fine warm evening, the Italians come in a barge under the leads, before the Queen's (age 29) drawing-room; and so the Queen (age 29) and ladies went out, and heard them, for almost an hour: and it was indeed very good together; but yet there was but one voice that alone did appear considerable, and that was Seignor Joanni. This done, by and by they went in; and here I saw Mr. Sidney Montagu kiss the Queen's (age 29) hand, who was mighty kind to him, and the ladies looked mightily on him; and the King (age 38) come by and by, and did talk to him. So I away by coach with Alderman Backewell (age 50) home, who is mighty kind to me, more than ordinary, in his expressions. But I do hear this day what troubles me, that Sir W. Coventry (age 40) is quite out of play, the King (age 38) seldom speaking to him; and that there is a design of making a Lord Treasurer, and that my Lord Arlington (age 50) shall be the man; but I cannot believe it. But yet the Duke of Buckingham (age 40) hath it in his mind, and those with him, to make a thorough alteration in things; and, among the rest, Coventry (age 40) to be out. The Duke of York (age 34) did this day tell me how hot the whole party was in the business of GaudenGawden; and particularly, my Lord Anglesey (age 54) tells me, the Duke of Buckingham (age 40), for Child against Gawden; but the Duke of York (age 34) did stand stoutly to it.

Pepy's Diary. 28 Sep 1668. By and by comes Sir W. GoDolphin to see Mr. Sidney, who, I perceive, is much dissatisfied that he should come to town last night, and not yet be with my Lord Arlington (age 50), who, and all the town, hear of his being come to town, and he did, it seems, take notice of it to GoDolphin this morning: so that I perceive this remissness in affairs do continue in my Lord's managements still, which I am sorry for; but, above all, to see in what a condition my Lord is for money, that I dare swear he do not know where to take up £500 of any man in England at this time, upon his word, but of myself, as I believe by the sequel hereof it will appear. Here I first saw and saluted my Lady Burlington (age 55), a very fine-speaking lady, and a good woman, but old, and not handsome; but a brave woman in her parts. Here my Lady Hinchingbroke tells me that she hath bought most of the wedding-clothes for Mrs. Pickering (age 26), so that the thing is gone through, and will soon be ended; which I wonder at, but let them do as they will. Here I also, standing by a candle that was brought for sealing of a letter, do set my periwigg a-fire, which made such an odd noise, nobody could tell what it was till they saw the flame, my back being to the candle.

Pepy's Diary. 23 Oct 1668. So home, and there all alone to dinner, my wife and W. Hewer (age 26) being gone to Deptford, Kent [Map] to see her mother, and so I to the office all the afternoon. In the afternoon comes my cozen, Sidney Pickering (age 18), to bring my wife and me his sister's Favour for her wedding, which is kindly done, and he gone, I to business again, and in the evening home, made my wife read till supper time, and so to bed. This day Pierce do tell me, among other news, the late frolick and debauchery of Sir Charles Sidly (age 29) and Buckhurst (age 25), running up and down all the night with their arses bare, through the streets; and at last fighting, and being beat by the watch and clapped up all night; and how the King (age 38) takes their parts; and my Lord Chief Justice Keeling (age 61) hath laid the constable by the heels to answer it next Sessions: which is a horrid shame. How the King (age 38) and these gentlemen did make the fiddlers of Thetford, this last progress, to sing them all the bawdy songs they could think of. How Sir W. Coventry (age 40) was brought the other day to the Duchesse of York (age 31) by the Duke (age 35), to kiss her hand; who did acknowledge his unhappiness to occasion her so much sorrow, declaring his intentions in it, and praying her pardon; which she did give him upon his promise to make good his pretences of innocence to her family, by his faithfulness to his master, the Duke of York (age 35). That the Duke of Buckingham (age 40) is now all in all, and will ruin Coventry (age 40), if he can: and that W. Coventry (age 40) do now rest wholly upon the Duke of York (age 35) for his standing, which is a great turn. He tells me that my Baroness Castlemayne (age 27), however, is a mortal enemy to the Duke of Buckingham (age 40), which I understand not; but, it seems, she is disgusted with his greatness, and his ill usage of her. That the King (age 38) was drunk at Saxam with Sidly (age 29), Buckhurst (age 25), &c., the night that my Lord Arlington (age 50) come thither, and would not give him audience, or could not which is true, for it was the night that I was there, and saw the King (age 38) go up to his chamber, and was told that the King (age 38) had been drinking. He tells me, too, that the Duke of York (age 35) did the next day chide Bab. May (age 40) for his occasioning the King's giving himself up to these gentlemen, to the neglecting of my Lord Arlington (age 50): to which he answered merrily, that, by God, there was no man in England that had heads to lose, durst do what they do, every day, with the King (age 38), and asked the Duke of York's (age 35) pardon: which is a sign of a mad world. God bless us out of it!

Pepy's Diary. 29 Oct 1668. At the office all the morning, where Mr. Wren (age 39) first tells us of the order from the King (age 38), came last night to the Duke of York (age 35), for signifying his pleasure to the Sollicitor-General (age 46) for drawing up a Commission for suspending of my Lord Anglesey (age 54), and putting in Sir Thomas Littleton (age 47) and Sir Thomas Osborne, the former a creature of Arlington's (age 50), and the latter of the Duke of Buckingham's (age 40), during the suspension. The Duke of York (age 35) was forced to obey, and did grant it, he being to go to Newmarket, Suffolk this day with the King (age 38), and so the King (age 38) pressed for it. But Mr. Wren (age 39) do own that the Duke of York (age 35) is the most wounded in this, in the world, for it is done and concluded without his privity, after his appearing for Lord Anglesey (age 54), and that it is plain that they do ayme to bring the Admiralty into Commission too, and lessen the Duke of York (age 35). This do put strange apprehensions into all our Board; only I think I am the least troubled at it, for I care not at all for it: but my Lord Brouncker (age 48) and Pen do seem to think much of it.

Pepy's Diary. 30 Oct 1668. Up betimes; and Mr. Povy (age 54) comes to even accounts with me, which we did, and then fell to other talk. He tells, in short, how the King (age 38) is made a child of, by Buckingham (age 40) and Arlington (age 50), to the lessening of the Duke of York (age 35), whom they cannot suffer to be great, for fear of my Chancellor's (age 59) return, which, therefore, they make the King (age 38) violent against. That he believes it is impossible these two great men can hold together long: or, at least, that the ambition of the former is so great, that he will endeavour to master all, and bring into play as many as he can. That Anglesey (age 54) will not lose his place easily, but will contend in law with whoever comes to execute it. That the Duke of York (age 35), in all things but in his cod-piece, is led by the nose by his wife (age 31). That W. Coventry (age 40) is now, by the Duke of York (age 35), made friends with the Duchess (age 31); and that he is often there, and waits on her. That he do believe that these present great men will break in time, and that W. Coventry (age 40) will be a great man again; for he do labour to have nothing to do in matters of the State, and is so usefull to the side that he is on, that he will stand, though at present he is quite out of play. That my Baroness Castlemayne (age 27) hates the Duke of Buckingham (age 40). That the Duke of York (age 35) hath expressed himself very kind to my Lord Sandwich (age 43), which I am mighty glad of. That we are to expect more changes if these men stand. This done, he and I to talk of my coach, and I got him to go see it, where he finds most infinite fault with it, both as to being out of fashion and heavy, with so good reason that I am mightily glad of his having corrected me in it; and so I do resolve to have one of his build, and with his advice, both in coach and horses, he being the fittest man in the world for it, and so he carried me home, and said the same to my wife. So I to the office and he away, and at noon I home to dinner, and all the afternoon late with Gibson at my chamber about my present great business, only a little in the afternoon at the office about Sir D. Gawden's accounts, and so to bed and slept heartily, my wife and I at good peace, but my heart troubled and her mind not at ease, I perceive, she against and I for the girle, to whom I have not said anything these three days, but resolve to be mighty strange in appearance to her. This night W. Batelier come and took his leave of us, he setting out for France to-morrow.

Pepy's Diary. 04 Nov 1668. Up, and by coach to White Hall; and there I find the King (age 38) and Duke of York (age 35) come the last night, and every body's mouth full of my Lord Anglesey's (age 54) suspension being sealed; which it was, it seems, yesterday; so that he is prevented in his remedy at the Council; and, it seems, the two new Treasurers did kiss the King's hand this morning, brought in by my Lord Arlington (age 50). They walked up and down together the Court this day, and several people joyed them; but I avoided it, that I might not be seen to look either way. This day also I hear that my Lord Ormond (age 58) is to be declared in Council no more Deputy Governor of Ireland, his commission being expired: and the King (age 38) is prevailed with to take it out of his hands; which people do mightily admire, saying that he is the greatest subject of any Prince in Christendome, and hath more acres of land than any, and hath done more for his Prince than ever any yet did. But all will not do; he must down, it seems, the Duke of Buckingham (age 40) carrying all before him. But that, that troubles me most is, that they begin to talk that the Duke of York's (age 35) regiment is ordered to be disbanded; and more, that undoubtedly his Admiralty will follow: which do shake me mightily, and I fear will have ill consequences in the nation, for these counsels are very mad. The Duke of York (age 35) do, by all men's report, carry himself wonderfull submissive to the King (age 38), in the most humble manner in the world; but yet, it seems, nothing must be spared that tends to, the keeping out of the Chancellor (age 59); and that is the reason of all this. The great discourse now is, that the Parliament shall be dissolved and another called, which shall give the King (age 38) the Deane (age 34) and Chapter lands; and that will put him out of debt. And it is said that Buckingham do knownly meet daily with Wildman and other Commonwealth-men; and that when he is with them, he makes the King (age 38) believe that he is with his wenches; and something looks like the Parliament's being dissolved, by Harry Brouncker's (age 41) being now come back, and appears this day the first day at White Hall; but hath not been yet with the King (age 38), but is secure that he shall be well received, I hear. God bless us, when such men as he shall be restored! But that, that pleases me most is, that several do tell me that Pen is to be removed; and others, that he hath resigned his place; and particularly Spragg tells me for certain that he hath resigned it, and is become a partner with Gawden in the Victualling: in which I think he hath done a very cunning thing; but I am sure I am glad of it; and it will be well for the King (age 38) to have him out of this Office.

Pepy's Diary. 13 Nov 1668. Thence I to the Three Tuns Tavern, by Charing Cross [Map], and there dined with W. Pen (age 47), Sir J. Minnes (age 69), and Commissioner Middleton; and as merry as my mind could be, that hath so much trouble upon it at home. And thence to White Hall, and there staid in Mr. Wren's chamber with him, reading over my draught of a letter, which Mr. Gibson then attended me with; and there he did like all, but doubted whether it would be necessary for the Duke to write in so sharp a style to the Office, as I had drawn it in; which I yield to him, to consider the present posture of the times and the Duke of York (age 35) and whether it were not better to err on that hand than the other. He told me that he did not think it was necessary for the Duke of York (age 35) to do so, and that it would not suit so well with his nature nor greatness; which last, perhaps, is true, but then do too truly shew the effects of having Princes in places, where order and discipline should be. I left it to him to do as the Duke of York (age 35) pleases; and so fell to other talk, and with great freedom, of public things; and he told me, upon my several inquiries to that purpose, that he did believe it was not yet resolved whether the Parliament should ever meet more or no, the three great rulers of things now standing thus:-The Duke of Buckingham (age 40) is absolutely against their meeting, as moved thereto by his people that he advises with, the people of the late times, who do never expect to have any thing done by this Parliament for their religion, and who do propose that, by the sale of the Church-lands, they shall be able to put the King (age 38) out of debt: my Lord Keeper is utterly against putting away this and choosing another Parliament, lest they prove worse than this, and will make all the King's friends, and the King (age 38) himself, in a desperate condition: my Lord Arlington (age 50) know not which is best for him, being to seek whether this or the next will use him worst. He tells me that he believes that it is intended to call this Parliament, and try them with a sum of money; and, if they do not like it, then to send them going, and call another, who will, at the ruin of the Church perhaps, please the King (age 38) with what he will for a time. And he tells me, therefore, that he do believe that this policy will be endeavoured by the Church and their friends-to seem to promise the King (age 38) money, when it shall be propounded, but make the King (age 38) and these great men buy it dear, before they have it. He tells me that he is really persuaded that the design of the Duke of Buckingham (age 40) is, by bringing the state into such a condition as, if the King (age 38) do die without issue, it shall, upon his death, break into pieces again; and so put by the Duke of York (age 35), who they have disobliged, they know, to that degree, as to despair of his pardon. He tells me that there is no way to rule the King (age 38) but by brisknesse, which the Duke of Buckingham (age 40) hath above all men; and that the Duke of York (age 35) having it not, his best way is what he practices, that is to say, a good temper, which will support him till the Duke of Buckingham (age 40) and Lord Arlington (age 50) fall out, which cannot be long first, the former knowing that the latter did, in the time of the Chancellor (age 59), endeavour with the Chancellor (age 59) to hang him at that time, when he was proclaimed against. And here, by the by, he told me that the Duke of Buckingham (age 40) did, by his friends, treat with my Chancellor (age 59), by the mediation of Matt. Wren (age 39) and Matt. Clifford, to fall in with my Chancellor (age 59); which, he tells me, he did advise my Chancellor (age 59) to accept of, as that, that with his own interest and the Duke of York's (age 35), would undoubtedly have assured all to him and his family; but that my Chancellor (age 59) was a man not to be advised, thinking himself too high to be counselled: and so all is come to nothing; for by that means the Duke of Buckingham (age 40) became desperate, and was forced to fall in with Arlington (age 50), to his [the Chancellor's (age 59)] ruin.

Pepy's Diary. 23 Nov 1668. So to White Hall, where a Committee of Tangier expected, but none met. I met with Mr. Povy (age 54), who I discoursed with about publick business, who tells me that this discourse which I told him of, of the Duke of Monmouth (age 19) being made Prince of Wales, hath nothing in it; though he thinks there are all the endeavours used in the world to overthrow the Duke of York (age 35). He would not have me doubt of my safety in the Navy, which I am doubtful of from the reports of a general removal; but he will endeavour to inform me, what he can gather from my Lord Arlington (age 50). That he do think that the Duke of Buckingham (age 40) hath a mind rather to overthrow all the Kingdom, and bring in a Commonwealth, wherein he may think to be General of their Army, or to make himself King, which, he believes, he may be led to, by some advice he hath had with conjurors, which he do affect.

Pepy's Diary. 25 Nov 1668. Thence walked with him to White Hall, where to the Duke of York (age 35); and there the Duke, and Wren, and I, by appointment in his closet, to read over our letter to the Office, which he heard, and signed it, and it is to my mind, Mr. Wren (age 39) having made it somewhat sweeter to the Board, and yet with all the advice fully, that I did draw it up with. He [the Duke] said little more to us now, his head being full of other business; but I do see that he do continue to put a value upon my advice; and so Mr. Wren (age 39) and I to his chamber, and there talked: and he seems to hope that these people, the Duke of Buckingham (age 40) and Arlington (age 50), will run themselves off of their legs; they being forced to be always putting the King (age 38) upon one idle thing or other, against the easiness of his nature, which he will never be able to bear, nor they to keep him to, and so will lose themselves. And, for instance of their little progress, he tells me that my Lord of Ormond (age 58) is like yet to carry it, and to continue in his command in Ireland; at least, they cannot get the better of him yet. But he tells me that the Keeper is wrought upon, as they say, to give his opinion for the dissolving of the Parliament, which, he thinks, will undo him in the eyes of the people. He do not seem to own the hearing or fearing of any thing to be done in the Admiralty, to the lessening of the Duke of York (age 35), though he hears how the town talk's full of it.

Pepy's Diary. 07 Dec 1668. So to talk of general things: and telling him that, with all these doings, he, I thanked God, stood yet; he told me, Yes, but that he thought his continuing in, did arise from his enemies my Lord of Buckingham (age 40) and Arlington's (age 50) seeing that he cared so little if he was out; and he do protest to me that he is as weary of the Treasury, as ever he was of the Navy. He tells me that he do believe that their heat is over almost, as to the Navy, there being now none left of the old stock but my Lord Brouncker (age 48), J. Minnes (age 69), who is ready to leave the world, and myself. But he tells me that he do foresee very great wants and great disorders by reason thereof; insomuch, as he is represented to the King (age 38) by his enemies as a melancholy man, and one that is still prophesying ill events, so as the King (age 38) called him Visionaire, which being told him, he said he answered the party, that, whatever he foresaw, he was not afeard as to himself of any thing, nor particularly of my Lord Arlington (age 50), so much as the Duke of Buckingham (age 40) hath been, nor of the Duke of Buckingham (age 40), so much as my Lord Arlington (age 50) at this time is. But he tells me that he hath been always looked upon as a melancholy man; whereas, others that would please the King (age 38) do make him believe that all is safe: and so he hath heard my Chancellor (age 59) openly say to the King (age 38), that he was now a glorious Prince, and in a glorious condition, because of some one accident that hath happened, or some one rub that hath been removed; "when", says W. Coventry (age 40), "they reckoned their one good meal, without considering that there was nothing left in the cup board for to-morrow". After this and other discourse of this kind, I away, and walked to my Lord Sandwich's (age 43), and walked with him to White Hall, and took a quarter of an hour's walk in the garden with him, which I had not done for so much time with him since his coming into England; and talking of his own condition, and particularly of the world's talk of his going to Tangier. I find, if his conditions can be made profitable and safe as to money, he would go, but not else; but, however, will seem not averse to it, because of facilitating his other accounts now depending, which he finds hard to get through, but yet hath some hopes, the King (age 38), he says, speaking very kindly to him.

Pepy's Diary. 16 Jan 1669. Up, and to the office all the morning, dined at home with my people, and so all the afternoon till night at the office busy, and so home to supper and to bed. This morning Creed, and in the afternoon comes Povy (age 55), to advise with me about my answer to the Lords [Commissioners] of Tangier, about the propositions for the Treasurership there, which I am not much concerned for. But the latter, talking of publick things, told me, as Mr. Wren (age 40) also did, that the Parliament is likely to meets again, the King (age 38) being frighted with what the Speaker hath put him in mind of-his promise not to prorogue, but only to adjourne them. They speak mighty freely of the folly of the King (age 38) in this foolish woman's business, of my Lady Harvy (age 30). Povy (age 55) tells me that Sir W. Coventry (age 41) was with the King (age 38) alone, an hour this day; and that my Baroness Castlemayne (age 28) is now in a higher command over the King (age 38) than ever-not as a mistress, for she scorns him, but as a tyrant, to command him: and says that the Duchess of York (age 31) and the Duke of York (age 35) are mighty great with her, which is a great interest to my Chancellor's' (age 59) family; and that they do agree to hinder all they can the proceedings of the Duke of Buckingham (age 40) and Arlington (age 51): and so we are in the old mad condition, or rather worse than any; no man knowing what the French intend to do the next summer.

Evelyn's Diary. 13 Feb 1669. I presented his Majesty (age 38) with my "History of the Four Impostors;" he told me of other like cheats. I gave my book to Lord Arlington (age 51), to whom I dedicated it. It was now that he began to tempt me about writing "The Dutch War"..

Evelyn's Diary. 01 Mar 1669. Dined at Lord Arlington's (age 51) at Goring House [Map], with the Bishop of Hereford (age 66).

Pepy's Diary. 01 Mar 1669. Up, and to White Hall to the Committee of Tangier, but it did not meet. But here I do hear first that my Lady Paulina Montagu (deceased) did die yesterday; at which I went to my Lord's lodgings, but he is shut up with sorrow, and so not to be spoken with: and therefore I returned, and to Westminster Hall [Map], where I have not been, I think, in some months. And here the Hall was very full, the King (age 38) having, by Commission to some Lords this day, prorogued the Parliament till the 19th of October next: at which I am glad, hoping to have time to go over to France this year. But I was most of all surprised this morning by my Lord Bellassis (age 54), who, by appointment, met me at Auditor Wood's, at the Temple [Map], and tells me of a duell designed between the Duke of Buckingham (age 41) and my Lord Halifax (age 35), or Sir W. Coventry (age 41); the challenge being carried by Harry Saville (age 27), but prevented by my Lord Arlington (age 51), and the King (age 38) told of it; and this was all the discourse at Court this day. But I, meeting Sir W. Coventry (age 41) in the Duke of York's (age 35) chamber, he would not own it to me, but told me that he was a man of too much peace to meddle with fighting, and so it rested: but the talk is full in the town of the business.

Pepy's Diary. 07 Mar 1669. So to my cozen Turner's, and there staid talking a little, and then back to Suffolk Street, where they not being yet come home I to White Hall, and there hear that there are letters come from Sir Thomas Allen (age 36), that he hath made some kind of peace with Algiers; upon which the King (age 38) and Duke of York (age 35), being to go out of town to-morrow, are met at my Lord Arlington's (age 51): so I there, and by Mr. Wren (age 40) was desired to stay to see if there were occasion for their speaking with me, which I did, walking without, with Charles Porter (age 37)1, talking of a great many things: and I perceive all the world is against the Duke of Buckingham (age 41) his acting thus high, and do prophesy nothing but ruin from it: But he do well observe that the church lands cannot certainly come to much, if the King (age 38) shall [be] persuaded to take them; they being leased out for long leases.

Note 1. Charles Porter (age 37) "was the son of a prebend in Norwich, and a 'prentice boy in the city in the rebellious times. When the committee house was blown up, he was very active in that rising, and after the soldiers came and dispersed the rout, he, as a rat among joint stools, shifted to and fro among the shambles, and had forty pistols shot at him by the troopers that rode after him to kill him 24th April, 1648. In that distress he had the presence of mind to catch up a little child that, during the rout, was frighted, and stood crying in the streets, and, unobserved by the troopers, ran away with it. The people opened a way for him, saying, 'Make room for the poor child.' Thus he got off, and while search was made for him in the market-place, got into the Yarmouth [Map] ferry, and at Yarmouth [Map] took ship and went to Holland.... In Holland he trailed a pike, and was in several actions as a common soldier. At length he kept a cavalier eating-house; but, his customers being needy, he soon broke, and came for England, and being a genteel youth, was taken in among the chancery clerks, and got to be under a master.... His industry was great; and he had an acquired dexterity and skill in the forms of the court; and although he was a bon companion, and followed much the bottle, yet he made such dispatches as satisfied his clients, especially the clerks, who knew where to find him. His person was florid, and speech prompt and articulate. But his vices, in the way of women and the bottle, were so ungoverned, as brought him to a morsel.... When the Lord Keeper North had the Seal, who from an early acquaintance had a kindness for him which was well known, and also that he was well heard, as they call it, business flowed in to him very fast, and yet he could scarce keep himself at liberty to follow his business.... At the Revolution, when his interest fell from, and his debts began to fall upon him, he was at his wits' end.... His character for fidelity, loyalty, and facetious conversation was without exception"-Roger North's Lives of the Norths (Lord Keeper Guilford), ed. Jessopp, vol. i., pp. 381-2. He was originally made Chancellor (age 60) of Ireland in the reign of James II, during the viceroyalty of Lord Clarendon, 1686, when he was knighted. "He was", says Burnet, "a man of ready wit, and being poor was thought a person fit to be made a tool of. When Clarendon was recalled, Porter was also displaced, and Fitton was made Chancellor (age 60), a man who knew no other law than the King's pleasure" ("Own Time"). Sir Charles Porter (age 37) was again made Chancellor of Ireland in 1690, and in this same year he acted as one of the Lords Justices. This note of Lord Braybrooke's is retained and added to, but the reference may after all be to another Charles Porter. See vol. iii., p. 122, and vol. vi., p. 98.

Evelyn's Diary. 16 Mar 1669. To London, to place Mr. Christopher Wase (age 42) about my Lord Arlington (age 51).

Pepy's Diary. 20 Mar 1669. Thence to the office, where sat all the forenoon, and then home to dinner, and so to the office, where late busy, and so home, mightily pleased with the news brought me to-night, that the King (age 38) and Duke of York (age 35) are come back this afternoon, and no sooner come, but a warrant was sent to the Tower for the releasing Sir W. Coventry (age 41); which do put me in some hopes that there may be, in this absence, some accommodation made between the Duke of York (age 35) and the Duke of Buckingham (age 41) and Arlington (age 51).

Pepy's Diary. 21 Mar 1669. Lord's Day. Up, and by water over to Southwarke [Map]; and then, not getting a boat, I forced to walk to Stangate; and so over to White Hall, in a scull; where up to the Duke of York's (age 35) dressing-room, and there met Harry Saville (age 27), and understand that Sir W. Coventry (age 41) is come to his house last night. I understand by Mr. Wren (age 40) that his friends having, by Secretary Trevor (age 45) and my Lord Keeper (age 63), applied to the King (age 38) upon his first coming home, and a promise made that he should be discharged this day, my Lord Arlington (age 51) did anticipate them, by sending a warrant presently for his discharge which looks a little like kindness, or a desire of it; which God send! though I fear the contrary: however, my heart is glad that he is out.

Pepy's Diary. 04 Apr 1669. Lord's Day. Up, and to church, where Alderman Backewell's (age 51) wife, by my invitation with my head, come up with her mother, and sat with us, and after sermon I did walk with them home, and there left them, and home to dinner, and after dinner with Sir J. Minnes (age 70) and T. Middleton to White Hall, by appointment; and at my Lord Arlington's (age 51) the Office did attend the King (age 38) and Cabal, to discourse the further quantity of victuals fit to be declared for, which was 2,000 men for six months; and so without more ado or stay, there, hearing no news but that Sir Thomas Allen (age 36) is to be expected every hour at home with his fleete, or news of his being gone back to Algier, and so home, where got my wife to read to me; and so after supper to bed. The Queen-Mother (age 59) hath been of late mighty ill, and some fears of her death.

Pepy's Diary. 18 Apr 1669. Lord's Day. Up, and all the morning till 2 o'clock at my Office, with Gibson and Tom, about drawing up fair my discourse of the Administration of the Navy, and then, Mr. Spong being come to dine with me, I in to dinner, and then out to my Office again, to examine the fair draught; and so borrowing Sir J. Minnes's (age 70) coach, he going with Colonel Middleton, I to White Hall, where we all met and did sign it and then to my Lord Arlington's (age 51), where the King (age 38), and the Duke of York (age 35), and Prince Rupert (age 49), as also Ormond and the two Secretaries, with my Lord Ashly (age 47) and Sir T. Clifton (age 38) was. And there, by and by, being called in, Mr. Williamson (age 35) did read over our paper, which was in a letter to the Duke of York (age 35), bound up in a book with the Duke of York's (age 35) Book of Instructions. He read it well; and, after read, we were bid to withdraw, nothing being at all said to it. And by and by we were called in again, and nothing said to that business; but another begun, about the state of this year's action, and our wants of money, as I had stated the same lately to our Treasurers; which I was bid, and did largely, and with great content, open. And having so done, we all withdrew, and left them to debate our supply of money; to which, being called in, and referred to attend on the Lords of the Treasury, we all departed. And I only staid in the House till the Council rose; and then to the Duke of York (age 35), who in the Duchess's chamber come to me, and told me that the book was there left with my Lord Arlington (age 51), for any of the Lords to view that had a mind, and to prepare and present to the King (age 38) what they had to say in writing, to any part of it, which is all we can desire, and so that rested. The Duke of York (age 35) then went to other talk; and by and by comes the Prince of Tuscany (age 26) to visit him, and the Duchess (age 32); and I find that he do still remain incognito, and so intends to do all the time he stays here, for avoiding trouble to the King (age 38) and himself, and expence also to both.

Pepy's Diary. 28 Apr 1669. Up, and was called upon by Sir H. Cholmly (age 36) to discourse about some accounts of his, of Tangier: and then other talk; and I find by him that it is brought almost effect ([through] the late endeavours of the Duke of York (age 35) and Duchess (age 32), the Queen-Mother (age 59), and my Lord St. Albans (age 64), together with some of the contrary faction, my Lord Arlington (age 51)), that for a sum of money we shall enter into a league with the King of France (age 30), wherein, he says, my Chancellor (age 60)1 is also concerned; and that he believes that, in the doing hereof, it is meant that he [Clarendon] shall come again, and that this sum of money will so help the King (age 38) that he will not need the Parliament; and that, in that regard it will be forwarded by the Duke of Buckingham (age 41) and his faction, who dread the Parliament. But hereby we must leave the Dutch, and that I doubt will undo us; and Sir H. Cholmly (age 36) says he finds W. Coventry (age 41) do think the like. Baroness Castlemayne (age 28) is instrumental in this matter, and, he say never more great with the King (age 38) than she is now. But this a thing that will make the Parliament and kingdom mad, and will turn to our ruine: for with this money the King (age 38) shall wanton away his time in pleasures, and think nothing of the main till it be too late. He gone, I to the office, where busy till noon, and then home to dinner, where W. Batelier dined with us, and pretty merry, and so I to the office again. This morning Mr. Sheres sent me, in two volumes, Mariana his History of Spaine, in Spanish, an excellent book; and I am much obliged for it to him.

Note 1. Clarendon (age 60); then an exile in France.

Evelyn's Diary. 03 Jun 1669. Went to take leave of Lord Howard, going Ambassador to Morocco. Dined at Lord Arlington's (age 51), where were the Earl of Berkshire (age 49), Lord Saint John, Sir Robert Howard, and Sir R. Holmes.

Evelyn's Diary. 18 Jun 1670. Dined at Goring House [Map], whither my Lord Arlington (age 52) carried me from Whitehall with the Marquis of Worcester (age 41); there, we found Lord Sandwich (age 44), Viscount Stafford (age 55), the Lieutenant of the Tower, and others. After dinner, my Lord communicated to me his Majesty's (age 40) desire that I would engage to write the history of our late war with the Hollanders, which I had hitherto declined; this I found was ill taken, and that I should disoblige his Majesty (age 40), who had made choice of me to do him this service, and, if I would undertake it, I should have all the assistance the Secretary's office and others could give me, with other encouragements, which I could not decently refuse.

Evelyn's Diary. 22 Jul 1670. We rode out to see the great mere, or level, of recovered fen land, not far off. In the way, we met Lord Arlington (age 52) going to his house in Suffolk, accompanied with Count Ogniati, the Spanish minister, and Sir Bernard Gascoigne (age 56); he was very importunate with me to go with him to Euston, being but fifteen miles distant; but, in regard of my company, I could not. So, passing through Newmarket, Suffolk, we alighted to see his Majesty's (age 40) house there, now new-building; the arches of the cellars beneath are well turned by Mr. Samuel, the architect, the rest mean enough, and hardly fit for a hunting house. Many of the rooms above had the chimneys in the angles and corners, a mode now introduced by his Majesty (age 40), which I do at no hand approve of. I predict it will spoil many noble houses and rooms, if followed. It does only well in very small and trifling rooms, but takes from the state of greater. Besides, this house is placed in a dirty street, without any court or avenue, like a common one, whereas it might and ought to have been built at either end of the town, upon the very carpet where the sports are celebrated; but, it being the purchase of an old wretched house of my Lord Thomond's, his Majesty (age 40) was persuaded to set it on that foundation, the most improper imaginable for a house of sport and pleasure.

Evelyn's Diary. 20 Aug 1670. At Windsor, Berkshire [Map] I supped with the Duke of Monmouth (age 21); and, the next day, invited by Lord Arlington (age 52), dined with the same Duke and divers Lords. After dinner my Lord and I had a conference of more than an hour alone in his bedchamber, to engage me in the History. I showed him something that I had drawn up, to his great satisfaction, and he desired me to show it to the Treasurer (age 40).

Evelyn's Diary. 23 Nov 1670. Dined with the Earl of Arlington (age 52), where was the Venetian Ambassador, of whom I now took solemn leave, now on his return. There were also Lords Howard, Wharton (age 57), Windsor (age 43), and divers other great persons.

Evelyn's Diary. 20 Jan 1671. The King (age 40) came to me in the Queen's (age 32) withdrawing-room from the circle of ladies, to talk with me as to what advance I had made in the Dutch History. I dined with the Treasurer (age 40), and afterward we went to the Secretary's (age 53) Office, where we conferred about divers particulars.

Evelyn's Diary. 28 Feb 1671. [Note. Original entry stated 29 Feb 1671 which is clearly incorrect since 1671 isn't a leap year.] I went to thank the Treasurer (age 40), who was my great friend and loved me; I dined with him and much company, and went thence to my Lord Arlington (age 53), Secretary of State, in whose favor I likewise was upon many occasions, though I cultivated neither of their friendships by any mean submissions. I kissed his Majesty's (age 40) hand, on his making me one of the new-established Council.

Evelyn's Diary. 17 May 1671. Dined at Mr. Treasurer's (age 40) with the Earl of Arlington (age 53), Carlingford, Lord Arundel of Wardour (age 63), Lord Almoner to the Queen, a French Count and two abbots, with several more of French nobility; and now by something I had lately observed of Mr. Treasurer's (age 40) conversation on occasion, I suspected him a little warping to Rome.

Evelyn's Diary. 26 May 1671. The Earl of Bristol's (age 58) house in Queen's Street was taken for the Commissioners of Trade and Plantations, and furnished with rich hangings of the King's (age 40). It consisted of seven rooms on a floor, with a long gallery, gardens, etc. This day we met the Duke of Buckingham (age 43), Earl of Lauderdale (age 55), Lord Culpeper, Sir George Carteret (age 61), Vice-Chamberlain, and myself, had the oaths given us by the Earl of Sandwich (age 45), our President. It was to advise and counsel his Majesty (age 40), to the best of our abilities, for the well-governing of his Foreign Plantations, etc., the form very little differing from that given to the Privy Council. We then took our places at the Board in the Council-Chamber, a very large room furnished with atlases, maps, charts, globes, etc. Then came the Lord Keeper, Sir Orlando Bridgeman (age 65), Earl of Arlington (age 53), Secretary of State, Lord Ashley, Mr. Treasurer (age 40), Sir John Trevor (age 34), the other Secretary, Sir John Duncomb (age 49), Lord Allington (age 31), Mr. Grey, son to the Lord Grey, Mr. Henry Broncher, Sir Humphrey Winch (age 49), Sir John Finch, Mr. Waller (age 65), and Colonel Titus (age 48), of the bedchamber, with Mr. Slingsby, Secretary to the Council, and two Clerks of the Council, who had all been sworn some days before. Being all set, our Patent was read, and then the additional Patent, in which was recited this new establishment; then, was delivered to each a copy of the Patent, and of instructions: after which, we proceeded to business.

Evelyn's Diary. 26 Jun 1671. To Council, where Lord Arlington (age 53) acquainted us that it was his Majesty's (age 41) proposal we should, every one of us, contribute £20 toward building a Council chamber and conveniences somewhere in Whitehall, that his Majesty (age 41) might come and sit among us, and hear our debates; the money we laid out to be reimbursed out of the contingent moneys already set apart for us, viz, £1,000 yearly. To this we unanimously consented. There came an uncertain bruit from Barbadoes of some disorder there. On my return home I stepped in at the theater to see the new machines for the intended scenes, which were indeed very costly and magnificent.

Evelyn's Diary. 01 Sep 1671. Dined with the Treasurer (age 41), in company with my Lord Arlington (age 53), Halifax (age 37), and Sir Thomas Strickland [Note. Possibly Thomas Strickland (age 49) or Thomas Strickland 2nd Baronet (age 32).]; and next day, went home, being the anniversary of the late dreadful fire of London.

Evelyn's Diary. 22 Sep 1671. This over, I went that night with Mr. Treasurer (age 41) to Euston, a palace of Lord Arlington's (age 53), where we found Monsieur Colbert (age 46) (the French Ambassador), and the famous new French Maid of Honor, Mademoiselle Querouaille (age 22), now coming to be in great favor with the King (age 41). Here was also the Countess of Sunderland (age 25), and several lords and ladies, who lodged in the house.

Evelyn's Diary. 22 Sep 1671. During my stay here with Lord Arlington (age 53), near a fortnight, his Majesty (age 41) came almost every second day with the Duke (age 37), who commonly returned to Newmarket, Suffolk, but the King (age 41) often lay here, during which time I had twice the honor to sit at dinner with him, with all freedom. It was universally reported that the fair lady -- [Note. Probably Louise Kéroualle 1st Duchess Portsmouth (age 22)], was bedded one of these nights, and the stocking flung, after the manner of a married bride; I acknowledge she was for the most part in her undress all day, and that there was fondness and toying with that young wanton; nay, it was said, I was at the former ceremony; but it is utterly false; I neither saw nor heard of any such thing while I was there, though I had been in her chamber, and all over that apartment late enough, and was myself observing all passages with much curiosity. However, it was with confidence believed she was first made a Miss, as they called these unhappy creatures, with solemnity at this time.

Evelyn's Diary. 16 Oct 1671. In the morning, we went hunting and hawking; in the afternoon, till almost morning, to cards and dice, yet I must say without noise, swearing, quarrel, or confusion of any sort. I, who was no gamester, had often discourse with the French Ambassador, Colbert (age 46), and went sometimes abroad on horseback with the ladies to take the air, and now and then to hunting; thus idly passing the time, but not without more often recess to my pretty apartment, where I was quite out of all this hurry, and had leisure when I would, to converse with books, for there is no man more hospitably easy to be withal than my Lord Arlington (age 53), of whose particular friendship and kindness I had ever a more than ordinary share. His house is a very noble pile, consisting of four pavilions after the French, beside a body of a large house, and, though not built altogether, but formed of additions to an old house (purchased by his Lordship (age 53) of one Sir T. Rookwood) yet with a vast expense made not only capable and roomsome, but very magnificent and commodious, as well within as without, nor less splendidly furnished. The staircase is very elegant, the garden handsome, the canal beautiful, but the soil dry, barren, and miserably sandy, which flies in drifts as the wind sits. Here my Lord was pleased to advise with me about ordering his plantations of firs, elms, limes, etc., up his park, and in all other places and avenues. I persuaded him to bring his park so near as to comprehend his house within it; which he resolved upon, it being now near a mile to it. The water furnishing the fountains, is raised by a pretty engine, or very slight plain wheels, which likewise serve to grind his corn, from a small cascade of the canal, the invention of Sir Samuel Morland (age 46). In my Lord's (age 53) house, and especially above the staircase, in the great hall and some of the chambers and rooms of state, are paintings in fresco by Signor Verrio (age 35), being the first work which he did in England.

Evelyn's Diary. 12 Mar 1672. To this succeeded the King's (age 41) declaration for an universal toleration; Papists and swarms of Sectaries, now boldly showing themselves in their public meetings. !This was imputed to the same council, Clifford (age 41) warping to Rome as was believed, nor was Lord Arlington (age 54) clear of suspicion, to gratify that party, but as since it has proved, and was then evidently foreseen, to the extreme weakening of the Church of England and its Episcopal Government, as it was projected. I speak not this as my own sense, but what was the discourse and thoughts of others, who were lookers-on; for I think there might be some relaxations without the least prejudice to the present establishment, discreetly limited, but to let go the reins in this manner, and then to imagine they could take them up again as easily, was a false policy, and greatly destructive. The truth is, our Bishops slipped the occasion; for, had they held a steady hand upon his Majesty's (age 41) restoration, as they might easily have done, the Church of England had emerged and flourished, without interruption; but they were then remiss, and covetous after advantages of another kind while his Majesty (age 41) suffered them to come into a harvest, with which, without any injustice he might have remunerated innumerable gallant gentlemen for their services who had ruined themselves in the late rebellion.

On 22 Apr 1672 Henry Bennet 1st Earl Arlington (age 54) was created 1st Earl Arlington, 1st Viscount Thetford and 1st Baron Arlington of Arlington in Middlesex with a similar remainder, and in default of heirs of his body, to his brother [his brother] Sir John Bennet (age 55) and the heirs male of his body. [his wife] Elisabeth Nassau Beverweert Countess Arlington (age 38) by marriage Countess Arlington. See Viscountcies of England Created with a Special Remainder.

Evelyn's Diary. 02 Jun 1672. Next day I sailed to the fleet, now riding at the buoy of the "Nore", where I met his Majesty (age 42), the Duke (age 38), Lord Arlington (age 54), and all the great men, in the "Charles", lying miserably shattered; but the miss of Lord Sandwich (deceased) redoubled the loss to me, and showed the folly of hazarding so brave a fleet, and losing so many good men, for no provocation but that the Hollanders exceeded us in industry, and in all things but envy.

On 15 Jun 1672 Henry Bennet 1st Earl Arlington (age 54) was appointed 476th Knight of the Garter by King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 42).

On 01 Aug 1672 [his son-in-law] Henry Fitzroy 1st Duke Grafton (age 8) and [his daughter] Isabella Bennet Duchess Grafton (age 4) were married. She the daughter of Henry Bennet 1st Earl Arlington (age 54) and Elisabeth Nassau Beverweert Countess Arlington (age 38). He the illegitmate son of King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 42) and Barbara Villiers 1st Duchess of Cleveland (age 31).

He was created 1st Earl Euston, 1st Viscount Ipswich, 1st Baron Sudbury. Isabella Bennet Duchess Grafton (age 4) by marriage Countess Euston.

Evelyn's Diary. 01 Aug 1672. I was at the betrothal of Lord Arlington's (age 54) only [his daughter] daughter (age 4) (a sweet child if ever there was any to the [his son-in-law] Duke of Grafton (age 8), the King's (age 42) natural son by the Duchess of Cleveland (age 31); the Archbishop of Canterbury (age 74) officiating, the King (age 42) and the grandees being present. I had a favor given me by my Lady; but took no great joy at the thing for many reasons.

Evelyn's Diary. 16 Mar 1673. Dr. Pearson (age 60), Bishop of Chester, preached on Hebrews ix. 14; a most incomparable sermon from one of the most learned divines of our nation. I dined at my Lord Arlington's (age 55) with the Duke (age 23) and Duchess of Monmouth (age 22); she is one of the wisest and craftiest of her sex, and has much wit. Here was also the learned Isaac Vossius (age 55).

Evelyn's Diary. 23 Jun 1673. To London, to accompany our Council who went in a body to congratulate the new Lord Treasurer (age 41), no friend to it because promoted by my Lord Arlington (age 55), whom he hated.

Evelyn's Diary. 18 Aug 1673. My Lord Clifford (age 43), being about this time returned from Tunbridge [Map], and preparing for Devonshire, I went to take my leave of him at Wallingford House; he was packing up pictures, most of which were of hunting wild beasts and vast pieces of bull-baiting, bear-baiting, etc. I found him in his study, and restored to him several papers of state, and others of importance, which he had furnished me with, on engaging me to write the "History of the Holland War", with other private letters of his acknowledgments to my Lord Arlington (age 55), who from a private gentleman of a very noble family, but inconsiderable fortune, had advanced him from almost nothing. The first thing was his being in Parliament, then knighted, then made one of the Commissioners of sick and wounded, on which occasion we sat long together; then, on the death of Hugh Pollard, he was made Comptroller of the Household and Privy Councillor, yet still my brother Commissioner; after the death of Lord Fitz-Harding, Treasurer of the Household, he, by letters to Lord Arlington (age 55), which that Lord showed me, begged of his Lordship to obtain it for him as the very height of his ambition. These were written with such submissions and professions of his patronage, as I had never seen any more acknowledging. The Earl of Southampton then dying, he was made one of the Commissioners of the Treasury. His Majesty (age 43) inclining to put it into one hand, my Lord Clifford (age 43), under pretense of making all his interest for his patron, my Lord Arlington (age 55), cut the grass under his feet, and procured it for himself, assuring the King (age 43) that Lord Arlington (age 55) did not desire it. Indeed, my Lord Arlington (age 55) protested to me that his confidence in Lord Clifford (age 43) made him so remiss and his affection to him was so particular, that he was absolutely minded to devolve it on Lord Clifford (age 43), all the world knowing how he himself affected ease and quiet, now growing into years, yet little thinking of this go-by. This was the great ingratitude Lord Clifford (age 43) showed, keeping my Lord Arlington (age 55) in ignorance, continually assuring him he was pursuing his interest, which was the Duke's (age 39) into whose great favor Lord Clifford (age 43) was now gotten; but which certainly cost him the loss of all, namely, his going so irrevocably far in his interest.

In 1674 Joseph Williamson (age 40) was appointed Secretary of State for the Northern Department having practically purchased this position from Arlington (age 56) for £6,000.

Evelyn's Diary. 22 Jul 1674. I went to Windsor, Berkshire [Map] with my wife (age 39) and son (age 19) to see my daughter Mary (age 9), who was there with my Lady Tuke and to do my duty to his Majesty (age 44). Next day, to a great entertainment at Sir Robert Holmes's (age 52) at Cranbourne Lodge, Windsor, in the Forest; there were his Majesty (age 44), the Queen (age 35), Duke (age 40), Duchess (age 15), and all the Court. I returned in the evening with Sir Joseph Williamson (age 40), now declared Secretary of State. He was son of a poor clergyman somewhere in Cumberland, brought up at Queen's College, Oxford, of which he came to be a fellow; then traveled with ... and returning when the King (age 44) was restored, was received as a clerk under Mr. Secretary Nicholas. Sir Henry Bennett (age 56) (now Lord Arlington) succeeding, Williamson is transferred to him, who loving his ease more than business (though sufficiently able had he applied himself to it) remitted all to his man Williamson; and, in a short time, let him so into the secret of affairs, that (as his Lordship himself told me) there was a kind of necessity to advance him; and so, by his subtlety, dexterity, and insinuation, he got now to be principal Secretary; absolutely Lord Arlington's creature, and ungrateful enough. It has been the fate of this obliging favorite to advance those who soon forgot their original. Sir Joseph was a musician, could play at Jeu de Goblets, exceedingly formal, a severe master to his servants, but so inward with my Lord O'Brien (age 32), that after a few months of that gentleman's death, he married his widow (age 34), who, being sister and heir of the Duke of Richmond, brought him a noble fortune. It was thought they lived not so kindly after marriage as they did before. She was much censured for marrying so meanly, being herself allied to the Royal family.

Evelyn's Diary. 21 Sep 1674. I went to see the great loss that Lord Arlington (age 56) had sustained by fire at Goring House [Map], this night consumed to the ground, with exceeding loss of hangings, plate, rare pictures, and cabinets; hardly anything was saved of the best and most princely furniture that any subject had in England. My lord (age 56) and [his wife] lady (age 40) were both absent at the Bath, Somerset [Map].

Evelyn's Diary. 24 Oct 1675. Dined at Lord Chamberlain's (age 57) with the Holland Ambassador L. Duras (age 34), a valiant gentleman whom his Majesty (age 45) made an English Baron, of a cadet, and gave him his seat of Holmby, in Northamptonshire.

Evelyn's Diary. 27 Oct 1675. Lord Berkeley (age 47) coming into Council, fell down in the gallery at Whitehall [Map], in a fit of apoplexy, and being carried into my Lord Chamberlain's (age 57) lodgings, several famous doctors were employed all that night, and with much ado he was at last recovered to some sense, by applying hot fire pans and spirit of amber to his head; but nothing was found so effectual as cupping him on the shoulders. It was almost a miraculous restoration. The next day he was carried to Berkeley House [Map]. This stopped his journey for the present, and caused my stay in town. He had put all his affairs and his whole estate in England into my hands during his intended absence, which though I was very unfit to undertake, in regard of many businesses which then took me up, yet, upon the great importunity of my lady (age 23) and Mr. Godolphin (age 30) (to whom I could refuse nothing) I did take it on me. It seems when he was Deputy in Ireland, not long before, he had been much wronged by one he left in trust with his affairs, and therefore wished for some unmercenary friend who would take that trouble on him; this was to receive his rents, look after his houses and tenants, solicit supplies from the Lord Treasurer (age 43), and correspond weekly with him, more than enough to employ any drudge in England; but what will not friendship and love make one do?.

Evelyn's Diary. 31 Oct 1675. Dined at my Lord Chamberlain's (age 57), with my son (age 20). There were the learned Isaac Vossius (age 57), and Spanhemius, son of the famous man of Heidelberg; nor was this gentleman less learned, being a general scholar. Among other pieces, he was author of an excellent treatise on Medals.

Around 1676 Peter Lely (age 57). Portrait of Henry Bennet 1st Earl Arlington (age 58) wearing his Garter Robes.

Evelyn's Diary. 02 Jun 1676. I went with my Lord Chamberlain (age 58) to see a garden, at Enfield [Map] town; thence, to Mr. Secretary Coventry's (age 48) lodge in the Chase. It is a very pretty place, the house commodious, the gardens handsome, and our entertainment very free, there being none but my Lord and myself. That which I most wondered at was, that, in the compass of twenty-five miles, yet within fourteen of London, there is not a house, barn, church, or building, besides three lodges. To this Lodge are three great ponds, and some few inclosures, the rest a solitary desert, yet stored with no less than 3,000 deer. These are pretty retreats for gentlemen, especially for those who are studious and lovers of privacy.

Evelyn's Diary. 26 Aug 1676. I dined at the Admiralty with Secretary Pepys (age 43), and supped at the Lord Chamberlain's (age 58). Here was Captain Baker, who had been lately on the attempt of the Northwest passage. He reported prodigious depth of ice, blue as a sapphire, and as transparent. The thick mists were their chief impediment, and cause of their return.

Evelyn's Diary. 06 Sep 1676. Supped at the Lord Chamberlain's (age 58), where also supped the famous beauty and errant lady, the Duchess of Mazarine (age 30) (all the world knows her story), the Duke of Monmouth (age 27), Countess of Sussex (age 15) (both natural children of the King (age 46) by the Duchess of Cleveland (age 35)) [Note. A mistake by Evelyn. Jame's Scott's (age 27) mother was Lucy Walter, Anne Fitzroy's (age 15) mother was Barbara Villiers 1st Duchess of Cleveland (age 35)], and the Countess of Derby (age 16), a virtuous lady, daughter to my best friend, the Earl of Ossory (age 42).

Evelyn's Diary. 16 Nov 1676. My son (age 21) and I dining at my Lord Chamberlain's (age 58), he showed us among others that incomparable piece of Raphael's, being a Minister of State dictating to Guicciardini, the earnestness of whose face looking up in expectation of what he was next to write, is so to the life, and so natural, as I esteem it one of the choicest pieces of that admirable artist. There was a woman's head of Leonardo da Vinci; a Madonna of old Palma, and two of Vandyke's, of which one was his own picture at length, when young, in a leaning posture; the other, an eunuch, singing. Rare pieces indeed!

Evelyn's Diary. 28 Aug 1677. To visit my Lord Chamberlain (age 59), in Suffolk; he sent his coach and six to meet and bring me from St. Edmund's Bury [Map] to Euston.

Evelyn's Diary. 07 Sep 1677. There dined this day at my Lord's (age 59) one Sir John Gaudy (age 37), a very handsome person, but quite dumb, yet very intelligent by signs, and a very fine painter; he was so civil and well bred, as it was not possible to discern any imperfection in him. His lady and children were also there, and he was at church in the morning with us.

Evelyn's Diary. 09 Sep 1677. A stranger preached at Euston Church, and fell into a handsome panegyric on my Lord's (age 59) new building the church, which indeed for its elegance and cheerfulness, is one of the prettiest country churches in England. My Lord (age 59) told me his heart smote him that, after he had bestowed so much on his magnificent palace there, he should see God's House in the ruin it lay in. He has also rebuilt the parsonage-house, all of stone, very neat and ample.

Evelyn's Diary. 10 Sep 1677. His [his wife] lady (age 43) (being one of the [his father-in-law] Brederode's daughters, grandchild to a natural son of Henry Frederick, Prince of Orange) [Note. Evelyn confused here. Elisabeth Nassau Beverweert Countess Arlington (age 43) was the daughter of Louis Nassau Beverweert who was the illegitimate son of Prince Maurice I of Orange. Frederick Henry Orange Nassau II Prince Orange was the younger brother of Prince Maurice I of Orange.] is a good-natured and obliging woman. They love fine things, and to live easily, pompously, and hospitably; but, with so vast expense, as plunges my Lord (age 59) into debts exceedingly. My Lord (age 59) himself is given into no expensive vice but building, and to have all things rich, polite, and princely. He never plays, but reads much, having the Latin, French, and Spanish tongues in perfection. He has traveled much, and is the best bred and courtly person his Majesty (age 47) has about him, so as the public Ministers more frequent him than any of the rest of the nobility. While he was Secretary of State and Prime Minister, he had gotten vastly, but spent it as hastily, even before he had established a fund to maintain his greatness; and now beginning to decline in favor (the Duke being no great friend of his), he knows not how to retrench. He was son of a [his father] Doctor of Laws, whom I have seen, and, being sent from Westminster School [Map] to Oxford, with intention to be a divine, and parson of Arlington, a village near Brentford, when Master of Arts the Rebellion falling out, he followed the King's (age 47) Army, and receiving an HONORABLE WOUND IN THE FACE, grew into favor, and was advanced from a mean fortune, at his Majesty's (age 47) Restoration, to be an Earl and Knight of the Garter, Lord Chamberlain of the Household, and first favorite for a long time, during which the King (age 47) married his natural [his son-in-law] son, the Duke of Grafton (age 13), to his only [his daughter] daughter (age 9) and heiress, as before mentioned, worthy for her beauty and virtue of the greatest prince in Christendom. My Lord is, besides this, a prudent and understanding person in business, and speaks well; unfortunate yet in those he has advanced, most of them proving ungrateful. The many obligations and civilities I have received from this noble gentleman, extracts from me this character, and I am sorry he is in no better circumstances.

Evelyn's Diary. 10 Sep 1677. To divert me, my Lord (age 59) would needs carry me to see Ipswich, Suffolk [Map], when we dined with one Mr. Mann by the way, who was Recorder of the town. There were in our company my Lord Huntingtower (age 28), son to the Duchess of Lauderdale (age 50), Sir Edward Bacon, a learned gentleman of the family of the great Chancellor Verulam, and Sir John Felton, with some other knights and gentlemen. After dinner came the bailiff and magistrates in their formalities with their maces to compliment my Lord (age 59), and invite him to the town-house, where they presented us a collation of dried sweetmeats and wine, the bells ringing, etc. Then, we went to see the town, and first, the Lord Viscount Hereford's (age 3) house, which stands in a park near the town, like that at Brussels, in Flanders; the house not great, yet pretty, especially the hall. The stews for fish succeeded one another, and feed one the other, all paved at bottom. There is a good picture of the blessed virgin in one of the parlors, seeming to be of Holbein, or some good master. Then we saw the Haven, seven miles from Harwich [Map]. The tide runs out every day, but the bedding being soft mud, it is safe for shipping and a station. The trade of Ipswich, Suffolk [Map] is for the most part Newcastle upon Tyne [Map] coals, with which they supply London; but it was formerly a clothing town. There is not any beggar asks alms in the whole place, a thing very extraordinary, so ordered by the prudence of the magistrates. It has in it fourteen or fifteen beautiful churches: in a word, it is for building, cleanness, and good order, one of the best towns in England. Cardinal Wolsey was a butcher's son of Ipswich, but there is little of that magnificent Prelate's foundation here, besides a school and I think a library, which I did not see. His intentions were to build some great thing. We returned late to Euston, Suffolk, having traveled about fifty miles this day.

Evelyn's Diary. 18 Sep 1677. I preferred Mr. Phillips (nephew of Milton) to the service of my Lord Chamberlain (age 59), who wanted a scholar to read to and entertain him sometimes.

Evelyn's Diary. 08 Feb 1678. Supping at my Lord Chamberlain's (age 60) I had a long discourse with the Count de Castel Mellor, lately Prime Minister in Portugal, who, taking part with his master, King Alphonso (age 34), was banished by his brother, Don Pedro (age 28), now Regent; but had behaved himself so uncorruptly in all his ministry that, though he was acquitted, and his estate restored, yet would they not suffer him to return. He is a very intelligent and worthy gentleman.

Evelyn's Diary. 28 Jun 1678. I went to Windsor, Berkshire [Map] with my Lord Chamberlain (age 60) (the castle now repairing with exceeding cost) to see the rare work of Verrio (age 42), an incomparable carving of Gibbons (age 30).

Evelyn's Diary. 29 Jun 1678. Returned with my Lord (age 60) by Hounslow Heath [Map], where we saw the newly raised army encamped, designed against France, in pretense, at least; but which gave umbrage to the Parliament. His Majesty (age 48) and a world of company were in the field, and the whole army in battalia; a very glorious sight. Now were brought into service a new sort of soldiers, called Grenadiers, who were dexterous in flinging hand grenades, everyone having a pouch full; they had furred caps with coped crowns like Janizaries, which made them look very fierce, and some had long hoods hanging down behind, as we picture fools. Their clothing being likewise piebald, yellow and red.

Evelyn's Diary. 08 Aug 1679. I went this morning to show my Lord Chamberlain (age 61), his [his wife] Lady (age 45), and the [his daughter] Duchess of Grafton (age 11), the incomparable work of Mr. Gibbon (age 31), the carver, whom I first recommended to his Majesty (age 49), his house being furnished like a cabinet, not only with his own work, but divers excellent paintings of the best hands. Thence, to Sir Stephen Fox's (age 52), where we spent the day.

Evelyn's Diary. 23 Oct 1679. Dined at my Lord Chamberlain's (age 61), the King (age 49) being now newly returned from his Newmarket, Suffolk recreations.

Evelyn's Diary. 06 Nov 1679. Dined at the Countess of Sunderland's (age 33), and was this evening at the remarriage of the [his daughter] Duchess of Grafton (age 11) to the [his son-in-law] Duke (age 16) his Majesty's (age 49) natural son), she being now twelve years old. The ceremony was performed in my Lord Chamberlain's (age 61) (her father's) lodgings at Whitehall by the Bishop of Rochester (age 54), his Majesty (age 49) being present. A sudden and unexpected thing, when everybody believed the first marriage would have come to nothing; but, the measure being determined, I was privately invited by my [his wife] Lady (age 45), her mother, to be present. I confess I could give her little joy, and so I plainly told her, but she said the King (age 49) would have it so, and there was no going back. This sweetest, most hopeful, most beautiful, child, and most virtuous, too, was sacrificed to a boy that had been rudely bred, without anything to encourage them but his Majesty's (age 49) pleasure. I pray God the sweet child find it to her advantage, who, if my augury deceive me not, will in a few years be such a paragon as were fit to make the wife of the greatest Prince in Europe! I staid supper, where his Majesty (age 49) sat between the Duchess of Cleveland (age 38) (the mother of the Duke of Grafton) and the sweet Duchess (age 11) the bride; there were several great persons and ladies, without pomp. My love to my Lord Arlington's (age 61) family, and the sweet child made me behold all this with regret, though as the Duke of Grafton (age 16) affects the sea, to which I find his father intends to use him, he may emerge a plain, useful and robust officer: and were he polished, a tolerable person; for he is exceedingly handsome, by far surpassing any of the King's (age 49) other natural issue.

Before 07 Dec 1680 Peter Lely (age 62). Portrait of Henry Bennet 1st Earl Arlington (age 62).

Evelyn's Diary. 10 Oct 1683. Visited the [his daughter] Duchess of Grafton (age 15), not yet brought to bed, and dining with my Lord Chamberlain (her father) (age 65), went with them to see Montague House, a palace lately built by Lord Montague (age 44), who had married the most beautiful Countess of Northumberland (age 29). It is a stately and ample palace. Signor Verrio's (age 47) fresco paintings, especially the funeral pile of Dido, on the staircase, the labors of Hercules, fight with the Centaurs, his effeminacy with Dejanira, and Apotheosis or reception among the gods, on the walls and roof of the great room above,-I think exceeds anything he has yet done, both for design, coloring, and exuberance of invention, comparable to the greatest of the old masters, or what they so celebrate at Rome. In the rest of the chamber are some excellent paintings of Holbein, and other masters. The garden is large, and in good air, but the fronts of the house not answerable to the inside. The court at entry, and wings for offices seem too near the street, and that so very narrow and meanly built, that the corridor is not in proportion to the rest, to hide the court from being overlooked by neighbors; all which might have been prevented, had they placed the house further into the ground, of which there was enough to spare. But on the whole it is a fine palace, built after the French pavilion-way, by Mr. Hooke, the Curator of the Royal Society. There were with us my Lady Scroope, the great wit, and Monsieur Chardine (age 39), the celebrated traveler.

Evelyn's Diary. 17 Oct 1683. I was at the court-leet of this manor, my Lord Arlington (age 65) his Majesty's (age 53) High Steward.

Evelyn's Diary. 27 Oct 1684. I visited the Lord Chamberlaine (age 66), where din'd the Hack Baron and Mons' Flamerin, who had so long ben banish'd France for a duel.

Evelyn's Diary. 17 Feb 1685. This morning his Ma* (age 51) restor'd the staffe and key to Lord Arlington (age 67), Chamberlaine; to Mr. Savell (age 43), Vice-chamberlaine; to Lords Newport (age 64) and Malnard (age 62), Treasurer and Comptroler of the Household; Lord Godolphin (age 39) made Chamberlaine to ye Queene (age 26); Lord Peterborow (age 63) Groome of ye Stole in place of the Earle of Bath (age 56); the Treasurer's staff to the Earle of Rochester (age 42); and his brother the Earle of Clarendon Lord Privie Seale in place of the Marquis of Halifax (age 51), who was made President of the Council; the Secretarys of State remaining as before.

On 28 Jul 1685 Henry Bennet 1st Earl Arlington (age 67) died. His daughter [his daughter] Isabella Bennet Duchess Grafton (age 17) succeeded 2nd Countess Arlington, 2nd Viscountess Thetford, 2nd Baroness Arlington of Arlington in Middlesex and 2nd Baroness Arlington of Arlington in Middlesex.

Evelyn's Diary. 02 Oct 1685. Having a letter sent me by Mr. Pepys (age 52) with this expression at the foote of it, "I have something to shew you that I may not have another time", and that I would not faile to dine with him, I accordingly went. After dinner he had me and Mr. Houblon (a rich and considerable merchant, whose father had fled out of Flanders on the persecution of the Duke of Alva) into a private roome, and told us that being lately alone with his Ma*, and upon some occasion of speaking concerning my late Lord Arlington dying a Roman Catholic, who had all along seem'd to profess himselfe a Protestant, taken all the tests, &c. till the day (I think) of his death, his Ma* sayd that as to his inclinations he had known him long wavering, but from feare of looseing his places he did not think it convenient to declare himself. There are, says the King, those who believe the Church of Rome gives dispensations for going to church, and many like things, but that is not so; for if that might have ben had, he himselfe had most reason to make use of it. Indeede, he said, as to some matrimonial cases, there are now and then dispensations, but hardly in any cases else. This familiar discourse encourag'd Mr. Pepys to beg of his Ma*, if he might ask it without offence, and for that his Ma* could not but observe how it was whisper'd among many, whether his late Ma* bad ben reconcil'd to ye Church of Rome; he againe humbly besought his Ma* to pardon his presumption if he had touch'd upon a thing which did not befit him to looke into: the King ingenuously told him that he both was and died a Roman Catholic, and that he had not long since declar'd it was upon some politic and state reasons, best known to himselfe (meaning the King his brother) but that he was of that persuasion: he bid him follow him into his closet, where opening a cabinet, he shew'd him two papers, containing about a quarter of a sheete, on both sides written, in the late King's owne hand, severall arguments opposite to the doctrine of the Church of England, charging her with heresy, novelty and ye fanaticism of other Protestants, the cheif whereof was, as I remember, our refusing to acknowledge the Primacy and Infallibility of the Church of Rome; how impossible it was that so many ages should never dispute it, till of late; how unlikely our Saviour would leave his Church without a visible head and guide to resort to, during his absence; with the like usual topics; so well penn'd as to the discourse as did by no means seeme to me to have ben put together by the late King, yet written all with his owne hand, blotted and interlin'd, so as, if indeede it was not given him by some priest, they might be such arguments and reasons as had ben inculcated from time to time, and here recollected; and in the conclusion shewing his looking on the Protestant Religion (and by name the Church of England) to be without foundation, and consequently false and unsafe. When his Ma* had shewn him these originals, he was pleas'd to lend him the copies of those two papers, attested at the bottome in 4 or 5 lines, under his owne hand.

On 18 Jan 1718 [his former wife] Elisabeth Nassau Beverweert Countess Arlington (age 84) died.

[his father] John Bennet and [his mother] Dorothy Crofts were married. The difference in their ages was 25 years.

1670 Secret Treaty of Dover

The 1670 Secret Treaty of Dover was a pact between France and England for England to abandon its alliance with Sweden and the Duct Republic, allowing France to conquer the Dutch Republic after which France would England a number of stratgeic ports on Dutch Rivers.

King Charles II's sister Princess Henrietta Stewart Duchess Orléans was instrumental in arranging the Treaty - she was married to the French King's brother Philip Bourbon I Duke Orléans.

The signatories included:

Richard Bellings

Henry Bennet 1st Earl Arlington

Henry Arundell 3rd Baron Arundel

Royal Ancestors of Henry Bennet 1st Earl Arlington 1618-1685

Kings Wessex: Great x 19 Grand Son of King Edmund "Ironside" I of England

Kings Gwynedd: Great x 16 Grand Son of Owain "Great" King Gwynedd

Kings Seisyllwg: Great x 22 Grand Son of Hywel "Dda aka Good" King Seisyllwg King Deheubarth

Kings Powys: Great x 17 Grand Son of Maredudd ap Bleddyn King Powys

Kings England: Great x 10 Grand Son of King Edward III of England

Kings Scotland: Great x 15 Grand Son of William "Lion" I King Scotland

Kings Franks: Great x 15 Grand Son of Louis VII King Franks

Kings France: Great x 12 Grand Son of Philip "The Fair" IV King France

Royal Descendants of Henry Bennet 1st Earl Arlington 1618-1685

Diana Spencer Princess Wales x 1

Ancestors of Henry Bennet 1st Earl Arlington 1618-1685

Father: John Bennet

Henry Bennet 1st Earl Arlington 10 x Great Grand Son of King Edward III of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: John Crofts

Great x 3 Grandfather: John Crofts

Great x 2 Grandfather: Edmund Croftes

Great x 1 Grandfather: Thomas Crofts

Great x 3 Grandfather: Thomas Kitson

Great x 2 Grandmother: Elizabeth Kitson

Great x 4 Grandfather: John Donnington of Stoke Newington

Great x 3 Grandmother: Margaret Donnington Countess Bath

GrandFather: John Crofts 8 x Great Grand Son of King Edward III of England

Great x 2 Grandfather: John Poley

Great x 1 Grandmother: Susannah Crofts 7 x Great Grand Daughter of King Edward III of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: Richard Wentworth 5th Baron Despencer 5 x Great Grand Son of King Edward III of England

Great x 3 Grandfather: Thomas Wentworth 1st Baron Wentworth 6 x Great Grand Son of King Edward III of England

Great x 4 Grandmother: Anne Tyrrell Baroness Despencer 7 x Great Grand Daughter of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England

Great x 2 Grandmother: Anne Wentworth 6 x Great Grand Daughter of King Edward III of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: Adrian Fortescue

Great x 3 Grandmother: Margaret Fortescue Baroness Wentworth 5 x Great Grand Daughter of King Edward III of England

Great x 4 Grandmother: Anne Stonor 4 x Great Grand Daughter of King Edward III of England

Mother: Dorothy Crofts 9 x Great Grand Daughter of King Edward III of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: Ralph Shirley 11 x Great Grand Son of King Henry I "Beauclerc" England

Great x 3 Grandfather: Richard Shirley 12 x Great Grand Son of King Henry I "Beauclerc" England

Great x 4 Grandmother: Jane Bellingham

Great x 2 Grandfather: William Shirley 13 x Great Grand Son of King Henry I "Beauclerc" England

Great x 1 Grandfather: Thomas Shirley 14 x Great Grand Son of King Henry I "Beauclerc" England

GrandMother: Mary Shirley 10 x Great Grand Daughter of King Henry III of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: Thomas Kempe

Great x 3 Grandfather: William Kempe

Great x 2 Grandfather: Thomas Kempe 8 x Great Grand Son of King Henry III of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: Robert Browne 6 x Great Grand Son of King Henry III of England

Great x 3 Grandmother: Eleanor Browne 7 x Great Grand Daughter of King Henry III of England

Great x 1 Grandmother: Anne Kempe 9 x Great Grand Daughter of King Henry III of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: William Cheney

Great x 3 Grandfather: Thomas Cheney

Great x 4 Grandmother: Margaret aka Agnes Young

Great x 2 Grandmother: Katherine Cheney

Great x 4 Grandfather: Thomas Frowyk

Great x 3 Grandmother: Frideswide Frowyk