Biography of John Wenlock 1st Baron Wenlock 1400-1471

1455 First Battle of St Albans

1459 Battle of Blore Heath

1460 June Raid on Sandwich

1461 Battle of Mortimer's Cross

1461 Creation of Garter Knights by Henry VI

1461 Second Battle of St Albans

1461 Battle of Towton

1471 Margaret Anjou lands at Weymouth

1471 Battle of Tewkesbury

Around 1400 John Wenlock 1st Baron Wenlock was born to William Wynell and Margaret Breton.

On 16 Aug 1421 John Wenlock 1st Baron Wenlock (age 21) received a grant of lands in the bailiwick of Gisors.

In Apr 1422 John Wenlock 1st Baron Wenlock (age 22) was appointed Constable Vernon.

Before 1430 Thomas Baldington (age 13) and [his future wife] Agnes Danvers Baroness Wenlock (age 21) were married.

Before 1432 John Wenlock 1st Baron Wenlock (age 32) and Elizabeth Drayton were married.

In 1433 John Wenlock 1st Baron Wenlock (age 33) returned as MP Bedfordshire.

After 22 Aug 1435 John Fray (age 38) and [his future wife] Agnes Danvers Baroness Wenlock (age 27) were married.

In 1436 John Wenlock 1st Baron Wenlock (age 36) returned as MP Bedfordshire.

In 1444 John Wenlock 1st Baron Wenlock (age 44) was appointed High Sheriff of Bedfordshire and High Sheriff of Buckinghamshire.

In 1446 Richard Fowler (age 21) and [his future sister-in-law] Joan Danvers (age 24) were married.

In 1447 John Wenlock 1st Baron Wenlock (age 47) returned as MP Bedfordshire.

On 15 Apr 1448 John Wenlock 1st Baron Wenlock (age 48) laid the first stone at Queen's College, Cambridge University [Map].

In 1449 John Wenlock 1st Baron Wenlock (age 49) returned as MP Bedfordshire.

In 1455 John Wenlock 1st Baron Wenlock (age 55) returned as MP Bedfordshire.

In 1455 John Wenlock 1st Baron Wenlock (age 55) was appointed Speaker of the House of Commons.

First Battle of St Albans

On 22 May 1455 the Wars of the Roses commenced with the First Battle of St Albans. Richard Plantagenet 3rd Duke of York (age 43) commanded with Richard "Kingmaker" Neville Earl Warwick, 6th Earl Salisbury (age 26), Richard Neville Earl Salisbury (age 55), Edward Brooke 6th Baron Cobham (age 40) and Walter Strickland (age 44).

The Lancastrians ...

Edmund Beaufort 1st or 2nd Duke of Somerset (age 49) was killed. His son Henry Beaufort 2nd or 3rd Duke of Somerset (age 19) succeeded 2nd Duke Somerset, 5th Earl Somerset. Note his father is frequently incorrectly referred to as the second Duke and Henry as the third Duke. His father's Dukedom, however, was a new creation.

Henry Percy 2nd Earl of Northumberland (age 62) was killed. His son Henry Percy 3rd Earl of Northumberland (age 33) succeeded 3rd Earl of Northumberland, 6th Baron Percy of Alnwick, 14th Baron Percy of Topcliffe. Eleanor Poynings Countess Northumberland (age 33) by marriage Countess of Northumberland.

Thomas Clifford 8th Baron Clifford (age 41) was killed. His son John "Butcher" Clifford 9th Baron Clifford (age 20) succeeded 9th Baron de Clifford, 9th Lord Skipton. Margaret Bromflete Baroness Clifford (age 21) by marriage Baroness de Clifford.

William Cotton (age 45) and Richard Fortescue (age 41) were killed.

Humphrey Stafford 1st Duke of Buckingham (age 52) was wounded and captured.

King Henry VI of England and II of France (age 33), John Dudley 1st Baron Dudley (age 54) and Edmund Dudley (age 30) were captured.

Henry Beaufort 2nd or 3rd Duke of Somerset (age 19) was wounded. James Butler 1st Earl Wiltshire 5th Earl Ormonde (age 34) and John Wenlock 1st Baron Wenlock (age 55) fought.

Richard Cotton of Hampstall Ridware (age 51) and his son William Cotton of Connington in Huntingdonshire (age 27) were killed.

Battle of Blore Heath

On 23 Sep 1459 John Dudley 1st Baron Dudley (age 58) attempted to ambush John Neville 1st Marquess Montagu (age 28) whilst he was travelling to Ludlow [Map] to join up with the main Yorkist army; the Battle of Blore Heath. Forewarned by scouts he arranged his troops into battle order. The Yorkist army included John Conyers (age 48), Thomas Harrington (age 59), James Harrington (age 29), Richard Neville Earl Salisbury (age 59), William Stanley (age 24), Roger Kynaston of Myddle and Hordley (age 26), John Savile, Walter Strickland (age 48) and John Wenlock 1st Baron Wenlock (age 59).

The Lancastrian army included brothers John Dutton, Thomas Dutton (age 38) and Peter Dutton who were killed.

James Tuchet 5th Baron Audley, 2nd Baron Tuchet (age 61) was killed by Roger Kynaston of Myddle and Hordley (age 26). His son John Tuchet 6th Baron Audley, 3rd Baron Tuchet (age 33) succeeded 6th Baron Audley of Heighley in Staffordshire, 3rd Baron Tuchet. Anne Echingham Baroness Audley Heighley (age 39) by marriage Baroness Audley of Heighley in Staffordshire, Baroness Audley of Heighley in Staffordshire.

John Dudley 1st Baron Dudley (age 58) and Edmund Dudley (age 34) were captured. Lionel Welles 6th Baron Welles (age 53) fought.

Richard Molyneux of Sefton was killed.

John Egerton (age 55) was killed.

After the battle Margaret of Anjou Queen Consort England (age 29) took refuge at Eccleshall Castle, Staffordshire [Map].

After the battle Thomas Harrington (age 59), John Neville 1st Marquess Montagu (age 28) and Thomas Neville (age 29) were captured at Acton Bridge Tarporley [Map] and imprisoned at Chester Castle [Map] having been detached from the main Yorkist force.

William Troutbeck (age 23) was killed.

Chronicle of Gregory 1459. 12 Oct 1459. The Erle of Saulysbury (age 59), the Erle of Warwycke (age 30), the Erle of Marche (age 17), Syr John Wenlocke (age 59), alle thes come unto Devynschyre to Syr John Denham (age 26), and alle thes by the conveynge of Syr John Denham (age 26); and they bought a smalle vesselle in that contray, an they were conveyde unto Garnesey [Map], ande from Garnesaye unto Calys [Map], for fere of dethe that they said was ymagenyde by the kyng and his lordys, and of her owne housolde mayny for her dystruccyon, the counselle and consent of King Harry the VI. Thes lordys departyd out of Ingelonde on Synt Edward is evyn, Synt Edward bothe King and confessoure, the xij day of Octobera, and they taryd at Calys xxxvj wekys.

Note a. This is really the date of the breaking up of their camp at Ludlow, not of their leaving England.

1460 June Raid on Sandwich

Around 05 Jun 1460 when the relief expedition led by Osbert Mountfort was ready to to leave Sandwich, Kent [Map] for Guines, waiting only for a fair wind, the Yorkists John Dynham 1st Baron Dynham (age 27), John Wenlock 1st Baron Wenlock (age 60), William Neville Baron Fauconberg (age 55) crossed from Calais and attacked Sandwich, Kent [Map] killing many of Osbert's men. Osbert Mountfort was captured. William Neville Baron Fauconberg (age 55) remained at Sandwich is preparation for the subsequent landing by Yorkist forces at the end of the month.

Battle of Mortimer's Cross

On 02 Feb 1461 at the Battle of Mortimer's Cross at Mortimer's Cross, Herefordshire [Map] the future King Edward IV of England (age 18) commanded the Yorkist forces including William Hastings 1st Baron Hastings (age 30), John Wenlock 1st Baron Wenlock (age 61), John Tuchet 6th Baron Audley, 3rd Baron Tuchet (age 35), John Savage (age 17) and Roger Vaughan (age 51).

In the Lancastrian army Owen Tudor (age 61) (captured by Roger Vaughan (age 51)) and his son Jasper Tudor 1st Duke Bedford (age 29) fought as well as James Butler 1st Earl Wiltshire 5th Earl Ormonde (age 40) and Henry Roos. Gruffydd ap Nicholas Deheubarth (age 68) were killed. Watkin Vaughan (age 66) and Henry Wogan (age 59) were killed.

Monument to the Battle of Mortimer's Cross at Mortimer's Cross, Herefordshire [Map]. Note the mistake - Edward IV described as Edward Mortimer. The monument was erected by subscription in 1799.

Gruffydd ap Nicholas Deheubarth: In 1393 he was born to Nicolas ap Philip Deheubarth and Jonet Unknown at Sheffield.

Watkin Vaughan: Around 1395 he was born to Roger Vaughan of Bredwardine and Gwladys ferch Dafydd Gam "Star of Abergavenny" Brecon. Around 1435 Watkin Vaughan and Elinor Wogan were married. The date based on his age being around twenty. The difference in their ages was 29 years.

Henry Wogan: In 1402 he was born to John Wogan at Wiston.

1461 Creation of Garter Knights by Henry VI

On 08 Feb 1461 King Henry VI of England and II of France (age 39) created four Garter Knights two of whom would be killed nine days later at the Second Battle of St Albans:

181st Richard "Kingmaker" Neville Earl Warwick, 6th Earl Salisbury (age 32).

182nd William Bonville 1st Baron Bonville (age 68).

183rd Thomas Kyriell (age 65).

184th John Wenlock 1st Baron Wenlock (age 61).

Second Battle of St Albans

On 17 Feb 1461 the Lancastrian army defeated the Yorkist army at Second Battle of St Albans and rescued King Henry VI of England and II of France (age 39). The Lancastrian army was commanded by Henry Holland 3rd Duke Exeter (age 30) and included Henry Percy 3rd Earl of Northumberland (age 39), John Mowbray 3rd Duke of Norfolk (age 45), Henry Grey 4th or 7th Baron Grey of Codnor (age 26), Henry Roos and Richard Welles 7th Baron Welles, Baron Willoughby (age 33).

Thomas Ros 9th Baron Ros Helmsley (age 33), William Tailboys 7th Baron Kyme (age 46), John Talbot 3rd Earl of Shrewsbury (age 12) and Thomas Tresham (age 41) were knighted.

The Yorkist army included Richard "Kingmaker" Neville Earl Warwick, 6th Earl Salisbury (age 32), William Fitzalan 16th Earl of Arundel (age 43), John Wenlock 1st Baron Wenlock (age 61) and Henry Bourchier 2nd Count Eu 1st Earl Essex (age 57). John Neville 1st Marquess Montagu (age 30) was captured. Robert Poynings (age 42) and James Luttrell (age 34) were killed.

John Grey (age 29) was killed fighting for Lancaster. A death that was to have far reaching consequences; his widow Elizabeth Woodville Queen Consort England (age 24) subsequently married King Edward IV of England (age 18).

During the battle William Bonville 1st Baron Bonville (age 68) and Thomas Kyriell (age 65) were assigned to the protection of the King Henry VI (age 39). After the battle both were beheaded against all decent laws of battle.

William Bonville 1st Baron Bonville (age 68) was beheaded. His great granddaughter Cecily Bonville Marchioness Dorset succeeded 2nd Baroness Bonville.

Thomas Kyriell (age 65) was beheaded.

William Cotton (age 21) was killed.

Battle of Towton

On 29 Mar 1461 the Battle of Towton was a decisive victory for King Edward IV of England (age 18) bringing to an end the first war of the Wars of the Roses. Said to be the bloodiest battle on English soil 28000 were killed mainly during the rout that followed the battle.

The Yorkist army was commanded by King Edward IV of England (age 18) with John Mowbray 3rd Duke of Norfolk (age 45), William Neville 1st Earl Kent (age 56), William Hastings 1st Baron Hastings (age 30) (knighted), Walter Blount 1st Baron Mountjoy (age 45), Henry Bourchier 2nd Count Eu 1st Earl Essex (age 57), John Scrope 5th Baron Scrope of Bolton (age 23) and John Wenlock 1st Baron Wenlock (age 61).

The Lancastrian army suffered significant casualties including Richard Percy (age 35), Ralph Bigod Lord Morley (age 50), John Bigod (age 28), Robert Cromwell (age 71), Ralph Eure (age 49), John Neville 1st Baron Neville of Raby (age 51), John Beaumont (age 33), Thomas Dethick (age 61), Everard Simon Digby, William Plumpton (age 25) and William Welles (age 51) who were killed.

Henry Percy 3rd Earl of Northumberland (age 39) was killed. His son Henry Percy 4th Earl of Northumberland (age 12) succeeded 4th Earl of Northumberland, 7th Baron Percy of Alnwick, 15th Baron Percy of Topcliffe. Maud Herbert Countess Northumberland (age 3) by marriage Countess of Northumberland.

Ralph Dacre 1st Baron Dacre Gilsland (age 49) was killed. He was buried at the nearby Saxton church where his chest tomb is extant. Baron Dacre Gilsland extinct.

Lionel Welles 6th Baron Welles (age 55) was killed. His son Richard Welles 7th Baron Welles, Baron Willoughby (age 33) succeeded 7th Baron Welles.

The Lancastrian army was commanded by Henry Beaufort 2nd or 3rd Duke of Somerset (age 25), Henry Holland 3rd Duke Exeter (age 30), Henry Percy 3rd Earl of Northumberland (age 39) and Andrew Trollope.

Henry Holland 3rd Duke Exeter (age 30) was attainted after the battle; Duke Exeter, Earl Huntingdon forfeit.

Those who fought for the Lancaster included William Tailboys 7th Baron Kyme (age 46), John Dudley 1st Baron Dudley (age 60), William Norreys (age 20), Thomas Grey 1st Baron Grey of Richemont (age 43), Robert Hungerford 3rd Baron Hungerford 1st Baron Moleyns (age 30), John Talbot 3rd Earl of Shrewsbury (age 12), Richard Welles 7th Baron Welles, Baron Willoughby (age 33), Richard Woodville 1st Earl Rivers (age 56), James Butler 1st Earl Wiltshire 5th Earl Ormonde (age 40), John Butler 6th Earl Ormonde (age 39), William Beaumont 2nd Viscount Beaumont (age 22), Henry Roos and Thomas Tresham (age 41). Cardinal John Morton (age 41) were captured.

After 29 Mar 1461 John Wenlock 1st Baron Wenlock (age 61) was created 1st Baron Wenlock.

After 03 Jul 1461 John Wenlock 1st Baron Wenlock (age 61) and Agnes Danvers Baroness Wenlock (age 53) were married. She by marriage Baroness Wenlock.

Around 1462 [his wife] Elizabeth Drayton died.

Calendars. 12 Jul 1462. Grant in fee simple to the king's servant John Wenlok (age 62), knight, lord of Wenlok, of all lordships, manors, lands, rents and services with knight's fees and advowsons late of John Fortescue (age 68), knight, in the counties of Middlesex and Hertford and elsewhere within the realm and the reversion of the manor of Eburton, co. Gloucester, on the death of Jocosa Grevill alias Beauchampe, widow, belonging to the king by reason of the forfeiture of the said John Fortescue (age 68). By K.

Vacated by surrender and cancelled, because on 3 February, 8 Edward IV. the king by writ of privy seal ordered Robert, Bishop of  Bath and Wells (age 42), chancellor, and Robert Kirkeham, keeper of the rolls of Chancery, to receive the same from the said John, by John Holme.

Calendars. 23 Jun 1463. Inspeximus and confirmation to the mayor, bailiffs and burgesses of Clyfton, Dertmuth and Hardenesse of (1) letters patent dated 14 December, 2 Richard II. inspecting and confirming a charter dated at the Tower of London, 14 April, 15 Edward III. [Charter Roll, 15 Edward III. No. 18,] and (2) a charter dated at Westminster, 5 November, 17 Richard II. [Charter Noll, 15-17 Richard II. No. 10]; and grant that the adjoining township of Southtouudertemouth shall henceforth be annexed to the said borough of Cliftondertemouth Hardenasse, in consideration of the fact that the burgesses keep watches against invaders on the confines of the township and beyond at a place called 'Galions Boure' but the inhabitants of the township contribute nothing because they do not enjoy the liberties of the borough. Th« mayor and bailiffs shall have return of writs and execution thereof within the said township and the liberty of the borough, saving always the right of the lord of the fee of the township, and all pleas real and personal and attachments and fines and amercements, and also view of frauk-pledge and all that peitains to it. And they may acquire, in mortmain, after inquisition, lands, tenements, rents and other possessions, not held in chief, to the value of 201. yearly. Witnesses: Th. archbishop of Canterbury (age 45), W. archbishop of York (age 75), G. Bishop of  Exeter (age 31), the chancellor, J. Bishop of  Carlisle, the king's brothers George, duke of Clarence (age 13), and Richard, duke of Gloucester (age 10), the king's kinsmen Richard, Earl of Warwick (age 34), and John, Earl of Worcester (age 36), treasurer of England, Robert Styllyngton (age 43), king's clerk, keeper of the privy seal, and William Hastynges of Hastynges (age 32), the king's chamberlain, and John Wenlok of Wenlok (age 63), knights.

In 1467 [his brother-in-law] Robert Danvers (age 67) died.

In 1467 John Wenlock 1st Baron Wenlock (age 67) and Agnes Say Baroness Wenlock were married. She by marriage Baroness Wenlock.

Margaret Anjou lands at Weymouth

On 14 Apr 1471 Margaret of Anjou Queen Consort England (age 41) lands at Weymouth, Dorset with John Wenlock 1st Baron Wenlock (age 71).

Battle of Tewkesbury

On 04 May 1471 King Edward IV of England (age 29) was victorious at the Battle of Tewkesbury. His brother Richard (age 18), Richard Beauchamp 2nd Baron Beauchamp Powick (age 36), John Howard 1st Duke of Norfolk (age 46), George Neville 4th and 2nd Baron Bergavenny (age 31), John Savage (age 49), John Savage (age 27), Thomas St Leger (age 31), John Tuchet 6th Baron Audley, 3rd Baron Tuchet (age 45), Thomas Burgh 1st Baron Burgh (age 40) fought. William Brandon (age 46), George Browne (age 31), Ralph Hastings, Richard Hastings Baron Willoughby (age 38), James Tyrrell (age 16), Roger Kynaston of Myddle and Hordley (age 38) were knighted. William Hastings 1st Baron Hastings (age 40) commanded.

Margaret of Anjou (age 41) was captured. Her son Edward of Westminster Prince of Wales (age 17) was killed. He was the last of the Lancastrian line excluding the illegitmate Charles Somerset 1st Earl of Worcester (age 11) whose line continues to the present.

John Courtenay 15th Earl Devon (age 36) was killed and attainted. Earl Devon, Baron Courtenay forfeit. Some sources refer to these titles as being abeyant?

John Wenlock 1st Baron Wenlock (age 71) was killed. Baron Wenlock extinct.

John Delves (age 49), Humphrey Tuchet (age 37), John Beaufort (age 30), William Vaux of Harrowden (age 35) and Robert Whittingham (age 42) were killed.

Edmund Beaufort 3rd Duke of Somerset (age 32) and Hugh Courtenay (age 44) were captured.

Henry Roos fought and escaped to Tewkesbury Abbey [Map] where he sought sanctuary. He was subsequently pardoned.

Before 12 Apr 1478 John Saye (age 48) and [his former wife] Agnes Danvers Baroness Wenlock (age 70) were married. The difference in their ages was 22 years; she, unusually, being older than him.

In Jun 1478 [his former wife] Agnes Danvers Baroness Wenlock (age 70) died.

Christopher Preston 3rd Baron Gormanston and Elizabeth Drayton were married .