Biography of Jane "Nine Days Queen" Grey I Queen England and Ireland 1536-1554

Paternal Family Tree: Grey

Maternal Family Tree: Jeanne Sabran

1551 Edward VI's 14th Birthday

1553 Grey and Dudley Triple Wedding

1553 Death of Edward VI

1553 Lady Jane Grey Proclaimed as Queen

1553 Trial and Execution of Lady Jane Grey's Supporters

1554 Execution of Lady Jane Grey and her Faction

1554 Wyatt's Rebellion Executions

On 10 Oct 1530 [her grandfather] Thomas Grey 2nd Marquess Dorset (age 53) died. His son [her father] Henry Grey 1st Duke of Suffolk (age 13) succeeded 3rd Marquess Dorset, 3rd Earl Huntingdon, 9th Baron Ferrers of Groby, 9th Baron Harington, 4th Baron Bonville.

In 1533 [her father] Henry Grey 1st Duke of Suffolk (age 16) and [her mother] Frances Brandon Duchess of Suffolk (age 15) were married. She by marriage Marchioness Dorset. She the daughter of Charles Brandon 1st Duke of Suffolk (age 49) and Mary Tudor Queen Consort France (age 36). He the son of Thomas Grey 2nd Marquess Dorset and Margaret Wotton Marchioness Dorset (age 46). They were half second cousins. He a great x 5 grandson of King Edward III of England. She a granddaughter of King Henry VII of England and Ireland.

In 1536 Lady Jane Grey was born to Henry Grey 1st Duke of Suffolk (age 19) and Frances Brandon Duchess of Suffolk (age 18). She a great granddaughter of King Henry VII of England and Ireland.

In 1551 Henry Sidney (age 22) and [her future sister-in-law] Mary Dudley (age 21) were married. She the daughter of John Dudley 1st Duke Northumberland (age 47) and Jane Guildford Duchess Northumberland (age 42).

Edward VI's 14th Birthday

11 Oct 1551, the day before his fourteenth birthday, King Edward VI (age 13) celebrated at Hampton Court Palace [Map] by rewarding his guardians; it may have been a case of his guardians rewarding themselves.

[her future father-in-law] John Dudley 1st Duke Northumberland (age 47), leader of the Council, was created 1st Duke Northumberland. [her future mother-in-law] Jane Guildford Duchess Northumberland (age 42) by marriage Duchess Northumberland. His son Henry Dudley (age 25) was knighted.

[her father] Henry Grey 1st Duke of Suffolk (age 34) was created 1st Duke Suffolk for having married King Edward VI's (age 13) first cousin [her mother] Frances Brandon Duchess of Suffolk (age 34). Frances Brandon Duchess of Suffolk (age 34) by marriage Duchess Suffolk.

William Paulet (age 68), Master of the Kings Wards, was created 1st Marquess Winchester. Elizabeth Capell Marchioness Winchester by marriage Marchioness Winchester.

His guardian William Herbert (age 50) was created 1st Earl Pembroke. Anne Parr Countess Pembroke (age 36) by marriage Countess Pembroke.

Edward Seymour 1st Duke Somerset (age 51), the King's (age 13) uncle attended.

Henry Dudley (age 25) was knighted at Hampton Court Palace, Richmond [Map].

1553 Grey and Dudley Triple Wedding

On 25 May 1553 a triple wedding was celebrated at Durham Place, the London townhouse of John Dudley 1st Duke Northumberland (age 49), father of Guildford Dudley (age 18) and Katherine Dudley Countess Huntingdon (age 15) ...

Guildford Dudley (age 18) and Lady Jane Grey (age 17) were married. She the daughter of Henry Grey 1st Duke of Suffolk (age 36) and Frances Brandon Duchess of Suffolk (age 35). He the son of John Dudley 1st Duke Northumberland (age 49) and Jane Guildford Duchess Northumberland (age 44). They were third cousin once removed. She a great granddaughter of King Henry VII of England and Ireland.

Henry Hastings 3rd Earl Huntingdon (age 18) and Katherine Dudley Countess Huntingdon (age 15) were married. She the daughter of John Dudley 1st Duke Northumberland (age 49) and Jane Guildford Duchess Northumberland (age 44). He the son of Francis Hastings 2nd Earl Huntingdon (age 39) and Catherine Pole Countess Huntingdon (age 42).

Henry Herbert 2nd Earl Pembroke (age 15) and Catherine Grey Countess Hertford (age 12) were married. She the daughter of Henry Grey 1st Duke of Suffolk (age 36) and Frances Brandon Duchess of Suffolk (age 35). He the son of William Herbert 1st Earl Pembroke (age 52) and Anne Parr Countess Pembroke. They were fourth cousins. She a great granddaughter of King Henry VII of England and Ireland.

Death of Edward VI

On 06 Jul 1553 King Edward VI of England and Ireland (age 15) died at Palace of Placentia, Greenwich [Map]. His first cousin once removed Lady Jane Grey  (age 17) succeeded I Queen England.

Thomas Wendy (age 53) attended the King as physician.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 09 Jul 1553. The ix day of July was sworne unto the qwen Jane (age 17) alle the hed offesers and the gard as qwen of England ... doythur of the [her father] duke of Suffoke (age 36), and servyd as qwen of ..

Note. P. 35. Proclamation of queen Jane. In consequence of Grafton having printed this proclamation, he was declared to have forfeited the office of queen's printer; see the patent of John Cawoode's appointment in Rymer's Fœdera, vol. xv. p. 356, and Ames's Typographical Antiquities, by Dibdin, vol. iii. p. 482. The proclamation has been reprinted in the Harleian Miscellany, (Park's edition,) vol. i. p. 405.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 10 Jul 1553. The x day of July was reseyvyd in to the Towre [the Queen Jane (age 17)] with a grett compeny of lords and nobulls of .... after the qwen, and the [her mother] duches of Suffoke (age 35) her mother, bering her trayn, with mony lades, and ther was a shot of gunnes and chamburs has nott be sene oft be-tweyn iiij and v of [the clock]; by vj of the cloke be-gane the proclamasyon the same [after-]non (of) qwen Jane with ij harold(s) and a trompet blohyng, [declaring] that my lade Mare (age 37) was unlafully be-gotten, and so [went through] Chepe to Fletstrett, proclamyng qwen Jane; and ther was a yong man taken that tym for spykyng of serten wordes of qwen Mare (age 37), that she had the ryght tytle.

Lady Jane Grey Proclaimed as Queen

Chronicle of Queen Jane and Two Years of Queen Mary 1553. 10 Jul 1553. The 10. of July, in the afternoone, about 3. of the clocke, lady Jane (age 17) was convayed by water to the Tower of London [Map], and there received as queene.a After five of the clocke, the same afternoone, was proclamation made of the death of king Edward the sixt, and how hee had ordained by his letters pattents bearing date the 21. of June last pastb that the lady Jane should be heire to the Crowne of England, and the heire males of her body, &c.

Note. a. Dr. Peter Heylyn, in his History of the Reformation, fol. 1674, p. 159, has described the interview supposed to have taken place between the dukes of Northumberland and Suffolk and their daughter the lady Jane, when they waited upon her on the morning of the 10th of July, and then first made known to her the fatal diadem to which she was destined. The scruples of the gentle heiress were overcome with much difficulty, and the whole course of argument, pro et contra, is stated at considerable length. I believe, however, that this is only one of those dramatic scenes in which historical writers formerly considered themselves justified in indulging, as I have not been able to trace it to any earlier authority. Its verisimilitude may indeed be justified by the passage of the duke of Northumberland's speech recorded by our present chronicler (p. 6), "Who, by your and our enticement, is rather of force placed therein, than by her own seeking and request." However, having been adopted by the writer of the Life of Lady Jane Grey in the Biographia Britannica, it is followed as authentic history by many subsequent writers. The more recent authors (including sir Harris Nicolas, Mr. P. F. Tytler, and Mr. Aungier the historian of Syon-house and Isleworth) have placed the scene of this interview at Syon; but Heylyn himself fixed it at Durham-house in the Strand: which was the duke of Northumberland's town mansion, and where the lady Jane's marriage had been celebrated only a few weeks before. Here Heylyn might well suppose she would be lodged at this critical period of her father-in-law's conspiracy. The fact, however, seems to have been otherwise. In the chronicle of the Grey Friars (which will be found in the Appendix) she is stated to have come down the river from Richmond to Westminster, and so to the Tower of London. If, then, she was supposed to have come from Richmond, she may very well have come from Syon, which was also at this time in the hands of the duke of Northumberland.

Note. b. Scarcely any of our historical writers show an acquaintance with these letters patent, though they have been conversant with the substance of them from the recital which is made in queen Jane's proclamation. A copy of the letters patent exists among Ralph Starkey's collections in the Harl. MS. 35, bearing this attestation: "This is a true coppie of Edward the Sixte his Will [this terme is misapplied], takene out of the original! undere the greate scale, which sir Robart Cottone delyvered to the King's Ma tie the xij th of Apprill 1611 at Roystorne to be canseled." From this source the document is printed, in connection with the lady Jane's trial, in Cobbett's State Trials; and Mr. Howard, in his Lady Jane Grey and her Times, pp. 213-216, has described its contents.

It is set forth in these letters patent that the king intended to complete this settlement of the crown by making a will, and by act of Parliament: thus following the precedent of his father Henry the Eighth's settlement, which this was to supersede (see an essay by the present writer in the Archaeologia, vol. xxx. p. 464). But the rapid termination of king Edward's illness prevented these final acts of ratification; and Northumberland, in consequence, could only rely upon the validity of the letters patent, which had passed the great seal upon the 21st of June.

There are, besides the letters patent, two other documents extant, marking the earlier stages of this bold attempt to divert the succession.

Note. 1. The king's "own devise touching the said succession." This was "first wholly written with his most gracious hand, and after copied owt in his Majesties presence, by his most high commandment, and confirmed with the subscription of his Majesties owne hand, and by his highnes delivered to certain judges and other learned men to be written in full order." It was written in six paragraphs, to each of which Edward attached his signature. Burnet has printed the whole in his History of the Reformation, Documents, book iv. no. 10, from the MSS. of Mr. William Petyt, now in the Inner Temple Library. Strype, in the Appendix to his Life of Cranmer, has printed the first four clauses only, from the same manuscript, the fifth and sixth having, as Burnet remarks, been erased with a pen, but not so as to render them illegible nor was it intended to cancel them, for they are followed in the letters patent.

Note. 2. An instrument of the Council, undated, but signed at the head by the King, and at its close by twenty-four councillors, &c. in which they "promise by their oaths and honors to observe, fully perform, and keep all and every article, branch, and matter contained in the said writing delivered to the judges and others." This also is printed both by Burnet and Strype.

Besides these documents, three very important papers in reference to this transaction are, 1. the narrative of chief justice Montagu, printed in Fuller's Church History; 2. sir William Cecill's submission to queen Mary, printed in Howard's Lady Jane Grey and Tytler's Reigns of Edward VI. and Mary; and 3. his servant Alford's statement as to Cecill's conduct at this crisis, written in 1573, and printed in Strype 's Annals, vol. iv. p. 347.

On 10 Jul 1553 Jane "Nine Days Queen" Grey I Queen England and Ireland (age 17) was proclaimed Queen of England.

Chronicle of Queen Jane and Two Years of Queen Mary 1553. 12 Jul 1553. The 12. of July word was brought to the Councell, being then at the Tower [Map] with the lady Jane (age 17), that the lady Mary was at Keninghall castle [Map] in Norfolk, and with her the earle of Bath (age 54), sir Thomas Wharton (age 33) sonne to the lord Wharton (age 58), sir John Mordaunt (age 45) sonne to the lord Mordaunt (age 73), sir William Drury (age 3),a sir John Shelton (age 50), sir Henry Bedingfield (age 44), master Henry Jerningham (age 41), master John Sulierde, master Richard Freston, master sergeant Morgan, master Clement Higham of Lincolnes inne, and divers others; and also that the earle of Sussex and master Henry Ratcliffe his sonne were comming towards her: whereupon by speedy councell it was there concluded, that the duke of Suffolk, with certaine other noblemen, should goe towards the lady Mary, to fetch her up to London. This was first determined; but by night of the same day the said voyage of the duke of Suffolke was cleane dissolved by the speciall meanes of the lady Jane his daughter, who, taking the matter heavily, with weeping teares made request to the whole councell that her father might tarry at home in her company: whereupon the councell perswaded with the duke of Northumberland to take that voyage upon him, saying that no man was so fit therefor, because that he had atchieved the victory in Norfolke once already,b and was therefore so feared, that none durst once lift up their weapon against him: besides that, he was the best man of warre in the realme; as well for the ordering of his campes and souldiers both in battell and in their tents, as also by experience, knowledge, and wisedome, he could animate his army with witty perswasions, and also pacific and alay his enemies pride with his stout courage, or else to disswade them if nede were from their enterprise. "Well (quoth the duke then) since ye thinke it good, I and mine will goe, not doubting of your fidelity to the quenes majestie, which I leave in your custodie." So that night hee sent for both lords, knights, and other that should goe with him, and caused all things to be prepared accordingly. Then went the councell in to the lady Jane and told her of their conclusion, who humbly thanked the duke for reserving her father at home, and beseeched him to use his diligence, whereto he answered that hee would doe what in him lay.

Note a. Sir William Drury, for his services "at Framlingham," received, by patent dated the 1st Nov. following, an annuity of 100 marks: see it printed in Rymer's Foedera, xv. 352. A like annuity of 200 marks was granted on the 14th Nov. to Thomas West lord la Warre for his services against the duke (ibid. p. 352); one of 100. on the 4th Dec. to sir Richard Southwell (ibid. p. 355); and one of 501. on the 10th Feb. to Francis Purefay for his services at Framlingham (ibid. p. 365). Probably many others, unnoticed by Rymer, are recorded on the Patent Rolls.

Note b. In the suppression of Kett's rebellion.

Chronicle of Queen Jane and Two Years of Queen Mary 1553. 13 Jul 1553. By this tyme worde was broughte to the quene (age 17) at the Tower [Map] that sir Edmonde Peckham (age 58), sir Edward Hastings (age 32), and the lorde Windsore (age 54), with others, were upp proclayming quene Mary (age 37) in Buckinghamshire.a

Note a. See the commissions addressed to several commanders to suppress the rebellion in Buckinghamshire, in the Catalogue of State Papers of the reign of queen Jane in the Appendix.

Chronicle of Queen Jane and Two Years of Queen Mary 1553. 13 Jul 1553. After the dyner the [her father-in-law] duke (age 49) went into the quene (age 17), wher his comyssion was by that tyme sealed for his liefetenantship of the armye, and ther he tooke his leave of hir; and so dyd certayn other lordes also. Then, as the duke cam thoroughe the counsayle chamber, he tooke his leave of the erle of Arundell (age 41), who praied God be with his grace; saying he was very sory yt was not his chaunce to go with him and beare him companye, in whose presence he coulde fynde in his harte to spende his bloode, even at his foote. Then my lorde of Arundell (age 41) tooke also my lordes boy Thomas Lovell (age 27) by the hande, and saide, "Farewell, gentyll Thomas (age 27), with all my harte." Then the duke cam downe, and the lorde marques (age 41),a my lorde Grey, with diverse other, and went out of the Tower and tooke their boote and went to Dyrrame Place or Whithall, wher that night they musteryd their company in names, and the next day in the morning the duke departed, to the nomber of vj c men or theraboutes. And as they went thoroughe Shordyshe [Map], saieth the duke to one that rid by him,b "The people precec to se us, but not one sayeth God spede us."

Note a. The marquess of Northampton (age 41).

Note b. Stowe has altered this to the lord Grey.

Note c. presse in Stowe.

Chronicle of Queen Jane and Two Years of Queen Mary 1553. 16 Jul 1553. The xvj th daye of July the lorde highe treasurer (age 70)c was going to his howse in London at night, and about vij. of the clocke the gates of the Tower [Map] upon a sudden was shut, and the keyes caryed upp to the quene Jane (age 17); but what the cause was I knowe not. The noyes in the Tower was that ther was a seale lackinge; but many men thought they surmysed that but the truthe was she feared some packinge in the lorde treasurer, and so they dyd fetch him at xij. of the clocke in the night from his house in London into the Tower.

Note c. The marquess of Winchester (age 70).

On 19 Jul 1553 Jane "Nine Days Queen" Grey I Queen England and Ireland (age 17) requested tents from Thomas Cawarden of Bletchingly and Nonsuch.

On 19 Jul 1553 Lady Jane Grey (age 17) Abdicated I King England. Her first cousin once removed Queen Mary I of England and Ireland (age 37) succeeded I Queen England.

Chronicle of Queen Jane and Two Years of Queen Mary 1553. 23 Jul 1553. A lettere written in London mentiones that the lord admirall, and the lords Greye (age 44),b Garret, Wormon,c and the lord Fitzwarren, sir Henry Sidney (age 24), and sir James Croffts (age 35), with divers others, have already their pardon graunted them.

The duke of Northumberland is in custody of the garde as a prisoner in Cambridge, and my ladie his wyfe, the [her husband] lord Guilford (age 18), and the lady Jane (age 17), are in the Towere as prisoneres. My lord marques of Northampton, the earle of Huntingdon, sir Henry Gates, and divers other, cannot as yet gett their pardones."

Note b. William lord Grey of Wilton (age 44) was the commander upon whose military talents the duke of Northumberland seems to have mainly relied: but lord Grey, who had been an adherent of the duke of Somerset, probably did not serve on this occasion very cordially. He seems to have left Northumberland when at Cambridge, and made his submission to Mary; who on her arrival at her manor of Newhall in Essex, on the 31st of July, dismissed him to his former charge of the castle of Guisnes, with a reinforcement of 350 footmen and 50 horsemen demi-lances: see her letters patent, printed in the Appendix to the Life of Lord Grey of Wilton, No. VI.

Note c. The earl of Ormond.

On 24 Jul 1553 Robert Wingfield (age 40) hosted Queen Mary I of England and Ireland (age 37) during her journey to London to claim the throne from Lady Jane Grey (age 17) at Ipswich, Suffolk [Map].

Trial and Execution of Lady Jane Grey's Supporters

On 25 Jul 1553 [her father-in-law] John Dudley 1st Duke Northumberland (age 49), [her brother-in-law] John Dudley 2nd Earl Warwick (age 26), [her brother-in-law] Robert Dudley 1st Earl of Leicester (age 21), [her husband] Guildford Dudley (age 18), Andrew Dudley (age 46), [her brother-in-law] Henry Dudley (age 22) and Henry Manners 2nd Earl of Rutland (age 26) and Francis Hastings 2nd Earl Huntingdon (age 39) were imprisoned at the Tower of London [Map] for supporting Jane "Nine Days Queen" Grey I Queen England and Ireland (age 17).

Before 22 Aug 1553 [her brother-in-law] Henry Dudley (age 22) and Margaret Audley Duchess Norfolk (age 13) were married. He the son of John Dudley 1st Duke Northumberland (age 49) and Jane Guildford Duchess Northumberland (age 44). They were third cousin once removed.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 13 Nov 1553. [The 13th of November were arraigned at Guildhall doctor Cranmer (age 64), archbishop of Canterbury, the lord] [her husband] Gylfford Dudlay (age 18), the sune of the [her father-in-law] duke of Northumberland and my lade Jane (age 17) ys wyff, the doythur of the [her father] duke of Suffoke-Dassett (age 36), and the lord [her brother-in-law] Hambrosse Dudlay (age 23), [and the] lord [her brother-in-law] Hare Dudlay (age 22), the wyche lade Jane was proclamyd [Queen]: they all v wher cast for to dee.

On 13 Nov 1553 Lady Jane Grey (age 17) was tried at Guildhall [Map].

Execution of Lady Jane Grey and her Faction

Wriothesley's Chronicle. 12 Feb 1554. The 12 of Februarie [her husband] Guilforde Dudley (age 19) was beheaded at the Tower hill [Map]. And Ladie Jane (age 18) his wife was immediatlie after his death beheaded within the Tower upon the greene [Map].

Chronicle of Queen Jane and Two Years of Queen Mary Feb 1554. 12 Feb 1554. By this tyme was ther a scaffolde made upon the grene over agaynst the White tower, for the saide lady Jane (age 18) to die apon. Who with hir [her husband] husband (age 19) was appoynted to have ben put to deathe the fryday before, but was staied tyll then, for what cause is not knowen, unlesse yt were because hir father was not then come into the Tower. The saide lady, being nothing at all abashed, neither with feare of her owne deathe, which then approached, neither with the sight of the ded carcase of hir husbande, when he was brought in to the chappell, came fourthe, the levetenaunt leding hir, in the same gown wherin she was arrayned, hir countenance nothing abashed, neither her eyes enything moysted with teares, although her ij. gentylwomen, mistress Elizabeth Tylney and mistress Eleyn, wonderfully wept, with a boke in hir hande, wheron she praied all the way till she cam to the saide scaffolde, wheron when she was mounted, &c.

So far, our Diarist's narrative of this judicial tragedy has been adopted, somewhat abridged, by Stowe and Holinshed. The latter chronicler then proceeds thus (copying Grafton), "Whereon when she was mounted, this noble young ladie, as she was indued with singular gifts both of learning and knowledge, so was she as patient and mild as any lambe at hir execution, and a little before hir death uttered these words," (then giving her address to the people assembled). Whether our Diarist's conclusion," when she was mounted, &c."was intended to lead on to some other paper, written by himself or another, it is impossible to decide; but it seems not very improbable that he was also the writer of the account of the lady Jane's execution, which begins with the same words, and which was originally published in a small black-letter pamphleta entitled,

The Ende of the lady Jane Dudley, daughter of the duke of Suffolk, upon the scaffolde, at the houre of her death.

First, when she mounted upon the scaffolde, she sayd to the people standing thereabout: "Good people, I am come hether to die, and by a lawe I am condemned to the same. The facte, in dede, against the quenes highnesse was unlawfull, and the consenting thereunto by meb but touching the procurement and desyre therof by me or on my halfe, I doo wash my handes thereof in innocencie, before God, and the face of you, good Christian people, this day," and therewith she wrong [Note. wrung] her handes, in which she had hir booke. Then she sayd, "I pray you all, good Christian people, to beare me witnesse that I dye a true Christian woman, and that I looke to be saved by none other meane, but only by the mercy of God in the merites of the blood of his only sonne Jesus Christ: and I confesse, when I dyd know the word of God I neglected the same, loved my selfe and the world, and therefore this plague or punyshment is happely and worthely happened unto me for my sins; and yet 1 thank God of his goodnesse that he hath thus geven me a tyme and respet to repent. And now, good people, while I am alyve, I pray you to assyst me with your prayers."a2 And then, knelyng downe, she turned to Fecknamb2, saying, "Shall I say this psalme?" And he said, "Yea." Then she said the psalme of Miserere mei Deus in English, in most devout maner, to the end. Then she stode up, and gave her maiden mistris Tilneyc her gloves and handkercher, and her book to maister Brugesd, the lyvetenantes brother; forthwith she untyed her gown.

The hangman went to her to help her of therewith; then she desyred him to let her alone, turning towardes her two gentlewomen, who helped her off therwith, and also with her frose paasta3 and neckercher, geving to her a fayre handkercher to knytte about her eyes.

Then the hangman kneeled downe, and asked her forgevenesse, whome she forgave most willingly. Then he willed her to stand upon the strawe: which doing, she sawe the block. Then she sayd,

"I pray you dispatch me quickly." Then she kneeled down, saying, "Wil you take it of before I lay me downe?" and the hangman answered her, "No, madame." She tyed the kercher about her eys; then feeling for the blocke, saide, "What shall I do? Where is it?" One of the standers-by guyding her therunto, she layde her heade down upon the block, and stretched forth her body and said: "Lorde, into thy hands I commende my spirite!" And so she ended.

Note a. This is here copied from a reprint edited by the Rev. John Brand in the 13th volume of the Archaeologia. I have not been able to find a copy of the original. It was incorporated into the narratives of Grafton and Foxe, with some variations, which will be noticed in the ensuing notes.

Note b. Holinshed has amplified this into the following more explicit statement: "My offence agaynst the queenes highnesse was onely in consent to the device of other, which nowe is deemed treason; but it was never my seeking, but by counsell of those who shoulde seeme to have further understanding of things than I, which knewe little of the lawe, and much lesae of the tytles to the crowne."

Note a2. Another report of "lady Jane Dudley's speech on the scaffold," somewhat more verbose but not so impressive, is printed in Nicolas's Remains, &c. p. 52.

Note b2. This circumstance, that Feckenham (the new dean of St. Paul's) was attendant upon her, is suppressed by Grafton, but preserved by Foxe.

Note c. Altered by Grafton, &c. to "her mayden (called mystresse Eleyn)" that is, her other female attendant.

Note d. Grafton altered this "to mayster Bruges, then lieutenant of the Tower;" and Foxe says, "maister Bruges" only. The book is supposed to have been the same manual of English prayers which is now preserved in the British Museum as the MS. Harl. 2342; and which contains the three following notes, the two former it will be perceived addressed to the duke of Suffolk, and the last to sir John Brydges:

Your lovyng and obedyent son wischethe unto your grace long lyfe in this world, with as muche joye and comforte as ever I wyshte to my selfe, and in the world to come joy everlasting. Your most humble son tel his death. G. DUDDELEY.

The Lorde comforte your grace, and that in his worde, whearin all creatures onlye are to be comforted. And thoughe it hathe pleased God to take away ij. of your children, yet thincke not, I most humblye beseach your grace, that you have loste them, but truste that we, by leasinge this mortall life, have wunne an immortal life. And I for my parte, as I have honoured your grace in this life, wyll praye for you in another life. Youre gracys humble doughter, JANE DUDDELEY.

Forasmutche as you have desired so simple a woman to wrighte in so worthye a booke, good mayster lieuftenaunte, therefore I shall as a frende desyre you, and as a Christian require you, to call uppon God to encline your harte to his lawes, to quicken you in his waye, and not to take the worde of trewethe utterlye oute of youre mouthe. Lyve styll to dye, that by deathe you may purchase eternall life, and remembre howe the ende of Mathusael, whoe, as we reade in the scriptures, was the longeste liver that was of a manne, died at the laste: for, as the precher sayethe, there is a tyme to be borne, and a tyme to dye; and the daye of deathe is better than the daye of cure birthe. Youres, as the Lorde knowethe, as a frende, JANE DUDDELEY."

These passages (facsimiles of the first and last of which are engraved in "Autographs of Remarkable Persons," 4to. 1829, Pl. 19) were evidently written very shortly before the execution of the noble pair, as is shown by an expression in the lady Jane's address to her father; and there is every probability in sir Harris Nicolas's conjecture that this book was employed as the messenger to convey these assurances of duty and affection, when personal intercourse was denied. The duke of Suffolk was brought back to the Tower only two days before his daughter's decapitation, and it is possible that she was spared the additional pain of knowing how imminent his fate also was. From the passage addressed to the lieutenant, it would further appear that the book, "so worthye a booke," already belonged to him; if, therefore, it is the same which the lady Jane carried with her to the scaffold, she would place it in the hands of "maister Brydges" (whether the lieutenant or his brother) as returning it to its owner. In some accounts of the lady Jane's last moments it will be found stated that she gave a book to sir John Gage; this error, into which Mr. Howard in his Memoir has fallen, arises merely from a confusion of the constable with the lieutenant of the Tower, sir John Gage having been erroneously named as the lieutenant in the description of the manual in the Catalogue of the Harleian MSS. This interesting relic is a small square vellum book, now in modern binding.

Note a3. Sir Harris Nicolas (p. xci.) states that, after having taken considerable pains to ascertain the meaning of the article here named, he was inclined to coincide with a literary friend who suggested "Fronts-piece." Foxe, however, has it spelt "frowes past," which is probably "frow's paste," or matronly head-dress: the paste being a head attire worn by brides, as explained in the glossarial index to Machyn's Diary, p. 463. The term was thought probably too familiar, if not inapplicable, by Grafton, who altered it in his chronicle to "her other attyres."

Chronicle of Queen Jane and Two Years of Queen Mary Feb 1554. 12 Feb 1554. The monday, being the xij th of Februarie, about ten of the clocke, ther went out of the Tower to the scaffolde on Tower hill, the lorde [her husband] Guilforde Dudley (age 19), sone to the late [her father-in-law] duke of Northumberland, husbande to the lady Jane Grey (age 18), daughter to the [her father] duke of Suffolke (age 37), who at his going out tooke by the hande sir Anthony Browne (age 25), maister John Throgmorton (age 30), and many other gentyllmen, praying them to praie for him; and without the bullwarke Offeleya the sheryve receyved him and brought him to the scaffolde, where, after a small declaration, having no gostlye fatherb with him, he kneeled downe and said his praiers; then holding upp his eyes and handes to God many tymesc; and at last, after he had desyred the people to pray for him, he laide himselfe along, and his hedd upon the block, which was at one stroke of the axe taken from him.

Note, the lorde marques (age 42)d stode upon the Devyl's towre, and sawe the executyon. His carcas throwne into a carre, and his hed in a cloth, he was brought into the chappell [Map] within the Tower, wher the ladye Jane (age 18), whose lodging was in Partrige's house, dyd see his ded carcase taken out of the cart, aswell as she dyd see him before on lyve going to his deathe, a sight to hir no lessee then deathf.

Note a. Sir Thomas Offley; see note in Machyn's Diary, p. 353.

Note b. He had probably refused the attendance of a Roman Catholic priest, and was not allowed one of his own choice.

Note c. Misread by Stowe with teares.

Note d. The marquess of Northampton (age 42).

Note e. no lesse in MS., not worse as given by Stowe and Holinshed.

Note f. "Great pitie was it for the casting awaye of that fayre Ladye, whome nature had not onely so bewtified, but God also had endewed with singuler gyftes and graces, so that she ignorantly receaved that which other wittingly devised and offred unto her.

"And in like manner that comely, vertuous, and goodly gentleman the lorde Gylford Duddeley most innocently was executed, whom God had endowed with suche vertues, that even those that never before the tyme of his execution saw hym, dyd with lamentable teares bewayle his death." Grafton's Abridgment, 1563.

On 12 Feb 1554 [her husband] Guildford Dudley (age 19) was beheaded at Tower Hill [Map]. An hour later his wife Lady Jane Grey (age 18) was beheaded at Tower Green [Map] by order of Queen Mary I (age 37). They were buried at St Peter ad Vincula Church, Tower of London [Map].

Calendars. 19 Feb 1554. Simon Renard to Prince Philip. Thus God performed a miracle. At present there is no other occupation than the cutting off of heads and inflicting exemplary punishments Jane of Suffolk (deceased), who made herself Queen, and her [her former husband] husband (deceased), have been executed; Courtenay (age 27) is in the Tower; and this very day we expect the Lady Elizabeth (age 20) to arrive here, who they say has lived loosely like her mother and is now with child.

Wyatt's Rebellion Executions

Calendars. 19 Feb 1554. Gaspard Schetz to the Queen Dowager.

Madam: Although I believe your Majesty to be informed of occurrences in England, I am unwilling not to send you the news that have reached us this morning in a letter of the 15th instant. It relates that the Queen has caused the rebels to be punished: the Lady Jane (deceased) and her [her former husband] husband (deceased), the [her father] Duke of Suffolk's (age 37) son, have been decapitated; the White Rose (age 27) has been sent back to the Tower [Map], where are also the Duke of Suffolk (age 37) with two of his brothers [Note. [her uncle] Thomas Grey and [her uncle] John Grey (age 30)] and guilty lords to the number of 27. They write that, of the soldiers who abandoned the Duke of Norfolk (age 81) on the field and joined the rebels, 40 have been hanged and 200 more condemned to the same penalty. They say that the said Duke has died in his own country. The Earl of Pembroke (age 53) has been sent down to Kent with 300 light horse to discover who took part in the rebellion and execute justice. This, Madam, is the substance of what I have heard, together with a report that it is being said in England that my Lord our Prince is to come with 8,000 Spanish soldiers, about which the English are not best pleased.

They say the Queen is sending hither an ambassador, the Viscount Fitzwalter (age 47) (Fewaters), who will be able to give your Majesty more trustworthy information.

Antwerp, 19 February, 1554.

Copy. French. Printed by Gachard, Voyages des Souverains des Pays-Bas, Appendix to Vol. IV.

On 01 Mar 1555 [her step-father] Adrian Stokes (age 35) and [her mother] Frances Brandon Duchess of Suffolk (age 37) were married. She the daughter of Charles Brandon 1st Duke of Suffolk and Mary Tudor Queen Consort France. She a granddaughter of King Henry VII of England and Ireland.

In Aug 1567 Catherine Willoughby Duchess Suffolk (age 48) became custodian to [her sister] Mary Grey (age 22), sister to Lady Jane Grey.

Around 1590 Unknown Painter. Portrait of Jane "Nine Days Queen" Grey I Queen England and Ireland.

Archaeologia Volume 13 Appendix. Read June 26, 1800. As an Appendix to an account of certain inscriptions discovered lately on the walls of a room in the Tower of London, printed in this volume, p. 68, and particularly the very interesting Autographs found there of the amiable and unfortunate lady Jane Grey, the Secretary requests permission to lay before the Society a copy of an exceedingly rare (if not unique) printed tract, not noticed that he can find in Ames or Herbert, one part of which is entitled, "The Ende of the Ladye Jane upon the Scaffolde." It is without date, but contains internal evidence of having been printed immediately after that event in the first year of the reign of queen Mary.

Jane "Nine Days Queen" Grey I Queen England and Ireland 1536-1554 appears on the following Descendants Family Trees:

King Edward IV of England 1442-1483

Cecily "Rose of Raby" Neville Duchess York 1415-1495

Alice Montagu 5th Countess of Salisbury 1407-1462

Richard Neville 5th Earl Salisbury 1400-1460

Richard Plantagenet 3rd Duke York 1411-1460

Jacquetta of Luxemburg Duchess Bedford 1415-1472

King Henry VII of England and Ireland 1457-1509

Royal Ancestors of Jane "Nine Days Queen" Grey I Queen England and Ireland 1536-1554

Kings Wessex: Great x 15 Grand Daughter of King Edmund "Ironside" I of England

Kings Gwynedd: Great x 12 Grand Daughter of Owain "Great" King Gwynedd

Kings Seisyllwg: Great x 17 Grand Daughter of Hywel "Dda aka Good" King Seisyllwg King Deheubarth

Kings Powys: Great x 12 Grand Daughter of Maredudd ap Bleddyn King Powys

Kings England: Great Grand Daughter of King Henry VII of England and Ireland

Kings Scotland: Great x 12 Grand Daughter of William "Lion" I King Scotland

Kings Franks: Great x 12 Grand Daughter of Louis VII King Franks

Kings France: Great x 4 Grand Daughter of Charles "Beloved Mad" VI King France

Ancestors of Jane "Nine Days Queen" Grey I Queen England and Ireland 1536-1554

Great x 1 Grandfather: Thomas Grey 1st Marquess Dorset 6 x Great Grand Son of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England

GrandFather: Thomas Grey 2nd Marquess Dorset 4 x Great Grand Son of King Edward III of England

Great x 1 Grandmother: Cecily Bonville Marchioness Dorset 3 x Great Grand Daughter of King Edward III of England

Father: Henry Grey 1st Duke of Suffolk 5 x Great Grand Son of King Edward III of England

Jane "Nine Days Queen" Grey I Queen England and Ireland Great Grand Daughter of King Henry VII of England and Ireland

Great x 1 Grandfather: William Brandon 5 x Great Grand Son of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England

GrandFather: Charles Brandon 1st Duke of Suffolk 6 x Great Grand Son of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England

Great x 1 Grandmother: Elizabeth Bruyn

Mother: Frances Brandon Duchess of Suffolk Grand Daughter of King Henry VII of England and Ireland

Great x 1 Grandfather: King Henry VII of England and Ireland 3 x Great Grand Son of King Edward III of England

GrandMother: Mary Tudor Queen Consort France Daughter of King Henry VII of England and Ireland

Great x 1 Grandmother: Elizabeth York Queen Consort England Daughter of King Edward IV of England