Biography of Hugh Cholmley 4th Baronet 1632-1689

Paternal Family Tree: Cholmeley

Maternal Family Tree: Aoife NI Diarmait Macmurrough Countess Pembroke and Buckingham 1145-1188

1662 Montagu Chomeley Duel

1666 Poll Bill

In 1622 [his father] Hugh Cholmley 1st Baronet (age 21) and [his mother] Elizabeth Twysden Lady Cholmley were married.

On 21 Jul 1632 Hugh Cholmley 4th Baronet was born to Hugh Cholmley 1st Baronet (age 31) and Elizabeth Twysden Lady Cholmley at Fyling Hall.

On 30 Nov 1657 [his father] Hugh Cholmley 1st Baronet (age 57) died. His son [his brother] William Cholmley 2nd Baronet (age 31) succeeded 2nd Baronet Cholmley of Whitby in Yorkshire. Katherine Savile Lady Cholmley by marriage Lady Cholmley of Whitby in Yorkshire.

In or before 1662 [his future brother-in-law] Francis Compton (age 33) and Elizabeth Bedell (age 41) were married. He the son of Spencer Compton 2nd Earl of Northampton and Mary Beaumont Countess of Northampton.

Pepy's Diary. 06 Aug 1662. So to my Lord's; and he is also gone: this being a great day at the Council about some business at the Council before the King (age 32). Here I met with Mr. Pierce, the chyrurgeon, who told me how Mr. Edward Montagu (age 27) hath lately had a duell with Mr. Cholmely (age 30), that is first gentleman-usher to the Queen (age 23), and was a messenger from the King (age 32) to her in Portugall, and is a fine gentleman; but had received many affronts from Mr. Montagu (age 27), and some unkindness from my Lord, upon his score (for which I am sorry). He proved too hard for Montagu, and drove him so far backward that he fell into a ditch, and dropt his sword, but with honour would take no advantage over him; but did give him his life: and the world says Mr. Montagu (age 27) did carry himself very poorly in the business, and hath lost his honour for ever with all people in it, of which I am very glad, in hopes that it will humble him. I hear also that he hath sent to my Lord to borrow £400, giving his brother Harvey's' security for it, and that my Lord will lend it him, for which I am sorry.

1662 Montagu Chomeley Duel

Calendars. 18 Aug 1662. 59. -- to [Lord Conway]. Welcomes him to Dublin. Hopes he has received the tender of his brother Dering's service. The Doctors are both at Tunbridge, and are going to Italy. The writer's cousin, Hugh Cholmley (age 30), has fought a duel with Edward Montague (age 27), without harm, and Henry Jermyn (age 26) and Giles Rawlins against one of the Howards (age 31) and Lord Dillon's son; it was fought in St. James's Fields, Pall Mall, at 11am. Rawlins is slain, Jermyn (age 26) wounded, and the other two fled. The King intends to proclaim Tangiers a free port for five years. The London ministers who will not conform have parted from their congregations with great temper. Damaged.

Pepy's Diary. 12 Jan 1663. So I went to the Committee, where we spent all this night attending to Sir J. Lawson's (age 48) description of Tangier and the place for the Mole1, of which he brought a very pretty draught. Concerning the making of the Mole, Mr. Cholmely (age 30) did also discourse very well, having had some experience in it. Being broke up, I home by coach to Mr. Bland's, and there discoursed about sending away of the merchant ship which hangs so long on hand for Tangier.

Note 1. The construction of this Mole or breakwater turned out a very costly undertaking. In April, 1663, it was found that the charge for one year's work was £13,000. In March, 1665, £36,000 had been spent upon it. The wind and sea exerted a very destructive influence over this structure, although it was very strongly built, and Colonel Norwood reported in 1668 that a breach had been made in the Mole, which cost a considerable sum to repair.

Pepy's Diary. 26 Jan 1663. Thence by coach to White Hall, and met upon the Tangier Commission, our greatest business the discoursing of getting things ready for my Lord Rutherford to go about the middle of March next, and a proposal of Sir J. Lawson's (age 48) and Mr. Cholmely's (age 30) concerning undertaking the Mole, which is referred to another time.

Pepy's Diary. 02 Feb 1663. Thence Mr. Povey and I walked to White Hall, it being a great frost still, and after a turn in the Park seeing them slide1, we met at the Committee for Tangier, a good full Committee, and agreed how to proceed in the dispatching of my Lord Rutherford, and treating about this business of Mr. Cholmely (age 30) and Sir J. Lawson's (age 48) proposal for the Mole.

Note 1. TT. Ice-skating.

Pepy's Diary. 06 Feb 1663. Thence, after dinner, to the Temple [Map], to my cozen Roger Pepys (age 45), where met us my uncle Thomas and his son; and, after many high demands, we at last came to a kind of agreement upon very hard terms, which are to be prepared in writing against Tuesday next. But by the way promising them to pay my cozen Mary's' legacys at the time of her marriage, they afterwards told me that she was already married, and married very well, so that I must be forced to pay it in some time. My cozen Roger (age 45) was so sensible of our coming to agreement that he could not forbear weeping, and, indeed, though it is very hard, yet I am glad to my heart that we are like to end our trouble. So we parted for to-night, and I to my Lord Sandwich (age 37) and there staid, there being a Committee to sit upon the contract for the Mole, which I dare say none of us that were there understood, but yet they agreed of things as Mr. Cholmely (age 30) and

Pepy's Diary. 16 Feb 1663. Thence about several businesses to Mr. Phillips my attorney, to stop all proceedings at law, and so to the Temple [Map], where at the Solicitor General's I found Mr. Cholmely (age 30) and Creed reading to him the agreement for him to put into form about the contract for the Mole at Tangier, which is done at 13s. The Cubical yard, though upon my conscience not one of the Committee, besides the parties concerned, do understand what they do therein, whether they give too much or too little.

Pepy's Diary. 17 Feb 1663. My Lord told me he expected a challenge from him, but told me there was no great fear of him, for there was no man lies under such an imputation as he do in the business of Mr. Cholmely (age 30), who, though a simple sorry fellow, do brave him and struts before him with the Queen (age 24), to the sport and observation of the whole Court. He did keep my Lord at the window, thus reviling and braving him above an hour, my Lady Wright being by; but my Lord tells me she could not hear every word, but did well know what their discourse was; she could hear enough to know that. So that he commands me to keep it as the greatest secret in the world, and bids me beware of speaking words against Mr. Montagu, for fear I should suffer by his passion thereby. After he had told me this I took coach and home, where I found my wife come home and in bed with her sister in law in the chamber with her, she not being able to stay to see the wassel, being so ill..., which I was sorry for. Hither we sent for her sister's viall, upon which she plays pretty well for a girl, but my expectation is much deceived in her, not only for that, but in her spirit, she being I perceive a very subtle witty jade, and one that will give her husband trouble enough as little as she is, whereas I took her heretofore for a very child and a simple fool. I played also, which I have not done this long time before upon any instrument, and at last broke up and I to my office a little while, being fearful of being too much taken with musique, for fear of returning to my old dotage thereon, and so neglect my business as I used to do. Then home and to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 20 May 1664. Up and to my office, whither by and by comes Mr. Cholmely (age 31), and staying till the rest of the company come he told me how Mr. Edward Montagu (age 29) is turned out of the Court, not [to] return again. His fault, I perceive, was his pride, and most of all his affecting to seem great with the Queene (age 54) and it seems indeed had more of her eare than any body else, and would be with her talking alone two or three hours together; insomuch that the Lords about the King (age 33), when he would be jesting with them about their wives, would tell the King (age 33) that he must have a care of his wife too, for she hath now the gallant: and they say the King (age 33) himself did once ask Montagu (age 29) how his mistress (meaning the Queene (age 54)) did. He grew so proud, and despised every body, besides suffering nobody, he or she, to get or do any thing about the Queene (age 54), that they all laboured to do him a good turn. They also say that he did give some affront to the Duke of Monmouth (age 15), which the King (age 33) himself did speak to him of. But strange it is that this man should, from the greatest negligence in the world, come to be the miracle of attendance, so as to take all offices from everybody, either men or women, about the Queene (age 54). Insomuch that he was observed as a miracle, but that which is the worst, that which in a wise manner performed [would] turn to his greatest advantage, was by being so observed employed to his greatest wrong, the world concluding that there must be something more than ordinary to cause him to do this. So he is gone, nobody pitying but laughing at him; and he pretends only that he is gone to his father, that is sick in the country.

Pepy's Diary. 21 May 1664. Up, called by Mr. Cholmely (age 31), and walked with him in the garden till others came to another Committee of Tangier, as we did meet as we did use to do, to see more of Povy's (age 50) folly, and so broke up, and at the office sat all the morning, Mr. Coventry (age 36) with us, and very hot we are getting out some ships.

In Jun 1664 [his future brother-in-law] Francis Compton (age 35) and Jane Trevor (age 31) were married. He the son of Spencer Compton 2nd Earl of Northampton and Mary Beaumont Countess of Northampton.

Pepy's Diary. 20 Jul 1664. Up, and a while to my office, and then home with Deane (age 30) till dinner, discoursing upon the business of my Chancellor's (age 55) timber in Clarendon Parke, and how to make a report therein without offending him; which at last I drew up, and hope it will please him. But I would to God neither I nor he ever had had any thing to have done with it! Dined together with a good pig, and then out by coach to White Hall, to the Committee for Fishing; but nothing done, it being a great day to-day there upon drawing at the Lottery of Sir Arthur Slingsby (age 41). I got in and stood by the two Queenes [Note. Catherine of Braganza Queen Consort England (age 25) and Henrietta Maria Bourbon Queen Consort England (age 54) ] and the Duchesse of Yorke (age 27), and just behind my Baroness Castlemayne (age 23), whom I do heartily adore; and good sport it was to see how most that did give their ten pounds did go away with a pair of globes only for their lot, and one gentlewoman, one Mrs. Fish, with the only blanke. And one I staid to see drew a suit of hangings valued at £430, and they say are well worth the money, or near it. One other suit there is better than that; but very many lots of three and fourscore pounds. I observed the King (age 34) and Queenes (age 54) did get but as poor lots as any else. But the wisest man I met with was Mr. Cholmley (age 31), who insured as many as would, from drawing of the one blank for 12d.; in which case there was the whole number of persons to one, which I think was three or four hundred. And so he insured about 200 for 200 shillings, so that he could not have lost if one of them had drawn it, for there was enough to pay the £10; but it happened another drew it, and so he got all the money he took.

Pepy's Diary. 20 Oct 1664. So we parted, and I to my Lord Sandwich (age 39) at his lodgings, and after a little stay away with Mr. Cholmely (age 32) to Fleete Streete; in the way he telling me that Tangier is like to be in a bad condition with this same Fitzgerald, he being a man of no honour, nor presence, nor little honesty, and endeavours: to raise the Irish and suppress the English interest there; and offend every body, and do nothing that I hear of well, which I am sorry for.

Pepy's Diary. 24 Oct 1664. Thence to a Committee at White Hall of Tangier where I had the good lucke to speak something to very good purpose about the Mole at Tangier, which was well received even by Sir J. Lawson (age 49) and Mr. Cholmely (age 32), the undertakers, against whose interest I spoke; that I believe I shall be valued for it.

Pepy's Diary. 12 Dec 1664. This day (to see how things are ordered in the world), I had a command from the Earle of Sandwich, at Portsmouth, Hampshire [Map], not to be forward with Mr. Cholmly (age 32) and Sir J. Lawson (age 49) about the Mole at Tangier, because that what I do therein will (because of his friendship to me known) redound against him, as if I had done it upon his score. So I wrote to my Lord my mistake, and am contented to promise never to pursue it more, which goes against my mind with all my heart.

Pepy's Diary. 15 Dec 1664. Called up very betimes by Mr. Cholmly (age 32), and with him a good while about some of his Tangier accounts; and, discoursing of the condition of Tangier, he did give me the whole account of the differences between Fitzgerald and Norwood, which were very high on both sides, but most imperious and base on Fitzgerald's, and yet through my Lord FitzHarding's (age 34) means, the Duke of York (age 31) is led rather to blame Norwood and to speake that he should be called home, than be sensible of the other. He is a creature of FitzHarding's (age 34), as a fellow that may be done with what he will, and, himself certainly pretending to be Generall of the King's armies, when Monk (age 56) dyeth, desires to have as few great or wise men in employment as he can now, but such as he can put in and keep under, which he do this coxcomb Fitzgerald. It seems, of all mankind there is no man so led by another as the Duke (age 31) is by Lord Muskerry and this FitzHarding (age 34), insomuch, as when the King (age 34) would have him to be Privy-Purse, the Duke (age 31) wept, and said, "But, Sir, I must have your promise, if you will have my dear Charles from me, that if ever you have occasion for an army again, I may have him with me; believing him to be the best commander of an army in the world". But Mr. Cholmly (age 32) thinks, as all other men I meet with do, that he is a very ordinary fellow. It is strange how the Duke (age 31) also do love naturally, and affect the Irish above the English. He, of the company he carried with him to sea, took above two-thirds Irish and French. He tells me the King (age 34) do hate my Chancellor (age 55); and that they, that is the King (age 34) and my Lord FitzHarding (age 34), do laugh at him for a dull fellow; and in all this business of the Dutch war do nothing by his advice, hardly consulting him. Only he is a good minister in other respects, and the King (age 34) cannot be without him; but, above all, being the Duke's father-in-law, he is kept in; otherwise FitzHarding (age 34) were able to fling down two of him. This, all the wise and grave lords see, and cannot help it; but yield to it. But he bemoans what the end of it may be, the King (age 34) being ruled by these men, as he hath been all along since his coming; to the razing all the strong-holds in Scotland, and giving liberty to the Irish in Ireland, whom Cromwell had settled all in one corner; who are now able, and it is feared everyday a massacre again among them.

In 1665 Hugh Cholmley 3rd Baronet (age 3) died. His uncle Hugh Cholmley 4th Baronet (age 32) succeeded 4th Baronet Cholmley of Whitby in Yorkshire.

Pepy's Diary. 13 May 1665. So home to supper and to bed, being troubled at a letter from Mr. Cholmly (age 32) from Tangier, wherein he do advise me how people are at worke to overthrow our Victualling business, by which I shall lose £300 per annum, I am much obliged to him for this, secret kindnesse, and concerned to repay it him in his own concernments and look after this.

Pepy's Diary. 23 Nov 1665. Up betimes, and so, being trimmed, I to get papers ready against Sir H. Cholmly (age 33) come to me by appointment, he being newly come over from Tangier. He did by and by come, and we settled all matters about his money, and he is a most satisfied man in me, and do declare his resolution to give me 200 per annum.

Pepy's Diary. 19 Jan 1666. To the 'Change [Map] and so home to dinner and the office, whither anon comes Sir H. Cholmley (age 33) to me, and he and I to my house, there to settle his accounts with me, and so with great pleasure we agreed and great friends become, I think, and he presented me upon the foot of our accounts for this year's service for him £100, whereof Povy (age 52) must have half.

Pepy's Diary. 19 Jan 1666. Thence to look for Sir H. [Cholmly] (age 33), but he not within, he coming to town last night. It is a remarkable thing how infinitely naked all that end of the towne, Covent-Garden [Map], is at this day of people; while the City is almost as full again of people as ever it was.

On 19 Feb 1666 Hugh Cholmley 4th Baronet (age 33) and Anne Compton Lady Rushout (age 29) were married. She by marriage Lady Cholmley of Whitby in Yorkshire. She the daughter of Spencer Compton 2nd Earl of Northampton and Mary Beaumont Countess of Northampton.

Pepy's Diary. 11 May 1666. Up betimes, and then away with Mr. Yeabsly to my Lord Ashly's (age 44), whither by and by comes Sir H. Cholmly (age 33) and Creed, and then to my Lord, and there entered into examination of Mr. Yeabsly's accounts, wherein as in all other things I find him one of the most distinct men that ever I did see in my life. He raised many scruples which were to be answered another day and so parted, giving me an alarme how to provide myself against the day of my passing my accounts.

Pepy's Diary. 21 May 1666. At noon dined at home, and after dinner comes in my wife's brother Balty (age 26) and his wife, he being stepped ashore from the fleete for a day or two. I away in some haste to my Lord Ashly (age 44), where it is stupendous to see how favourably, and yet closely, my Lord Ashly (age 44) carries himself to Mr. Yeabsly, in his business, so as I think we shall do his business for him in very good manner. But it is a most extraordinary thing to observe, and that which I would not but have had the observation of for a great deal of money. Being done there, and much forwarded Yeabsly's business, I with Sir H. Cholmly (age 33) to my Lord Bellassis (age 51), who is lately come from Tangier to visit him, but is not within.

Pepy's Diary. 24 May 1666. Home, and Mr. Hunt come to dine with me, but I was prevented dining till 4 o'clock by Sir H. Cholmly (age 33) and Sir J. Bankes's (age 39) coming in about some Tangier business.

Pepy's Diary. 13 Jun 1666. Up, and by coach to St. James's, and there did our business before the Duke (age 32) as usual, having, before the Duke come out of his bed, walked in an ante-chamber with Sir H. Cholmly (age 33), who tells me there are great jarrs between the Duke of Yorke (age 32) and the Duke of Albemarle (age 57), about the later's turning out one or two of the commanders put in by the Duke of Yorke (age 32). Among others, Captain Du Tell, a Frenchman, put in by the Duke of Yorke (age 32), and mightily defended by him; and is therein led by Monsieur Blancford, that it seems hath the same command over the Duke of Yorke (age 32) as Sir W. Coventry (age 38) hath; which raises ill blood between them. And I do in several little things observe that Sir W. Coventry (age 38) hath of late, by the by, reflected on the Duke of Albemarle (age 57) and his captains, particularly in that of old Teddiman, who did deserve to be turned out this fight, and was so; but I heard Sir W. Coventry (age 38) say that the Duke of Albemarle (age 57) put in one as bad as he is in his room, and one that did as little.

Pepy's Diary. 05 Oct 1666. Thence I home, and back again to White Hall, and meeting Sir H. Cholmly (age 34) to White Hall; there walked till night that the Committee come down, and there Sir W. Coventry (age 38) tells me that the Subcommittee have made their report to the Grand Committee, and in pretty kind terms, and have agreed upon allowing us £4 per head, which I am sure will do the business, but he had endeavoured to have got more, but this do well, and he and I are both mighty glad it is come to this, and the heat of the present business seems almost over. But I have more worke cut out for me, to prepare a list of the extraordinaries, not to be included within the £4, against Monday.

Pepy's Diary. 06 Oct 1666. So home again and to dinner, there coming Creed to me; but what with business and my hatred to the man, I did not spend any time with him, but after dinner [my] wife and he and I took coach and to Westminster, but he 'light about Paul's, and set her at her tailor's, and myself to St. James's, but there missing Sir W. Coventry (age 38), returned and took up my wife, and calling at the Exchange [Map] home, whither Sir H. Cholmly (age 34) come to visit me, but my business suffered me not to stay with him.

Pepy's Diary. 13 Oct 1666. He being ready, he and my Chancellor (age 57), and Duke of Albemarle (age 57), and Prince Rupert (age 46), Lord Bellasses (age 52), Sir H. Cholmly (age 34), Povy (age 52), and myself, met at a Committee for Tangier. My Lord Bellasses's (age 52) propositions were read and discoursed of, about reducing the garrison to less charge; and indeed I am mad in love with my Chancellor (age 57), for he do comprehend and speak out well, and with the greatest easinesse and authority that ever I saw man in my life. I did never observe how much easier a man do speak when he knows all the company to be below him, than in him; for though he spoke, indeed, excellent welt, yet his manner and freedom of doing it, as if he played with it, and was informing only all the rest of the company, was mighty pretty. He did call again and again upon Mr. Povy (age 52) for his accounts. I did think fit to make the solemn tender of my accounts that I intended. I said something that was liked, touching the want of money, and the bad credit of our tallys. My Chancellor (age 57) moved, that without any trouble to any of the rest of the Lords, I might alone attend the King (age 36), when he was with his private Council; and open the state of the garrison's want of credit; and all that could be done, should. Most things moved were referred to Committees, and so we broke up. And at the end Sir W. Coventry (age 38) come; so I away with him, and he discoursed with me something of the Parliament's business. They have voted giving the [King] for next year £1,800,000; which, were it not for his debts, were a great sum. He says, he thinks the House may say no more to us for the present, but that we must mend our manners against the next tryall, and mend them we will. But he thinks it not a fit time to be found making of trouble among ourselves, meaning about Sir J. Minnes (age 67), who most certainly must be removed, or made a Commissioner, and somebody else Comptroller. But he tells me that the House has a great envy at Sir G. Carteret (age 56), and that had he ever thought fit in all his discourse to have touched upon the point of our want of money and badness of payment, it would have been laid hold on to Sir G. Carteret's (age 56) hurt; but he hath avoided it, though without much reason for it, most studiously, and in short did end thus, that he has never shewn so much of the pigeon in all his life as in his innocence to Sir G. Carteret (age 56) at this time; which I believe, and will desire Sir G. Carteret (age 56) to thank him for it.

Pepy's Diary. 15 Oct 1666. Called up, though a very rainy morning, by Sir H. Cholmley (age 34), and he and I most of the morning together evening of accounts, which I was very glad of. Then he and I out to Sir Robt. Viner's (age 35), at the African House (where I had not been since he come thither); but he was not there; but I did some business with his people, and then to Colvill's, who, I find, lives now in Lyme Streete [Map], and with the same credit as ever, this fire having not done them any wrong that I hear of at all.

Pepy's Diary. 21 Oct 1666. This afternoon walking with Sir H. Cholmly (age 34) long in the gallery, he told me, among many other things, how Harry Killigrew (age 29) is banished the Court lately, for saying that my Baroness Castlemayne (age 25) was a little lecherous girle when she was young.... This she complained to the King (age 36) of, and he sent to the Duke of York (age 33), whose servant he is, to turn him away. The Duke of York (age 33) hath done it, but takes it ill of my Lady that he was not complained to first. She attended him to excute it, but ill blood is made by it. He told me how Mr. Williamson (age 33) stood in a little place to have come into the House of Commons, and they would not choose him; they said, "No courtier". And which is worse, Bab May (age 38) went down in great state to Winchelsea [Map] with the Duke of York's (age 33) letters, not doubting to be chosen; and there the people chose a private gentleman in spite of him, and cried out they would have no Court pimp to be their burgesse; which are things that bode very ill. This afternoon I went to see and sat a good while with Mrs. Martin, and there was her sister Doll, with whom, contrary to all expectation, I did what I would, and might have done anything else.

Pepy's Diary. 19 Nov 1666. Thence to my Chancellor's (age 57), and there Mr. Creed and Gawden, Cholmley (age 34), and Sir G. Carteret (age 56) walking in the Park over against the house. I walked with Sir G. Carteret (age 56), who I find displeased with the letter I have drawn and sent in yesterday, finding fault with the account we give of the ill state of the Navy, but I said little, only will justify the truth of it.

Poll Bill

Pepy's Diary. 12 Dec 1666. Up, and to the office, where some accounts of Mr. Gawden's were examined, but I home most of the morning to even some accounts with Sir H. Cholmly (age 34), Mr. Moone, and others one after another. Sir H. Cholmly (age 34) did with grief tell me how the Parliament hath been told plainly that the King (age 36) hath been heard to say, that he would dissolve them rather than pass this Bill with the Proviso; but tells me, that the Proviso is removed, and now carried that it shall be done by a Bill by itself.

Pepy's Diary. 14 Dec 1666. Thence in the evening round by coach home, where I find Foundes his present, of a fair pair of candlesticks, and half a dozen of plates come, which cost him full £50, and is a very good present; and here I met with, sealed up, from Sir H. Cholmly (age 34), the lampoone, or the Mocke-Advice to a Paynter1, abusing the Duke of York (age 33) and my Lord Sandwich (age 41), Pen (age 45), and every body, and the King (age 36) himself, in all the matters of the navy and warr. I am sorry for my Lord Sandwich's (age 41) having so great a part in it. Then to supper and musique, and to bed.

Note 1. In a broadside (1680), quoted by Mr. G. T. Drury in his edition of Waller's Poems, 1893, satirical reference is made to the fashionable form of advice to the painter. "Each puny brother of the rhyming trade At every turn implores the Painter's aid, And fondly enamoured of own foul brat Cries in an ecstacy, Paint this, draw that". The series was continued, for we find "Advice to a Painter upon the Defeat of the Rebels in the West and the Execution of the late Duke of Monmouth (age 17)" ("Poems on Affairs of State", vol. ii., p. 148); "Advice to a Painter, being a Satire on the French King", &c., 1692, and "Advice to a Painter", 1697 ("Poems on Affairs of State", vol. ii., p. 428).

Pepy's Diary. 05 Feb 1667. Up, and to the office, where all the morning doing business, and then home to dinner. Heard this morning that the Prince (age 47) is much better, and hath good rest. All the talk is that my Lord Sandwich (age 41) hath perfected the peace with Spayne, which is very good, if true. Sir H. Cholmly (age 34) was with me this morning, and told me of my Lord Bellasses's (age 52) base dealings with him by getting him to give him great gratuities to near £2000 for his friendship in the business of the Mole, and hath been lately underhand endeavouring to bring another man into his place as Governor, so as to receive his money of Sir H. Cholmly (age 34) for nothing.

Pepy's Diary. 14 Feb 1667. Thence away by coach to Sir H. Cholmly (age 34) and Fitzgerald and Creed, setting down the two latter at the New Exchange. And Sir H. Cholmly (age 34) and I to the Temple [Map], and there walked in the dark in the walks talking of newes; and he surprises me with the certain newes that the King (age 36) did last night in Council declare his being in treaty with the Dutch: that they had sent him a very civil letter, declaring that, if nobody but themselves were concerned, they would not dispute the place of treaty, but leave it to his choice; but that, being obliged to satisfy therein a Prince of equal quality with himself, they must except any place in England or Spayne. And so the King (age 36) hath chosen the Hague, and thither hath chose my Lord Hollis (age 67) and Harry Coventry (age 48) to go Embassadors to treat; which is so mean a thing, as all the world will believe, that we do go to beg a peace of them, whatever we pretend. And it seems all our Court are mightily for a peace, taking this to be the time to make one, while the King (age 36) hath money, that he may save something of what the Parliament hath given him to put him out of debt, so as he may need the help of no more Parliaments, as to the point of money: but our debt is so great, and expence daily so encreased, that I believe little of the money will be saved between this and the making of the peace up. But that which troubles me most is, that we have chosen a son (age 27) of Secretary (age 64) Morris, a boy never used to any business, to go Embassador [Secretary] to the Embassy, which shows how, little we are sensible of the weight of the business upon us. God therefore give a good end to it, for I doubt it, and yet do much more doubt the issue of our continuing the war, for we are in no wise fit for it, and yet it troubles me to think what Sir H. Cholmly (age 34) says, that he believes they will not give us any reparation for what we have suffered by the war, nor put us into any better condition than what we were in before the war, for that will be shamefull for us.

Pepy's Diary. 15 Feb 1667. Up and with Sir W. Batten (age 66) and Sir J. Minnes (age 67) by coach to White Hall, where we attended upon the Duke of York (age 33) to complain of the disorders the other day among the seamen at the Pay at the Ticket Office, and that it arises from lack of money, and that we desire, unless better provided for with money, to have nothing more to do with the payment of tickets, it being not our duty; and the Duke of York (age 33) and Sir W. Coventry (age 39) did agree to it, so that I hope we shall be rid of that trouble. This done, I moved for allowance for a house for Mr. Turner, and got it granted. Then away to Westminster Hall [Map], and there to the Exchequer about my tallies, and so back to White Hall, and so with Lord Bellasses (age 52) to the Excise Office, where met by Sir H. Cholmly (age 34) to consider about our business of money there, and that done, home and to dinner, where I hear Pegg Pen (age 16) is married this day privately; no friends, but two or three relations on his side and hers. Borrowed many things of my kitchen for dressing their dinner.

Pepy's Diary. 22 Feb 1667. Up, and to the office, where I awhile, and then home with Sir H. Cholmly (age 34) to give him some tallies upon the business of the Mole at Tangier and then out with him by coach to the Excise Office, there to enter them, and so back again with him to the Exchange [Map], and there I took another coach, and home to the office, and to my business till dinner, the rest of our officers having been this morning upon the Victuallers' accounts.

Pepy's Diary. 03 Mar 1667. Thence to my Chancellor's (age 58), and there, meeting Sir H. Cholmly (age 34), he and I walked in my Lord's garden, and talked; among other things, of the treaty: and he says there will certainly be a peace, but I cannot believe it. He tells me that the Duke of Buckingham (age 39) his crimes, as far as he knows, are his being of a caball with some discontented persons of the late House of Commons, and opposing the desires of the King (age 36) in all his matters in that House; and endeavouring to become popular, and advising how the Commons' House should proceed, and how he would order the House of Lords. And that he hath been endeavouring to have the King's nativity calculated; which was done, and the fellow now in the Tower about it; which itself hath heretofore, as he says, been held treason, and people died for it; but by the Statute of Treasons, in Queen Mary's times and since, it hath been left out. He tells me that this silly Lord hath provoked, by his ill-carriage, the Duke of York (age 33), my Chancellor (age 58), and all the great persons; and therefore, most likely, will die. He tells me, too, many practices of treachery against this King; as betraying him in Scotland, and giving Oliver an account of the King's private councils; which the King (age 36) knows very well, and hath yet pardoned him1.

Note 1. Two of our greatest poets have drawn the character of the Duke of Buckingham (age 39) in brilliant verse, and both have condemned him to infamy. There is enough in Pepys's reports to corroborate the main features of Dryden's (age 35) magnificent portrait of Zimri in "Absolom and Achitophel". "In the first rank of these did Zimri stand; A man so various that he seemed to be Not one, but all mankind's epitome; Stiff in opinions, always in the wrong; Was everything by starts, and nothing long, But, in the course of one revolving moon, Was chymist, fiddler, statesman, and buffoon; Then all for women, painting, rhyming, drinking, Besides ten thousand freaks that died in thinking, * * * * * * * He laughed himself from Court, then sought relief By forming parties, but could ne'er be chief". Pope's facts are not correct, and hence the effect of his picture is impaired. In spite of the duke's constant visits to the Tower, Charles II still continued his friend; but on the death of the King (age 36), expecting little from James, he retired to his estate at Helmsley, in Yorkshire, to nurse his property and to restore his constitution. He died on April 16th, 1687, at Kirkby Moorside, after a few days' illness, caused by sitting on the damp grass when heated from a fox chase. The scene of his death was the house of a tenant, not "the worst inn's worst room" ("Moral Essays", epist. iii.). He was buried in Westminster Abbey.

Pepy's Diary. 06 Mar 1667. Then abroad with my wife, leaving her at the 'Change [Map], while I to Sir H. Cholmly's (age 34), a pretty house, and a fine, worthy, well-disposed gentleman he is. He and I to Sir Ph. Warwicke's (age 57), about money for Tangier, but to little purpose. H. Cholmley (age 34) tells me, among other things, that he hears of little hopes of a peace, their demands being so high as we shall never grant, and could tell me that we shall keep no fleete abroad this year, but only squadrons. And, among other things, that my Lord Bellasses (age 52), he believes, will lose his command of Tangier by his corrupt covetous ways of.endeavouring to sell his command, which I am glad [of], for he is a man of no worth in the world but compliment.

Pepy's Diary. 08 Mar 1667. So home with Sir W. Batten (age 66), and Sir W. Pen (age 45), by coach, and there met at the office, and my Lord Bruncker (age 47) presently after us, and there did give order to Mr. Stevens for securing the tickets in Carcasses hands, which my Lord against his will could not refuse to sign, and then home to dinner, and so away with my wife by coach, she to Mrs. Pierce's and I to my Lord Bellasses (age 52), and with him to [my] Lord Treasurer's (age 59), where by agreement we met with Sir H. Cholmly (age 34), and there sat and talked all the afternoon almost about one thing or other, expecting Sir Philip Warwicke's (age 57) coming, but he come not, so we away towards night, Sir H. Cholmly (age 34) and I to the Temple [Map], and there parted, telling me of my Lord Bellasses's (age 52) want of generosity, and that he [Bellasses] will certainly be turned out of his government, and he thinks himself stands fair for it.

Pepy's Diary. 11 Mar 1667. By and by comes Sir H. Cholmly (age 34) to me about Tangier business, and then talking of news he tells me how yesterday the King (age 36) did publiquely talk of the King of France's (age 28) dealing with all the Princes of Christendome. As to the States of Holland, he [the King of France (age 28)] hath advised them, on good grounds, to refuse to treat with us at the Hague, because of having opportunity of spies, by reason of our interest in the House of Orange; and then, it being a town in one particular province, it would not be fit to have it, but in a town wherein the provinces have equal interest, as at Mastricht, and other places named. That he advises them to offer no terms, nor accept of any, without his privity and consent, according to agreement; and tells them, if not so, he hath in his power to be even with them, the King (age 36) of England being come to offer him any terms he pleases; and that my Lord St. Albans (age 61) is now at Paris, Plenipotentiary, to make what peace he pleases; and so he can make it, and exclude them, the Dutch, if he sees fit. A copy of this letter of the King of France's (age 28) the Spanish Ambassador here gets, and comes and tells all to our King; which our King denies, and says the King of France (age 28) only uses his power of saying anything. At the same time, the King of France (age 28) writes to the Emperor, that he is resolved to do all things to express affection to the Emperor, having it now in his power to make what peace he pleases between the King of England (age 36) and him, and the States of the United Provinces; and, therefore, that he would not have him to concern himself in a friendship with us; and assures him that, on that regard, he will not offer anything to his disturbance, in his interest in Flanders, or elsewhere. He writes, at the same time, to Spayne, to tell him that he wonders to hear of a league almost ended between the Crown of Spayne and England, by my Lord Sandwich (age 41), and all without his privity, while he was making a peace upon what terms he pleased with England: that he is a great lover of the Crown of Spayne, and would take the King (age 36) and his affairs, during his minority, into his protection, nor would offer to set his foot in Flanders, or any where else, to disturb him; and, therefore, would not have him to trouble himself to make peace with any body; only he hath a desire to offer an exchange, which he thinks may be of moment to both sides: that is, that he [France] will enstate the King of Spayne (age 5) in the Kingdom of Portugall, and he and the Dutch will put him into possession of Lisbon; and, that being done, he [France] may have Flanders: and this, they say; do mightily take in Spayne, which is sensible of the fruitless expence Flanders, so far off, gives them; and how much better it would be for them to be master of Portugall; and the King of France (age 28) offers, for security herein, that the King (age 36) of England shall be bond for him, and that he will countersecure the King of England (age 36) with Amsterdam; and, it seems, hath assured our King, that if he will make a league with him, he will make a peace exclusive to the Hollander. These things are almost romantique, but yet true, as Sir H. Cholmly (age 34) tells me the King (age 36) himself did relate it all yesterday; and it seems as if the King of France (age 28) did think other Princes fit for nothing but to make sport for him: but simple Princes they are, that are forced to suffer this from him. So at noon with Sir W. Pen (age 45) by coach to the Sun in Leadenhall Street [Map]e, where Sir R. Ford (age 53), Sir W. Batten (age 66), and Commissioner Taylor (whose feast it was) were, and we dined and had a very good dinner. Among other discourses Sir R. Ford (age 53) did tell me that he do verily believe that the city will in few years be built again in all the greatest streets, and answered the objections I did give to it. Here we had the proclamation this day come out against the Duke of Buckingham (age 39), commanding him to come in to one of the Secretaries, or to the Lieutenant of the Tower (age 52). A silly, vain man to bring himself to this: and there be many hard circumstances in the proclamation of the causes of this proceeding of the King's, which speak great displeasure of the King's, and crimes of his. Then to discourse of the business of the day, that is, to see Commissioner Taylor's accounts for his ship he built, The Loyall London, and it is pretty to see how dully this old fellow makes his demands, and yet plaguy wise sayings will come from the man sometimes, and also how Sir R. Ford (age 53) and Sir W. Batten (age 66) did with seeming reliance advise him what to do, and how to come prepared to answer objections to the Common Council.

Pepy's Diary. 14 Mar 1667. Up, and with Sir W. Batten (age 66) and Sir W. Pen (age 45) to my Lord Treasurer's (age 60), where we met with my Lord Bruncker (age 47) an hour before the King (age 36) come, and had time to talk a little of our business. Then come much company, among others Sir H. Cholmly (age 34), who tells me that undoubtedly my Lord Bellasses (age 52) will go no more as Governor to Tangier, and that he do put in fair for it, and believes he shall have it, and proposes how it may conduce to his account and mine in the business of money. Here we fell into talk with Sir Stephen Fox (age 39), and, among other things, of the Spanish manner of walking, when three together, and shewed me how, which was pretty, to prevent differences.

Pepy's Diary. 17 Mar 1667. Then I went back to White Hall, and there up to the closet, and spoke with several people till sermon was ended, which was preached by the Bishop of Hereford (age 64), an old good man, that they say made an excellent sermon. He was by birth a Catholique, and a great gallant, having £1500 per annum, patrimony, and is a Knight Barronet; was turned from his persuasion by the late Archbishop Laud. He and the Bishop of Exeter, Dr. Ward, are the two Bishops that the King (age 36) do say he cannot have bad sermons from. Here I met with Sir H. Cholmly (age 34), who tells me, that undoubtedly my Lord Bellasses (age 52) do go no more to Tangier, and that he do believe he do stand in a likely way to go Governor; though he says, and showed me, a young silly Lord, one Lord Allington (age 27), who hath offered a great sum of money to go, and will put hard for it, he having a fine lady (age 22), and a great man would be glad to have him out of the way.

Pepy's Diary. 24 Mar 1667. Away thence, and met with Sir H. Cholmly (age 34), who tells me that he do believe the government of Tangier is bought by my Lord Allington (age 27) for a sum of money to my Lord Arlington (age 49), and something to Lord Bellasses (age 52), who (he did tell me particularly how) is as very a false villain as ever was born, having received money of him here upon promise and confidence of his return, forcing him to pay it by advance here, and promising to ask no more there, when at the same time he was treating with my Lord Allington (age 27) to sell his command to him, and yet told Sir H. Cholmly (age 34) nothing of it, but when Sir H. Cholmly (age 34) told him what he had heard, he confessed that my Lord Allington (age 27) had spoken to him of it, but that he was a vain man to look after it, for he was nothing fit for it, and then goes presently to my Lord Allington (age 27) and drives on the bargain, yet tells Lord Allington what he himself had said of him, as [though] Sir H. Cholmly (age 34) had said them. I am glad I am informed hereof, and shall know him for a Lord, &c. Sir H. Cholmly (age 34) tells me further that he is confident there will be a peace, and that a great man did tell him that my Lord Albemarle (age 58) did tell him the other day at White Hall as a secret that we should have a peace if any thing the King of France (age 28) can ask and our King can give will gain it, which he is it seems mad at.

Pepy's Diary. 15 Apr 1667. Lay long in bed, and by and by called up by Sir H. Cholmly (age 34), who tells me that my Lord Middleton (age 59) is for certain chosen Governor of Tangier; a man of moderate understanding, not covetous, but a soldier of fortune, and poor. Here comes Mr. Sanchy with an impertinent business to me of a ticket, which I put off. But by and by comes Dr. Childe (age 61) by appointment, and sat with me all the morning making me bases and inward parts to several songs that I desired of him, to my great content. Then dined, and then abroad by coach, and I set him down at Hatton Garden, and I to the King's house by chance, where a new play: so full as I never saw it; I forced to stand all the while close to the very door till I took cold, and many people went away for want of room. The King (age 36), and Queene (age 57), and Duke of York (age 33) and Duchess (age 30) there, and all the Court, and Sir W. Coventry (age 39). The play called "The Change of Crownes"; a play of Ned Howard's (age 42), the best that ever I saw at that house, being a great play and serious; only Lacy (age 52) did act the country-gentleman come up to Court, who do abuse the Court with all the imaginable wit and plainness about selling of places, and doing every thing for money. The play took very much.

Pepy's Diary. 08 May 1667. Up pretty betimes and out of doors, and in Fen Church street [Map] met Mr. Lovett going with a picture to me, but I could not stand to discourse or see it, but on to the next Hackney coach and so to Sir W. Coventry (age 39), where he and I alone a while discoursing of some businesses of the office, and then up to the Duke of York (age 33) to his chamber with my fellow brethren who are come, and so did our usual weekly business, which was but little to-day, and I was glad that the business of Carcasse was not mentioned because our report was not ready, but I am resolved it shall against the next coming to the Duke of York (age 33). Here was discourse about a way of paying our old creditors which did please me, there being hopes of getting them comprehended within the 11 months Tax, and this did give occasion for Sir G. Carteret's (age 57) and my going to Sir Robert Long (age 67) to discourse it, who do agree that now the King's Council do say that they may be included in the Act, which do make me very glad, not so much for the sake of the poor men as for the King (age 36), for it would have been a ruin to him and his service not to have had a way to have paid the debt. There parted with Sir G. Carteret (age 57) and into Westminster Hall [Map], where I met with Sir H. Cholmly (age 34), and he and I to Sir Ph. Warwicke's (age 57) to speak a little about our Tangier business, but to little purpose, my Lord Treasurer (age 60) being so ill that no business can be done.

Pepy's Diary. 08 May 1667. Thence with Sir H. Cholmly (age 34) to find out Creed from one lodging to another, which he hath changed so often that there is no finding him, but at last do come to his lodging that he is entering into this day, and do find his goods unlading at the door, by Scotland Yard, and there I set down Sir H. Cholmly (age 34), and I away to the 'Change [Map], where spoke about several things, and then going home did meet Mr. Andrews (age 35) our neighbour, and did speak with him to enquire about the ground behind our house, of which I have a mind to buy enough to make a stable and coach-house; for I do see that my condition do require it, as well as that it is more charge to my purse to live as I do than to keep one, and therefore I am resolved before winter to have one, unless some extraordinary thing happens to hinder me. He promises me to look after it for me, and so I home to dinner, where I find my wife's flageolette master, and I am so pleased with her proceeding, though she hath lost time by not practising, that I am resolved for the encouragement of the man to learn myself a little for a month or so, for I do foresee if God send my wife and I to live, she will become very good company for me. He gone, comes Lovett with my little print of my dear Baroness Castlemayne (age 26) varnished, and the frame prettily done like gold, which pleases me well. He dined with me, but by his discourse I do still see that he is a man of good wit but most strange experience, and acquaintance with all manner of subtleties and tricks, that I do think him not fit for me to keep any acquaintance with him, lest he some time or other shew me a slippery trick.

Pepy's Diary. 13 May 1667. This morning come Sir H. Cholmly (age 34) to me for a tally or two; and tells me that he hears that we are by agreement to give the King of France (age 28) Nova Scotia, which he do not like: but I do not know the importance of it1.

Note 1. Nova Scotia and the adjoining countries were called by the French Acadie. Pepys is not the only official personage whose ignorance of Nova Scotia is on record. A story is current of a prime minister (Duke of Newcastle) who was surprised at hearing Cape Breton was an island. "Egad, I'll go tell the King (age 36) Cape Breton is an island!" Of the same it is said, that when told Annapolis was in danger, and ought to be defended: "Oh! certainly Annapolis must be defended,- where is Annapolis?" B.

Pepy's Diary. 15 May 1667. Being come, we up to the Duke of York's (age 33) chamber, who, when ready, we to our usual business, and being very glad, we all that signed it, that is, Sir J. Minnes (age 68), W. Batten (age 66), W. Pen (age 46), and myself, and then Sir G. Carteret (age 57) and Sir W. Coventry (age 39), Bruncker (age 47), and T. Harvy (age 41), and the officers of the Ordnance, Sir J. Duncombe (age 44), and Mr. Cholmely (age 34) presented our report about Carcasse, and did afterwards read it with that success that the Duke of York (age 33) was for punishing him, not only with turning him out of the office, but with what other punishment he could, which nobody did forward, and so he escaped, only with giving security to secure the King (age 36) against double tickets of his and other things that he might have wronged the King (age 36) or subject in before his dismission.

Pepy's Diary. 31 May 1667. By water to White Hall to the Lords Commissioners of the Treasury, the first time I ever was there and I think the second that they have met at the Treasury chamber there. Here I saw Duncomb (age 44) look as big, and take as much state on him, as if he had been born a lord. I was in with him about Tangier, and at present received but little answer from them, they being in a cloud of business yet, but I doubt not but all will go well under them. Here I met with Sir H. Cholmly (age 34), who tells me that he is told this day by Secretary Morris (age 64) that he believes we are, and shall be, only fooled by the French; and that the Dutch are very high and insolent, and do look upon us as come over only to beg a peace; which troubles me very much, and I do fear it is true.

Pepy's Diary. 21 Jun 1667. So I to my office, and there all the afternoon. This day comes news from Harwich [Map] that the Dutch fleete are all in sight, near 100 sail great and small, they think, coming towards them; where, they think, they shall be able to oppose them; but do cry out of the falling back of the seamen, few standing by them, and those with much faintness. The like they write from Portsmouth, Hampshire [Map], and their letters this post are worth reading. Sir H. Cholmly (age 34) come to me this day, and tells me the Court is as mad as ever; and that the night the Dutch burned our ships the King (age 37) did sup with my Baroness Castlemayne (age 26), at the Duchess of Monmouth's (age 16), and there were all mad in hunting of a poor moth. All the Court afraid of a Parliament; but he thinks nothing can save us but the King's giving up all to a Parliament. Busy at the office all the afternoon, and did much business to my great content.

Pepy's Diary. 25 Jun 1667. Busy all the afternoon at the office. Towards night I with Mr. Kinaston to White Hall about a Tangier order, but lost our labour, only met Sir H. Cholmly (age 34) there, and he tells me great newes; that this day in Council the King (age 37) hath declared that he will call his Parliament in thirty days: which is the best newes I have heard a great while, and will, if any thing, save the Kingdom. How the King (age 37) come to be advised to this, I know not; but he tells me that it was against the Duke of York's (age 33) mind flatly, who did rather advise the King (age 37) to raise money as he pleased; and against the Chancellor's (age 58), who told the King (age 37) that Queen Elizabeth did do all her business in eighty-eight without calling a Parliament, and so might he do, for anything he saw.

Pepy's Diary. 28 Jun 1667. I remember I did in the morning tell Sir H. Cholmly (age 34) of this business: and he answered me, he was sorry for it; for, whatever Sir G. Carteret (age 57) was, he is confident my Lord Anglesey (age 52) is one of the greatest knaves in the world, which is news to me, but I shall make my use of it. Having done this discourse with Sir G. Carteret (age 57), and signified my great satisfaction in it, which they seem to look upon as something, I went away and by coach home, and there find my wife making of tea, a drink which Mr. Pelling, the Potticary, tells her is good for her cold and defluxions.

Pepy's Diary. 28 Jun 1667. Thence I going out met at the gate Sir H. Cholmly (age 34) coming to me, and I to him in the coach, and both of us presently to St. James's, by the way discoursing of some Tangier business about money, which the want of I see will certainly bring the place into a bad condition. We find the Duke of York (age 33) and Sir W. Coventry (age 39) gone this morning, by two o'clock, to Chatham, Kent [Map], to come home to-night: and it is fine to observe how both the King (age 37) and Duke of York (age 33) have, in their several late journeys to and again, done them in the night for coolnesse.

Pepy's Diary. 12 Jul 1667. Up betimes and to my chamber, there doing business, and by and by comes Greeting and begun a new month with him, and now to learn to set anything from the notes upon the flageolet, but, Lord! to see how like a fool he goes about to give me direction would make a man mad. I then out and by coach to White Hall and to the Treasury chamber, where did a little business, and thence to the Exchequer to Burges, about Tangier business, and so back again, stepping into the Hall a little, and then homeward by coach, and met at White Hall with Sir H. Cholmly (age 34), and so into his coach, and he with me to the Excise Office, there to do a little business also, in the way he telling me that undoubtedly the peace is concluded; for he did stand yesterday where he did hear part of the discourse at the Council table, and there did hear the King (age 37) argue for it. Among other things, that the spirits of the seamen were down, and the forces of our enemies are grown too great and many for us, and he would not have his subjects overpressed; for he knew an Englishman would do as much as any man upon hopeful terms; but where he sees he is overpressed, he despairs soon as any other; and, besides that, they have already such a load of dejection upon them, that they will not be in temper a good while again. He heard my Chancellor (age 58) say to the King (age 37), "Sir", says he, "the whole world do complain publickly of treachery, that things have been managed falsely by some of his great ministers".-"Sir", says he, "I am for your Majesty's falling into a speedy enquiry into the truth of it, and, where you meet with it, punish it. But, at the same time, consider what you have to do, and make use of your time for having a peace; for more money will not be given without much trouble, nor is it, I fear, to be had of the people, nor will a little do it to put us into condition of doing our business". But Sir H. Cholmly (age 34) tells me he [the] Chancellors (age 58) did say the other day at his table, "Treachery!" says he; "I could wish we could prove there was anything of that in it; for that would imply some wit and thoughtfulness; but we are ruined merely by folly and neglect".

Pepy's Diary. 12 Jul 1667. And so Sir H. Cholmly (age 34) tells me they did all argue for peace, and so he do believe that the King (age 37) hath agreed to the three points Mr. Coventry (age 39) brought over, which I have mentioned before, and is gone with them back. He tells me further that the Duke of Buckingham (age 39) was before the Council the other day, and there did carry it very submissively and pleasingly to the King (age 37); but to my Lord Arlington (age 49), who do prosecute the business, he was most bitter and sharp, and very slighting. As to the letter about his employing a man to cast the King's nativity, says he to the King (age 37), "Sir", says he, "this is none of my hand, and I refer it to your Majesty whether you do not know this hand". the King (age 37) answered, that it was indeed none of his, and that he knew whose it was, but could not recall it presently. "Why", says he, "it is my sister of Richmond's (age 45), some frolick or other of hers of some certain person; and there is nothing of the King's name in it, but it is only said to be his by supposition, as is said". the King (age 37), it seems, seemed not very much displeased with what the Duke (age 39) had said; but, however, he is still in the Tower, and no discourse of his being out in haste, though my Baroness Castlemayne (age 26) hath so far solicited for him that the King (age 37) and she are quite fallen out: he comes not to her, nor hath for some three or four days; and parted with very foul words, the King (age 37) calling her a whore, and a jade that meddled with things she had nothing to do with at all: and she calling him fool; and told him if he was not a fool, he would not suffer his businesses to be carried on by fellows that did not understand them, and cause his best subjects, and those best able to serve him, to be imprisoned; meaning the Duke of Buckingham (age 39).

Pepy's Diary. 12 Jul 1667. And it seems she was not only for his liberty, but to be restored to all his places; which, it is thought, he will never be. While we were at the Excise office talking with Mr. Ball, it was computed that the Parliament had given the King (age 37) for this war only, besides all prizes, and besides the £200,000 which he was to spend of his own revenue, to guard the sea above £5,000,000 and odd £100,000; which is a most prodigious sum. Sir H. Cholmly (age 34), as a true English gentleman, do decry the King's expenses of his Privy-purse, which in King James's time did not rise to above £5000 a year, and in King Charles's to £10,000, do now cost us above £100,000, besides the great charge of the monarchy, as the Duke of York (age 33) £100,000 of it, and other limbs of the Royal family, and the guards, which, for his part, says he, "I would have all disbanded, for the King (age 37) is not the better by them, and would be as safe without them; for we have had no rebellions to make him fear anything". But, contrarily, he is now raising of a land-army, which this Parliament and kingdom will never bear; besides, the commanders they put over them are such as will never be able to raise or command them; but the design is, and the Duke of York (age 33), he says, is hot for it, to have a land-army, and so to make the government like that of France, but our Princes have not brains, or at least care and forecast enough to do that. It is strange how he and every body do now-a-days reflect upon Oliver, and commend him, what brave things he did, and made all the neighbour Princes fear him; while here a Prince, come in with all the love and prayers and good liking of his people, who have given greater signs of loyalty and willingness to serve him with their estates than ever was done by any people, hath lost all so soon, that it is a miracle what way a man could devise to lose so much in so little time.

Pepy's Diary. 19 Jul 1667. Up and comes the flageolet master, and brings me two new great Ivory pipes which cost me 32s., and so to play, and he being done, and Balty's (age 27) wife taking her leave of me, she going back to Lee to-day, I to Westminster and there did receive £15,000 orders out of the Exchequer in part of a bigger sum upon the eleven months tax for Tangier, part of which I presently delivered to Sir H. Cholmly (age 34), who was there, and thence with Mr. Gawden to Auditor Woods and Beales to examine some precedents in his business of the Victualling on his behalf, and so home, and in my way by coach down Marke Lane, mightily pleased and smitten to see, as I thought, in passing, the pretty woman, the line-maker's wife that lived in Fenchurch Streete [Map], and I had great mind to have gone back to have seen, but yet would correct my nature and would not.

Pepy's Diary. 09 Aug 1667. Up, and betimes with Sir H. Cholmly (age 35) upon some accounts of Tangier, and then he and I to Westminster, to Mr. Burges, and then walked in the Hall, and he and I talked, and he do really declare that he expects that of necessity this kingdom will fall back again to a commonwealth, and other wise men are of the same mind: this family doing all that silly men can do, to make themselves unable to support their kingdom, minding their lust and their pleasure, and making their government so chargeable, that people do well remember better things were done, and better managed, and with much less charge under a commonwealth than they have been by this King, and do seem to resolve to wind up his businesses and get money in his hand against the turn do come. After some talk I by coach and there dined, and with us Mr. Batelier by chance coming in to speak with me, and when I come home, and find Mr. Goodgroome, my wife's singing-master, there I did soundly rattle him for neglecting her so much as he hath done-she not having learned three songs these three months and more.

Pepy's Diary. 01 Sep 1667. Lord's Day. Up, and betimes by water from the Tower, and called at the Old Swan [Map] for a glass of strong water, and sent word to have little Michell and his wife come and dine with us to-day; and so, taking in a gentleman and his lady that wanted a boat, I to Westminster. Setting them on shore at Charing Cross [Map], I to Mrs. Martin's, where I had two pair of cuffs which I bespoke, and there did sit and talk with her.... [Missing text: "and no mas, ella having aquellos [ those ] upon her"] and here I did see her little girle my goddaughter, which will be pretty, and there having staid a little I away to Creed's chamber, and when he was ready away to White Hall, where I met with several people and had my fill of talk. Our new Lord-keeper, Bridgeman (age 61), did this day, the first time, attend the King (age 37) to chapel with his Seal. Sir H. Cholmly (age 35) tells me there are hopes that the women will also have a rout, and particularly that my Baroness Castlemayne (age 26) is coming to a composition with the King (age 37) to be gone; but how true this is, I know not. Blancfort (age 26) is made Privy-purse to the Duke of York (age 33); the Attorney-general (age 69) is made Chief justice, in the room of my Lord Bridgeman (age 61); the Solicitor-general (age 45) is made Attorney-general; and Sir Edward Turner (age 50) made Solicitor-general.

Pepy's Diary. 16 Sep 1667. Sir H. Cholmly (age 35) do not seem to think there is any such thing can be in the King's intention as that of raising the Duke of Monmouth (age 18) to the Crowne, though he thinks there may possibly be some persons that would, and others that would be glad to have the Queen (age 28) removed to some monastery, or somewhere or other, to make room for a new wife; for they will all be unsafe under the Duke of York (age 33). He says the King (age 37) and Parliament will agree; that is, that the King (age 37) will do any thing that they will have him. We together to the Exchequer about our Tangier orders, and so parted at the New Exchange, where I staid reading Mrs. Phillips's poems till my wife and Mercer called me to Mrs. Pierce's, by invitation to dinner, where I find her painted, which makes me loathe her, and the nastiest poor dinner that made me sick, only here I met with a Fourth Advice to the Painter upon the coming in of the Dutch to the River and end of the war, that made my heart ake to read, it being too sharp, and so true. Here I also saw a printed account of the examinations taken, touching the burning of the City of London, shewing the plot of the Papists therein; which, it seems, hath been ordered and to have been burnt by the hands of the hangman, in Westminster Palace. I will try to get one of them.

Pepy's Diary. 16 Sep 1667. Up, and several come to me, among others Mr. Yeabsly of Plymouth, Devon [Map], to discourse about their matters touching Tangier, and by and by Sir H. Cholmly (age 35), who was with me a good while; who tells me that the Duke of York's (age 33) child is christened, the Duke of Albemarle (age 58) and the Marquis of Worcester (age 38) godfathers, and my Lady Suffolke (age 45) godmother; and they have named it Edgar, which is a brave name. But it seems they are more joyful in the Chancellor's (age 58) family, at the birth of this Prince, than in wisdom they should, for fear it should give the King (age 37) cause of jealousy.

Pepy's Diary. 17 Sep 1667. And by and by away by coach and met with Sir H. Cholmly (age 35), and with him to the Temple [Map], and there in Playford's (age 44) shop did give him some of my Exchequer orders and took his receipts, and so parted and home, and there to my business hard at the office, and then home, my wife being at Mrs. Turner's (age 44), who and her husband come home with her, and here staid and talked and staid late, and then went away and we to bed. But that which vexed me much this evening is that Captain Cocke (age 50) and Sir W. Batten (age 66) did come to me, and sat, and drank a bottle of wine, and told me how Sir W. Pen (age 46) hath got an order for the "Flying Greyhound" for himself, which is so false a thing, and the part of a knave, as nothing almost can be more. This vexed me; but I resolve to bring it before the Duke, and try a pull for it.

Pepy's Diary. 23 Sep 1667. By and by my Lord come, and we did look over Yeabsly's business a little; and I find how prettily this cunning Lord can be partial and dissemble it in this case, being privy to the bribe he is to receive. This done; we away, and with Sir H. Cholmly (age 35) to Westminster; who by the way told me how merry the King (age 37) and Duke of York (age 33) and Court were the other day, when they were abroad a-hunting. They come to Sir G. Carteret's (age 57) house at Cranbourne, and there were entertained, and all made drunk; and that all being drunk, Armerer did come to the King (age 37), and swore to him, "By God, Sir", says he, "you are not so kind to the Duke of York (age 33) of late as you used to be".-"Not I?" says the King (age 37). "Why so?"-"Why", says he, "if you are, let us drink his health".-"Why, let us", says the King (age 37). Then he fell on his knees, and drank it; and having done, the King (age 37) began to drink it. "Nay, Sir", says Armerer, "by God you must do it on your knees!" So he did, and then all the company: and having done it, all fell a-crying for joy, being all maudlin and kissing one another, the King (age 37) the Duke of York (age 33), and the Duke of York (age 33) the King (age 37): and in such a maudlin pickle as never people were: and so passed the day. But Sir H. Cholmly (age 35) tells me, that the King (age 37) hath this good luck, that the next day he hates to have any body mention what he had done the day before, nor will suffer any body to gain upon him that way; which is a good quality. Parted with Sir H. Cholmly (age 35) at White Hall, and there I took coach and took up my wife at Unthanke's, and so out for ayre, it being a mighty pleasant day, as far as Bow, and so drank by the way, and home, and there to my chamber till by and by comes Captain Cocke (age 50) about business; who tells me that Mr. Bruncker is lost for ever, notwithstanding my Lord Bruncker (age 47) hath advised with him, Cocke (age 50), how he might make a peace with the Duke of York (age 33) and Chancellor (age 58), upon promise of serving him in the Parliament but Cocke (age 50) says that is base to offer, and will have no success neither. He says that Mr. Wren hath refused a present of Tom Wilson's for his place of Store-keeper of Chatham, Kent [Map], and is resolved never to take any thing; which is both wise in him, and good to the King's service. He stayed with me very late, here being Mrs. Turner (age 44) and W. Batelier drinking and laughing, and then to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 23 Sep 1667. Thence to the Excise office, and so to the Exchange [Map], and did a little business, and so home and took up my wife, and so carried her to the other end, where I 'light at my Lord Ashly's (age 46), by invitation, to dine there, which I did, and Sir H. Cholmly (age 35), Creed, and Yeabsly, upon occasion of the business of Yeabsly, who, God knows, do bribe him very well for it; and it is pretty to see how this great man do condescend to these things, and do all he can in his examining of his business to favour him, and yet with great cunning not to be discovered but by me that am privy to it. At table it is worth remembering that my Lord tells us that the House of Lords is the last appeal that a man can make, upon a poynt of interpretation of the law, and that therein they are above the judges; and that he did assert this in the Lords' House upon the late occasion of the quarrel between my Lord Bristoll (age 54) and the Chancellor (age 58), when the former did accuse the latter of treason, and the judges did bring it in not to be treason: my Lord Ashly (age 46) did declare that the judgment of the judges was nothing in the presence of their Lordships, but only as far as they were the properest men to bring precedents; but not to interpret the law to their Lordships, but only the inducements of their persuasions: and this the Lords did concur in. Another pretty thing was my Lady Ashly's speaking of the bad qualities of glass-coaches; among others, the flying open of the doors upon any great shake: but another was, that my Lady Peterborough (age 45) being in her glass-coach, with the glass up, and seeing a lady pass by in a coach whom she would salute, the glass was so clear, that she thought it had been open, and so ran her head through the glass, and cut all her forehead! After dinner, before we fell to the examination of Yeabsly's business, we were put into my Lord's room before he could come to us, and there had opportunity to look over his state of his accounts of the prizes; and there saw how bountiful the King (age 37) hath been to several people and hardly any man almost, Commander of the Navy of any note, but hath had some reward or other out of it; and many sums to the Privy-purse, but not so many, I see, as I thought there had been: but we could not look quite through it. But several Bedchamber-men and people about the Court had good sums; and, among others, Sir John Minnes (age 68) and Lord Bruncker (age 47) have £200 a-piece for looking to the East India prizes, while I did their work for them.

Pepy's Diary. 25 Sep 1667. Up as soon as I could see and to the office to write over fair with Mr. Hater my last night's work, which I did by nine o'clock, and got it signed, and so with Sir H. Cholmly (age 35), who come to me about his business, to White Hall: and thither come also my Lord Bruncker (age 47): and we by and by called in, and our paper read; and much discourse thereon by Sir G. Carteret (age 57), my Lord Anglesey (age 53), Sir W. Coventry (age 39), and my Lord Ashly (age 46), and myself: but I could easily discern that they none of them understood the business; and the King (age 37) at last ended it with saying lazily, "Why", says he, "after all this discourse, I now come to understand it; and that is, that there can nothing be done in this more than is possible", which was so silly as I never heard: "and therefore", says he, "I would have these gentlemen to do as much as possible to hasten the Treasurer's accounts; and that is all". And so we broke up: and I confess I went away ashamed, to see how slightly things are advised upon there. Here I saw the Duke of Buckingham (age 39) sit in Council again, where he was re-admitted, it seems, the last Council-day: and it is wonderful to see how this man is come again to his places, all of them, after the reproach and disgrace done him: so that things are done in a most foolish manner quite through. The Duke of Buckingham (age 39) did second Sir W. Coventry (age 39) in the advising the King (age 37) that he would not concern himself in the owning or not owning any man's accounts, or any thing else, wherein he had not the same satisfaction that would satisfy the Parliament; saying, that nothing would displease the Parliament more than to find him defending any thing that is not right, nor justifiable to the utmost degree but methought he spoke it but very poorly. After this, I walked up and down the Gallery till noon; and here I met with Bishop Fuller, who, to my great joy, is made, which I did not hear before, Bishop of Lincoln.

Pepy's Diary. 04 Oct 1667. And so to my Lord Ashly's (age 46), where after dinner Sir H. Cholmly (age 35), Creed and I, with his Lordship, about Mr. Yeabsly's business, where having come to agreement with him abating him £1000 of what he demands for ships lost, I to Westminster, to Mrs. Martin's lodging, whither I sent for her, and there hear that her husband is come from sea, which is sooner than I expected; and here I staid and drank, and so did toucher elle and away, and so by coach to my tailor's, and thence to my Lord Crew's (age 69), and there did stay with him an hour till almost night, discoursing about the ill state of my Lord Sandwich (age 42), that he can neither be got to be called home, nor money got to maintain him there; which will ruin his family. And the truth is, he do almost deserve it, for by all relation he hath, in a little more than a year and a half, spent £20,000 of the King's money, and the best part of £10,000 of his own; which is a most prodigious expence, more than ever Embassador spent there, and more than these Commissioners of the Treasury will or do allow. And they demand an account before they will give him any more money; which puts all his friends to a loss what to answer. But more money we must get him, or to be called home. I offer to speak to Sir W. Coventry (age 39) about it; but my Lord will not advise to it, without consent of Sir G. Carteret (age 57).

Pepy's Diary. 13 Oct 1667. And so walked over the Park to White Hall, and there met Sir H. Cholmly (age 35), who walked with me, and told me most of the news I heard last night of the Parliament; and thinks they will do all things very well, only they will be revenged of my Chancellor (age 58); and says, however, that he thinks there will be but two things proved on him; and that one is, that he may have said to the King (age 37), and to others, words to breed in the King (age 37) an ill opinion of the Parliament-that they were factious, and that it was better to dissolve them: and this, he thinks, they will be able to prove; but what this will amount to, he knows not. And next, that he hath taken money for several bargains that have been made with the Crown; and did instance one that is already complained of: but there are so many more involved in it, that, should they unravel things of this sort, every body almost will be more or less concerned. But these are the two great points which he thinks they will insist on, and prove against him.

Pepy's Diary. 16 Oct 1667. Up, and at home most of the morning with Sir H. Cholmly (age 35), about some accounts of his; and for news he tells me that the Commons and Lords have concurred, and delivered the King (age 37) their thanks, among other things, for his removal of the Chancellor (age 58); who took their thanks very well, and, among other things, promised them, in these words, never, in any degree, to entertain the Chancellor (age 58) any employment again.

Pepy's Diary. 21 Oct 1667. Up, and betimes got a coach at the Exchange [Map], and thence to St. James's, where I had forgot that the Duke of York (age 34) and family were gone to White Hall, and thence to Westminster Hall [Map] and there walked a little, finding the Parliament likely to be busy all this morning about the business of Mr. Bruncker (age 40) for advising Cox and Harman (age 42) to shorten sail when they were in pursuit of the Dutch after the first great victory. I went away to Mr. Creed's chamber, there to meet Sir H. Cholmly (age 35), about business of Mr. Yeabsly, where I was delivered of a great fear that they would question some of the orders for payment of money which I had got them signed at the time of the plague, when I was here alone, but all did pass.

Pepy's Diary. 04 Nov 1667. Thence home, and there met Sir H. Cholmly (age 35), and he and I to the Excise Office to see what tallies are paying, and thence back to the Old Exchange [Map], by the way talking of news, and he owning Sir W. Coventry (age 39), in his opinion, to be one of the worthiest men in the nation, as I do really think he is. He tells me he do think really that they will cut off my Chancellor's (age 58) head, the Chancellor (age 58) at this day showing as much pride as is possible to those few that venture their fortunes by coming to see him; and that the Duke of York (age 34) is troubled much, knowing that those that fling down the Chancellor (age 58) cannot stop there, but will do something to him, to prevent his having it in his power hereafter to avenge himself and father-in-law upon them. And this Sir H. Cholmly (age 35) fears may be by divorcing the Queen (age 28) and getting another, or declaring the Duke of Monmouth (age 18) legitimate; which God forbid! He tells me he do verily believe that there will come in an impeachment of High Treason against my Lord of Ormond (age 57); among other things, for ordering the quartering of soldiers in Ireland on free quarters; which, it seems, is High Treason in that country, and was one of the things that lost the Lord Strafford his head, and the law is not yet repealed; which, he says, was a mighty oversight of him not to have it repealed, which he might with ease have done, or have justified himself by an Act. From the Exchange [Map] I took a coach, and went to Turlington, the great spectacle-maker, for advice, who dissuades me from using old spectacles, but rather young ones, and do tell me that nothing can wrong my eyes more than for me to use reading-glasses, which do magnify much.

Pepy's Diary. 08 Nov 1667. Called up betimes by Sir H. Cholmly (age 35), and he and I to good purpose most of the morning-I in my dressing-gown with him, on our Tangier accounts, and stated them well; and here he tells me that he believes it will go hard with my Chancellor (age 58).

Pepy's Diary. 02 Dec 1667. Up, and then abroad to Alderman Backewell's (age 49) (who was sick of a cold in bed), and then to the Excise Office, where I find Mr. Ball out of humour in expectation of being put out of his office by the change of the farm of the excise. There comes Sir H. Cholmly (age 35), and he and I to Westminster, and there walked up and down till noon, where all the business is that the Lords' answer is come down to the Commons, that they are not satisfied in the Commons' Reasons: and so the Commons are hot, and like to sit all day upon the business what to do herein, most thinking that they will remonstrate against the Lords.

Pepy's Diary. 27 Dec 1667. Up, and by water to White Hall, and there walked with Creed in the Matted Gallery till by and by a Committee for Tangier met: the Duke of York (age 34) there; and there I did discourse over to them their condition as to money, which they were all mightily, as I could desire, satisfied with, but the Duke of Albemarle (age 59), who takes the part of the Guards against us in our supplies of money, which is an odd consideration for a dull, heavy blockhead as he is, understanding no more of either than a goose: but the ability and integrity of Sir W. Coventry (age 39), in all the King's concernments, I do and must admire. After the Committee up, I and Sir W. Coventry (age 39) walked an hour in the gallery, talking over many businesses, and he tells me that there are so many things concur to make him and his Fellow Commissioners unable to go through the King's work that he do despair of it, every body becoming an enemy to them in their retrenchments, and the King (age 37) unstable, the debts great and the King's present occasions for money great and many and pressing, the bankers broke and every body keeping in their money, while the times are doubtful what will stand. But he says had they come in two years ago they doubt not to have done what the King (age 37) would by this time, or were the King (age 37) in the condition as heretofore, when the Chancellor (age 58) was great, to be able to have what sums of money they pleased of the Parliament, and then the ill administration was such that instead of making good use of this power and money he suffered all to go to ruin. But one such sum now would put all upon their legs, and now the King (age 37) would have the Parliament give him money when they are in an ill humour and will not be willing to give any, nor are very able, and besides every body distrusts what they give the King (age 37) will be lost; whereas six months hence, when they see that the King (age 37) can live without them, and is become steady, and to manage what he has well, he doubts not but their doubts would be removed, and would be much more free as well as more able to give him money. He told me how some of his enemies at the Duke of York's (age 34) had got the Duke of York's (age 34) commission for the Commissioners of his estate changed, and he and Brouncker (age 47) and Povy (age 53) left out: that this they did do to disgrace and impose upon him at this time; but that he, though he values not the thing, did go and tell the Duke of York (age 34) what he heard, and that he did not think that he had given him any reason to do this, out of his belief that he would not be as faithful and serviceable to him as the best of those that have got him put out. Whereupon the Duke of York (age 34) did say that it arose only from his not knowing whether now he would have time to regard his affairs; and that, if he should, he would put him into the commission with his own hand, though the commission be passed. He answered that he had been faithful to him, and done him good service therein, so long as he could attend it; and if he had been able to have attended it more, he would not have enriched himself with such and such estates as my Chancellor (age 58) hath got, that did properly belong to his Royal Highness, as being forfeited to the King (age 37), and so by the King's gift given to the Duke of York (age 34). Hereupon the Duke of York (age 34) did call for the commission, and hath since put him in. This he tells me he did only to show his enemies that he is not so low as to be trod on by them, or the Duke hath any so bad opinion of him as they would think. Here we parted, and I with Sir H. Cholmly (age 35) went and took a turn into the Park, and there talked of several things, and about Tangier particularly, and of his management of his business, and among other discourse about the method he will leave his accounts in if he should suddenly die, he says there is nothing but what is easily understood, but only a sum of £500 which he has entered given to E. E. S., which in great confidence he do discover to me to be my Lord Sandwich (age 42), at the beginning of their contract for the Mole, and I suppose the rest did the like, which was £1500, which would appear a very odd thing for my Lord to be a profiter by the getting of the contract made for them. But here it puts me into thoughts how I shall own my receiving of £200 a year from him, but it is his gift, I never asked of him, and which he did to Mr. Povy (age 53), and so there is no great matter in it.

Pepy's Diary. 30 Dec 1667. Up before day, and by coach to Westminster, and there first to Sir H. Cholmly (age 35), and there I did to my great content deliver him up his little several papers for sums of money paid him, and took his regular receipts upon his orders, wherein I am safe.

Pepy's Diary. 13 Jan 1668. Thence homeward by coach and stopped at Martin's, my bookseller, where I saw the French book which I did think to have had for my wife to translate, called "L'escholle des filles"1, but when I come to look in it, it is the most bawdy, lewd book that ever I saw, rather worse than "Putana errante", so that I was ashamed of reading in it, and so away home, and there to the 'Change [Map] to discourse with Sir H. Cholmly (age 35), and so home to dinner, and in the evening, having done some business, I with my wife and girl out, and left them at Unthanke's, while I to White Hall to the Treasury Chamber for an order for Tangier, and so back, took up my wife, and home, and there busy about my Tangier accounts against tomorrow, which I do get ready in good condition, and so with great content to bed.

Note 1. "L'Escole des Filles", by Helot, was burnt at the foot of the gallows in 1672, and the author himself was burnt in effigy.

Pepy's Diary. 06 Feb 1668. Up, and to the office, where all the morning, and among other things Sir H. Cholmly (age 35) comes to me about a little business, and there tells me how the Parliament, which is to meet again to-day, are likely to fall heavy on the business of the Duke of Buckingham's (age 40) pardon; and I shall be glad of it: and that the King (age 37) hath put out of the Court the two Hides, my Chancellor's (age 58) two sons [Note. Henry Hyde 2nd Earl Clarendon and Lawrence Hyde 1st Earl Rochester (age 25)], and also the Bishops of Rochester (age 43) and Winchester (age 69), the latter of whom should have preached before him yesterday, being Ash Wednesday, and had his sermon ready, but was put by; which is great news.

Pepy's Diary. 28 Feb 1668. Thence, therefore, to visit Sir H. Cholmly (age 35), who hath for some time been ill of a cold; and thence walked towards Westminster, and met Colonel Birch (age 52), who took me back to walk with him, and did give me an account of this day's heat against the Navy Officers, and an account of his speech on our behalf, which was very good; and indeed we are much beholden to him, as I, after I parted with him, did find by my cozen Roger (age 50), whom I went to: and he and I to his lodgings. And there he did tell me the same over again; and how much Birch (age 52) did stand up in our defence; and that he do see that there are many desirous to have us out of the Office; and the House is so furious and passionate, that he thinks nobody can be secure, let him deserve never so well. But now, he tells me, we shall have a fair hearing of the House, and he hopes justice of them: but, upon the whole, he do agree with me that I should hold my hand as to making any purchase of land, which I had formerly discoursed with him about, till we see a little further how matters go. He tells me that that made them so mad to-day first was, several letters in the House about the Fanatickes, in several places, coming in great bodies, and turning people out of the churches, and there preaching themselves, and pulling the surplice over the Parsons' heads: this was confirmed from several places; which makes them stark mad, especially the hectors and bravadoes of the House, who shew all the zeal on this occasion. Having done with him, I home vexed in my mind, and so fit for no business, but sat talking with my wife and supped with her; and Nan Mercer come and sat all the evening with us, and much pretty discourse, which did a little ease me, and so to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 01 Mar 1668. Thence to visit Sir H. Cholmly (age 35), who continues still sick of his cold, and thence calling, but in vain, to speak with Sir G. Carteret (age 58) at his house in Lincoln's Inn Fields, where I spoke with nobody, but home, where spent the evening talking with W. Hewer (age 26) about business of the House, and declaring my expectation of all our being turned out. Hither comes Carcasse to me about business, and there did confess to me of his own accord his having heretofore discovered as a complaint against Sir W. Batten, Sir W. Pen (age 46) and me that we did prefer the paying of some men to man "The Flying Greyhound" to others, by order under our hands. The thing upon recollection I believe is true, and do hope no great matter can be made of it, but yet I would be glad to have my name out of it, which I shall labour to do; in the mean time it weighs as a new trouble on my mind, and did trouble me all night. So without supper to bed, my eyes being also a little overwrought of late that I could not stay up to read.

Pepy's Diary. 18 Mar 1668. Thence Sir W. Coventry (age 40), W. Pen (age 46) and I, by Hackney-coach to take a little ayre in Hyde Parke, the first time I have been there this year; and we did meet many coaches going and coming, it being mighty pleasant weather; and so, coming back again, I 'light in the Pell Mell [Map]; and there went to see Sir H. Cholmly (age 35), who continues very ill of his cold. And there come in Sir H. Yelverton (age 34), whom Sir H. Cholmly (age 35) commended me to his acquaintance, which the other received, but without remembering to me, or I him, of our being school-fellows together; and I said nothing of it. But he took notice of my speech the other day at the bar of the House; and indeed I perceive he is a wise man by his manner of discourse, and here he do say that the town is full of it, that now the Parliament hath resolved upon £300,000, the King (age 37), instead of fifty, will set out but twenty-five ships, and the Dutch as many; and that Smith is to command them, who is allowed to have the better of Holmes in the late dispute, and is in good esteem in the Parliament, above the other.

Pepy's Diary. 04 May 1668. Thence with Sir H. Cholmly (age 35) to Westminster Hall [Map] talking, and he crying mightily out of the power the House of Lords usurps in this business of the East India Company.

Pepy's Diary. 13 May 1668. Up, and by water to White Hall, and so to Sir H. Cholmly's (age 35), who not being up I made a short visit to Sir W. Coventry (age 40), and he and I through the Park to White Hall, and thence I back into the Park, and there met Sir H. Cholmly (age 35), and he and I to Sir Stephen Fox's (age 41), where we met and considered the business of the Excise, how far it is charged in reference to the payment of the Guards and Tangier.

Pepy's Diary. 15 May 1668. Up, and betimes to White Hall, and there met with Sir H. Cholmly (age 35) at Sir Stephen Fox's (age 41), and there was also the Cofferer (age 64), and we did there consider about our money and the condition of the Excise, and after much dispute agreed upon a state thereof and the manner of our future course of payments.

Pepy's Diary. 15 May 1668. Thence to the Duke of York (age 34), and there did a little navy business as we used to do, and so to a Committee for Tangier, where God knows how my Lord Bellasses's (age 53) accounts passed; understood by nobody but my Lord Ashly (age 46), who, I believe, was mad to let them go as he pleased. But here Sir H. Cholmly (age 35) had his propositions read, about a greater price for his work of the Mole, or to do it upon account, which, being read, he was bid to withdraw. But, Lord! to see how unlucky a man may be, by chance; for, making an unfortunate minute when they were almost tired with the other business, the Duke of York (age 34) did find fault with it, and that made all the rest, that I believe he had better have given a great deal, and had nothing said to it to-day; whereas, I have seen other things more extravagant passed at first hearing, without any difficulty.

Pepy's Diary. 27 May 1668. Thence by coach to the Exchange [Map], and there met with Sir H. Cholmly (age 35) at Colvill's; and there did give him some orders, and so home, and there to the office again, where busy till two o'clock, and then with Sir Prince to his house, with my Lord Brouncker (age 48) and Sir J. Minnes (age 69), to dinner, where we dined very well, and much good company, among others, a Dr., a fat man, whom by face I know, as one that uses to sit in our church, that after dinner did take me out, and walked together, who told me that he had now newly entered himself into Orders, in the decay of the Church, and did think it his duty so to do, thereby to do his part toward the support and reformation thereof; and spoke very soberly, and said that just about the same age Dr. Donne did enter into Orders. I find him a sober gentleman, and a man that hath seen much of the world, and I think may do good.

Pepy's Diary. 12 Oct 1668. Up, and with Mr. Turner by water to White Hall, there to think to enquire when the Duke of York (age 34) will be in town, in order to Mr. Turner's going down to Audley Ends [Map] about his place; and here I met in St. James's Park with one that told us that the Duke of York (age 34) would be in town to-morrow, and so Turner parted and went home, and I also did stop my intentions of going to the Court, also this day, about securing Mr. Turner's place of Petty-purveyor to Mr. Hater. So I to my Lord Brouncker's (age 48), thinking to have gone and spoke to him about it, but he is gone out to town till night, and so, meeting a gentleman of my Lord Middleton's (age 60) looking for me about the payment of the £1000 lately ordered to his Lord, in advance of his pay, which shall arise upon his going Governor to Tangier, I did go to his Lord's lodgings, and there spoke the first time with him, and find him a shrewd man, but a drinking man, I think, as the world says; but a man that hath seen much of the world, and is a Scot. I offered him my service, though I can do him little; but he sends his man home with me, where I made him stay, till I had gone to Sir W. Pen (age 47), to bespeak him about Mr. Hater, who, contrary to my fears, did appear very friendly, to my great content; for I was afraid of his appearing for his man Burroughs. But he did not; but did declare to me afterwards his intentions to desire an excuse in his own business, to be eased of the business of the Comptroller, his health not giving him power to stay always in town, but he must go into the country. I did say little to him but compliment, having no leisure to think of his business, or any man's but my own, and so away and home, where I find Sir H. Cholmly (age 36) come to town; and is come hither to see me: and he is a man that I love mightily, as being, of a gentleman, the most industrious that ever I saw. He staid with me awhile talking, and telling me his obligations to my Lord Sandwich (age 43), which I was glad of; and that the Duke of Buckingham (age 40) is now chief of all men in this kingdom, which I knew before; and that he do think the Parliament will hardly ever meet again; which is a great many men's thoughts, and I shall not be sorry for it. He being gone, I with my Lord Middleton's (age 60) servant to Mr. Colvill's, but he was not in town, and so he parted, and I home, and there to dinner, and Mr. Pelling with us; and thence my wife and Mercer, and W. Hewer (age 26) and Deb., to the King's playhouse, and I afterwards by water with them, and there we did hear the Eunuch (who, it seems, is a Frenchman, but long bred in Italy) sing, which I seemed to take as new to me, though I saw him on Saturday last, but said nothing of it; but such action and singing I could never have imagined to have heard, and do make good whatever Tom Hill used to tell me. Here we met with Mr. Batelier and his sister, and so they home with us in two coaches, and there at my house staid and supped, and this night my bookseller Shrewsbury comes, and brings my books of Martyrs, and I did pay him for them, and did this night make the young women before supper to open all the volumes for me.

Pepy's Diary. 14 Oct 1668. Up, and by water, stopping at Michell's, and there saw Betty, but could have no discourse with her, but there drank. To White Hall, and there walked to St. James's, where I find the Court mighty full, it being the Duke of York's (age 35) birthday; and he mighty fine, and all the musick, one after another, to my great content. Here I met with Sir H. Cholmly (age 36); and he and I to walk, and to my Lord Barkeley's (age 66) new house; there to see a new experiment of a cart, which; by having two little wheeles fastened to the axle-tree, is said to make it go with half the ease and more, than another cart but we did not see the trial made.

Pepy's Diary. 08 Dec 1668. Up, and Sir H. Cholmly (age 36) betimes with me, about some accounts and moneys due to him: and he gone, I to the Office, where sat all the morning; and here, among other things, breaks out the storm W. Hewer (age 26) and I have long expected from the Surveyor, [Colonel Middleton.] about W. Hewer's (age 26) conspiring to get a contract, to the burdening of the stores with kerseys and cottons, of which he hath often complained, and lately more than ever; and now he did it by a most scandalous letter to the Board, reflecting on my Office: and, by discourse, it fell to such high words between him and me, as can hardly ever be forgot; I declaring I would believe W. Hewer (age 26) as soon as him, and laying the fault, if there be any, upon himself; he, on the other hand, vilifying of my word and W. Hewer's (age 26), calling him knave, and that if he were his clerk, he should lose his ears. At last, I closed the business for this morning with making the thing ridiculous, as it is, and he swearing that the King (age 38) should have right in it, or he would lose his place. The Office was cleared of all but ourselves and W. Hewer (age 26); but, however, the world did by the beginning see what it meant, and it will, I believe, come to high terms between us, which I am sorry for, to have any blemish laid upon me or mine, at this time, though never so unduly, for fear of giving occasion to my real discredit: and therefore I was not only all the rest of the morning vexed, but so went home to dinner, where my wife tells me of my Lord Orrery's (age 47) new play "Tryphon", at the Duke of York's (age 35) house, which, however, I would see, and therefore put a bit of meat in our mouths, and went thither; where, with much ado, at half-past one, we got into a blind hole in the 18d. place, above stairs, where we could not hear well, but the house infinite full, but the prologue most silly, and the play, though admirable, yet no pleasure almost in it, because just the very same design, and words, and sense, and plot, as every one of his plays have, any one of which alone would be held admirable, whereas so many of the same design and fancy do but dull one another; and this, I perceive, is the sense of every body else, as well as myself, who therefore showed but little pleasure in it.

Pepy's Diary. 22 Feb 1669. Up, and betimes to White Hall; but there the Duke of York (age 35) is gone abroad a-hunting, and therefore after a little stay there I into London, with Sir H. Cholmly (age 36), talking all the way of Tangier matters, wherein I find him troubled from some reports lately from Norwood (who is his great enemy and I doubt an ill man), of some decay of the Mole, and a breach made therein by the sea to a great icon. He set me down at the end of Leadenhall Street [Map], and so I home, and after dinner, with my wife, in her morning-gown, and the two girls [Barbara Pepys and Elizabeth Pepys] dressed, to Unthanke's, where my wife dresses herself, having her gown this day laced, and a new petticoat; and so is indeed very fine. And in the evening I do carry them to White Hall, and there did without much trouble get into the playhouse, there in a good place among the Ladies of Honour, and myself also sat in the pit; and there by and by come the King (age 38) and Queen (age 30), and they begun "Bartholomew Fayre". But I like no play here so well as at the common playhouse; besides that, my eyes being very ill since last Sunday and this day se'nnight, with the light of the candles, I was in mighty pain to defend myself now from the light of the candles. After the play done, we met with W. Batelier and W. Hewer (age 27) and Talbot Pepys, and they follow us in a Hackney-coach: and we all stopped at Hercules' Pillars; and there I did give them the best supper I could, and pretty merry; and so home between eleven and twelve at night, and so to bed, mightily well pleased with this day's work.

Pepy's Diary. 03 Mar 1669. Up, after a very good night's rest, and was called upon by Sir H. Cholmly (age 36), who was with me an hour, and though acquainted did not stay to talk with my company I had in the house, but away, and then I to my guests, and got them to breakfast, and then parted by coaches; and I did, in mine, carry my she-cozen Pepys and her daughters [Barbara Pepys and Elizabeth Pepys] home, and there left them, and so to White Hall, where W. Hewer (age 27) met me; and he and I took a turn in St. James's Park, and in the Mall did meet Sir W. Coventry (age 41) and Sir J. Duncomb (age 46), and did speak with them about some business before the Lords of the Treasury; but I did find them more than usually busy, though I knew not then the reason of it, though I guess it by what followed to-morrow.

Pepy's Diary. 21 Mar 1669. Thence up and down the House. Met with Mr. May (age 47), who tells me the story of his being put by Sir John Denham's place, of Surveyor of the King's Works, who it seems, is lately dead, by the unkindness of the Duke Buckingham (age 41), who hath brought in Dr. Wren (age 45): though, he tells me, he hath been his servant for twenty years together in all his wants and dangers, saving him from want of bread by his care and management, and with a promise of having his help in his advancement, and an engagement under his hand for £1000 not yet paid, and yet the Duke of Buckingham (age 41) so ungrateful as to put him by: which is an ill thing, though Dr. Wren is a worthy man. But he tells me that the King (age 38) is kind to him, and hath promised him a pension of £300 a-year out of the Works; which will be of more content to him than the place, which, under their present wants of money, is a place that disobliges most people, being not able to do what they desire to their lodgings. Here meeting with Sir H. Cholmly (age 36) and Povy (age 55), that tell me that my Lord Middleton (age 61) is resolved in the Cabal that he shall not go to Tangier; and that Sir Edward Harlow [Harley], whom I know not, is propounded to go, who was Governor of Dunkirke, and, they say, a most worthy brave man, which I shall be very glad of.

Pepy's Diary. 21 Apr 1669. Thence the Duke of York (age 35) being gone, I did there stay walking with Sir H. Cholmly (age 36) in the Court, talking of news; where he told me, that now the great design of the Duke of Buckingham (age 41) is to prevent the meeting, since he cannot bring about with the King (age 38) the dissolving, of this Parliament, that the King (age 38) may not need it; and therefore my Lord St. Albans (age 64) is hourly expected with great offers of a million of money1, to buy our breach with the Dutch: and this, they do think, may tempt the King (age 38) to take the money, and thereby be out of a necessity of calling the Parliament again, which these people dare not suffer to meet again: but this he doubts, and so do I, that it will be to the ruin of the nation if we fall out with Holland. This we were discoursing when my boy comes to tell me that his mistress was at the Gate with the coach, whither I went, and there find my wife and the whole company. So she, and Mrs. Turner (age 46), and The. (age 17), and Talbot, in mine: and Joyce, W. Batelier, and I, in a Hackney, to Hyde Park, where I was ashamed to be seen; but mightily pleased, though troubled, with a drunken coachman that did not remember when we come to 'light, where it was that he took us up; but said at Hammersmith, and thither he was carrying of us when we come first out of the Park. So I carried them all to Hercules-Pillars, and there did treat them: and so, about ten at night, parted, and my wife, and I, and W. Batelier, home; and he gone, we to bed.

Note 1. From Louis XIV. See April 28th.

Pepy's Diary. 28 Apr 1669. Up, and was called upon by Sir H. Cholmly (age 36) to discourse about some accounts of his, of Tangier: and then other talk; and I find by him that it is brought almost effect ([through] the late endeavours of the Duke of York (age 35) and Duchess (age 32), the Queen-Mother (age 59), and my Lord St. Albans (age 64), together with some of the contrary faction, my Lord Arlington (age 51)), that for a sum of money we shall enter into a league with the King of France (age 30), wherein, he says, my Chancellor (age 60)1 is also concerned; and that he believes that, in the doing hereof, it is meant that he [Clarendon] shall come again, and that this sum of money will so help the King (age 38) that he will not need the Parliament; and that, in that regard it will be forwarded by the Duke of Buckingham (age 41) and his faction, who dread the Parliament. But hereby we must leave the Dutch, and that I doubt will undo us; and Sir H. Cholmly (age 36) says he finds W. Coventry (age 41) do think the like. Baroness Castlemayne (age 28) is instrumental in this matter, and, he say never more great with the King (age 38) than she is now. But this a thing that will make the Parliament and kingdom mad, and will turn to our ruine: for with this money the King (age 38) shall wanton away his time in pleasures, and think nothing of the main till it be too late. He gone, I to the office, where busy till noon, and then home to dinner, where W. Batelier dined with us, and pretty merry, and so I to the office again. This morning Mr. Sheres sent me, in two volumes, Mariana his History of Spaine, in Spanish, an excellent book; and I am much obliged for it to him.

Note 1. Clarendon (age 60); then an exile in France.

On 20 Apr 1687 [his son] Nathaniel Cholmley died.

On 09 Jan 1689 Hugh Cholmley 4th Baronet (age 56) died without male issue. Baronet Cholmley of Whitby in Yorkshire extinct.

On 26 May 1705 [his former wife] Anne Compton Lady Rushout (age 68) died.

[his son] Nathaniel Cholmley was born to Hugh Cholmley 4th Baronet and Anne Compton Lady Rushout.

Royal Ancestors of Hugh Cholmley 4th Baronet 1632-1689

Kings Wessex: Great x 18 Grand Son of King Edmund "Ironside" I of England

Kings Gwynedd: Great x 15 Grand Son of Owain "Great" King Gwynedd

Kings Seisyllwg: Great x 21 Grand Son of Hywel "Dda aka Good" King Seisyllwg King Deheubarth

Kings Powys: Great x 16 Grand Son of Maredudd ap Bleddyn King Powys

Kings England: Great x 9 Grand Son of King Edward III of England

Kings Scotland: Great x 15 Grand Son of William "Lion" I King Scotland

Kings Franks: Great x 14 Grand Son of Louis VII King Franks

Kings France: Great x 11 Grand Son of Philip "Bold" III King France

Ancestors of Hugh Cholmley 4th Baronet 1632-1689

Great x 4 Grandfather: John Cholmeley

Great x 3 Grandfather: Roger Cholmley

Great x 2 Grandfather: Richard "The Great Black Knight of the North" Cholmeley 6 x Great Grand Son of King Edward III of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: Robert Constable 4 x Great Grand Son of King Edward III of England

Great x 3 Grandmother: Catherine Constable 5 x Great Grand Daughter of King Edward III of England

Great x 4 Grandmother: Jane Ingleby

Great x 1 Grandfather: Henry Cholmley 6 x Great Grand Son of King Edward III of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: Henry "Shepherd Lord" Clifford 10th Baron Clifford 4 x Great Grand Son of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England

Great x 3 Grandfather: Henry Clifford 1st Earl of Cumberland 5 x Great Grand Son of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England

Great x 4 Grandmother: Anne St John Baroness Clifford 8 x Great Grand Daughter of King John "Lackland" of England

Great x 2 Grandmother: Catherine Clifford Baroness Scrope Bolton 5 x Great Grand Daughter of King Edward III of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: Henry Percy 5th Earl of Northumberland 4 x Great Grand Son of King Edward III of England

Great x 3 Grandmother: Margaret Percy Baroness Clifford 4 x Great Grand Daughter of King Edward III of England

Great x 4 Grandmother: Katherine Spencer Countess Northumberland 3 x Great Grand Daughter of King Edward III of England

GrandFather: Richard Cholmley 7 x Great Grand Son of King Edward III of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: William Babthorpe

Great x 3 Grandfather: William Babthorpe

Great x 2 Grandfather: William Babthorpe

Great x 1 Grandmother: Margaret Babthorpe 6 x Great Grand Daughter of King Edward III of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: Marmaduke Constable 4 x Great Grand Son of King Edward III of England

Great x 3 Grandfather: Robert Constable 5 x Great Grand Son of King Edward III of England

Great x 4 Grandmother: Barbara Sothill

Great x 2 Grandmother: Barbara Constable 5 x Great Grand Daughter of King Edward III of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: George Manners 11th Baron Ros Helmsley 6 x Great Grand Son of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England

Great x 3 Grandmother: Katherine Manners 4 x Great Grand Daughter of King Edward III of England

Great x 4 Grandmother: Anne St Leger Baroness Ros of Helmsley 3 x Great Grand Daughter of King Edward III of England

Father: Hugh Cholmley 1st Baronet 8 x Great Grand Son of King Edward III of England

Hugh Cholmley 4th Baronet 9 x Great Grand Son of King Edward III of England

Great x 1 Grandfather: Roger Twysden

GrandFather: William Twysden 1st Baronet 7 x Great Grand Son of King Edward III of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: Henry Wyatt

Great x 3 Grandfather: Thomas Wyatt

Great x 2 Grandfather: Thomas Wyatt 5 x Great Grand Son of King Edward III of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: Thomas Brooke 8th Baron Cobham 3 x Great Grand Son of King Edward III of England

Great x 3 Grandmother: Elizabeth Brooke 4 x Great Grand Daughter of King Edward III of England

Great x 4 Grandmother: Dorothy Heydon Baroness Cobham

Great x 1 Grandmother: Anne Wyatt 6 x Great Grand Daughter of King Edward III of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: Thomas Haute

Great x 3 Grandfather: William Haute

Great x 4 Grandmother: Isabel Frowyk

Great x 2 Grandmother: Jane Haute

Great x 4 Grandfather: Richard Guildford

Great x 3 Grandmother: Maria Guildford

Great x 4 Grandmother: Ann Pympe

Mother: Elizabeth Twysden Lady Cholmley 8 x Great Grand Daughter of King Edward III of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: Henry Finch

Great x 3 Grandfather: William Finch

Great x 2 Grandfather: Thomas Finch

Great x 1 Grandfather: Moyle Finch 1st Baronet

Great x 4 Grandfather: John Moyle

Great x 3 Grandfather: Thomas Moyle

Great x 4 Grandmother: Anne Darcy

Great x 2 Grandmother: Katherine Moyle

GrandMother: Anne Finch Lady Twysden 8 x Great Grand Daughter of King Edward III of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: John Heneage

Great x 3 Grandfather: Robert Heneage

Great x 2 Grandfather: Thomas Heneage

Great x 3 Grandmother: Lucy Buckton

Great x 1 Grandmother: Elizabeth Heneage 1st Countess Winchelsea 7 x Great Grand Daughter of King Edward III of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: Anthony Poyntz 8 x Great Grand Son of King Henry III of England

Great x 3 Grandfather: Nicholas Poyntz 6 x Great Grand Son of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England

Great x 4 Grandmother: Elizabeth Huddersfield 5 x Great Grand Daughter of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England

Great x 2 Grandmother: Anne Poyntz 6 x Great Grand Daughter of King Edward III of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: Thomas Berkeley 5th Baron Berkeley 5 x Great Grand Son of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England

Great x 3 Grandmother: Joan Berkeley 5 x Great Grand Daughter of King Edward III of England

Great x 4 Grandmother: Eleanor Constable Baroness Berkeley 4 x Great Grand Daughter of King Edward III of England