Biography of King John "Lackland" of England 1166-1216

Paternal Family Tree: Anjou aka Plantagenet

Maternal Family Tree: Dangereuse Ile Bouchard Viscountess Chatellerault 1079-1151

Descendants Family Tree: King John "Lackland" of England 1166-1216

1137 Marriage of Prince Louis and Eleanor of Aquitaine

1152 Louis and Eleanor's Divorce

1152 Marriage of Henry II and Eleanor of Aquitaine

1154 Death of King Stephen

1166 Birth of King John

1189 Death of King Henry II

1194 Richard I Released

1199 Death of Richard I

1199 Coronation of King John

1202 Battle of Mirebeau

1204 Death of Eleanor of Aquitaine

1215 Magna Carta

1216 Death of King John

On 09 Apr 1137 [his grandfather] William "Saint" Poitiers X Duke Aquitaine (age 38) died. His daughter [his mother] Eleanor of Aquitaine Queen Consort Franks and England (age 15) succeeded XI Duchess Aquitaine.

Marriage of Prince Louis and Eleanor of Aquitaine

On 25 Jul 1137 [his step-father] Louis VII King Franks (age 17) and [his mother] Eleanor of Aquitaine Queen Consort Franks and England (age 15) were married. Her father [his grandfather] William "Saint" Poitiers X Duke Aquitaine had died some three months previously leaving Eleanor of Aquitaine Queen Consort Franks and England (age 15) as a ward of Louis's father Louis "Fat" VI King France (age 55) who quickly married her to his son Louis with a view to the Duchy of Aquitaine becoming joined with the Kingdom of France. A week later Louis "Fat" VI King France (age 55) died and his son Louis and Eleanor became King and Queen of France. She the daughter of William "Saint" Poitiers X Duke Aquitaine and Aenor Chatellerault Duchess Aquitaine. He the son of Louis "Fat" VI King France (age 55) and Adelaide Savoy Queen Consort France. They were third cousin once removed.

In 1150 [his father] King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England (age 16) was created Duke Normandy by [his step-father] Louis VII King Franks (age 30).

Louis and Eleanor's Divorce

On 21 Mar 1152 the marriage of [his step-father] Louis VII King Franks (age 32) and [his mother] Eleanor of Aquitaine Queen Consort Franks and England (age 30) was dissolved by Hugh Toucy Archbishop Sens at the Château de Beaugency on the grounds of consanguinity. Both Louis and Eleanor were present as were the Archbishops of Rouen and Bordeaux. Samson Mauvoison Archbishop Reims acted on behalf of Eleanor. In dissolving the marriage Louis lost control of the Duchy of Aquitaine which was to have far reaching consequences for the next three centuries.

Marriage of Henry II and Eleanor of Aquitaine

On 18 May 1152 Whit Sunday [his father] King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England (age 19) and [his mother] Eleanor of Aquitaine Queen Consort Franks and England (age 30) were married at Poitiers Cathedral [Map]. They were more closely related than Eleanor and her previous husband [his step-father] Louis VII King Franks (age 32). The marriage would bring the Kingdom of England, and the Duchies of Normandy and Aquitaine under the control of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England (age 19). She the daughter of William "Saint" Poitiers X Duke Aquitaine and Aenor Chatellerault Duchess Aquitaine. He the son of Geoffrey Plantagenet Duke Normandy and Empress Matilda (age 50). They were half third cousins. He a grandson of King Henry I "Beauclerc" England.

Death of King Stephen

Birth of King John

On 24 Dec 1166 King John "Lackland" of England was born to King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England (age 33) and Eleanor of Aquitaine Queen Consort Franks and England (age 44). He was given the nickname "Sans Terre", aka "without land", or in English "Lackland" as a consequence of his being the youngest son.

In 1173 King John "Lackland" of England (age 6) was sent to live in Fontevraud Abbey [Map] to be trained for the Church.

Before 1178 King John "Lackland" of England (age 11) and Alicia Savoy (age 11) were betrothed. Her dowry included the future inheritance of Savoy, Piedmont, Maurienne, and the other possessions of her father Count Humbert (age 43).

Death of King Henry II

On 06 Jul 1189 [his father] King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England (age 56) died at Chinon Castle [Map]. William Mandeville 3rd Earl Essex Count Aumale was present. He was buried at Fontevraud Abbey [Map]. His son [his brother] King Richard "Lionheart" I of England (age 31) succeeded I King England.

On 29 Aug 1189 King John "Lackland" of England (age 22) and Isabella Fitzrobert 3rd Countess Gloucester and Essex (age 16) were married at Marlborough Castle [Map]. He by marriage Earl Gloucester. She the daughter of William Fitzrobert 2nd Earl Gloucester and Hawise Beaumont Countess Gloucester. He the son of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England and Eleanor of Aquitaine Queen Consort Franks and England (age 67). They were half second cousins. She a great granddaughter of King Henry I "Beauclerc" England.

Around 1190 [his illegitimate son] Richard Fitzroy was born illegitimately to King John "Lackland" of England (age 23) and Adela Plantagenet in Chilham Castle, Kent [Map]. Coefficient of inbreeding 3.38%.

Around 1191 [his illegitimate daughter] Joan Plantagenet was born illegitimately to King John "Lackland" of England (age 24) and Adela Plantagenet. Coefficient of inbreeding 3.38%.

Letters. 1192. Letter VI. [his mother] Eleanor of Aquitaine Queen Consort Franks and England (age 70) to Pope Celestine.

To the reverend father and lord Celestine, by God's grace highest pontiff, Eleanora the miserable, and I would I could add the commiserated, queen of England, duchess of Normandy, countess of Anjou, entreating him to shew himself a father of mercy to a miserable mother.

I am prevented, O holiest pope, by the great distance which parts us, from addressing you personally$1 yet I must bewail my grief a little, and who shall assist me to write my words?.

I am all anxiety, internally and externally, whence my very words are full of grief. Without are fears, within contentions; nor have I a moment wherein to breathe freely from the tribulation of evils, and the grief occasioned by the troubles which ever find me out. I am all defiled with grief, and my bones cleave to my skin, for my flesh is wasted away. My years pass away in groanings, and 1 would they were altogether passed away. O that the whole blood of my body would now die, that the brain of my head and the marrow of my bones were so dissolved into tears that I might melt away in weeping! My very bowels are torn away from me; I have lost the light of my eyes, the staff of my old age: and, would God accede to my wishes, he would condemn me to perpetual blindness, that my wretched eyes might no longer behold the woes of my people. Who will grant me the boon of dying for thee, my son? O mother of mercy! look upon a mother so wretched; or if thy Son, the inexhausted fount of mercy, is avenging the sins of the mother on the son, let him exact vengeance from her who has alone sinned: let him punish me, the wicked one, and not amuse himself with the punishment of an innocent person. Let him who hath begun the task, who now bruises me, take away his hand and slay me; and this shall be my consolation, that, afflicting me with grief, he spares me not. O wretched me, yet pitied by none! why have I, the mistress of two kingdoms, the mother of two kings, reached the ignominy of a detested old age?.

My bowels are torn away, my very race is destroyed and passing away from me. The [his brother] young king and the [his brother] Earl of Bretagne sleep in the dust, and their most unhappy mother is compelled to live that she may be ever tortured with the memory of the dead. Two sons yet survived to my solace, who now survive only to distress me, a miserable and condemned creature: [his brother] King Richard (age 34) is detained in bonds, and John (age 25), his brother, depopulates the captive's kingdom with the sword, and lays it waste with fire. In all things the Lord is become cruel towards me, and opposes me with a heavy hand. Truly his anger fights against me, when my very sons fight against each other, if, indeed, that can be called a fight in which one party languishes in bonds, and the other, adding grief to grief, tries, by cruel tyranny to usurp the exile's kingdom to himself.

O good Jesus! who will grant me thy protection, and hide me in hell itself till thy fury passes away, and till thy arrows whiqh are in me, by whose vehemence my very spirit is drunk up, shall cease? I long for death, I am weary of life; and though I thus die incessantly, I yet desire to die more fally; I am reluctantly compelled to live, that my life may be the food of death and a means of torture. O happy ye who pass away by a fortunate abortion, without experiencing the waywardness of this life and the unexpected events of an uncertain condition! What do I? why do I remain? why do I wretched, delay? why do I not go, that I may see him whom my soul loves, bound in beggary and irons? as though, at such a time, a mother could forget the son of her womb! Affection to their young softens tigers, nay, even the fiercer sorceresses.

Yet I fluctuate in doubt: for, if I go away, deserting my son's kingdom, which is laid waste on all sides with fierce hostility, it will in my absence be destitute of all counsel and solace; again, if I stay, I shall not see the face of my son, that face which I so long for. There will be none who will study to procure the liberation of my son, and, what 1 fear still more, the most delicate youth (age 34) will be tormented for an impossible quantity of money, and, impatient of so much affliction, will easily be brought to the agonies of death. Oh, impious, cruel, and dreadful tyrant! who hast not feared to lay sacrilegious hands on the anointed of the Lord! nor has the royal unction, nor the reverence due to a holy life, nor the fear of God, restrained thee from such inhumanity!

Yet the prince of the apostles still rules and reigns in the apostolic seat, and his judicial rigour is set up as a means of resort: this one thing remains, that you, O father, draw against these evildoers the sword of Peter, which for this purpose is set over people and kingdoms. The cross of Christ excels the eagles of Ceasar, the sword of Peter the sword of Constantine, and the apostolic seat is placed above the imperial power. Is your power of God or of men? Has not the God of gods spoken to you by the Apostle Peter, that whatsoever you bind on earth shall be bound in heaven, and whatsoever you loose on earth shall be loosed also in heaven? Wherefore, then, do you so long negligently, nay, cruelly, delay to free my son (age 34), or rather do not dare to do it? You will, perhaps, say that this power is given to you over souls, not over bodies: be it so; it will certainly suffice me if you will bind their souls who hold my son bound in prison. It is your province to loose my son, unless the fear of God has given way to human fear. Restore my son to me, then, O man of God, if indeed thou art a man of God and not a man of blood; for know that, if thou art sluggish in the liberation of my son, from thy hand will the Most High require his blood. Alas, alas for us, when the chief shepherd has become a mercenary, when he flies from the face of the wolf, when he leaves the little sheep committed to him, or rather the elect ram, the leader of the Lord's flock, in the jaws of the bloody beast of prey! The good Shepherd instructs and informs other shepherds not to fly when they see the wolf coming, but to lay down their lives for the sheep. Save, therefore, I entreat thee, thine own soul, whilst, by urgent embassies, by salutary advice, by the thunders of excommunication, by general interdicts, by terrible sentences, thou endeavourest to procure the liberation, I will not say of thy sheep merely, but of thy son. Though late, you ought to give your life for him, for whom, as yet, you have refused to write or speak a single word. The Son of God, as testifies the prophet, came down from heaven that he might bring up them that were bound from the pit in which was no water. Now, would not that which was fitting for God to do become the servant of God? My son is tormented in bonds, yet you go not down to him, nor send, nor are moved by the sorrow of Joseph. Christ sees this and is silent; yet at the last there shall be fearful retribution for those who do the work of God negligently. Ambassadors have been promised to us three times, but never sent; so that« to speak the truth, they are bound rather than sent. If my son were in prosperity, they would eagerly hasten at his lightest call, because they would expect rich handfuls for their embassy from his great munificence and the public profit of the kingdom. But what profit could be more glorious to them than to liberate a captive king, to restore peace to the people, quiet to the religious, and joy to all? Now, truly, the sons of Ephraim, who bent and sent forth the bow, have turned round in the day of battle; and in the time of distress when the wolf comes upon the prey, they are dumb dogs who either cannot or will not bark. Is this the promise you made me at the castle of Ralph with such protestations of favour and good faith? What availed it to give words only to my simplicity, and to illude by a fond trust the wishes of the innocent? So, in olden time, was King Ahab forbidden to make alliance with Ben-hadad, and we have heard the fatal issue of their mutual love.*^ A heavenly providence prospered the wars of Judas, John, and Simon, the Maccabsean brothers, under happy auspices; but when they sent an embassy to secure the friendship of the Romans, they lost the help of God, and, not once alone, but often was their venal intimacy cause of bitter regret.* You alone, who were my hope after God, and the trust of my people, force me to despair. Cursed be he who trusteth in man. Where is now my refuge?.

Thou, O Lord my God. To thee, O Lord, who considerest my distress, are the eyes of thine handmaid lifted up. Thou, O King of kings and Lord of lords, look upon the face of thine Anointed, give empire to thy Son, and save the son of thine handmaid, nor visit upon him the crimes of his father or the wickedness of his mother!

We know by certain and public relation that the emperor, after the death of the Bishop of Liege (age 26) (whom he is said to have slain with a fiital sword, though wielded by a remote hand (age 42)), miserably imprisoned the Bishop of Ostia and four other provincials, the Bishop of Salerno, and the Archbishop of Treves; and the apostolic authority cannot deny that, to the perpetual prejudice of the Roman church, he has, in spite of embassies, supplications, and threats of the apostolic seat, taken possession of Sicily, which from the times of Constantine has been the patrimony of St. Peter. Yet with all this his fury is not yet turned away, but yet is his hand stretched forth. Fearful things he has already done, but worse are still certainly to be expected; for those who ought to be the Pillars of the church are swayed with reed-like lightness by every wind. Oh, would they but remember that it was through the negligence of Eli, the priest ministering in Shiloh, that the glory of the Lord passed away from Israel I. Nor is that a mere parable of the past, but of the present. For the Lord drove from Shiloh the tabernacle, his tabernacle, where he had dwelt amongst men, and gave their strength into captivity and, their beauty into the hands of the enemy.

It is imputed to your pusillanimity that the church is trampled upon, the faith perilled, liberty oppressed, deceit encouraged by patience, iniquity by impunity. Where is the promise of God when be said to his church, 'Thou shalt suck the milk of the Gentiles, and shalt suck the breasts of kings? I will make thee the pride of ages, and a joy from generation to generation. Once the church, by its own strength, trod upon the necks of the proud and the lofty, and the laws of emperors obeyed the' sacred canons. But things are changed, and not only the canons, but the very formers of the canons, are restrained by base laws and execrable customs. The detestable crimes of the powerful are borne with. None dare murmur, and canonical rigour falls on the sins of the poor alone. Therefore, not without reason did Anachar^is the philosopher compare laws and canons to spiders' webs, which reti^in weaker animals but let the stronger go. ^* The kings of the earth have set themselves, and the rulers have taken counsel together/*^ against my son, the anointed of the Lord. One binds him in chains, another devastates his lands with cruel hostility, or, to use a vulgar phrase. One clips and another plunders; one holds the foot and another skins it. The highest pontiff sees these things, and yet bids the sword of Peter slumber in its scabbard; so he adds boldness to the sinner, his silence being presumed to indicate consent. He who corrects^ not when he can and ought seems even to consent, and his dissimulating patience shall not want the scruple of hidden companionship.'* The time of dissension predicted by the apostle draws on, when the son of perdition shall be revealed; dangerous times are at hand, when the seamless garment of Christ is cut, the net of Peter is broken, and the solidity of Catholic unity dissolved. These are the beginnings of sorrows. We feel bad things; we fear worse. I am no prophetess, nor the daughter of a prophet, but grief has suggested many things about future disturbances; yet it steals away the very words which it suggests. A sob intercepts my breath, and absorbing grief shutS' up by its anxieties the vocal passages of my soul. Farewell.

Richard I Released

On 04 Feb 1194 [his brother] King Richard "Lionheart" I of England (age 36) was released from his captivity; his mother [his mother] Eleanor of Aquitaine Queen Consort Franks and England (age 72) having brought the ransom of 100,000 pounds of silver. On release King Philip II of France (age 28) is said to have sent a message to the future King John (age 27) "Look to yourself; the devil is loose".

Before 06 Apr 1199 King John "Lackland" of England (age 32) had his marriage to [his wife] Isabella Fitzrobert 3rd Countess Gloucester and Essex (age 26) annulled due to consanuinity but more likely because John's new status as heir to the English throne mean't he had better prospects. He may have already decided to marry [his future wife] Isabella of Angoulême Queen Consort England (age 11) who he married on 24 Aug 1200.

Death of Richard I

On 06 Apr 1199 [his brother] King Richard "Lionheart" I of England (age 41) was besieging Châlus Chabrol Castle, Domfront. During the course of the evening King Richard "Lionheart" I of England (age 41) was shot by a crossbow. The wound quickly became gangrenous; Richard died in the arms of his mother [his mother] Eleanor of Aquitaine Queen Consort Franks and England (age 77). His brother King John "Lackland" of England (age 32) succeeded I King England.

There was a brother between Richard and John named [his brother] Geoffrey Duke of Brittany who had a son Arthur (age 12), who was around twelve, and a daughter Eleanor (age 15), who was around fifteen, whose mother was Constance Penthièvre Duchess Brittany (age 38).

King Philip II of France (age 33) had planned for Eleanor (age 15) to marry his son, probably to bring Brittany into the French Royal family, possibly to pursue a claim on England.

King Philip II of France (age 33) supported Arthur's (age 12) claim to the English throne. In the resulting war Arthur (age 12) was captured, imprisoned and never seen again. Eleanor (age 15) was captured, probably around the same time as Arthur, and imprisoned, more or less, for the remainder of her life, even after King John's death through the reign of [his son] King Henry III since she represented a threat to Henry's succession.

Coronation of King John

On 27 May 1199 King John "Lackland" of England (age 32) was crowned I King England by Archbishop Hubert Walter (age 39) at Westminster Abbey [Map]. Bishop Herbert Poore attended.

On 24 Aug 1200 King John "Lackland" of England (age 33) and Isabella of Angoulême Queen Consort England (age 12) were married at . She had been engaged to Hugh Lusignan IX Count Lusignan (age 37) who subsequently appealed to King Philip II of France (age 35), their feudal overlord, who used the position to justify a war against John. The difference in their ages was 21 years. She the daughter of Aymer Angoulême I Count Angoulême (age 40) and Alice Courtenay Countess Angoulême. He the son of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England and Eleanor of Aquitaine Queen Consort Franks and England (age 78).

Battle of Mirebeau

Annals of Margam. 01 Aug 1202. Rex Johannes (age 35) apud castrum Mirabel cepit Arthurum (age 15) nepotem suum in festum Sancti Petri ad vincula, et cum eo Galfridum de Lizanan1 et Hugonem de Brun2, et Andream de Chavenny, et vice-comitem de castro Haraldi3, et Reymundnm de Troarde, et Savaricum de Maulyon, et Hugonem de Banchai, et omnes alios inimicos suos Pictaviæ, qui ibi erant circiter cc. milites et plures. Ex quibus xxii. nobilissimos et strenuissimos in armis fame interfecit in castello de Corf [Map]; ita quod nec unus ex illis evasit.

King John (age 35) took his nephew Arthur (age 15) in chains at the castle of Mirabel on the feast of Saint Peter, and with Geoffrey de Lusignan1, Hugo the Brown2 and Andream de Chavenny, and Hugh III, viscount of Chastelleraud3, and Reymundnm de Troarde, and Savaricum de Maulyon, and Hugonem de Banchai, and all his other enemies of Poitou, who were around 200 soldiers and more. Of which 22 he killed the noblest and bravest men in arms by starvation in the castle of Corfe [Map]; so that not one of them escaped.

Note 1. Geoffrey de Lusignan (age 52).

Note 2. Hugh de Lusignan (age 19), surnamed le Brun, count de la Marche.

Note 3. Hugh III, viscount of Chastelleraud.

On 01 Aug 1202 King John "Lackland" of England (age 35) defeated the army of his nephew Arthur Plantagenet 3rd Duke Brittany (age 15) and Hugh Lusignan X Count Lusignan V Count La Marche (age 19) which was besieging John's mother [his mother] Eleanor of Aquitaine Queen Consort Franks and England (age 80) at Mirebeau Castle. King John "Lackland" of England (age 35) took Arthur Plantagenet 3rd Duke Brittany 1187-1203's army by surprise capturing most. Arthur Plantagenet 3rd Duke Brittany (age 15) and, probably, his sister Eleanor "Fair Maid of Britanny" 4th Countess of Richmond (age 18), both of whom arguably had better claims to the throne than King John "Lackland" of England (age 35) were captured.

Death of Eleanor of Aquitaine

On 01 Apr 1204 [his mother] Eleanor of Aquitaine Queen Consort Franks and England (age 82) died at Fontevraud Abbey [Map].

In 1205 [his son-in-law] Llewellyn "The Great" Aberffraw (age 33) and [his illegitimate daughter] Joan Plantagenet (age 14) were married. She the illegitmate daughter of King John "Lackland" of England (age 38) and Adela Plantagenet.

On 01 Oct 1207 [his son] King Henry III of England was born to King John "Lackland" of England (age 40) and [his wife] Isabella of Angoulême Queen Consort England (age 19) at Winchester Castle [Map].

In 1208 Gwenwynwyn ap Owain Mathrafal Prince Powys Wenwynwyn (age 31) arrested by King John "Lackland" of England (age 41).

Letters. 27 May 1208. Letter VII. Eleanor "Fair Maid of Britanny" 4th Countess of Richmond (age 24) to her subjects in Brittany.

Eleanora, duchess of Bretagne and countess of Richmond, to her dear and faithful lords the bishops of Nantes, Vannes, and Cornwall, and to Eudo de Poule, and Geoffry Espine, and Oliver de Rugy, and Pagan de Mal-Estrail, and all other her barons and faithful subjects of Bretagne, greeting.

We give you manifold thanks concerning the things of which you have informed us, and earnestly entreat you that you, the above-named, come to England to my lord and uncle the king of England (age 41); and know you, certainly, that your advent will, God willing, tend to your and our great honour and convenience, and, by God's grace, to our liberation.

We have spoken with our said uncle (age 41) about affording you a safe-conduct, and he is glad of your coming, and sends you his letters patent of safe-conduct; and you may all come safely by means of those letters - or as many of you as can, if all cannot come.

Witness myself, at Sarum, the 27th day of May.

In 1209 William "Lion" I King Scotland (age 66) sent his two daughters Margaret Dunkeld Countess Kent (age 16) and Isabella Dunkeld Countess Norfolk (age 14) to King John "Lackland" of England (age 42) as hostages to keep the peace. They, Margaret and Isabella, were imprisoned with Eleanor Fair Maid of Brittany (age 25) at Corfe Castle, Dorset [Map].

On 05 Jan 1209 [his son] Richard of Cornwall 1st Earl Cornwall was born to King John "Lackland" of England (age 42) and [his wife] Isabella of Angoulême Queen Consort England (age 21).

In Jul 1209 King John "Lackland" of England (age 42) stayed at Hanley Castle, Worcestershire.

On 22 Jul 1210 [his daughter] Joan Plantagenet Queen of Scotland was born to King John "Lackland" of England (age 43) and [his wife] Isabella of Angoulême Queen Consort England (age 22).

Before 1212 Henry Welf VI Count Palatine of the Rhine (age 15) was raised at the court of his great-uncle King John "Lackland" of England (age 45). Henry's paternal grand-mother was John's sister [his sister] Matilda Plantagenet Duchess Saxony.

In 1213 Robert Fitzroger 2nd Baron Warkworth (age 52) hosted King John "Lackland" of England (age 46) at Warkworth Castle [Map].

In 1214 [his daughter] Isabella Plantagenet Holy Roman Empress was born to King John "Lackland" of England (age 47) and [his wife] Isabella of Angoulême Queen Consort England (age 26).

On 20 Jan 1214 Geoffrey Mandeville 2nd Earl Essex (age 23) and [his wife] Isabella Fitzrobert 3rd Countess Gloucester and Essex (age 41) were married. She by marriage Countess Essex, Countess Gloucester. She the daughter of William Fitzrobert 2nd Earl Gloucester and Hawise Beaumont Countess Gloucester. He the son of Geoffrey Fitzpeter 1st Earl Essex and Beatrice Saye. She a great granddaughter of King Henry I "Beauclerc" England.

Before 11 May 1214 [his illegitimate son] Richard Fitzroy (age 24) and [his daughter-in-law] Rohese de Dover (age 28) were married. He the illegitmate son of King John "Lackland" of England (age 47) and Adela Plantagenet.

In 1215 [his daughter] Eleanor Plantagenet Countess Pembroke and Leicester was born to King John "Lackland" of England (age 48) and [his wife] Isabella of Angoulême Queen Consort England (age 27) at Gloucester, Gloucestershire [Map].

Magna Carta

On 15 Jun 1215 King John "Lackland" of England (age 48) met with his Baron's at Runnymede [Map] where he agreed to the terms of the Magna Carta which attempted to reduce the King's authority through political reform. Those who signed as surety included:

Roger Bigod 2nd Earl Norfolk (age 71)

his son Hugh Bigod 3rd Earl Norfolk (age 33)

Henry Bohun 1st Earl Hereford (age 39)

Richard Clare 3rd Earl Hertford (age 62)

his son Gilbert Clare 5th Earl Gloucester 4th Earl Hertford (age 35)

William "The Younger" Marshal 2nd Earl Pembroke (age 25)

William Mowbray 6th Baron Thirsk (age 42)

Saer Quincy 1st Earl Winchester (age 45)

Robert Ros (age 43), Richard Percy 5th Baron Percy Topcliffe (age 45)

Robert de Vere 3rd Earl of Oxford (age 50)

Eustace Vesci (age 46)

John Fitzrobert 3rd Baron Warkworth (age 25)

John Lacy Earl Lincoln (age 23).

William D'Aubigny (age 64), Geoffrey Mandeville 2nd Earl Essex (age 24)

Robert Clare Fitzwalter

William Forz 3rd Earl Albemarle aka Aumale

William Hardell Lord Mayor

William Huntingfield

William Llanvallei

William Malet 1st Baron Curry Mallet

Roger Montbegon, Richard Montfichet

Geoffrey Saye (age 60) signed as surety the Magna Carta.

Ranulf de Blondeville Gernon 6th Earl Chester 1st Earl Lincoln (age 45) witnessed.

On 13 Sep 1215 Henry de Loundres Archbishop of Dublin was appointed Dean of St Michael's Church Penkridge [Map] by King John "Lackland" of England (age 48). From that time until the recently the Archbishop of Dublin has always been Dean of St Michael's Church Penkridge [Map].

In 1216 Orford Castle, Suffolk [Map] was captured by Prince Louis of France (age 28) who had invaded England in 1216 at the invitation of the English barons who were disillusioned with King John (age 49).

Death of King John

On 19 Oct 1216 King John "Lackland" of England (age 49) died at Newark Castle, Nottinghamshire [Map]. His son [his son] King Henry III of England (age 9) succeeded III King England.

John Monmouth (age 34) was present.

On his deathbed, John appointed a council of thirteen executors to help Henry reclaim the kingdom and requested that his son be placed into the guardianship of William Marshal 1st Earl Pembroke (age 70).

King John's will is the earliest English royal will to survive in its original form. The document is quite small, roughly the size of a postcard and the seals of those who were present at the time would have been attached to it. Translation of the will taken from an article by Professor S.D. Church in the English Historical Review, June 2010:

I, John, by the grace of God king of England, lord of Ireland, duke of Normandy and Aquitaine, count of Anjou, hindered by grave infirmity and not being able at this time of my infirmity to itemize all my things so that I may make a testament, commit the arbitration and administration of my testament to the trust and to the legitimate administration of my faithful men whose names are written below, without whose counsel, even in good health, I would have by no means arranged my testament in their presence, so that what they will faithfully arrange and determine concerning my things as much as in making satisfaction to God and to holy Church for damages and injuries done to them as in sending succour to the land of Jerusalem and in providing support to my sons towards obtaining and defending their inheritance and in making reward to those who have served us faithfully and in making distribution to the poor and to religious houses for the salvation of my soul, be right and sure. I ask, furthermore, that whoever shall give them counsel and assistance in the arranging of my testament shall receive the grace and favour of God. Whoever shall infringe their arrangement and disposition, may he incur the curse and indignation of almighty God and the blessed Mary and all the saints.

In the first place, therefore, I desire that my body be buried in the church of St Mary and St Wulfstan at Worcester. I appoint, moreover, the following arbiters and administrators: the lord Guala, by the grace of God, cardinal-priest of the title of St Martin and legate of the apostolic see; the lord Peter bishop of Winchester; the lord Richard bishop of Chichester; the lord Silvester bishop of Worcester; Brother Aimery de St-Maur; William Marshal earl of Pembroke; Ranulf earl of Chester; William earl Ferrers; William Brewer; Walter de Lacy and John of Monmouth; Savaric de Mauléon; Falkes de Bréauté.

The signatories were:

Guala Bicchieri (ca 1150 - 1227) Papal Legate.

Bishop Peter de Roches, Bishop of Winchester.

Richard le Poer (? - 1237), Bishop of Chichester.

Sylvester of Worcester, Bishop of Worcester.

Aimery de St-Maur (? -?1219), Master of the English Templars.

William Marshal 1st Earl Pembroke (age 70).

Ranulf de Blondeville Gernon 6th Earl Chester 1st Earl Lincoln (age 46).

William Ferrers 4th Earl of Derby (age 48).

William Brewer (? - 1226), 1st Baron Brewer.

Walter de Lacy (ca 1172-1241) Lord of Meath.

John: (1182 - 1248) Lord of Monmouth.

Savaric de Mauléon (? - 1236) Seneschal of Poitou from 1205.

Falkes de Bréauté (? - 1226) Seneschal of Cardiff Castle.

After 19 Oct 1216 King John "Lackland" of England (age 49) was buried in the Lady Chapel of Worcester Cathedral [Map]. Originally his effigy would have covered his coffin at floor level. Sometime around 1500 his tomb was moved to the Choir in front of the High Altar - the Chest Tomb similar to that of Prince Arthur's nearby. The Purbeck Marble effigy is the earliest of a King in England. Unusually carved to be life-like. His head supported by St Oswald and St Wulfstan, the two patron saints of Worcester. The base constructed in the 16th Century. The tomb was opened again on Monday 17 Jul 1797 at the instigation of Valentine Green (1739-1813). Inside the tomb chest, a stone coffin was discovered, containing the royal remains - see Monumental Effigies.

In Sep 1217 Hubert de Burgh Count Mortain 1st Earl Kent (age 47) and [his former wife] Isabella Fitzrobert 3rd Countess Gloucester and Essex (age 44) were married. She the daughter of William Fitzrobert 2nd Earl Gloucester and Hawise Beaumont Countess Gloucester. She a great granddaughter of King Henry I "Beauclerc" England.

On 14 Oct 1217 [his former wife] Isabella Fitzrobert 3rd Countess Gloucester and Essex (age 44) died.

Letters. 1220. Letter IX. Berengaria of Navarre Queen Consort England (age 55) to Bishop Peter de Roches.

To her venerable father in Christ and most cordial friend Peter, by God's grace bishop of Winchester, Berengaria, by the same grace formerly the humble queen of England, wishes health and every good thing.

We send to you our well-beloved Friar Walter, of the Cistercian order, the bearer of these presents, beseeching you humbly and devotedly, with all the humility that we can, that, in reference as well to this present feast of All Saints as to other terms now past, you will cause us to be satisfied about the money due to us according to the composition of our dower, which, by your mediation, we made with our brother John of happy memory, formerly king of England. Fare you well.

Chronica Majora. Sep 1236. In the same year, the king, by the advice of his nobles, proceeded to York to consult vith them and make arrangements for settling the dispute between him and Alexander (age 38), king of Scotland, and which had now grown into hatred. For to wise men, who weighed future events in the scale of reason, it seemed foolish that the kingdom of England, surrounded on all sides by enemies on the continent, should secretly generate internal hatred. The origin of this discord was (it is said) as follows: -The king of Scotland had constantly demanded the county of Northumberland, which King John had given him as a marriage portion with his daughter [his illegitimate daughter] Johanna (age 45), and for which he declared that he held a charter and had the evidence of a great many bishops and clergy of rank, as well as earls and barons; and he declared that it was an unworthy and execrable action to revoke what proceeded from the lips of kings, and to annul a compact made between persons of such noble station. He also added, that unless the English king would peaceably give him what plain reason proved to be his right, he would seek it at the sword's point. He was inspired with confidence by the secret, although suspected, friendship of Llewellyn, and by his alliance and affinity with Gilbert Marshal (age 39), who had married his sister Margaret (age 36), a most handsome lady. The hostility of his continental states, too, was always in conspiracy against him, and moreover, his cause was just, as was proved by the muniments of former kings. After much discussion on both sides, the king of England, for the sake of peace, and for the protection of his kingdom, as far as lay in his power offered the king of Scots a revenue of eighty marks from some other part of England, in order that the boundaries of his kingdom might not be broken in upon in the northern parts. But whilst he waited until the affair should be settled to the satisfaction of both parties, the conference ended, and all for the moment remained at peace.

About that time, the knight, Philip Daubeney, a noble devoted to God, and brave in battle, after fighting for the Lord during several pilgrimages to the Holy Land, at length closed his life by a praiseworthy death there, and obtained a holy burial in the Holy Land, which he had long desired when living.

Around 1250. Newbridge, Oxfordshire [Map] is a 13th Century bridge over the River Thames one of three bridges built on the orders of King John to facilitate the wool trade; the other two being St John's Bridge Lechlade [Map] and Radcot Bridge [Map].

1260 Annals Dunstable. 1260. In the year of grace 1260.[his son] Henry King of England (age 52), son of King John, etc.

Original Latin Text:

Anno gratiae MCCLX. Henricus rex Angliae (age 52), filius regis Johannis, pace firmata cum rege Franciae, ibidem per longum tempus moram traxit; nec in Angliam redire curavit, donec episcopi et magnates Angliae ei literatorie mandaverunt quod reverti in Angliam properaret; quod si non faceret, ad placitum suum in Anglia non rediret. Quo audito, rex in se reversus, in Angliam rediit; sed quidam malitiosi falsis rumoribus inter patrem et filium suum Edwardum discordiam seminavervmt, asserentes quod dictus Edwardus et consiliarii sui guerram domino regi movere procurarunt; propter quod dominus rex supra modum iratus, multos milites de partibus transmarinis usque Londoniam secum adduxit; et eis ultra pontem dimissis in partibus Sureiae, ipse civitatem Londonise ingressus est, et ibi aliquandiu moram fecit, portis civitatis firmatis et seratis, apposuit custodes, ut nullus nisi ab eo licentiatus ingrederetur.

Comes vero Gloverni, et Johannes Maunsel, et quidam alii qui de concilio regis fuerunt, ad placitum suum ingressum et egressum habuerunt.

Rex vero proliibuit, ne filius suus Edwardus, nec aliquis qui de consilio suo extiterat, coram ipso venirent, dicens, "Coram me non appareat filius mens Edwardus, quia si eum videro, quin ipsum osculer me non cohibebo.".

Tandem, amore paterno commotus, et magnatum precibus devictus, ipsum ad osculum pacis recepit, et regina mater sua similiter, quae, ut dicebatur, causa totius malitis extiterat.

Dum ista aguntur, quantos honores et quantas expensas, omnibus qui interesse voluerint, dominus Edwardus fecerit, lingua vix potest explicare.

In Nov 2013 King John "Lackland" of England stayed at Hanley Castle, Worcestershire.

King John "Lackland" of England 1166-1216 appears on the following Descendants Family Trees:

King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England 1133-1189

Eleanor of Aquitaine Queen Consort Franks and England 1122-1204

King William "Conqueror" I of England 1028-1087

Malcolm III King Scotland 1031-1093

Duncan "The Sick" I King Scotland 1001-1040

Royal Ancestors of King John "Lackland" of England 1166-1216

Kings Wessex: Great x 4 Grand Son of King Edmund "Ironside" I of England

Kings England: Son of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Kings Scotland: Great x 2 Grand Son of Malcolm III King Scotland

Kings Franks: Great x 10 Grand Son of Louis "Pious" King Aquitaine I King Franks

Kings France: Great x 4 Grand Son of Robert "Pious" II King France

Royal Descendants of King John "Lackland" of England 1166-1216

King Henry III of England x 1

Joan Plantagenet Queen of Scotland x 1

Isabella Plantagenet Holy Roman Empress x 1

King Robert II of Scotland x 1

King Richard II of England x 1

King Henry V of England x 1

Philippa Lancaster Queen Consort Denmark x 1

Joan Beaufort Queen Consort Scotland x 2

Jacquetta of Luxemburg Duchess Bedford x 1

King Edward IV of England x 5

King Richard III of England x 5

Anne Neville Queen Consort England x 8

King Henry VII of England and Ireland x 3

Queen Anne Boleyn of England x 7

Anne Jagiellon Holy Roman Empress x 2

Queen Jane Seymour x 9

Catherine Parr Queen Consort England x 12

Mary of Guise Queen Consort Scotland x 1

Antoine King Navarre x 1

Queen Catherine Howard of England x 7

Jane "Nine Days Queen" Grey I Queen England and Ireland x 14

Louise Lorraine Queen Consort France x 1

President George Washington x 4

Queen Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom x 1347

Queen Consort Camilla Shand x 503

Diana Spencer Princess Wales x 4262

Catherine Middleton Princess of Wales x 14

Ancestors of King John "Lackland" of England 1166-1216

Great x 4 Grandfather: Hugh de Perche Count Gâtinais

Great x 3 Grandfather: Geoffrey "Ferréol" Anjou 2nd Count Gâtinais

Great x 4 Grandmother: Béatrice de Mâcon Countess Gâtinais

Great x 2 Grandfather: Fulk "Réchin" Anjou 4th Count Anjou

Great x 4 Grandfather: Fulk "Black" Ingelger III Count Anjou

Great x 3 Grandmother: Ermengarde Blanche Ingelger Duchess Burgundy

Great x 4 Grandmother: Hildegarde Sundgau Countess Anjou

Great x 1 Grandfather: Fulk "Young" King Jerusalem

Great x 4 Grandfather: Aumary Reginarids

Great x 3 Grandfather: Simon Montfort

Great x 4 Grandmother: Bertrade Unknown

Great x 2 Grandmother: Bertrade Montfort Queen Consort France

Great x 4 Grandfather: Richard Normandy 2nd Count Évreux

Great x 3 Grandmother: Agnès of Normandy

Great x 4 Grandmother: Adelaide or Godehildis Ramon

GrandFather: Geoffrey Plantagenet Duke Normandy

Great x 3 Grandfather: Jean de la Flèche La Flèche De Baugency

Great x 2 Grandfather: Elias La Flèche De Baugency I Count Maine

Great x 4 Grandfather: Herbert "Wakedog" Maine I Count Maine

Great x 3 Grandmother: Paula Maine

Great x 1 Grandmother: Ermengarde La Flèche De Baugency Countess Anjou

Great x 3 Grandfather: Gervais II Lord Chateau Du Loir

Great x 2 Grandmother: Matilda Chateau Du Loir Countess Maine

Father: King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England Grand Son of King Henry I "Beauclerc" England

Great x 2 Grandfather: King William "Conqueror" I of England -2 x Great Grand Son of King William "Conqueror" I of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: Father of Beatrix and Herleva

Great x 3 Grandmother: Herleva Falaise

Great x 1 Grandfather: King Henry I "Beauclerc" England Son of King William "Conqueror" I of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: Baldwin "Bearded" IV Count Flanders

Great x 3 Grandfather: Baldwin "The Good" V Count Flanders

Great x 4 Grandmother: Ogive Luxemburg Countess Flanders

Great x 2 Grandmother: Matilda Flanders Queen Consort England

Great x 4 Grandfather: Robert "Pious" II King France

Great x 3 Grandmother: Adela Capet Duchess Normandy

Great x 4 Grandmother: Constance Arles Queen Consort France

GrandMother: Empress Matilda Daughter of King Henry I "Beauclerc" England

Great x 3 Grandfather: Duncan "The Sick" I King Scotland

Great x 2 Grandfather: Malcolm III King Scotland

Great x 3 Grandmother: Bethóc Unknown Queen Consort Scotland

Great x 1 Grandmother: Edith aka Matilda Dunkeld Queen Consort England

Great x 4 Grandfather: King Edmund "Ironside" I of England

Great x 3 Grandfather: Edward "The Exile" Wessex

Great x 4 Grandmother: Ealdgyth Unknown

Great x 2 Grandmother: Margaret Wessex Queen Consort Scotland

Great x 3 Grandmother: Agatha

King John "Lackland" of England Son of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: William "Proud Arm" IV Duke Aquitaine

Great x 3 Grandfather: William "Great" V Duke Aquitaine

Great x 4 Grandmother: Emma Blois Duchess Aquitaine

Great x 2 Grandfather: Guy William Poitiers VIII Duke Aquitaine

Great x 4 Grandfather: Otto William Ivrea I Count Burgundy

Great x 3 Grandmother: Agnes Ivrea Duchess Aquitaine

Great x 4 Grandmother: Ermentrude Countess Burgundy

Great x 1 Grandfather: William "Troubadour" Poitiers IX Duke Aquitaine

Great x 4 Grandfather: Robert "Pious" II King France

Great x 3 Grandfather: Robert I Duke Burgundy

Great x 4 Grandmother: Constance Arles Queen Consort France

Great x 2 Grandmother: Hildegarde Burgundy Duchess Aquitaine

Great x 4 Grandfather: Fulk "Black" Ingelger III Count Anjou

Great x 3 Grandmother: Ermengarde Blanche Ingelger Duchess Burgundy

Great x 4 Grandmother: Hildegarde Sundgau Countess Anjou

GrandFather: William "Saint" Poitiers X Duke Aquitaine

Great x 3 Grandfather: Pons Rouerge Margrave Provence

Great x 2 Grandfather: William Rouerge Duke Narbonne

Great x 4 Grandfather: Bernard La Marche Count La Marche

Great x 3 Grandmother: Almodis La Marche Margrave Provence

Great x 1 Grandmother: Philippa Rouerge Duchess Aquitaine

Great x 4 Grandfather: Herluin de Conteville Mortain

Great x 3 Grandfather: Robert Mortain Count Mortain 1st Earl Cornwall

Great x 4 Grandmother: Herleva Falaise

Great x 2 Grandmother: Emma Mortain Duchess Narbonne

Great x 3 Grandmother: Matilda or Maud Montgomery

Great x 4 Grandmother: Mabel Belleme

Mother: Eleanor of Aquitaine Queen Consort Franks and England

Great x 1 Grandfather: Aimery Chatellerault Viscount Châtellerault

GrandMother: Aenor Chatellerault Duchess Aquitaine

Great x 2 Grandfather: Bartholomew Île Bouchard

Great x 1 Grandmother: Dangereuse Ile Bouchard Viscountess Chatellerault