Biography of Queen Jane Seymour 1509-1537

Paternal Family Tree: Seymour

Maternal Family Tree: Emma de Dinan 1136-1208

1491 Birth and Christening of Henry VIII

1504 Henry Tudor created Prince of Wales

1509 Death of Henry VII

1509 Marriage of King Henry VIII and Catherine of Aragon

1533 Marriage of Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn

1536 Anne Boleyn's Miscarriage

1536 Arrest of Anne Boleyn

1536 Trial of Anne and George Boleyn

1536 Execution of George Boleyn, Brereton, Norris, Smeaton and Weston

1536 Execution of Anne Boleyn

1536 Betrothal of Henry VIII and Jane Seymour

1536 Marriage of Henry VIII and Jane Seymour

1536 Post Execution Sources

1537 Birth and Christening Edward VI

1537 Death of Jane Seymour

1537 Funeral of Jane Seymour

1540 Marriage of Henry VIII and Anne of Cleves

1540 Marriage of Henry VIII and Catherine Howard

1543 Marriage of Henry VIII and Catherine Parr

1547 Death of Henry VIII Accession of Edward VI

Birth and Christening of Henry VIII

On 28 Jun 1491 [her future husband] Henry VIII was born to King Henry VII of England and Ireland (age 34) and Elizabeth York Queen Consort England (age 25) at the Palace of Placentia, Greenwich [Map]. He was created Duke Cornwall.

In 1494 [her future husband] Henry VIII (age 2) was created 1st Duke York.

On 22 Oct 1494 [her father] John Seymour (age 20) and [her mother] Margery Wentworth were married. She a great x 5 granddaughter of King Edward III of England.

Henry Tudor created Prince of Wales

On 18 Feb 1504 [her future husband] Henry VIII (age 12) was created Prince of Wales and 1st Earl Chester. John Mordaunt 1st Baron Mordaunt (age 24) was created Knight of the Bath. Richard Empson (age 54) was knighted.

Around 1509 Jane Seymour was born to John Seymour (age 35) and Margery Wentworth at Wulf aka Wolf Hall, Wiltshire [Map].

Death of Henry VII

On 21 Apr 1509 King Henry VII of England and Ireland (age 52) died of tuberculosis at Richmond Palace [Map]. His son [her future husband] Henry VIII  (age 17) succeeded VIII King England. Duke York and Earl Chester merged with the Crown.

Marriage of King Henry VIII and Catherine of Aragon

On 11 Jun 1509, one month after the death of his father, [her future husband] Henry VIII (age 17) and Catherine of Aragon (age 23) were married at the Church of the Observant Friars, Greenwich [Map]. She had, eight years before, married his older brother Prince Arthur Tudor - see Marriage of Arthur Tudor and Catherine of Aragon. She the daughter of Ferdinand II King Aragon (age 57) and Isabella Queen Castile. He the son of King Henry VII of England and Ireland and Elizabeth York Queen Consort England. They were half third cousin once removed. She a great x 3 granddaughter of King Edward III of England.

Marriage of Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn

On 25 Jan 1533 [her future husband] Henry VIII (age 41) and Queen Anne Boleyn of England (age 32) were married by Rowland Leigh Bishop of Coventry and Lichfield (age 46) at Whitehall Palace [Map]. Anne Savage Baroness Berkeley (age 37), Thomas Heneage (age 53) and Henry Norreys (age 51) witnessed. She the daughter of Thomas Boleyn 1st Earl Wiltshire and Ormonde (age 56) and Elizabeth Howard Countess of Wiltshire and Ormonde (age 53). He the son of King Henry VII of England and Ireland and Elizabeth York Queen Consort England.

Sometime after the marriage Eleanor Paston Countess Rutland (age 38) was appointed Lady in Waiting to Queen Anne Boleyn of England (age 32). She would go to serve Henry's next three wives.

Letters and Papers 1535. [08 Oct 1535]. 566. You are aware of the quarrel which took place between [her future step-daughter] her and her governess (age 59) when we went to visit her little [her future step-daughter] sister (age 2), and that we have been told how she was put almost by force into her chamber, in order that she should not speak to us, and how it was impossible to appease her and confine her to her chamber till the gentleman conducting us assured her that the King, her father, had commanded him to tell her not to show herself while we were there. You know also the conversations which the same gentleman had with you concerning her, and the charge which the Queen had given him: also that a person has endeavoured to cause her to send her will in writing. If the King (Francis) approved of the marriage it would be to unite two kingdoms, and the King would have the great honor of annexing "les deux Bretagnes" to the French crown. The King has good reason to take the matter up, for the marriage was made by consent of both parents, and half England desires it. If the Pope were advertised of the treaties which the king of England proposes to make with the King, he would suspect that he should lose the money of France, in the same way as he has lost the money of England, if war should take place; and therefore he would induce the Emperor to urge the King (Francis) to accomplish this marriage. I believe the Emperor would help it forward from the love which he bears to his niece. If the Emperor urge Francis the latter can then consult about informing the king of England of the Emperor's intention, and persuading him to consent to it in order to avoid war, seeing that the said Lord (Henry) does not deny that she is his daughter, and knows that the marriage is concluded. If the king of England do not approve because his wife persuades him to the contrary, he will fear to set Francis and the Emperor against himself solely through his affection for his wife, which is less than it has been, and diminishes day by day, because he has new amours (age 26)1.

Item, to advertise the King of the maladies which are in "la rasse;" and that the Swedes in the King's pay, whom the Lubeckers had drawn into the Danish quarrel, have taken fourteen English ships, among which the Minion of the English king, the mistress of England2, has been broken to pieces.


*** A translation of this letter is printed by Mr. Froude in his Appendix to "the Pilgrim" (p. 100) as a letter from Dinteville to M. de Tarbes, and dated in Oct. 1534.

Note 1. Margin: "Nota, qu'il ne sera pas paradventure fort malaisé à gaigner le Roy." ie. Note, that it will not be very difficult to win the King. The "new amours" may be a reference to Jane Seymour (age 26) especially in view of King Henry having stayed at Wolf Hall in Sep 1535.

Note 2. "Entre lesquelles a este mise en pieces la Mignone du Roy d'Angletrerre, qui estoi la maistresse d'Angleterre." ie. Between which was torn into pieces the Mignone of the King of England, the mistress of England. This is a reference to ship rather than a person!

Anne Boleyn's Miscarriage

Letters 1536. 29 Jan 1536. Vienna Archives. 282. Chapuys (age 46) to Charles V.

On the day of the interment the Concubine (age 35) had an abortion which seemed to be a male child which she had not borne 3½ months, at which the King has shown great distress. The said concubine (age 35) wished to lay the blame on the Duke of Norfolk (age 63), whom she hates, saying he frightened her by bringing the news of the fall the King had six days before. But it is well known that is not the cause, for it was told her in a way that she should not be alarmed or attach much importance to it. Some think it was owing to her own incapacity to bear children, others to a fear that the King would treat her like the late Queen, especially considering the treatment shown to a lady of the Court, named Mistress Semel [Jane Seymour (age 27)], to whom, as many say, he has lately made great presents. The Princess's gouvernante (age 60), her daughters, and a niece, have been in great sorrow for the said abortion, and have been continually questioning a lady who is very intimate with the Princess whether the said Princess did not know the said news of the abortion, and that she might know that, but they would not for the world that she knew the rest, meaning that there was some fear the King might take another wife.

Calendars. On the same day that the Queen (deceased) was buried this King's concubine (age 35) miscarried of a child, who had the appearance of a nude about three months and a half old, at which miscarriage the [her future husband] King (age 44) has certainly shown great disappointment and sorrow. The concubine (age 35) herself has since attempted to throw all the blame on the duke of Norfolk (age 63), whom she hates, pretending that her mishap was entirely owing to the shock she received when, six days before, he (the Duke) came to announce to her the King's fall from his horse. But the King knows very well that it was not that, for his accident was announced to her in a manner not to create alarm; besides which, when she heard of it, she seemed quite indifferent to it. Upon the whole, the general opinion is that the concubine's miscarriage was entirely owing to defective constitution, and her utter inability to bear male children; whilst others imagine that the fear of the King treating her as he treated his late Queen, which is not unlikely, considering his behaviour towards a damsel of the Court, named Miss Seymour (age 27), to whom he has latterly made very valuable presents-is the oral cause of it all. The Princess' governess, her daughters, and a niece of hers, have greatly mourned over the concubines miscarriage, never ceasing to interrogate one of the Princess' most familiar maids in waiting on the subject, and asking whether their mistress had been informed of Anne's miscarriage, for if she had, as was most likely, they still would not for the world that she knew the rest of the affair and its causes, thereby intending to say that there was fear of the King's taking another wife.

Letters 1536. 25 Feb 1536. Vienna Archives. 351. Chapuys (age 46) to Charles V.

I learn from several persons of this Court that for more than three months this King has not spoken ten times to the Concubine (age 35), and that when she miscarried he scarcely said anything to her, except that he saw clearly that God did not wish to give him male children; and in leaving her he told her, as if for spite, that he would speak to her after she was "relevize1". The said Concubine (age 35) attributed the misfortune to two causes: first, the King's fall; and, secondly, that the love she bore him was far greater than that of the late Queen, so that her heart broke when she saw that he loved others [Jane Seymour (age 27)]. At which remark the King was much grieved, and has shown his feeling by the fact that during these festive days he is here, and has left the other (age 35) at Greenwich, when formerly he could not leave her for an hour.

Note 1. Possibly from 'relever' ie recovered?

The History of the Reformation Volume 1 Book III. But the duke of Norfolk at court, and Gardiner beyond sea, thought there might easily be found a mean to accommodate the king, both with the emperor and the pope, if the queen were once out of the way; for then he might freely marry any one whom he pleased, and that marriage, with the male issue of it, could not be disputed: whereas, as long as the queen lived, her marriage, as being judged all from the beginning, could never be allowed by the court of Rome, or any of that party. With less reasons of state, others of affection concurred. The queen had been his wife three years: but at this time he entertained a secret love for Jane Seimour (age 27), who had all the charms both of beauty and youth in her person; and her humour was tempered between the severe gravity of queen Katharine, and the gay pleasantness of queen Anne. The queen, perceiving this alienation of the king's heart, used all possible arts to recover that affection, of whose decay she was sadly sensible. But the success was quite contrary to what she designed: for the king saw her no more with those eyes, which she had formerly captivated; but grew jealous, and ascribed these caresses to some other criminal affections, of which he began to suspect her. This being one of the most memorable passages of this reign, I was at more than ordinary pains to learn all I could concerning it; and have not only seen a great many letters that were writ by those that were set about the queen, and catched every thing that fell from her, and sent it to court, but have also seen an account of it, which the learned Spelman, who was a judge at that time, writ with his own hand in his common-place book; and another account of it, writ by one Anthony Anthony, a surveyor of the ordnance of the Tower. From all which I shall give a just and faithful relation of it, without concealing the least circumstance, that may either seem favourable or unfavourable to her.

The History of the Reformation Volume 1 Book III. She was of a very cheerful temper, which was not always limited within the bounds of exact decency and discretion. She [Queen Anne Boleyn of England (age 35)] had rallied some of the king's servants more than became her. Her brother, the lord Rochford (age 33), was her friend, as well as brother; but his spiteful wife (age 31) was jealous of him and, being a woman of no sort of virtue, (as will appear afterwards by her serving queen Katharine Howard in her beastly practices, for which she was attainted and executed,) she carried many stories to the king, or some about him, to persuade, that there was a familiarity between the queen and her brother, beyond what, so near a relation could justify. All that could be said for it was only this; that he was once been leaning upon her bed, which bred great suspicion. Henry Norris, that was groom of the stole; Weston and Brereton, that were the king's privy chamber; and one Mark Smeton, a musician; were all observed to have much of her favour. And their seal in serving her was thought too warm and diligent to flow from a less active principle than love. Many circumstances were brought to the king, which, working upon his aversion to the queen, together with his affection to mistress Seimour (age 27), made him conclude her guilty.

Calendars. 06 Mar 1536. 35. Anne Bolans (age 35) is now in fear of the King deserting her one of these days, in order to marry another lady (age 27).

Letters 1536. 18 Mar 1536. Vienna Archives. 495. Chapuys (age 46) to Granvelle.

Knows not what to add to what he has written to the Emperor, except that he has been informed that of late the King said triumphantly at a full table how the Pope, fearing the Emperor's approach to Rome, had furnished the castle of St. Angelo to withdraw into, and was raising foot soldiers for the same reason. He also said that the marquis of Guasto had killed the marquis of Villa Franca, which was a very awkward thing for the Emperor. These are all French inventions, which this King has no great difficulty in believing. You will see by the letters I write to his Majesty, the gentle device of this King to extract money on pretext of charity by means of the offerings. If it succeed, as no doubt it will, he will gain an immense sum of money, for he will impose a tax according to his will which everyone will have to offer, and not engage to do so for once but for all the other innumerable inventions that this King daily puts forward in order to get money, at which the people is terribly grieved and almost desperate, but no man dare complain. The new amours of this King with the young lady [Jane Seymour (age 27)] of whom I have before written still go on, to the intense rage of the concubine (age 35); and the King fifteen days ago put into his chamber the young lady's [her brother] brother (age 36).

London, 18 March 1535Fr., from a modern copy, pp. 2.

Life of Anne Boleyn by Lancelot du Carle. The Letter next alludes to the beginnings of King Henry’s affection for Jane Seymour (age 27) although the wording is unhelpfully vague …

Par le moyen de sa grande licenceThanks to her great freedom
Que luy donnoit le publique defensegiven by the public’s acceptance
Que nul n'ausasi sur peine de martyrethat no one will be on pain of martyrdom
Alcunement de la Royne mesdirespoke ill of the Queen
Mais celle Roy n'eut pouvoir d'asseurerbut this King was unable to assure
Que l'amitié peut longuement durerthat friendship can last a long time
Car par le temps elle s'amoindrissoitbecause over time it fades.
Le Roy de sa premiere affectionThe cause of the King’s first affection
Je n'en sçaurois dire l'occasionI can't tell you the occasion
Si ce n'estoit par la raison communeif it were due to the usual cause
De l'inconstance, et muable fortuneof inconstancy, and changing fortune
Ce que Dieu veult nous monstre plus souventfor God often shows us, in His design
Que grands honeurs et biens ne font que ventthat great honors and wealth are vanity
Lesquelez donne a ceulx qui veult pugnirgiven to those he wants to punish
De leurs messaictz pour les faire venirfor their misdeeds, making them rise,
D'une grand plaisir apres a grand souffranceto great pleasure, then to great suffering
Comme voyex ici l'experienceas you can see by this experience.

Letters 1536. 01 Apr 1536. The said Marchioness (age 33) has sent to me to say that by this the King's love and desire towards the said lady [Jane Seymour (age 27)] was wonderfully increased, and that he had said she had behaved most virtuously, and to show her that he only loved her honorably, he did not intend henceforth to speak with her except in presence of some of her kin; for which reason the King has caused Cromwell to remove from a chamber to which the King can go by certain galleries without being perceived, and has lodged there the eldest brother [[her brother] Edward Seymour (age 36)] of the said lady [Jane Seymour (age 27)] with his wife [Anne Stanhope Duchess Somerset (age 39)], in order to bring thither the same young lady (age 27), who has been well taught for the most part by those intimate with the King, who hate the Concubine (age 35), that she must by no means comply with the King's wishes except by way of marriage; in which she is quite firm. She is also advised to tell the King boldly how his marriage is detested by the people, and none consider it lawful; and on the occasion when she shall bring forward the subject, there ought to be present none but titled persons, who will say the same if the King put them upon their oath of fealty. And the said Marchioness (age 33) would like that I or some one else, on the part of your Majesty, should assist in the matter; and certainly it appears to me that if it succeed, it will be a great thing both for the security of the Princess and to remedy the heresies here, of which the Concubine (age 35) is the cause and principal nurse, and also to pluck the King from such an abominable and more than incestuous marriage. The Princess would be very happy, even if she were excluded from her inheritance by male issue. I will consult with them again today, and on learning her opinion will consider the expedient to be taken, so that if no good be done, I may at least not do any harm. London, 1 April 1536. Fr., from a modern copy, pp. 7.

Letters 1536. 01 Apr 1536. The prelates here are daily in communication in the house of the archbishop of Canterbury for the determination of certain articles and for the reform of ecclesiastical ceremonies; and, as I understand, they do not admit (nadvertent, qu. nadmectent ?) purgatory, the use of chrism "et autres jeusies" (?), the festivals of the saints and images, which is the way to spoil St. Thomas of Canterbury and other places of pilgrimage. They are also occupied in replying to a writing made by Luther and his fellows, which the bishop [of Hereford], ambassador of this King, being with them, has sent, whereby Luther and his adherents conclude that the first marriage was valid (tollèrable); and whether it were so or not, without doubt the Princess was legitimate. It is true the ambassador, to please his master, writes that although he thinks the said Luther and the others know the contrary of what he had written, yet they dare not say it for fear of your Majesty. At this instant the Marchioness (age 33) has sent to me to say what Mr. Gelyot (qu. Elyot?) had already told me, viz., that the King being lately in this town, and the young lady, Mrs. Semel [Jane Seymour (age 27)], whom he serves, at Greenwich, he sent her a purse full of sovereigns, and with it a letter, and that the young lady, after kissing the letter, returned it unopened to the messenger, and throwing herself on her knees before him, begged the said messenger that he would pray the King on her part to consider that she was a gentlewoman of good and honorable parents, without reproach, and that she had no greater riches in the world than her honor, which she would not injure for a thousand deaths, and that if he wished to make her some present in money she begged it might be when God enabled her to make some honorable match.

Letters 1536. 21 Apr 1536. Vienna Archives. 699. Chapuys (age 46) to Charles V.

Perceiving by this conversation that the King's affection was not sincere, I did not enter further into business, but only asked him if the king of France were to break or attempt to break any other article touching the duke of Gueldres or other matters, whether he would not aid your Majesty according to the treaties. He replied that, so far as he found himself bound, he would acquit himself better than several others had done towards him; and as to the rest, in which he was not bound, he would give satisfaction as occasion was given to him. Returning to the subject of the war against the duke of Savoy, he wished me to understand, notwithstanding that I had told him what you had written to me, that the said war was not against the will of your Majesty, and also that the duke of Savoy had lately offered to come to the court of France, "sur quoy ne resta a luy donner assez raisons a lopposite." After this he called the Chancellor and Cromwell, and made me repeat before them what I had said to him, which I did succinctly, without interruption from him or the others. After which they talked together, while I conversed and made some acquaintance with the [her brother] brother (age 36) of the young lady [Jane Seymour (age 27)] to whom the King is now attached, always keeping an eye upon the gestures of the King and those with him. There seemed to be some dispute and considerable anger, as I thought, between the King and Cromwell; and after a considerable time Cromwell grumbling (recomplant (?) et grondissant) left the conference in the window where the King was, excusing himself that he was so very thirsty (altere) that he was quite exhausted, as he really was with pure vexation (de pur enuyt), and sat down upon a coffer out of sight of the King, where he sent for something to drink. Shortly afterwards the King came out of the conclave, I know not whether to come near me, or to see where Cromwell was. He told me that the matters proposed were so important that without having my propositions in writing he could not communicate them to his Council or make me any reply. I told him that I was not forbidden to do so, but I could not venture, for several reasons, and I thought it a new thing, seeing that hitherto he had not asked anything of me by way of writing, and had never found me variable or vacillating, either now or before, and that I had learned from his ambassadors whom he sent to Bologna to your Majesty to make such refusal, although they had not such good reason for it as I; also I had taken example of Cromwell, who had never given me anything in writing; and if he wished such writing to be assured that there was no dissimulation on your Majesty's part, I would offer my ears, which I would give far more unwillingly than all the writings in the world, if there should be any deceit on the side of your Majesty;—with which conversation, as Cromwell told me afterwards, the King was far better assured than before, taking this offer in good part. Nevertheless, he insisted wonderfully on having the said writing, and said several times very obstinately that he would give no reply. Nevertheless, he did reply, confusedly and in anger, to the following effect:—(1.) The affair of the Pope did not concern your Majesty, if you did not wish to meddle with it to vindicate your authority over the whole world, and if he wished to treat with His Holiness he has means and friends without needing your intercession. (2.) Concerning the Princess she was his daughter, and he would treat her according as she obeyed him or not, and no one else had a right to interfere. (3.) As to the subvention against the Turk, it was necessary first to re-establish old friendship before putting people to expense. (4.) As to the fourth, which was most urgent, and which I have chiefly pressed, he said he would not violate any promise he has made, or refuse the friendship of any one who desired it, provided it was such as was becoming, but that he was no longer a child, and that they must not give him the stick, and then caress him, appealing to him and begging him. In saying this, to show how he was experienced in business, he began playing with his fingers on his knees, and doing as if he were calling a child to pacify it, [and said] that before asking an injured person for favor and aid it was necessary to acknowledge old favors. And on my saying that we had been so long treating of this re-establishment, and I had pressed for an overture of what he wished to be done, but to no purpose, he answered that it was not for him to make an overture, but for those who sought him. I replied that if he who was hurt did not show his wound it was impossible to heal it. He then said he wished your Majesty would write to him, [desiring] that if there had been in the past any ingratitude or error on your part towards him, he would forget it, [and] requesting him to show that the root of old amity is not disturbed. I told him this was not reasonable, and he moderated the proposal, suggesting that you should request him not to speak any more of the past. I said no other letter was needed, because I asked it of him in the name of your Majesty; but he persisted that he must have letters, and it was no use reminding him of what he has several times said to me before, that delay is the ruin of all good works.

Letters 1536. 29 Apr 1536. Vienna Archives. 752. Chapuys (age 46) to Charles V.

The Grand Ecuyer [Esquire], Mr. Caro (age 40), had on St. George's day the Order of the Garter in the place of the deceased M. de Burgain, to the great disappointment of Rochford (age 33), who was seeking for it, and all the more because the Concubine (age 35) has not had sufficient influence to get it for her brother; and it will not be the fault of the said Ecuyer if the Concubine, although his cousin (quelque, qu. quoique? cousine) be not dismounted. He continually counsels Mrs. Semel [Jane Seymour (age 27)] and other conspirators "pour luy faire une venue," [to make him a visit] and only four days ago he and some persons of the chamber sent to tell the [her future step-daughter] Princess (age 20) to be of good cheer, for shortly the opposite party would put water in their wine, for the King was already as sick and tired of the concubine (age 35) as could be; and the brother of lord Montague told me yesterday at dinner that the day before the bishop of London (age 61) had been asked if the King could abandon the said concubine, and he would not give any opinion to anyone but the King himself, and before doing so he would like to know the King's own inclination, meaning to intimate that the King might leave the said concubine, but that, knowing his fickleness, he would not put himself in danger. The said Bishop was the principal cause and instrument of the first divorce, of which he heartily repents, and would still more gladly promote this, the said concubine and all her race are such abominable Lutherans. London, 29 April 1536. Fr., from a modern copy, pp. 2.

Arrest of Anne Boleyn

Spanish Chronicle Chapter 29. 02 May 1536. The King then wished the Queen to be examined, and he sent Secretary Cromwell, the Archbishop of Canterbury (age 46), the Duke of Norfolk (age 63), and the Chancellor (age 48), who were expressly ordered by the King to treat her with no respect or consideration. They desired the Archbishop to be spokesman, and he said these words to her, "Madam, there is no one in the realm, after my lord the King, who is so distressed at your bad conduct as I am, for all these gentlemen well know I owe my dignity to your good-will;" and Anne, before he could say any more, interrupted him with, "My lord Bishop, I know what is your errand; waste no more time; I have never wronged the King, but I know well that he is tired of me, as he was before of the good lady Katharine." Then the Bishop continued, "Say no such thing, Madam, for your evil courses have been clearly seen; and if you desire to read the confession which Mark has made, it will be shown to you." Anne, in a great rage, replied, "Go to! It has all been done as I say, because the King has fallen in love, as I know, with Jane Seymour (age 27), and does not know how to get rid of me. Well, let him do as he likes, he will get nothing more out of me; and any confession that has been made is false."

With that, as they saw they should extract nothing from her, they determined to leave; but before doing so the Duke of Norfolk said to her, "Madam, if it be true that the Duke1 your brother has shared your guilt, a great punishment indeed should be yours and his as well." To which she answered, "Duke, say no such thing; my brother is blameless; and if he has been in my chamber to speak with me, surely he might do so without suspicion, being my brother, and they cannot accuse him for that. I know that the King has had him arrested, so that there should be none left to take my part. You need not trouble to stop talking with me, for you will find out no more. "So they went away; and when they told the King how she had answered, he said, "She has a stout heart, but she shall pay for it;" ...

Note 1. The chronicler is in error in calling the Queen's brother Duke. He was, of course, Viscount Rochford.

Spanish Chronicle Chapter 29. 02 May 1536. How the Queen (age 35) and her brother the Duke (age 33) were arrested.

On the 2nd of May the captain of the guard with hundred halberdiers came to Greenwich in the King's great barge, and went to the Queen, and said to her, "My lady, the King has sent me for you;" and she, very much astonished, asked the captain where the King was. She was told he was at Westminster; and she at once got ready, and embarked with all her ladies, thinking she was to be taken to Westminster, but when she saw they stopped at the Tower, she asked whether the King was there. The captain of the Tower appeared, and the captain of the guard addressed him, saying, "I bring you here the Queen, whom the King orders you to keep prisoner, and very carefully guarded." Thereupon the captain took Anne by the arm, and she, as soon as she heard that she was a prisoner, exclaimed loudly in the hearing of many, "I entered with more ceremony the last time I came." They ordered two of her ladies to remain with her, and the rest to be taken to Westminster, and amongst them one very attractive, of whom we shall have to speak further on.1

Note 1. Probably a reference to Jane Seymour (age 27).

Letters 1536. Titus, B. I. 444. B. M. 871. Cromwell's Remembrances.

"First for answer to be made to my lord Lyzle and letters to be written for the expelling of the Emperor's subjects." For answer to the Emperor's ambassador.

Bills be signed for Pylston, Leson, Starkey, my Lord of Sussex, and Robinson, for Bothombar. Folgeambys warrant to be signed. Letters to be written into Ireland, for a motion to be made in the Parliament for the King's great charges. Bills to be signed for Mr. Cofferer and Sir Thomas Wharton. A remembrance that all Mr. Nores' (age 54) patents may be searched out. To remember the Bishop of Llandaff's deliverance; the jewel; Besse Darell; Henry Knyvette's letters to Mr. Weston, and to young Weston's wife; Henry Knyvette's bills for the offices and the annuity. For the things that shall be done in the Parliament. An Act for the attainder of those that be perjured in Yorkshire. To remember the jury in Devonshire; my lady Guldeforde; Dotton and Done for Delamer; Sir [her brother] Edward Seymour (age 36); to call for the evidence of the house at Keyew for my lady Seymour (age 27); the master of the horse; John Parker for the lands of Fulham; Dr. Tregonnell; the Charterhouse in London.

The demesnes of the Holte Castle with the weyr Houke and other pasture in Bromfeld is worth, a year, £19 17s. 9d. The horsemill and the town of the Holte, 33s. 4d. The stewardship of Bromfeld and Yale, £20 The receivership there, £13 6s. 8d. The master forestership, £3 The office of serjeant of peace, £4 The office of improver, 60s. 10d. The keepership of Marsheley Park, 60s. 10d.

Tregyan, £700 Dudeley, £700 Jenney, £666 13s. 4d.—£400 John Williams, £300 The prior of Winchester, £400—£200 Dr. Leyton, £100 —£200 Arthur Darcy, £100 Sir Edward Seymour, £300—200 mks. Sir John Gage, £200—£666 13s. Sir William Gascoyne, £4000 Sir William Berkley, £120.

Sir John Russell, £100 Thomas Wyatt, £100 Karew, Souche, and Rogers, £60 The grower, £40 The Abbot of the Vale Ryall, £200 The prior of Gisborowe, £100 Nicholas Statham, £100 Lady Lucy's executors, £20 Thomas Broke, £100 Pylston, £60 Sir Francis Bygod, £50 Delivered to my Lady Mary, £20 The King's attorney, £66 13s. 4d. Pp. 4. Mostly in Cromwell's hand.

Note 1. The names in this paragraph are written by Cromwell in a column with a certain sum opposite each name in another column to the left, which in most cases is the same as the sum written after the name. Where two amounts are given in this abstract the second is the sum in the left-hand column.

Trial of Anne and George Boleyn

Letters 1536. 15 May 1536. 908. Chapuys (age 46) to Charles V.

On the 15th the said Concubine and her brother (age 33) were condemned of treason by all the principal lords of England, and the Duke of Norfolk (age 63) pronounced sentence. I am told the Earl of Wiltshire (age 59) was quite as ready to assist at the judgment as he had done at the condemnation of the other four. Neither the putain (age 35) nor her brother (age 33) was brought to Westminster like the other criminals. They were condemned within the Tower, but the thing was not done secretly, for there were more than 2,000 persons present. What she was principally charged with was having cohabited with her brother and other accomplices; that there was a promise between her and Norris (age 54) to marry after the King's death, which it thus appeared they hoped for; and that she had received and given to Norris certain medals, which might be interpreted to mean that she had poisoned the late Queen and intrigued to do the same to the Princess. These things she totally denied, and gave to each a plausible answer. Yet she confessed she had given money to Weston (age 25), as she had often done to other young gentlemen. She was also charged, and her brother likewise, with having laughed at the King and his dress, and that she showed in various ways she did not love the King but was tired of him. Her brother was charged with having cohabited with her by presumption, because he had been once found a long time with her, and with certain other little follies. To all he replied so well that several of those present wagered 10 to 1 that he would be acquitted, especially as no witnesses were produced against either him or her, as it is usual to do, particularly when the accused denies the charge.

I must not omit, that among other things charged against him as a crime was, that his sister (age 35) had told his wife (age 31) that the King "nestoit habile en cas de soy copuler avec femme, et quil navoit ne vertu ne puissance1." This he was not openly charged with, but it was shown him in writing, with a warning not to repeat it. But he immediately declared the matter, in great contempt of Cromwell and some others, saying he would not in this point arouse any suspicion which might prejudice the King's issue. He was also charged with having spread reports which called in question whether his sister's daughter was the King's child. To which he made no reply. They were judged separately, and did not see each other. The Concubine was condemned first, and having heard the sentence, which was to be burnt or beheaded at the King's pleasure, she preserved her composure, saying that she held herself "pour toute saluee de la mort2," and that what she regretted most was that the above persons, who were innocent and loyal to the King, were to die for her. She only asked a short space for shrift (pour disposer sa conscience3). Her brother, after his condemnation, said that since he must die, he would no longer maintain his innocence, but confessed that he had deserved death. He only begged the King that his debts, which he recounted, might be paid out of his goods.

Although everybody rejoices at the execution of the putain, there are some who murmur at the mode of procedure against her and the others, and people speak variously of the King; and it will not pacify the world when it is known what has passed and is passing between him and Mrs. Jane Semel (age 27). Already it sounds ill in the ears of the people, that the King, having received such ignominy, has shown himself more glad than ever since the arrest of the putain; for he has been going about banqueting with ladies, sometimes remaining after midnight, and returning by the river. Most part of the time he was accompanied by various musical instruments, and, on the other hand, by the singers of his chamber, which many interpret as showing his delight at getting rid of a "maigre vieille et mechante bague4," with hope of change, which is a thing specially agreeable to this King. He supped lately with several ladies in the house of the Bishop of Carlisle, and showed an extravagant joy, as the said Bishop came to tell me next morning, who reported, moreover, that the King had said to him, among other things, that he had long expected the issue of these affairs, and that thereupon he had before composed a tragedy, which he carried with him; and, so saying, the King drew from his bosom a little book written in his own hand, but the Bishop did not read the contents. It may have been certain ballads that the King has composed, at which the putain and her brother laughed as foolish things, which was objected to them as a great crime.

Note 1. "was not skilful in case of copulating with a woman, and that he had neither virtue nor power".

Note 2. "for every death salute".

Note 3. to dispose of one's conscience.

Note 4. skinny old nasty ring

Note 5. This part of the letter was written on the 17th. See further on, at the beginning of the last paragraph.

Execution of George Boleyn, Brereton, Norris, Smeaton and Weston

Letters 1536. 17 May 1536. 908. Chapuys (age 46) to Charles V.

Today1 Rochford (age 33) has been beheaded before the Tower, and the four others above named, notwithstanding the intercession of the Bishop of Tarbes, the French ambassador resident, and the sieur de Tinteville, who arrived the day before yesterday, in behalf of one named Weston (age 25). The Concubine (age 35) saw them executed from the Tower, to aggravate her grief. Rochford (age 33) disclaimed all that he was charged with, confessing, however, that he had deserved death for having been so much contaminated and having contaminated others with these new sects, and he prayed everyone to abandon such heresies. The Concubine (age 35) will certainly be beheaded tomorrow, or on Friday at the latest, and I think the King feels the time long that it is not done already. The day before the putain's condemnation he sent for Mrs. Semel [Jane Seymour (age 27)] by the Grand Esquire and some others, and made her come within a mile of his lodging, where she is splendidly served by the King's cook and other officers. She is most richly dressed. One of her relations, who dined with her on the day of the said condemnation, told me that the King sent that morning to tell her that he would send her news at 3 o'clock of the condemnation of the putain (age 35), which he did by Mr. Briant, whom he sent in all haste. To judge by appearances, there is no doubt that he will take the said Semel [Jane Seymour (age 27)] to wife; and some think the agreements and promises are already made.

Note 1. This part of the letter was written on the 17th. See further on, at the beginning of the last paragraph.

Letters 1536. Has just received the Emperor's letters of the 18th ult., with enclosures, which he will use as instructed. Will immediately report how the King takes everything. Has heard that the King, before the said bailiff's arrival, took in very good part the Emperor's proposal. So Briant told Mrs. Semel [Jane Seymour (age 27)] and other ladies on the day the King sent to inform her of the putain's condemnation; and though Brian is French in his leanings, be does not forbear to praise your Majesty in these matters, and to abuse and laugh at the French, who had made a foolish and shameful reply about the combat between your Majesty and the king of France. Cannot write more fully about the King's inclination to negotiate. Cromwell puts him continually in hope, especially by what has happened to the Concubine. Will understand matters better when he has spoken with the King, which he will do as soon as he can. Must not omit to mention that although the King at Easter pressed him strongly for the four articles in writing, he has since praised Chapuys for his refusal and for his further diplomacy; and Cromwell, the same day, admitted to him that the request for those articles in writing was not justified by any suspicion. On Chapuys asking what could have turned the King so suddenly from the intention he had so persistently declared to Chapuys, Cromwell could give no other reason except that the King had taken some suspicion of himself by reason of the letters your Majesty had written to him.

Letters 1536. 18 May. Vienna Archives. 901. Chapuys (age 46) to Antoine Perrenot.

As I hear that letters from England are opened at Calais, you will have more trouble in deciphering several things which but for this might be written clear. I have no news to add to what I write to His Majesty, except to tell you something of the quality of the King's new lady [Jane Seymour (age 27)], which the Emperor and Granvelle would perhaps like to hear. She is sister of one [her brother] Edward Semel (age 36), "qua este a sa majesty," of middle stature and no great beauty, so fair that one would call her rather pale than otherwise. She is over twnty-five years old. I leave you to judge whether, being English and having long frequented the Court, "si elle ne tiendroit pas a conscience de navoir pourveu et prevenu de savoir que cest de faire noces1." Perhaps this King will only be too glad to be so far relieved from trouble. Also, according to the account given of him by the Concubine (age 35), he has neither vigour nor virtue; and besides he may make a condition in the marriage that she be a virgin, and when he has a mind to divorce her he will find enough of witnesses. The said Semel [Jane Seymour (age 27)] is not a woman of great wit, but she may have good understanding (un bel enigm, qu. engin?). It is said she inclines to be proud and haughty. She bears great love and reverence to the Princess. I know not if honors will make her change hereafter. The news you wrote on the 22nd ult. touching Haurain2 and the Sophi are very good, and I pray God your wish may be accomplished towards those who are in grief. London, 18 May 1536.Fr., from a modern copy, pp. 2.

Note 1. if she would not be aware of not having provided and warned to know that it is to make a wedding

Note 2. Ibrahim Pacha?

Execution of Anne Boleyn

Spanish Chronicle Chapter 32. 19 May 1536. How Anne was beheaded, and what took place five days after the execution of the Duke and the others1.

The King ordered the Queen to be beheaded. He had sent a week before to St. Omer for a headsman who could cut off the head with sword instead of an axe, and nine days after they sent he arrived. The Queen was then told to confess, as she must die the next day, and she begged that she might be executed within the Tower, and that no foreigner should see her. So they erected the scaffold in the great courtyard of the Tower, and the next morning they brought her out. She would not confess, but showed a devilish spirit, and was as gay as if she was not going to die. When she arrived at the scaffold she was dressed in a night-robe of damask, with a red damask skirt, and a netted coif over her hair. This lady was very graceful, and had a long neck; and when she mounted the scaffold she saw on it many gentlemen, amongst them being the headsman, who was dressed like the rest, and not as executioner; and she looked around her on all sides to see the great number of people present, for although she was executed inside, there was a great crowd. They would not admit any foreigner, except one who had got in the night before, and who took good note of all that passed. And as the lady looked all round, she began to say these words, "Do not think, good people, that I am sorry to die, or that I have done anything to deserve this death. My fault has been my great pride, and the great crime I committed in getting the King to leave my mistress Queen Katherine for my sake, and I pray God to pardon me for it. I say to you all that everything they have accused me of is false, and the principal reason I am to die is Jane Seymour (age 27), as I was the cause of the ill that befell my mistress2."

The gentlemen would not let her say any more, and she asked which was the headsman. She was told that he would come presently, but that in the meanwhile it would be better for her to confess the truth and not be so obstinate, for she could not hope for pardon. She answered them, "I know I shall have no pardon, but they shall know no more from me." So seeing that she would not confess, the came and knelt before her, saying, "Madam, I crave your Majesty's pardon, for I am ordered to do this duty, and I beg you to kneel and say your prayers." So Anne knelt, but the poor lady only kept looking about her. The headsman, being still in front of her, said in French, "Madam, do not fear, I will wait till you tell me." Then she said, "You will have to take this coif off," and she pointed to it with her left hand. The sword was hidden under a heap of straw, and the man who was to give it to the headsman was told beforehand what to do; so, in order that she should not suspect, the headsman turned to the steps by which they had mounted, and called out, "Bring me the sword." The lady looked towards the steps to watch for the coming of the sword, still with her hand on her coif; and the headsman made a sign with his right hand for them to give him the sword, and then, without being noticed by the lady, he struck her head off on to the ground. And so ended this lady, who would never admit or confess the truth.

Her body was presently carried to the church within the Tower and buried, and a few days afterwards her father died of grief3 for the loss of her and the Duke. God pardon them!

Note 1. Anne was beheaded on the 19th of May, 1536.

Note 2. Constantyne, who was present, gives in his memoirs a report of Anne's speech not materially different from the above; but the Portuguese by Lingard, furnishes a much longer Constantyne says that Anne was dressed in black damask.

Note 3. He survived her more than two years.

Letters 1536. 19 May 1536. 908. Chapuys (age 46) to Charles V.

The joy shown by this people every day not only at the ruin of the Concubine (age 35) but at the hope of the Princess' restoration, is inconceivable, but as yet the King shows no great disposition towards the latter; indeed he has twice shown himself obstinate when spoken to on the subject by his Council. I hear that, even before the arrest of the Concubine, the King, speaking with Mistress Jane Semel (age 27) of their future marriage, the latter suggested that the Princess should be replaced in her former position; and the King told her she was a fool, and ought to solicit the advancement of the children they would have between them, and not any others. She replied that in asking for the restoration of the Princess she conceived she was seeking the rest and tranquillity of the King, herself, her future children, and the whole realm; for, without that, neither your Majesty nor this people would ever be content. Will endeavour by all means to make her continue in this vein. Hopes also to go and speak with the King within three days, and with those of the Council in general and particular. Will also get some of the lords spoken with who have been called hither for the Parliament to commence on the 8th proximo. Thinks the Concubine's little bastard will be excluded from the succession, and that the King will get himself requested by Parliament to marry. To cover the affection he has for the said Semel (age 27) he has lodged her seven miles hence in the house of the grand esquire, and says publicly that he has no desire in the world to get married again unless he is constrained by his subjects to do so. Several have already told me, and sent to say that, if it cost them their lives, when Parliament meets they will urge the cause of the Princess to the utmost (il pourteront jusques au boult laffaire de lad. princesse).

The very evening the Concubine (age 35) was brought to the Tower, when the [her illegitimate step-son] Duke of Richmond (age 16) went to say Good night to his father, and ask his blessing after the English custom, the King began to weep, saying that he and his sister, meaning the Princess, were greatly bound to God for having escaped the hands of that accursed whore, who had determined to poison them; from which it is clear that the King knew something about it.

Betrothal of Henry VIII and Jane Seymour

Letters 1536. 20 May 1536. Vienna Archives. 926. Chapuys (age 46) to Granvelle.

Wrote yesterday very fully to the Emperor and Granvelle. Has just been informed, the bearer of this having already mounted, that Mrs. Semel [Jane Seymour (age 27)] came secretly by river this morning to the King's lodging, and that the promise and betrothal (desponsacion) was made at 9 o'clock. The King means it to be kept secret till Whitsuntide; but everybody begins already to murmur by suspicion, and several affirm that long before the death of the other (deceased) there was some arrangement which sounds ill in the ears of the people; who will certainly be displeased at what has been told me, if it be true, viz., that yesterday the King, immediately on receiving news of the decapitation of the putain (deceased) entered his barge and went to the said Semel (age 27), whom he has lodged a mile from him, in a house by the river. Cannot write to the Emperor for the haste of the courier, but will send particulars to him shortly. London, 20 May 1536.Fr., from a modern copy, p. 1.

On 20 May 1536 [her future husband] Henry VIII (age 44) and Queen Jane Seymour (age 27) were betrothed the day after Anne Boleyn had been beheaded.

Letters 1536. Hears he has already espoused another lady [Jane Seymour (age 27)], who is a good Imperialist (I know not if she will continue), and to whom he paid great attention before the death of the other. As none but the organist [Mark Smeaton (deceased)] confessed, nor herself either, people think he invented this device to get rid of her. Any how, not much wrong can be done to her, even in being suspected as méchante, for that has long been her character. It is to be hoped, if hope be a right thing to entertain about such acts, that when he is tired of this one he will find some occasion of getting rid of her. I think wives will hardly be well contented if such customs become general. Although I have no desire to put myself in this danger, yet being of the feminine gender I will pray with the others that God may keep us from it.

Fr., from a modern copy, pp. 2. Headed: "Extrait d'une lettre de la Reine d'Hongrie au Roy des Romains en date du 25 Mai 1536."

Marriage of Henry VIII and Jane Seymour

On 30 May 1536 Henry VIII (age 44) and Jane Seymour (age 27) were married at Whitehall Palace [Map] by Stephen Gardiner Bishop of Winchester (age 53). She by marriage Queen Consort England. He the son of King Henry VII of England and Ireland and Elizabeth York Queen Consort England.

Eleanor Paston Countess Rutland (age 41) and Margaret Dymoke aka Mistress Coffin (age 36) were appointed Lady in Waiting to Queen Jane Seymour (age 27).

Spanish Chronicle Chapter 32. 30 May 1536. How the King Married Jane Seymour (age 27)

A very few days after the execution of Anne, the King ordered his Council to be summoned, and said to them, "My lords, you know that Elizabeth was acknowledged as Princess, and my daughter Mary was disinherited. If I were to die without male heir there would be great dissensions in my kingdom, and I have, therefore, decided to marry. I bear much good-will towards Jane Seymour, and I beg you will approve of her for my wife." They all answered with one accord, "Let your Majesty do as you desire. We all consider her a worthy maiden, and we hope in God that your union will be fruitful and happy." No more was needed; and the next day he called the Archbishop of Canterbury, and in the presence of all he married Jane Seymour, and caused great festivities to be held. This good lady had been formerly a servant of Queen Katherine and in her heart always loved Madam Mary, her good daughter, so she begged of the King, as a boon that he would send for Madam Mary and treat her in a way suitable to her rank. The King sent for her at once more than thirty horsemen, who brought her back with great state to the palace; and when the good Queen heard of her arrival, she came out to the great hall to receive her, and embraced her and kissed her, and took her by the hand, not allowing her to kneel, and led her to her chamber. When the King heard of it he went to the Queen's chamber, and the good daughter knelt before him, and he gave her his blessing with tears in his eyes, saying, "My daughter, she who did you so much harm, and prevented me from seeing you for so long, has paid the penalty."

The King had not seen her for more than three years. The good Queen then knelt, and said to the King, "Your Majesty knows how bad Queen Anne was, and it is not fit that her daughter should be the Princess." So the King ordered it to be proclaimed that in future none should dare to call her Princess, but Madam Elizabeth.

The good Queen always had Madam Mary in her company, and when she left her chamber always led her by the hand. For this reason the Queen was much beloved by all, and the King showed great affection for his daughter Shortly afterwards the Queen became pregnant, and great rejoicings were held; and the King was advised that she had brothers who were gentlemen, one of them should be created Duke of Somerset, which was the title of the brother of Queen Anne. So he made the eldest brother Duke of Somerset, and to the other two grants of income were made, and of them we shall speak further on.

In due time, when the Queen was about to be delivered, they sent to London for processions to be made to pray God for a happy result, and after three days illness the most beautiful boy that ever was seen was born1. Very great rejoicings were held for his birth; but on the second day it was rumoured that the mother had died, which caused great sorrow. It was said that the mother had to be sacrificed for the child. I do not affirm this to be true, only that it was rumoured. The King sorrowed for this good lady more than he did for any other, and had her buried with great solemnity. The good lady was also deeply mourned by Madam Mary; and the King ordered that the should remain with her, and, until he married again, they remained in attendance on her, and treated her as if she were Queen.

Born at Hampton Court, 12th October, 1537.

Hall's Chronicle 1536. 30 May 1536. The week before Whitsuntide the [her husband] King (age 44) married lady Jane (age 27) daughter to the right worshipful Sir [her father] John Seymor (age 62) knight, which at Whitsuntide was openly showed as Queen.

Letters 1536. 30 May. R. O. 993. William Marche to Lord Lisle (age 72).

Your letter was delivered on Monday after my departure from Calais, and Mr. Secretary made me answer that he had given you a full answer to its contents. Mr. Boysse and I are at your commands, if we can do anything further. As to the horsemill, Mr. Dawnce told me it may not be set upon the King's ground, but if he had set it upon his own freehold it might have passed well enough. This day the King is known to be married unto one Mrs. Jane Semar [Jane Seymour (age 27)], Sir John Semar's (age 62) daughter; and my lord William [Howard] this day came out of Scotland in post and merry. London, 30 May 1536.

Hol., p. 1. Add. Endd.

Letters 1536. 31 May. R. O. 1000. John Husee to Lord Lisle (age 72).

The bearer, Mrs. Alice Warton, is the gentlewoman I wrote of, and I trust will do you good service. She has taken out a great part of the cushion, but has not had leisure to take out the whole. There remains the tree or flower and the beast, which is an unicorn. If you will have it taken out, I will get some woman or painter to do it. You will receive by this ship two dozen bowls, which cost 4s., and the coals which Annes Woodrove bought for you. It is said the coronation will not be till Michaelmas. "The King was married yesterday [to Jane Seymour (age 27)] in the Queen's closet at York Place or Manor, whose Grace is determined to see the watch on Midsummer night." London, 31 May.

Hol., p. 1. Add.

P.S. on the back:—Mine host Cross sends in this ship a kilderkin of ale, and desires his barrel again and some venison. Mine hostess will have half the thanks.

Letters 1536. 1 June [1536]. Otho. C. x. 278. B.M. Hearne's Sylloge, 147. 1022. [her step-daughter] Princess Mary (age 20) to [Henry VIII.]

Begs as humbly as child can for his daily blessing—her chief desire in this world. Acknowledges all her offences since she had first discretion to offend till this hour, and begs forgiveness. Will submit to him in all things next to God, "humbly beseeching your Highness to consider that I am but a woman, and your child, who hath committed her soul only to God, and her body to be ordered in this world as it shall stand with your pleasure." Rejoices to hear of the marriage between his Grace and the Queen (age 27) now being. Desires leave to wait upon the latter and do her Grace service. Trusts to Henry's mercy to come into his presence. As he has always shown pity, "as much or more than any prince christened," hopes he will show it to his humble and obedient daughter. Prays God to send him a prince. Hounsdon, 1 June.

Hol., mutilated.

Post Execution Sources

Letters 1536. 02 Jun 1536. Add. MS. 28,588, f. 284. B. M. 1043. Dr. Ortiz to the Empress.

The prayers of the late Queen of England and the Holy Martyrs have prevailed. The King's mistress (deceased) had six lovers, one being her own brother (deceased). Another, a musician [Mark Smeaton (deceased)], seeing that he was less favoured, discovered the fact to the King, first asking for pardon and his life. Now they are all taken it is found to be true. Her father (age 59), who was innocent, approved her condemnation. She was sentenced, first to be degraded from being Queen, then beheaded and burnt, seeing the others suffer the same death, with the exception of the one who revealed the crime. It was proved at the trial that she had behaved in this way before the conception of the child which the King thought to be his. It is intended to declare the child not to be the King's. Images have been restored and purgatory is preached again.

The cardinal of Burgos told him that a saint, who was martyred at the beginning of her tyrannical exaltation, prophesied that Anne (deceased) would be burnt to death.

It is said that the process against her states that she poisoned the Queen. The King is enamoured of another lady [Jane Seymour (age 27)]. Rome, 2 June 1536.

Sp., pp. 3. Modern copy.

Letters 1536. [3 Jun 1536]. R. O. 1047. Sir John Russell (age 51) to Lord Lisle (age 72).

I presented the King with the cherries in my lady's name, and he thanks both you and her. I also delivered your letter to the King, who commanded Mr. Secretary to read it. Mr. Secretary said he would do anything for your Lordship that he could, and I think you are much bound to him. I cannot tell what will be the effect of your letter. I told the King the news of what was between the French and the Flemings, and how the captain of Gralyng took two Gascon merchants. Word came by Rokewood to Robert Semer that war was proclaimed between Flanders and France, but I informed the King that it was not true, as I was sure you would write me that with other news. On Friday last the Queen (age 27) sat abroad as Queen, and was served by her own servants, who were sworn that same day. The King came in his great boat to Greenwich that day with his privy chamber, and the Queen (age 27) and the ladies in the great barge. I assure you she is as gentle a lady as ever I knew, and as fair a Queen as any in Christendom. "The King hath come out of hell into heaven for the gentleness in this and the cursedness and the unhappiness in the other." You would do well to write to the King again that you rejoice he is so well matched with so gracious a woman as is reported. This will please the King. I thank you for your present. Greenwich, Whitsun even. Signed.

Pp. 2. Add.: Deputy of Calais. Endd.

Letters 1536. 06 Jun 1536. On his return from mass I accompanied the King to the chamber of the Queen (age 27), whom, for the King's satisfaction, I kissed, and congratulated her on her marriage, and said that her predecessor had borne the device La plus heureuse, but that she would bear the reality, and that I was sure your Majesty would be immeasurably pleased that the King had found so good and virtuous a wife, especially as her brother had been in your Majesty's service, and the satisfaction of this people with the marriage was incredible, especially at the restoration of the Princess to the King's favor and to her former condition; and, among other congratulations, I told the Queen (age 27) that it was not her least happiness that, without having had the labour of giving birth to her, she had such a daughter as the Princess, of whom she would receive more joy and consolation than of all those she could have herself; and I begged her to favor her interests; which she said she would do, and especially that she would labour to obtain that honorable name I wished for her of "pacific," i.e., of author and conservatrix of the peace. After speaking to the Queen (age 27), the King, who had been talking to the other ladies, approached, and wished to excuse her, saying I was the first ambassador to whom she had spoken, and she was not accustomed to it, that he quite believed she desired to obtain the name of "pacific," for, besides that her nature was gentle and inclined to peace, she would not for the world that he were engaged in war, that she might not be separated from him. After dinner I went to speak with the King in his chamber, and protesting "pour non lui altérer son cerveaul," [so as not to alter his brain] that I would not for the present object to the answers made by Cromwell, I begged him to take in good part that which I should say about the conversations Cromwell and I had had together. He desired that I would speak boldly. And I began to make part of the remonstrances I had made to Cromwell. He replied that it was true that the leagues and confederacies between your Majesty and him are far more ancient and better grounded than those with France; and, that notwithstanding it was true that the cause for which they had been made with France had ceased, he could not on that account fail in the promise he had made, for he was bound to both parties to defend the party attacked, and the French pretended that they were entitled to do what they had done against the duke of Savoy, because he had refused to restore Nice, which was only a surety, without violating the peace, and it was quite another thing to invade one of those comprehended in the peace from what it was to invade the subjects and dominions of a principal con trahent. And he begged your Majesty would look to this, lest by attacking France you might be called the aggressor, and he should be compelled by treaty to defend the party attacked, which would be disagreeable for him. On my showing him the articles in which the French had infringed the peace, he replied, as to Gueldres he was not informed, but he knew that a French gentleman who had been conveying money to Gueldres on the part of Francis had been taken at Brussels, and he did not think your Majesty would pretend a rupture on that account, seeing that you had made no mention of it in your statement at Rome. As to Wirtemberg, he tried to excuse the French, saying the Duke had gone to seek them, and the money the French had delivered was for the purchase of certain lands, and that the Duke was only subject to your Majesty much in the same way as the duke of Savoy. He attaches more importance to what the French have done "en lendroit de loccupateur de Mirandula;" but in the end he gave up almost every point, although he wished somehow to excuse an incursion lately made by the French on the frontiers of Artois, saying it was done by peasants of their own accord. After much talk the King notified to me that it would be necessary, in order to soften both parties, to tell them their wrong and show some "braverie," begging your Majesty to consider the good that would come of a new peace; and instead of commanding, he begged me to do my duty in this matter, not once but at least ten times, saying to me "Monsieur, je vous supplie, considerez, faictez, ecrivez, &c.," [Sir, I beg you, consider, do, write] which was quite extravagant courtesy. At last, seeing that it was no use pressing him to declare himself, I asked him what, in conclusion, I was to write to your Majesty. He replied that I ought to know better than he; but since I asked him he thought I should write that if you were willing that he should mediate this peace he would do it willingly, and would take care to allow no article that was not honorable to your Majesty. I said he ought to bid me write another article, viz., that in case he found the French to be violators of the peace or aggressors, or that they would not agree to a reasonable peace, he should declare himself for your Majesty. He replied cheerfully and distinctly that I might boldly assure your Majesty of it. He did not repeat what he had said before, that it was necessary also that he should use such "braverie" towards your Majesty in case you were wrong, nor that it must be considered if new conditions more unreasonable than the previous were put forward he should consider himself mocked by the parties unless it was owing to expenses since incurred, or a change in the situation. The King having explained to me as above I told him he might hold it certain that he would find all the fault was on the side of the French, as he would see clearly if he would weigh a little what I had said to him. Moreover, the French would never consent to honorable conditions. I therefore begged him to consider from this time about making a new treaty with your Majesty, and that he would declare to me what he would demand on his part in like case. He said to me he had certainly not considered about it, and for the haste of this despatch, as he had not all his council, he could not at present determine, but I might write to your Majesty that I would inform you of everything by the first despatch.

Letters 1536. 06 Jun 1536. R. O. 1074. J. Husee to Lord Lisle (age 72).

I have received your letters of the 2nd and 3rd June. In answer to the first, touching Sir Richard Whethill, Mr. Prysley this night delivered him your letter, and declared your pleasure, to which he only hummed and hawed, but at last said he had made many friends; so that apparently he means to persevere in his malicious suit. Mr. Prisley, however, still hopes he will take further advisement. The negligence about your Lordship's hosen was owing to my bedfellow Fyssher, who would not suffer me to send them by any other than himself. He deserves to sit three days in the stocks for it, but it rests with your Lordship to qualify the punishment. As for the parson of St. Martin's, I stayed 40s. in my hands for the tenth, before your Lordship's letter came to hand. As to your other letter I shall deliver Mr. Hennage your Lordship's letter, and motion him of my lady's daughter. As to the nomination of an abbey, I wrote by Petley, and will make further search. When I have set these matters in frame I will follow your affairs in Hampshire. The proxy I shall deliver the second day of the Parliament, as the custom is. Snowden is a diligent waiter, but Mr. Treasurer (age 46) has not yet motioned the King in his cause. I hope he will be earnest when he begins. As for the Marsh, though the matter has been taken by Water's information not after the true meaning, Mr. Secretary says the letter I send with this is wholly the King's pleasure, and will satisfy you. Wriothesley had this letter five days, and never told me till today at Court, but delivered it to me this night at Stepney. Mr. Secretary was not a little displeased at this, but in truth Wriothesley favored the party, or he would not have kept it. If you send lord Dawbny a piece of wine it would do no harm. As to my check, your Lordship's letter to Mr. Treasurer (age 46) will ease it. I will certify Mrs. Medcalff of your pleasure touching Lyssle: You will receive a letter of the King's for Peretrey's pardon along with this other letter of the King's sent herewith. Remember Mr. Secretary's wine. I cannot yet know what answer the King made him touching your suit. The Queen's (age 27) [her brother] brother (age 36) is today created Viscount Beauchamp. London, 6 June.

Hol., pp. 2. Add. Endd.

Letters 1536. 06 Jun 1536. R. O. 1075. John Husee to Lady Lisle (age 42).

I have your three sundry letters. I can hear nothing of the liveries you sent to John Davy. I think one of Mr. Marshall's servants has the conveyance of them, but Mr. Degory's livery I have delivered to Mr. Chichester. I am glad the gentlewoman has arrived. The bowls, I assure you, cost no farthing less, and if you like them not the poor man that made them will take them back. Mine host hopes you will appoint him some venison; but one thing you may be sure of, "that my hostess is the honest man." As for Antony Husee's wife's cushion, I shall do as your Ladyship shall command me. I am much bound for the pains you have taken about my check. When I deliver my Lord's letter to Mr. Hennage I will move the preferment of your daughter to the Queen, which I hope will be easily obtained. It might be well to send lord Dawbny a piece of wine, but Mr. Sulyard must not be forgotten. The Queen's (age 27) [her brother] brother (age 36) was this day created Viscount Beauchamp. Mr. Tayler sends commendations. It was reported here that Mr. Rockwood was dead. Your gown shall be made with all speed. London, 6 June.

Cranewell, Harwod, and Myller desire you to remember their liveries.

Hol., pp. 2. Add.

Letters 1536. 06 Jun 1536. On Whitsun eve, in the morning, Cromwell came to see me at my lodging, although I had sent to request him to wait for me at his own, and first told me, pour joyeuse entrée, that the King and the new Queen (age 27) were wonderfully well pleased with the wise and prudent letters the [her step-daughter] Princess (age 20) had written (in which, nevertheless, there was nothing corresponding to the draft abovementioned, nor anything that could prejudice her), and that the King was resolved to make her his heir, which he supposed to be one of the principal articles of my charge on which the rest depended. Now, it is true that I had perceived some indications that there was a proposal to declare the Princess (age 20) heir without giving her the title of Princess, and she will remain excluded in case of a son or daughter being born. If this be so, and I see an opportunity to remedy it, I will speak about the subject. If not, I will not stick at it much, hoping that by the establishment of peace and augmentation of amity, with the great prudence and virtue the King will perceive in her, that she will be declared true and just princess,—although, according to the opinion of many, there is no fear of the occurrence of any issue of either sex. Coming to the principal subject, Cromwell said that he had repeated to the King his master the communications we had had together, and the King had given him patient audience, well noting and considering everything, and that he had since heard the French ambassadors, to whom he had made a brusque reply, first as to the marriage of the Dauphin with the Princess, that he knew not why they urged it, as at the meeting at Calais he had resolutely replied about it to the king of France, his brother, and as to the duke of Angoulême he was too young for the said Princess, who was of marriageable age. As to declaring himself against your Majesty, he saw no ground for it, and though they said that your Majesty had been and was his enemy, he did not see it; he had much greater occasion to complain of several who had called themselves his friends, and he could very well testify what they had done about the "privation" and other things; and as to the danger which they alleged to him, which was the sole motive they made use of, that your Majesty aspired to universal monarchy, and that you were revengeful of injuries—that the English, after feasting France, would have their St. Martin—there was not the slightest fear, for they knew the nature of your Majesty, and for other good reasons besides. As to assisting them with a contribution for the war, he also declined it for the same reason. As to the suggestion that he should take this affair in hand in order to bring to agreement your Majesty and the King their master, and that he would write to your Majesty to procure an abstinence of war while they were treating of peace, he replied that it was not reasonable that he should write such letters, for several reasons, especially as the amity between your Majesty and him was not well consolidated, but he would request me to write with diligence to your Majesty to consent, notwithstanding past matters, to an honorable peace, and used such arguments with me as he thought fit. But, considering everything, he had very little occasion to meddle with such matters, seeing that they had turned about on all sides in their negociations, even to his disadvantage, employing therein his principal enemy, the Pope, and without informing him of anything important, except at the end when the matter came to be broken off. For a compliment, they had asked him how he would be comprehended in the peace, in which matter your Majesty had acted more honorably and cordially, having told him by me that it was in his power to be the principal contrahent, and to comprehend those whom he pleased. At which words Cromwell said the King showed great delight, saying further, that the French, after so much trifling and making a thousand offers, which he repeated to the ambassadors, especially those that the cardinal of Lorraine had made to your Majesty, and seeing themselves deserted by everybody and in great danger of being completely baffled, now came to him and tried to make him stumble with them in the ditch into which they had blindly precipitated themselves, and that it was no wonder their affairs went so badly, considering the envy and dissension between the Grand Master and the Admiral, who were chief of the Council, and that they need not have made so much boast hitherto to lower their ears immediately after, and that your Majesty managed your affairs more honorably without so much fuss, and yet showed clearly that you were not in such need and poverty as the French had pretended. And here the King inveighed strongly against the cruel enterprise of the French against the duke of Savoy. Such was, as Cromwell affirmed, the King's reply to the French ambassadors, which he ended by telling them that if their master wished him to promote this peace, they must put aside passion and cupidity and submit to reason; which, in his opinion, suggested that a king of France should be satisfied with such a wealthy kingdom, without irritating the flies by which he might be provoked. And he desired that the ambassadors should write with diligence to learn the will of the King their master upon this matter, and have it set forth in articles.

Letters 1536. 08 Jun 1536. Poli Epist., 455. 1093. Pole to Card. Contarini.

The person whom he sent with his book to the King has returned with letters from the King to the effect that he is not displeased with what Pole has written, but as their opinions differ in many points, or rather, in everything, he desires him to return, that he may communicate with him. Cromwell writes, urging him to do so as soon as possible. Answers to this by a plain refusal, unless the King first returns to the Church. What was said about the favor in which Tunstal and "Balsoriensis Episcopus" were with the King is not true. Cromwell is the sole governor. Some good things are said about the new bride (age 27). Despairs of England. Expects to hear again from England as soon as the King knows he will not return. Venice, 8 June.


Letters 1536. 08 Jun 1536. Statute Roll. 1087. Parliament.

Begun at Westminster 8 June 28 Henry VIII., Acts concerning:—

1. The attainder of Thomas Fitzgerald and his five uncles [c. 18].

2. Assurance of the manor of Southwark to the King [c. 19].

3. Jointure of Dame Grace, wife of Sir Henry Parker, son and heir to Henry lord Morley [c. 20].

4. Exchange between the King and the prior of St. Johns [c. 21].

5. Lands belonging to the earldom of Warwick [c. 22].

6. Pension to Robert Shurborn late Bishop of Chichester [c. 23].

7. Attainder of lord Thomas Howard [c. 24].

8. Assurance of lands to [her brother] Viscount Beauchamp (age 36) [c. 25].

9. Assurance of lands in Kew to Viscount Beauchamp (age 36) and lady Anne (age 39) his wife [c. 26].

10. Church of Elsingspittle to be the parish church of St. Alphes, Cripplegate [c. 27].

11. Moiety of Ricard's Castle assured to John Onley [c. 28].

12. Exchange with the Abbot of Westminster for Covent Garden [c. 29].

13. Purchase of Stanton Barry from Thomas Pope [c. 30].

14. Enlargement of St. Margaret's churchyard, Southwark [c. 31].

15. Lands at Westminster conveyed to the King by the churchwardens of St. Martin's and St. Margaret's [c. 32].

16. Durham Place conveyed to the King by exchange [c. 33].

17. Baynard's Castle assured to the [her illegitimate step-son] Duke of Richmond (age 16) [c. 34].

18. Exchange with lord Sandes [c. 35].

19. Award between Sir Adrian Fortescue and Sir Walter Stoner [c. 36].

20. Jointure of Dorothy, daughter to the Earl of Huntingdon, to be married to Richard Devereux, son of lord Ferrers [c. 37].

20a. Assurance of Paris Garden, &c. to the Queen [c. 38].

21. Earldom of March [c. 39].

22. Lands assured to Edward North [c. 40].

23. Manor of Birmingham assured to the King [c. 41].

24. Exchange with the Abbot of Abingdon [c. 42].

25. Lands assured to Thomas Jermyn [c. 43].

26. Manor of Haselyngfeld assured to the Charter House [c. 44].

27. The Queen's (age 27) jointure [c. 45].

28. Lands assured to Thomas Hatclyff, clerk of the Green Cloth [c. 46].

29. Lands assured to John Gostwyke [c. 47].

30. Concerning a marriage to be had between Lord Bulbeke (age 20), son and heir apparent to the Earl of Oxford (age 65), and Dorothy, eldest daughter of the Earl of Westmoreland (age 38) [c. 48].

31. Exchange of Covent Garden with the abbot and convent of Westmoreland [c. 49].

32. Exchange between the King, the archbishop of Canterbury, and Cromwell (Wimbledon, Mortlake, &c.) [c. 50].

33. Jointure of Catharine Duchess of Suffolk (age 17) [c. 51].

34. Lands of Lord Rochford (deceased), Norris (deceased), and others [c. 52].

35. Benefit of clergy restricted [c. 1].

36. Against servants embezzling [c. 2].

37. Power to allot townships in Wales [c. 3].

38. Repeal of statute for dowlas and lokerams [c. 4].

39. For prentices [c. 5].

40. For continuing the Statute of Beggars and other Acts [c. 6].

41. The Succession [c. 7].

42. For continuing statutes against exportation of copper, &c. [c. 8].

43. For continuing statutes against perjury and others [c. 9].

44. For extinguishing the authority of the Bishop of Rome [c. 10].

45. For restitution of first-fruits during vacancies to next incumbent [c. 11].

46. Declaring the limits of the King's palace of Westminster [c. 12].

47. Against non-residence of spiritual persons [c. 13].

48. Prices of wines [c. 14].

49. Punishment of pirates [c. 15].

50. Dispensations from Rome [c. 16].

51. The King's successors when 24 years of age to have power to annul Acts of Parliament made during their minority [c. 51].

Letters 1536. 08 Jun 1536. Otho. C. x. 280. B. M. Hearne's Sylloge. 149. 1083. [her step-daughter] Princess Mary (age 20) to [Henry VIII.]

Begs his daily blessing. Though she understands, to her inestimable comfort, that he has forgiven all her offences and withdrawn his displeasure long time conceived against her, her joy will not be full till she is allowed to come to his presence. Begs pardon for her continual suit and rude writing, for nature will suffer her to do no otherwise. Hopes God will preserve him and the Queen (age 27), and send them a prince. Hownsdon, 8 June.

Hol. Mutilated.

Letters 1536. 10 Jun 1536. Add MS. 8715, f. 256, b. B. M. 1115. Bishop of Faenza (age 36) to Mons. Ambrogio.

Yesterday a courier came from England with news that the King has taken to wife that lady [Queen Jane Seymour (age 27)] for whom he showed the greatest preference even during the life of the other (quella Dama che vivendo anche l'altra mostrava che piu gli piacesse.)

Ital., pp. 3. Modern copy. Headed: Al Signor Protonotario Ambrogio, Di Lione, 10 Giugno 1536.

Letters 1536. 14 Jun 1536. Royal MS. 7 C. xvi. 36. B. M. 1132. Apparel and Jewels.

Receipt by William Ibgrave, embroiderer to the King, from Antony Denny, of 18 emeralds and 29 letters of I., each containing nine pearls, all set in gold, to be set upon the foresleeves and placard of a doublet. 14 June 28 Henry VIII. Signed. Endd.

Royal MS. 7 C. xvi. 37. B. M. 2. Receipt by William Ibgrave from the King of 28 score pearls, to be bestowed on his doublet and the Queen's (age 27) sleeves, and the rest to be returned to the King. 10 May. Signed.

Royal MS. 7 C. xvi. 33. B. M. 3. Memorandum of the delivery of 1,562 pearls to Epigrave, embroiderer, for the hinder part of the Queen's (age 27) kirtle. Signed: Per me, Wyllm. Ibgrave.

Endd.: The embroiderer's bills, testifying the receipt of certain jewels.

Letters 1536. 15 Jun 1536. R. O. 1138. John Husee to Lord Lisle (age 72).

I have received your sundry letters by Tatton and Shepard, and lately of Goodalle. As to the marsh, I delivered your letter to Mr. Secretary, and he made me as good an answer as I could wish, viz., that the inhabitants must bring the marsh to its first state at their own cost, and they shall have it in common, as it was before the draining and enclosure lately made by Sir Rob. Wingfield. He promised that Wingfield's patent should be resumed now by Act of Parliament, and that of this I should have an answer this day; but I think this cannot well be on account of the solemnities at Westminster, where the King and Queen (age 27) have been at mass, and came riding thither and homewards with all the estates and peers before them on horseback. There were almost as many people as at the Coronation. Tonight or in the morning I will call on him for his letters.

This would have been dispatched long since if the instruction had been discreetly given by Water Skynner; "or else the writer penning the same after his purpose did pretend to work some feat of his friendship, giving a cast of his office to Sir R. W. Howbeit, I trust the same is now at some better point than divers would have it." As soon as Mr. Secretary had showed me his mind I made Mr. Boys and Mr. Prisley privy thereto. I write in my other letters touching your Lordship's own affairs. Southwark, Corpus Christi Day, 15 June. Hol., pp. 2. Add.

Letters 1536. 16 Jun 1536. R. O. 1147. Antony Waite to Lady Lisle (age 42).

Received her letters this morning, and is glad she and Lord Lisle (age 72) are well. She must not think his slack writing is due to unthankful forgetfulness of her kindness. Has always sent his recommendations to her in his letters to Lord Lisle (age 72) sent by Worley and others. His master is in health and merry, as a man of his age may. These few days past he has resigned his Bishopric to Dr. Sampson, the dean of the King's chapel, at the King's request. He is in great favor with the King, and has always been a just and faithful councillor. He was consecrated, with the Abbot of St. Benet's, now Bishop of Norwich, on Trinity Sunday last, and yesterday performed mass before the King and Queen (age 27) at Westminster. They came thither on horseback from Newe Hall, with two archbishops, bishops, dukes, marquises, lords, barons, abbots, and justices, with a great part of the "noblenes" of the realm, and with no less solemnity went a procession after the blessed sacrament, to the great comfort and rejoysance of a great multitude of his subjects, who at that time were there gathered to see his Grace and the Queen, who is a very amiable lady, and of whom we all have great hope. London, the morrow of Corpus Christi Day.

His cousin Waytte and his wife are merry, and desire to be recommended. Hol., pp. 2. Add.: At Calais.

Letters 1536. 17 Jun 1536. Vienna Archives. 1161. Charles V. to [Chapuys].

Since our last written from this place we received letters by one of the servants of Viscount Hannaert, in which he writes that Francis has declared to him that he would no longer have an ambassador there from us, and intended immediately to recall his own resident with us. In this, as in other things, he shows the perverse inclination he always had for war, which he has re-commenced, and that it was against us. Today we will give his own ambassador congé as soon as he asks for it. Our ambassador has also informed us that he had lately had some communication with the English ambassador in France, who intimated that if we invaded France the king of England would be bound by treaty to assist in its defence. As this may have been said by information which he had from the King his master, and in any case the French will probably put it forward, you will endeavour to find out on this point from Cromwell and others the inclination of the king of England, and when you find it advisable point out that the King cannot aid the king of France, but is expressly bound to declare himself on our side against France by the reasons which we have already written to you, especially in our letters from Gaeta of 18 March, to which we can only add what has since taken place,—Francis having re-commenced open war, not only against the duke of Savoy, a vassal of the empire and our ally comprehended in the treaties of Madrid and Cambray, but directly against ourselves, as he has plainly declared and written almost everywhere in Christendom, and has expressly told Hannaert and others that he meant to have Milan either by consent or by force. He still holds all that he has taken from the duke of Savoy, and as abovesaid has dismissed my ambassador Hannaert, declaring expressly thereby that he is at war with us, although we have never till now made any attempt against his kingdom, and we cannot think that the king of England, with his great wisdom and virtue, does not see clearly that we have been provoked and compelled to this war, and that we have the right of those who defend themselves to pursue an enemy as far as they can, and that the king of England is fully bound to assist us against him. We desire you to put these points forward, either that the King may declare himself on our side if you think good, or if not, at least that he remain neutral, although in this latter case he will do us manifest wrong. As we know not whether what we have written to you since the death of Anne Boleyn will have rendered the King better disposed to the re-establishment of our friendship, we cannot write more except to leave this to your discretion; and if the King has married Mrs. Semel [Queen Jane Seymour (age 27)], as you wrote last to Granvelle, which is confirmed from France, you will not forbear to see if the said renewal of amity can be arrived at, and you will conduct yourself towards the said Semel as you think most conducive to this object and to the weal of our cousin the Princess. Asti, 17 June 1536. Fr., from a modern copy, pp. 3.

Letters 1536. 24 Jun 1536. R. O. 1193. John Husee to Lady Lisle (age 42).

Has this day received her letter by Corbet, and with it £4, which he has delivered to Basset, "who is now, lauded be God, merry and in good health at Lincoln's Inn." This will pay all his debts and what he has borrowed for his commons. "And it is not to be doubted but he will be husband good enough, for he is both discreet, sober, and wise, and not too liberal in spending." Can keep nothing secret from her ladyship. Finds that Basset has not been half so well treated as he was at Mr. Danastre's, "but hath been grontyd and grudgid at, and laid in a worse lodging than he was wont to be." Finds he has no mind to return thither "by reason of a dunne cowe that is in the house, by whom he hath had five or six calves, so that she thought all too much that was set before him, and would have Mr. Danastre spare for to bring up her calves. God send them good weaning! But I had little thought Mr. Danastre had been a man of so vile and dissimuling a nature," else he should not have been so fat fed. Hopes to get "him" (Basset) an honest lodging within seven miles of London against the vacation, but Mr. Skerne and his wife have shown themselves at all times to be one manner of people. Will learn of my lady Sarum the Queen's (age 27) pleasure about your coming over to the coronation. Will do all he can about Hide for my lord and my lady's profit. As to your ladyship's daughter, you will receive herewith my lord Montague's letter showing both my lady's and his meaning. My lord said the Queen had appointed all her maidens already, and that on the next vacancy he would get my lady to do her best for your daughter's preferment. This was all his answer. Mentioned the matter to Lady Rutland (age 41), Mrs. Margery, and Mrs. Arundell, but is sure no one moved it except lady Sarum and Mr. Hennage. Did not press [her brother] Lord Beauchamp (age 36), who would scarce give him a hearing. Will show Mr. Hennage that Mrs. Catharine is of sufficient age. Will work by Mrs. Margery's counsel and Mrs. Goldyng's if he find her friendly. Is sorry Skutt has disappointed her about her gown. He promised repeatedly it should be made like the Queen's gowns. Is sure the "velot" (velvet) will be found satisfactory. God have mercy on Mr. Norres's (deceased) soul! for my lord may say he lost a friend. Hopes, however, his new friends will be good at length. Begs that William Sendy, Lady Lisle (age 42)'s man, may have the profits of making the passports. Has delivered the hogshead for lord Daubeney to Thomas Seller, who has cellared it till he know my lord's pleasure. Has written to lord Daubeney about it, and about the quails sent by my lady, which were given to his friends as he was so far off. Seller said he would undertake to redeem Bekonholt Wood for £40, or that if you would write to Mr. Hatche that my lord Dawbny should do his pleasure with Waram Wood, Bekonholt might be allowed to stand without money. Geofford is in town. Will speak with him in the morning. London, 24 June.

If her ladyship would send the Queen her bird and her dog, thinks they would be well received. Hol., pp. 4. Add.

Letters 1536. 26 Jun 1536. Add MS. 28,588, f. 296. B. M.1213. Dr. Ortiz to the Comendador Molina.

The king of England has married a lady [Queen Jane Seymour (age 27)] who was five or six months gone with child by him (que estava preñada del en cinco o seys meses). Rome, 26 June 1536.

Sp., p. 1. Modern copy.

Letters 1536. 26 Jun 1536. Otho, C. x. 266. B. M. Hearne's Sylloge, 128. Burnet, V. 368. 1203. The Princess Mary to Henry VIII.

Most humbly lying at your feet, my most dear and benign father and sovereign, I have this day perceived your gracious clemency and merciful pity to have overcome my most unkind and unnatural proceedings towards you and your most just and virtuous laws. I cannot express my joy or make any return for your goodness, "but my poor heart which I send unto your Highness to remain in your hand, to be for ever used, directed, and framed, whiles God shall suffer life to remain in it, at your only pleasure." I beg you to receive it as all I have to offer. I will never vary from that confession and submission I made to your Highness in the presence of the Council. I pray God preserve you and the Queen and send you issue. Hounsdon, 26 June. Hol. Mutilated.

R. O. 1204. The [her step-daughter] Princess Mary (age 20) to [Jane Seymour (age 27)].

I have received your letters, "no less full of motherly joy for my towardness of reconciliation than of most prudent counsel for my further proceeding therein," which of your goodness you promise to travel to bring to a perfection. Cannot express the comfort this has given her. Promises that from this day she shall neither be lacking in duty to her father, who has the whole disposition of her heart in his noble hand, nor in humble and obedient service to her Grace. Begs her, "with such acceleration as shall stand with your pleasure," to have in remembrance her desire to attain the King's presence.

Hol., p. 1. Add.: To the Queen's grace, my good mother. Endd.: My Lady Mary to the Queen's grace.

Letters 1536. 26 Jun 1536. Vatican Archives. 1212. Bishop of Faenza (age 36) to [M. Ambrogio?].

Is informed by the English ambassadors that the Parliament was to end this month, in which it was expected that the [her step-daughter] true daughter (age 20) would be declared Princess, because the King was much softened, besides that she had powerful friends in Norfolk, Cromwell and others, and that she herself is universally loved; and it was hoped that after this would follow the King's return to the Church, though they have some fear of his avarice. The French are doing their best to bring him back, and their ambassador there gives me to understand he has good hope for it. This last wife [Queen Jane Seymour (age 27)] is said to be much loved by the subjects, both because she is very gentle and good, and because she has five times thrown herself publicly at the King's feet, requesting him to send for his daughter and declare her Princess (age 20), a thing which has greatly moved the people. The ambassador Valo (Wallop) informs me that Reginald Pole at Padua, having been several times requested by his King to return, and having always replied that he would not come till the King had returned to the obedience of the Church, the King at last, eight months ago, desired him to write what he thought on such matters, especially de potestate Pontificis, and he has now sent him a book so much in favor of the Holy See, "che beato quel Re se lo gustara." The King now shows great tokens of kindness to his daughter. On the return of her governess to Court (who, they say, is Pole's mother), it being supposed that the Princess (age 20) was in her company, a crowd with 4,000 or 5,000 horses ran to meet her. The King, not knowing the cause, asked, "Why so many people?" and being told it was to see the Princess (age 20), answered that she was not there, but would soon come and they might see her.

Marseilles is strongly fortified; 25 well appointed galleys were in the port. They say the Emperor will not come into Provence. The Imperial ambassador, who was here, has intimated that if some one were sent to the Emperor for a forty days truce, matters might be accommodated; but here they will not trust the Emperor. It is clear they are sanguine of success. The English are beginning to make their meaning understood, and as to keeping the agreement say that they will not fail to do so, that King promising to go in person against the Emperor if the latter attack France. The Grand Master says it would have been worth 500,000 scudi to them if that King had not shown himself so dissatisfied with their adhesion to the Holy See. He expressed great devotion and respect for His Holiness, as also did the cardinal of Lorraine, who has lately returned from Rome.

The marriage of the king of Scots, which was considered as accomplished, is not yet so, but is very near it. The Admiral is in disgrace with the King, speaks little to him, and never comes when called to important business, but only Lorraine and the Grand Master. Every morning the Queen of Navarre proposes to go to Burgundy, but everyone opposes it. She is never likely to have again a third of her former influence.

Ital. Three modern extracts, pp. 5. Headed: Di Mons. di Faenza (age 36) de 26 di Giugno 1536 da Leon.

Add. MS. 8,715, f. 261. B. M. 2. Modern copy of the preceding letter. Pp. 8.

Letters 1536. 29 Jun 1536. R. O. 1219. John Smyth to Cromwell.

We have been in the west parts, and surveyed all the Queen's (age 27) lands in Hampshire. Dorsetshire, Devonshire, Somersetshire, and Wiltshire. We have found all the Queen's (age 27) farmers and tenants as glad of her Grace as heart can think, and have been well entertained. On our return to the Court, which will be within 10 or 12 days, I trust you will see we have done her good service, and that the King will be pleased. To ascertain you of the plentifulness of the "newing" of this one year in these parts, it has not been seen that any such yering hath been of late within this realm, as Mr. Richard, your nephew, can inform you. "So that the people doth note this same year to be the year of grace here in England, which men were wont to seek in Rome." Bromeham, Wilts, at Mr. Baynton's house, 29 June.

Hol., pp. 2. Add.: Mr. Secretary. Endd.

Letters 1536. 30 Jun 1536. Vienna Archives. 1227. Charles V. to Chapuys.

Has received his letters of the 6th by his man George. Is much pleased with his conduct to the king of England, his ministers, and the new Queen (age 27), and with his good advice to the Princess [Mary].

As to the principal point, the persistence of the King and Cromwell that he should persuade the Emperor to make peace, nothing could justify the Emperor's conduct better than his answer, to show the French king's obstinacy in refusing his offers, especially that of Milan for the duke of Angoulême, which, in the answer he has sent to Rome, he insists upon having for the duke of Orleans. He also refuses to restore what he has taken from the duke of Savoy, and has gone on from bad to worse, even to a war against the Emperor, whose ambassador he has dismissed, while he has invaded the Low Countries. Does not think the mediation of the king of England, or of any one else, is any good, nor does he see how he can now listen to the proposals. Is pleased with the ambassador's telling Henry that the only method to bring Francis to reason is for him to declare himself openly on the Emperor's side. Gives him arguments to use to the King and Cromwell for this purpose, referring to his letters from Gaeta and Asti. Sends a copy of a letter which he writes to the King, and a new power. His letters from Gaeta will serve for instructions.

If the King insists on no peace being made with France unless he gets his claim, according to previous agreement between him and the Emperor, the ambassador must first find out Henry's intention about the declaration and the assistance which he will give, and whether there is any appearance of his procuring any money for the enterprise. If he really intends to give good aid, the ambassador may promise that the Emperor will not make peace without his intervention and without regard to his honor and the weal of his kingdom. If he wants more security he may take time to consult the Emperor, or, if the King will not wait, he may treat on the lines of the old treaties, binding the Emperor as little as possible. If there is no hope of his assisting, the ambassador must procure his neutrality.

Nothing must be treated or promised which is directly or indirectly against the Pope or his authority, or to the prejudice of the Council. If he cannot induce the King to return to his obedience to the Holy See, or remit his differences with the Pope to the Emperor and to the Council, no treaty must be entered into, but the matter must be discussed in a friendly way to gain time and see how our enterprise succeeds.

The ambassador has done well in telling the king of England and his ministers what the Emperor wrote about the marriage of the said King with the infanta of Portugal, daughter of the Queen of France our sister, though there is no chance of it taking effect, as the King will have seen the Emperor's good will by it.

Is desirous of the marriage between Don Luys of Portugal and the Princess. It would be a means to reduce the King to obedience to the Church and the Emperor's friendship. In this case it would be important for the Princess to be declared heiress, at least in case of no male heirs. Has some hopes of this from the demonstration lately made by the King, the Queen's goodwill to her, and the words of Cromwell. In any case the King cannot prejudice her rights. If he will not make this declaration, the ambassador must find out what portion he will give her in ready money and in the future, and promise that the Emperor will do the best he can for the good of both parties and to content the King.

Finally, he is to do his best to get the King of England to declare himself against France and assist the Emperor with money, for it is too late to get men from him, and would do no good, and also to treat the said marriage if it can be accomplished. If not, or if the King demands exorbitant terms, he must negociate at least to prevent his aiding France.

Thinks it unnecessary to send any other personage to England; he has so much confidence in Chapuys, and it is so important in the first place to know how far the King's friendship is to be depended upon. If there were sufficient grounds to treat, would send some one either from here or Flanders. Desires to know what chances there are of the match with Portugal. Approves of his visiting the new Queen and commending to her the interests of the Princess. He may further declare the Emperor's pleasure on hearing of her marriage and of her goodwill to the Princess. Savillan in Piedmont, 30 June 1536.

Fr. From a modern copy, pp. 6.

On 23 Jul 1536 [her illegitimate step-son] Henry Fitzroy 1st Duke Richmond and Somerset (age 17) died at St James's Palace [Map]. He the illegitimate son of [her husband] King Henry VIII of England and Ireland (age 45). He was buried at Church of St Michael the Archangel, Framlingham [Map]. Duke of Richmond and Somerset, Earl Nottingham extinct.

Hall's Chronicle 1536. Dec 1536. This year in December was the Thames of London all frozen over wherefore the King’s Majesty with his beautiful spouse Queen Jane (age 27), rode throughout the City of London to Greenwich. And this Christmas the King by his messengers and heralds sent down into the North his general pardons to all capital offenders and shortly after came Aske (age 36) to London, and so to the court to the King. This Aske was the chief captain of the last rebellion in the North, and now both pardoned of the King, and his grace received him into his favour and gave unto him apparel and great rewards, but as after you shall perceive Aske (age 36) enjoyed not the King his new friends kindness a year and a day, and pity it was that he had any favour at all, for there lived not a veriar [?] wretch as well in person as in conditions and deeds, especially against his anointed governor and sovereign Lord.

On 21 Dec 1536 [her father] John Seymour (age 62) died.

1537. Hans Holbein The Younger (age 40). Portrait of Queen Jane Seymour (age 28) wearing a pendant with the letters IHS ie the first three letters of Christ's name in Greek.

Birth and Christening Edward VI

On 12 Oct 1537 [her son] King Edward VI of England and Ireland was born to [her husband] Henry VIII (age 46) and Queen Jane Seymour (age 28) at Hampton Court Palace, Richmond [Map]. George Owen (age 38) assisted as Physician.

Death of Jane Seymour

Hall's Chronicle 1537. 14 Oct 1537. But Lord what lamentation shortly after was made for the death of his noble and gracious mother Queen Jane (age 28), which departed out of this life the fourteenth day of October, next following: and of none in the realm was it more heavier taken than of the King’s Majesty (age 46) himself, whose death caused the King immediately to remove unto Westminster, where he mourned and kept himself close and secret a great while.

Wriothesley's Chronicle 1537. 14 Oct 1537. This yeare, the 14 of October, beinge Weddnesday1, Queene Jane (age 28) departed this lyfe, lyeinge in childe bedd, aboute 2 of the clocke in the morninge, when she had reigned as the Kings wife, beinge never crowned, one yeare and a quarter2.

Note 1. This date has evidently been tampered with by the transcriber to make it correspond with Stow, Hall, Godwin, and others, who assign the Queen's death to the 14th, whereas it took place on the 24th, which was evidently correctly given by the original writer of this Chronicle, as he makes it Wednesday, whereas the 14th would have been Sunday. It is very remarkable that the date of an event of so much interest at the time as the Queen's death should haye been misplaced by no less than ten days by nearly all ancient chroniclers, but the doubt as to the correct date is set at rest by an original letter written by Sir John Russell, from Hampton Court, to Cromwell, and dated the 24th of October, which is still extant in the Public Record Office, and reads as follows: "Sir, the King was determyned this day to have remoyed to Asher, and because the Queene was very sik this night and this day he taried, but to morrowe, God willing, he entendithe to be ther. If she amende, he will go; and if she amende not, he tolde me this day, he coold not fynde in his harte to tary; for I ensuer you she hathe bene in grete dannger yesternight and this day, bnt, thankid be God, she is somwhat amended, and, if she skape this night, the fyshionns be in good hope that she is past all dannger." Also Cecil's Journal is to the same effect.

Note 2. One year and nearly five months.

Chronicle of Greyfriars. 23 Oct 1537. This year the good Queen Jane (age 28) deceased the 23rd day of October at Richmond [Map], and all the court had them black gowns, ...

Letters and Papers 1537. 24 Oct 1537. 971. Norfolk to Cromwell. R.O.

"My good lord, I pray you to be here tomorrow early to comfort our good master, for as for our mistress [Queen Jane Seymour (age 28)] there is no likelihood of her life, the more pity, and I fear she shall not be on lyve at the time ye shall read this. At viij at night, with the hand of [your] sorrowful friend, T. Norffolk."

Hol., mutilated.

Letters and Papers 1537. 24 Oct 1537. 970. Earl of Rutland, Bishop of Carlisle, and Others to [Cromwell]. Nero C. x. 2. B. M. St. P. i. 572. Hearne's1 Sylloge, 114.

Yesterday afternoon the Queen (age 28) had "an naturall laxe," by reason of which she seemed to amend till toward night. All night she has been very sick, and rather "appears" than amends. Her confessor has been with her this morning, and is now preparing to minister the Sacrament of Unction. Hampton Court, Wednesday, 8 a.m.

Signed: Thomas Rutland—Robert Karliolen.—Edward Bayntun—John Chamber, priest—William Butt—George Owen.

Note 1. Two of the signatures are quite mis-read by Hearne or the copy he followed.

On 24 Oct 1537 Queen Jane Seymour (age 28)died at Hampton Court Palace [Map] at two in the morning as a result of complications arising from childbirth.

Letters and Papers 1537. 24 Oct 1537. 977. Sir J. Russell to Cromwell. R. O. St. P. i. 573.

I have received your letter and shown it to the King, who caused Mr. Nevell to send for divers of the men, who shall be here to-morrow. Yesterday Mr. Treasurer and I examined one of Mr. Nevell's servants, who confessed to 20, not one of them in the bill the King had of you; so, by the time those you wrote of shall be taken, ye shall have a great number accused. Today the King intended to remove to Asher, and, because the Queen (age 28) was very sick this night and today, he tarried, but he will be there tomorrow. "If she amend he will go and if she amend not he told me this day he could not find in his heart to tarry." She was in great danger yesternight and to day but, if she sleep this night, the physicians hope that she is past danger. Hampton Court, xxiiiiith (sic) day of October. Signed.

Add.: Lord Privy Seal. Endd.: 24 October.

Letters and Papers 1537. 26 Oct 1537. 988. Sir Thos. Palmer to Lord Lisle. R. O.

We have here heavy tidings. The bruit was that the Queen (deceased) died on Tuesday, but she was alive late on Wednesday night, "and if good prayers can save her, she is not like to die, for never lady was so much plained with every man, rich and poor." The King will be at York Place on Tuesday night. There is no time to sue, or the money would have been paid two days ago. I beg you to remember your promise for Thos. Appowell. I am sure you have a sufficient warrant both from the King and my lord Admiral, and also from my lord Privy Seal, by three of his letters. I trust Mr. Surveyor will not be against it so that he will have the next, for I spoke with him here in London. I will see you discharged when you admit him, or else count me the falsest man that ever was born. London, 26 Oct.

Hol., p. 1. Add.: Deputy of Calais.

Chronicle of Greyfriars. 08 Nov 1537 ... and she [Queen Jane Seymour (deceased)] was buried at Windsor [Map] the 8th day of November.

Funeral of Jane Seymour

Hall's Chronicle 1537. 08 Nov 1537. And the eighth day of November the corpse of the Queen (deceased) was carried to Windsor with great solemnity, and there was buried in the midst of the choir in the Castel Church [Map]: And at the same time was made in Paul’s a solemn hearse for her, where was mass and dirge, and in like manner was sung Mass and dirge in every parish church in London.

Letters and Papers 1537. 14 Nov 1537. 1084. Honor Lady (age 43) to the Countess of Sussex.

Commendations to my lord (age 54) and you. I have received your letter and perceive your sorrow for the death of the Queen (deceased), yet her Grace was fortunate to live the day to bring forth such a prince. I perceive my lord and you have taken my daughter Anne (age 17) until, by your good suit, she may obtain place again. If she cannot I will send for her and recompense your charges. I did not send them to put you or any of my kin to charge, but to have them with the Queen. Where you write that but for your great charge of kin and other gentlewomen you would have taken Kateryn (age 15) too; it was never my mind to put you to any charge, yet if I were in England and you sent me even three or four I would accept them. I pray you prefer Anne (age 17) because she was sworn to the late Queen (deceased). Where it has pleased my Lord of Rutland (age 45) and my lady at your suit to take Kateryn (age 15) for the time, I trust they shall be no losers. "Very glad to hear of your great belly, beseeching God to make you a joyous mother." As shortly as I can I will send you your own, with some good wine which I trust ye shall have three weeks before Christmas. Calais [Map], 14 Nov.

Marriage of Henry VIII and Anne of Cleves

On 06 Jan 1540 [her former husband] Henry VIII (age 48) and Anne of Cleves (age 24) were married by Archbishop Thomas Cranmer (age 50) at the Palace of Placentia, Greenwich [Map]. Anne of Cleves (age 24) was crowned Queen Consort England. The difference in their ages was 24 years. She the daughter of John La Marck III Duke Cleves and Maria Jülich Berg Duchess Cleves. He the son of King Henry VII of England and Ireland and Elizabeth York Queen Consort England.

Catherine Carey (age 16) and Eleanor Paston Countess Rutland (age 45) were appointed Lady in Waiting to Anne of Cleves Queen Consort England (age 24).

Marriage of Henry VIII and Catherine Howard

On 28 Jul 1540 [her former husband] Henry VIII (age 49) and Catherine Howard (age 17) were married at Oatlands Palace [Map] by Bishop of London Edmund Bonner (age 40). She by marriage Queen Consort England. The difference in their ages was 31 years. He the son of King Henry VII of England and Ireland and Elizabeth York Queen Consort England.

Catherine Carey (age 16) and Eleanor Paston Countess Rutland (age 45) were appointed Lady in Waiting to Queen Catherine Howard of England (age 17).

Marriage of Henry VIII and Catherine Parr

On 12 Jul 1543 [her former husband] Henry VIII (age 52) and Catherine Parr (age 30) were married at Hampton Court Palace [Map]. She was crowned Queen Consort England. His sixth and last marriage, her third marriage; her previous husband had died four months before. The difference in their ages was 21 years. He the son of King Henry VII of England and Ireland and Elizabeth York Queen Consort England. They were third cousin once removed. She a great x 5 granddaughter of King Edward III of England.

Henry's two daughters [her former step-daughter] Mary (age 27) and [her former step-daughter] Elizabeth (age 9) attended, as did his niece Margaret Douglas Countess Lennox (age 27).

Catherine's sister Anne (age 28) attended with her husband William Herbert 1st Earl Pembroke (age 42).

Death of Henry VIII Accession of Edward VI

On 28 Jan 1547 [her former husband] Henry VIII (age 55) died at Whitehall Palace [Map]. His son [her son] King Edward VI of England and Ireland (age 9) succeeded VI King England. Earl Chester merged with the Crown.

Thomas Wendy (age 46) attended the King. He was one of the witnesses to the King's last will and testament, for which he received £100.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 26 Aug 1552. The xxvjth day of August ded ser Clementt Smyth (age 45) knyght, and unkull unto owre soverayn lord and kyng Edward the vjth, the wyche ser Clement mared qwyne Jane('s) [her sister] syster (age 36); and he ded in Essex, at a plasse callyd Badow.

Note. Death of sir Clement Smith. Sir Clement married Dorothy Seymour, sister of queen Jane, and of Edward duke of Somerset. King Edward, in his Diary, under the 24th March 1550–1, records his being "chidden" for having a year before heard mass.

1667. Remigius van Leemput (age 59). Copy (for which he received £150) of Hans Holbein's "Whitehall Mural" of [her former husband] King Henry VIII of England and Ireland, King Henry VII of England and Ireland, Elizabeth York Queen Consort England and Queen Jane Seymour. The original was destroyed in a fire in 1698.

NO IMAGE. Or, on a pile gules between six fleur de lys azure three lions of England. Augmentation of honour granted to [her brother] Edward Seymour 1st Duke of Somerset when his sister Queen Jane Seymour married King Henry VIII of England and Ireland. Source.

Royal Ancestors of Queen Jane Seymour 1509-1537

Kings Wessex: Great x 14 Grand Daughter of King Edmund "Ironside" I of England

Kings Gwynedd: Great x 11 Grand Daughter of Owain "Great" King Gwynedd

Kings Seisyllwg: Great x 17 Grand Daughter of Hywel "Dda aka Good" King Seisyllwg King Deheubarth

Kings Powys: Great x 12 Grand Daughter of Maredudd ap Bleddyn King Powys

Kings England: Great x 6 Grand Daughter of King Edward III of England

Kings Scotland: Great x 10 Grand Daughter of William "Lion" I King Scotland

Kings Franks: Great x 11 Grand Daughter of Louis VII King Franks

Kings France: Great x 8 Grand Daughter of Philip "The Fair" IV King France

Royal Descendants of Queen Jane Seymour 1509-1537

King Edward VI of England and Ireland x 1

Ancestors of Queen Jane Seymour 1509-1537

Great x 4 Grandfather: William Seymour 8 x Great Grand Son of King Henry I "Beauclerc" England

Great x 3 Grandfather: Roger Seymour 9 x Great Grand Son of King Henry I "Beauclerc" England

Great x 2 Grandfather: John Seymour 10 x Great Grand Son of King Henry I "Beauclerc" England

Great x 3 Grandmother: Maud Esturney

Great x 1 Grandfather: John Seymour 11 x Great Grand Son of King Henry I "Beauclerc" England

Great x 2 Grandmother: Isabel Williams

GrandFather: John Seymour 12 x Great Grand Son of King Henry I "Beauclerc" England

Great x 1 Grandmother: Elizabeth Coker

Father: John Seymour 9 x Great Grand Son of King John "Lackland" of England

Great x 3 Grandfather: William Darell

Great x 2 Grandfather: William Darell

Great x 1 Grandfather: George Darell of Littlecote

GrandMother: Elizabeth Darell 8 x Great Grand Daughter of King John "Lackland" of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: John Stourton 4 x Great Grand Son of King John "Lackland" of England

Great x 3 Grandfather: William Stourton 5 x Great Grand Son of King John "Lackland" of England

Great x 2 Grandfather: John Stourton 1st Baron Stourton 6 x Great Grand Son of King John "Lackland" of England

Great x 1 Grandmother: Margaret Stourtron 7 x Great Grand Daughter of King John "Lackland" of England

Queen Jane Seymour 6 x Great Grand Daughter of King Edward III of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: John Wentworth

Great x 3 Grandfather: John Wentworth

Great x 4 Grandmother: Joan Tyas

Great x 2 Grandfather: Roger Wentworth

Great x 3 Grandmother: Agnes Dronsfield

Great x 1 Grandfather: Philip Wentworth 8 x Great Grand Son of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: Philip Despencer 1st Baron Despencer 7 x Great Grand Son of King Henry I "Beauclerc" England

Great x 3 Grandfather: Philip Despencer 2nd Baron Despencer 8 x Great Grand Son of King Henry I "Beauclerc" England

Great x 4 Grandmother: Elizabeth Unknown Baroness Despencer

Great x 2 Grandmother: Margery Despencer 3rd Baroness Despencer, Baroness Ros 7 x Great Grand Daughter of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: Robert Tiptoft 3rd Baron Tibetot 5 x Great Grand Son of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 3 Grandmother: Elizabeth Tiptoft Baroness Despencer 6 x Great Grand Daughter of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 4 Grandmother: Margaret Deincourt Baroness Tibetot 7 x Great Grand Daughter of King Henry I "Beauclerc" England

GrandFather: Henry Wentworth 4th Baron Despencer 4 x Great Grand Son of King Edward III of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: Roger Clifford 5th Baron Clifford 4 x Great Grand Son of King John "Lackland" of England

Great x 3 Grandfather: Thomas Clifford 6th Baron Clifford 5 x Great Grand Son of King John "Lackland" of England

Great x 4 Grandmother: Maud Beauchamp Baroness Clifford 5 x Great Grand Daughter of King John "Lackland" of England

Great x 2 Grandfather: John Clifford 7th Baron Clifford 4 x Great Grand Son of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: Thomas Ros 4th Baron Ros Helmsley 5 x Great Grand Son of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 3 Grandmother: Elizabeth Ros Baroness Clifford 3 x Great Grand Daughter of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England

Great x 4 Grandmother: Beatrice Stafford Countess Desmond 2 x Great Grand Daughter of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England

Great x 1 Grandmother: Mary Clifford Baroness Despencer 3 x Great Grand Daughter of King Edward III of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: Henry Percy 1st Earl of Northumberland 2 x Great Grand Son of King Henry III of England

Great x 3 Grandfather: Henry "Hotspur" Percy 3 x Great Grand Son of King Henry III of England

Great x 4 Grandmother: Margaret Neville 4 x Great Grand Daughter of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 2 Grandmother: Elizabeth Percy Countess of Westmoreland 2 x Great Grand Daughter of King Edward III of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: Edmund Mortimer 3rd Earl March, Earl Ulster 6 x Great Grand Son of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 3 Grandmother: Elizabeth Mortimer Baroness Camoys Great Grand Daughter of King Edward III of England

Great x 4 Grandmother: Philippa Plantagenet Countess March 5th Countess Ulster Grand Daughter of King Edward III of England

Mother: Margery Wentworth 5 x Great Grand Daughter of King Edward III of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: Geoffrey Saye 2nd Baron Say

Great x 3 Grandfather: John Saye 7 x Great Grand Son of King Henry I "Beauclerc" England

Great x 4 Grandmother: Maud Beauchamp Baroness Say 6 x Great Grand Daughter of King Henry I "Beauclerc" England

Great x 2 Grandfather: John Saye 7 x Great Grand Son of King John "Lackland" of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: William Boteler 3rd Baron Wem and Oversley 5 x Great Grand Son of King John "Lackland" of England

Great x 3 Grandmother: Elizabeth Boteler Baroness Ferrers Wem 6 x Great Grand Daughter of King John "Lackland" of England

Great x 1 Grandfather: John Saye 8 x Great Grand Son of King John "Lackland" of England

GrandMother: Anne Saye Baroness Despencer 8 x Great Grand Daughter of King John "Lackland" of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: John Henry Cheney

Great x 3 Grandfather: William Cheney

Great x 2 Grandfather: Lawrence Cheney

Great x 1 Grandmother: Elizabeth Cheney 7 x Great Grand Daughter of King John "Lackland" of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: John Cockayne

Great x 3 Grandfather: John Cockayne

Great x 4 Grandmother: Cecilia Vernon

Great x 2 Grandmother: Elizabeth Cockayne 6 x Great Grand Daughter of King John "Lackland" of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: Reginald Grey 2nd Baron Grey Ruthyn 7 x Great Grand Son of King Henry I "Beauclerc" England

Great x 3 Grandmother: Ida Grey 5 x Great Grand Daughter of King John "Lackland" of England

Great x 4 Grandmother: Alianore Strange Baroness Grey Ruthyn 4 x Great Grand Daughter of King John "Lackland" of England