Biography of Richard Plantagenet 3rd Duke York 1411-1460

Paternal Family Tree: Anjou aka Plantagenet

Maternal Family Tree: Aoife NI Diarmait Macmurrough Countess Pembroke and Buckingham 1145-1188

Descendants Family Tree: Richard Plantagenet 3rd Duke York 1411-1460

1415 Southampton Plot

1415 Battle of Agincourt

1443 Beaufort Campaign

1444 Treaty of Tours

1445 Richard of York meets Margaret of Anjou

1445 Richard of York returns to England

1447 Death of Humphrey of Lancaster

1447 Richard York appointed Lieutenant of Ireland

1455 First Battle of St Albans

1458 Loveday

1459 Battle of Blore Heath

1459 Parliament of the Devils

1459 Battle of Ludford Bridge

1460 January Raid on Sandwich

1460 Battle of Northampton

1460 Richard of York claims the Kingdom of England

1460 Act of Accord 39 Hen VI

1460 Battle of Worksop

1460 Battle of Wakefield

1461 Coronation of Edward IV

1476 Reburial of Richard and Edmund of York

Before 20 Jul 1399 Thomas Dacre 6th Baron Dacre Gilsland (age 11) and [his future sister-in-law] Philippa Neville Baroness Dacre of Gilsland (age 13) were married. She by marriage Baroness Dacre Gilsland. She the daughter of Ralph Neville 1st Earl of Westmoreland (age 35) and Margaret Stafford Baroness Neville Raby. She a great x 4 granddaughter of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England.

In May 1406 [his father] Richard of Conisbrough 1st Earl Cambridge (age 20) and [his mother] Anne Mortimer (age 15) were married. The marriage apparently took place in secret possibly because she was a descendant of King Edward III of England although she wasn't at the time Heir to the Throne of England although their issue would become so. She died five years later. She the daughter of Roger Mortimer 4th Earl March 6th Earl Ulster and Eleanor Holland Countess March and Ulster. He the son of Edmund of Langley 1st Duke of York and Isabella of Castile Duchess York. They were first cousin twice removed. He a grandson of King Edward III of England. She a great x 2 granddaughter of King Edward III of England.

On 28 Oct 1407 John Greystoke 4th Baron Greystoke (age 18) and [his future sister-in-law] Elizabeth Ferrers Baroness Greystoke (age 14) were married at Greystoke Castle, Cumberland. She by marriage Baroness Greystoke. She the daughter of Robert Ferrers and Joan Beaufort Countess of Westmoreland (age 28). She a great granddaughter of King Edward III of England.

On 21 Sep 1411 Richard Plantagenet 3rd Duke York was born to Richard of Conisbrough 1st Earl Cambridge (age 26) and Anne Mortimer (age 20). His mother died shortly afterwards. He a great grandson of King Edward III of England. Coefficient of inbreeding 2.28%.

After 21 Sep 1411 [his father] Richard of Conisbrough 1st Earl Cambridge (age 26) and [his step-mother] Maud Clifford Countess Cambridge (age 22) were married. He the son of Edmund of Langley 1st Duke of York and Isabella of Castile Duchess York. He a grandson of King Edward III of England. She a great x 4 granddaughter of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England.

After 21 Sep 1411 [his mother] Anne Mortimer (age 20) died from childbirth. Her son Richard Plantagenet 3rd Duke York succeeded Heir to the Throne of England, 8th Earl Ulster.

In 1414 [his father] Richard of Conisbrough 1st Earl Cambridge (age 28) was created 1st Earl Cambridge. [his step-mother] Maud Clifford Countess Cambridge (age 25) by marriage Countess Cambridge.

Southampton Plot

On 05 Aug 1415 two executions of those involved in the Southampton Plot took place at the North Gate aka Bargate [Map]:

[his father] Richard of Conisbrough 1st Earl Cambridge (age 30) was beheaded. His son Richard Plantagenet 3rd Duke York (age 3) succeeded 2nd Earl Cambridge.

Henry Scrope 3rd Baron Scrope Masham (age 42) was beheaded. His brother John Scrope 4th Baron Scrope Masham (age 27) succeeded 4th Baron Scrope Masham.

Before 06 Sep 1415 Piers Mauley 5th Baron de Mauley (age 38) and [his future sister-in-law] Maud Neville Baroness Haversham (age 32) were married. She by marriage Baroness Haversham. She the daughter of Ralph Neville 1st Earl of Westmoreland (age 51) and Margaret Stafford Baroness Neville Raby. They were third cousins. She a great x 4 granddaughter of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England.

Battle of Agincourt

On 25 Oct 1415 King Henry V of England (age 29) defeated the French army at the Battle of Agincourt. King Henry V of England (age 29) commanded the Main Battle. Thomas Camoys 1st Baron Camoys (age 64) commanded the Rearguard.

Richard de Vere 11th Earl of Oxford (age 30) commanded. Humphrey Lancaster 1st Duke Gloucester (age 25) was wounded, and was protected by his brother King Henry V of England (age 29).

[his uncle] Edward York 2nd Duke of York 1st Duke Albemarle (age 42), commander of the Vanguard, was killed; the most senior English casualty. Duke Albemarle aka Aumale, Earl of Rutland and Earl Cork extinct. Richard Plantagenet 3rd Duke York (age 4) inherited his estates including Conisbrough Castle [Map].

John Fortescue (age 35), Dafydd Gam Brecon (age 35) and Edward Burnell (age 44) and Roger Vaughan of Bredwardine (age 38) were killed.

Michael de la Pole 3rd Earl Suffolk (age 21) was killed. His brother William "Jackanapes" de la Pole 1st Duke of Suffolk (age 19) succeeded 4th Earl Suffolk.

The English included: Louis Robbessart (age 25), Richard Beauchamp 13th Earl Warwick (age 33), William Botreaux 3rd Baron Botreaux (age 26), William Bourchier 1st Count Eu (age 41), John Cornwall 1st Baron Fanhope 1st Baron Milbroke (age 51), Edward Courtenay (age 30), Ralph Cromwell 3rd Baron Cromwell (age 12), Thomas Dutton (age 19), Edmund Ferrers 6th Baron Ferrers of Chartley (age 29), Roger Fiennes (age 31), Henry Fitzhugh 3rd Baron Fitzhugh (age 57), John Grey (age 28), John Grey 1st Earl Tankerville (age 31), William Harrington (age 42) as the King's Standard Bearer, Walter Hungerford 1st Baron Hungerford (age 37), Piers Legh (age 26) (wounded), Alfred Longford, Thomas Montagu 1st Count Perche 4th Earl Salisbury (age 27), Thomas Morley 6th Baron Marshal 5th Baron Morley (age 22), John Rodney, Richard Scrope 3rd Baron Scrope of Bolton (age 22), Robert Strelley (age 18), James Tuchet 5th Baron Audley, 2nd Baron Tuchet (age 17), Robert Umfraville (age 52), Thomas West 2nd Baron West (age 35), Robert Willoughby 6th Baron Willoughby (age 30). Thomas Erpingham (age 60) commanded the archers. Thomas Rempston (age 26) was present. Thomas Strickland (age 48) carried the Banner of St George.

Thomas Tunstall (age 57) was killed.

The Welsh included: William ap Thomas "Blue Knight of Gwent" Herbert (age 35), Walter Sais (age 95), Roger Vaughan (age 70) and his son Roger Vaughan (age 5). Owen Tudor (age 15) is believed to have been present as a squire.

The French army suffered significant casualties. Charles Albret (age 46), Philip Valois II Count Nevers (age 26), John of Bar (age 35), Jacques Chatillon (age 48), David Rambures (age 51) and his three sons: Jean Rambures, Hugues Rambures, Philippe Rambures, Waleran Luxemburg (age 60) and Hector de Chartres were killed.

Charles Valois Duke Orléans (age 20) was captured by Richard Waller (age 20) for which he was knighted on the battlefield by King Henry V of England (age 29).

John Bourbon I Duke Bourbon (age 34) and Charles Artois Count Eu (age 21) were captured.

Robert of Bar Count Soissons Count Marle (age 25) was killed. His daughter Jeanne of Bar Countess Soissons succeeded Countess Soissons 1367.

Edward of Bar III Duke of Bar (age 38) was killed. His brother Cardinal Louis of Bar (age 38) succeeded I Duke Bar.

John Valois I Duke Alençon was killed. His son John Valois II Duke Alençon (age 6) succeeded II Duke Alençon.

Frederick Metz I Count Vaudémont (age 47) was killed. His son Antoine Count of Vaudémont (age 15) succeeded Count Vaudémont.

Anthony Valois Duke Brabant (age 31) was killed. His son John Valois IV Duke Brabant (age 12) succeeded IV Duke Brabant. Jacqueline Wittelsbach Duchess Brabant and Gloucester (age 14) by marriage Duchess Brabant.

Jean II Le Maingre "Boucicaut" (age 49) was captured.

Georges de La Trémoille (age 33) was captured.

In or before 1416 [his future brother-in-law] Ralph Neville (age 24) and [his future sister-in-law] Mary or Margery Ferrers (age 21) were married. She the daughter of Robert Ferrers and Joan Beaufort Countess of Westmoreland (age 36). He the son of Ralph Neville 1st Earl of Westmoreland (age 51) and Margaret Stafford Baroness Neville Raby. They were fourth cousins. He a great x 4 grandson of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England. She a great granddaughter of King Edward III of England.

BeforeOn 04 Jun 1418 Richard Scrope 3rd Baron Scrope of Bolton (age 25) and [his future sister-in-law] Margaret Neville Baroness Scrope Bolton were married. She the daughter of Ralph Neville 1st Earl of Westmoreland (age 54) and Margaret Stafford Baroness Neville Raby. They were fourth cousins. She a great x 4 granddaughter of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England.

On 18 Jan 1425 [his uncle] Edmund Mortimer 5th Earl March 7th Earl Ulster (age 33) died at Trim Castle. He was buried at Clare Priory, Suffolk [Map]. His nephew Richard Plantagenet 3rd Duke York (age 13) succeeded 6th Earl March.

In Oct 1429 Richard Plantagenet 3rd Duke York (age 18) and Cecily "Rose of Raby" Neville Duchess York (age 14) were married. She by marriage Countess Cambridge Countess Ulster. She was the youngest sister of Richard's brother-in-arms Richard Neville Earl Salisbury (age 29). She the daughter of Ralph Neville 1st Earl of Westmoreland and Joan Beaufort Countess of Westmoreland (age 50). He the son of Richard of Conisbrough 1st Earl Cambridge and Anne Mortimer. They were second cousins. He a great grandson of King Edward III of England. She a great granddaughter of King Edward III of England.

In 1432 [his brother-in-law] George Neville 1st Baron Latimer of Snape (age 25) was created 1st Baron Latimer of Snape.

In 1433 Richard Plantagenet 3rd Duke York (age 21) was appointed 148th Knight of the Garter by King Henry VI of England and II of France (age 11).

In 1434 [his sister-in-law] Elizabeth Ferrers Baroness Greystoke (age 41) died.

In 1436 [his brother-in-law] Edward Neville 1st Baron Bergavenny (age 23) and Elizabeth Beauchamp 3rd Baroness Bergavenny (age 20) were married. He by marriage Baron Bergavenny. She the daughter of Richard Beauchamp 1st Earl of Worcester and Isabel Despencer Countess Warwick and Worcester (age 35). He the son of Ralph Neville 1st Earl of Westmoreland and Joan Beaufort Countess of Westmoreland (age 57). They were second cousin once removed. He a great grandson of King Edward III of England. She a great x 2 granddaughter of King Edward III of England.

Chronicle of Gregory 1436. 1436. And that same year the Mayre of London sende, by the goode a-vyse and consent of craftys, sent sowdyers to Calys [Map], for it was said that the Duke of Burgone (age 39) lay sege unto Calis. And soo he dyd son aftyr, as ye shalle hyre here after. And at the Parlyment be-fore it was ordaynyde that the Duke of Yorke (age 24) shulde in to Fraunce with certayne lordys with him in stede of the Eegaunt. And whythe him went the [his brother-in-law] Erle of Salysbury (age 36). Ande the Erle of Mortayne (age 30) wente to Calys [Map] son aftyr Estyr.

And the xiiij day aftyr he made a roode in to Flaunders, and he slowe and toke xv c [1500] of Flemmyngys, and many bestys; the nombyr is more thenne I canne certaynely reherse. And a-non aftyr the Duke of Burgone (age 39) layde his sege unto Calys whythe a strong ordynaunce and a mighty, with xl M [40000] men and moo. And they made grete bulworkys, and grete bastylys, and strong forty fycacy on.

In 1437 [his brother-in-law] George Neville 1st Baron Latimer of Snape (age 30) and Elizabeth Beauchamp Baroness Latimer (age 20) were married. She by marriage Baroness Latimer of Snape. She the daughter of Richard Beauchamp 13th Earl Warwick (age 54) and Elizabeth Berkeley Countess Warwick. He the son of Ralph Neville 1st Earl of Westmoreland and Joan Beaufort Countess of Westmoreland (age 58). They were second cousin once removed. He a great grandson of King Edward III of England. She a great x 4 granddaughter of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England.

Chronicle of Gregory 1437. 29 Aug 1437. Ande the same year the Erle of Warwyke (age 55) went into Fraunce the xxix day of Auguste; he schippyd at Portysmouthe, and the Duke of Yorke (age 25) come home into Ingelonde out of Fraunce.

On 01 Oct 1438 [his sister-in-law] Maud Neville Baroness Haversham (age 55) died.

On 10 Aug 1439 [his daughter] Anne York Duchess Exeter was born to Richard Plantagenet 3rd Duke York (age 27) and [his wife] Cecily "Rose of Raby" Neville Duchess York (age 24) at Fotheringay Castle, Northamptonshire [Map]. She a great x 2 granddaughter of King Edward III of England. Coefficient of inbreeding 2.38%.

On 10 Feb 1441 [his son] Henry of York was born to Richard Plantagenet 3rd Duke York (age 29) and [his wife] Cecily "Rose of Raby" Neville Duchess York (age 25). He died the same day. He a great x 2 grandson of King Edward III of England. Coefficient of inbreeding 2.38%.

Chronicle of Gregory 1441. 16 May 1441. Ande the xvj day of May the Duke of Yorke (age 29), the Erle of Oxynforde (age 33), the Erle of Ewe (age 37), the Erle of Ormounde (age 47), and Syr Richard Woodevyle (age 56), whythe many othyr knyghtys and squyers, toke the way towarde Fraunce, and they schippyd at Portysmouthe [Map].

On 28 Apr 1442 [his son] King Edward IV of England was born to Richard Plantagenet 3rd Duke York (age 30) and [his wife] Cecily "Rose of Raby" Neville Duchess York (age 26) at Rouen, France [Map]. He was immediately baptised in a small side chapel at Rouen Cathedral [Map]. Some historians suggest the lack of grandeur indicates Edward IV may have been illegitimate whereas others suggest the baptism was typical for a country at war. Some historians also suggest Edward IV was illegitimate since his father Richard Plantagenet 3rd Duke York (age 30) was away at the siege of Pontoise [Map] at the time of conception. Pontoise [Map] is some sixty miles from Rouen. There is straight road, an old Roman road known as the Chaussée Jules César, between the Pontoise and Rouen, now known as the D14. Easy for Richard to return to Rouen as and when he chose to. He a great x 2 grandson of King Edward III of England. Coefficient of inbreeding 2.38%.

1443 Beaufort Campaign

In Apr 1443 John Beaufort 1st Duke of Somerset (age 40) declared himself Lieutenant of Aquitaine and Captain-General of Guyenne. He was paid £25,000 attracting the enmity of Richard Plantagenet 3rd Duke York (age 31) whose significants debts remained unpaid by the Crown.

On 17 May 1443 [his son] Edmund York 1st Earl of Rutland was born to Richard Plantagenet 3rd Duke York (age 31) and [his wife] Cecily "Rose of Raby" Neville Duchess York (age 28) at Rouen, France [Map]. He a great x 2 grandson of King Edward III of England. Coefficient of inbreeding 2.38%.

On 22 Apr 1444 [his daughter] Elizabeth York Duchess Suffolk was born to Richard Plantagenet 3rd Duke York (age 32) and [his wife] Cecily "Rose of Raby" Neville Duchess York (age 28) at Rouen, France [Map]. She a great x 2 granddaughter of King Edward III of England. Coefficient of inbreeding 2.38%.

Treaty of Tours

On 28 May 1444 the Treaty of Tours was concluded. The terms included the marriage of King Henry VI of England and II of France (age 22) and Margaret of Anjou (age 14) in return for which England ceded the strategically important French County of Maine to France; she brought no dowry. The Treaty was negotiated by William de la Pole Duke of Suffolk (age 47). The cessation of Maine subsequently came as something of surprise to Edmund Beaufort Earl Somerset (age 38) who was its Governor. He, Somerset (age 38), was offered the Governorship of Normandy instead leading to a further rift between Somerset (age 38) and Richard Duke of York (age 32) who had already been offered Normandy. These seeds of the Wars of the Roses were falling on fertile ground.

Richard of York meets Margaret of Anjou

On 18 Mar 1445 Richard Plantagenet 3rd Duke York (age 33) met Margaret of Anjou (age 14) at Pontoise [Map] on his mission to bring her back to England for her marriage to King Henry VI of England and II of France (age 23).

Richard of York returns to England

On 20 Oct 1445 Richard Plantagenet 3rd Duke York (age 34) returned to England at the end of his five-year appointment in France.

On 03 May 1446 [his daughter] Margaret of York Duchess of Burgundy was born to Richard Plantagenet 3rd Duke York (age 34) and [his wife] Cecily "Rose of Raby" Neville Duchess York (age 31) at Fotheringay Castle, Northamptonshire [Map]. She a great x 2 granddaughter of King Edward III of England. Coefficient of inbreeding 2.38%.

In 1447 [his son-in-law] Henry Holland 3rd Duke Exeter (age 16) and [his daughter] Anne York Duchess Exeter (age 7) were married. She the daughter of Richard Plantagenet 3rd Duke of York (age 35) and Cecily "Rose of Raby" Neville Duchess York (age 31). He the son of John Holland 2nd Duke Exeter (age 51) and Anne Stafford Duchess Exeter. They were half second cousins. He a great x 2 grandson of King Edward III of England. She a great x 2 granddaughter of King Edward III of England.

Death of Humphrey of Lancaster

On 20 Feb 1447 Humphrey Lancaster 1st Duke Gloucester (age 56) was arrested on a charge of treason by John Beaumont 1st Viscount Beaumont (age 37), Humphrey Stafford 1st Duke of Buckingham (age 44), Edmund Beaufort 1st or 2nd Duke of Somerset (age 41), [his brother-in-law] Richard Neville Earl Salisbury (age 47) and Ralph Boteler 6th and 1st Baron Sudeley (age 58).

On 23 Feb 1447 Humphrey Lancaster 1st Duke Gloucester (age 56) died at Bury St Edmunds, Suffolk [Map]. He was possibly poisoned although more likely he died from a stroke. He was buried at St Alban's Cathedral [Map]. Duke Gloucester, Earl Pembroke extinct. His death left England with no heir to the throne in a direct line. Richard Plantagenet 3rd Duke York (age 35) became heir presumptive until the birth of Edward of Westminster Prince of Wales six years later.

On 07 Jul 1447 [his son] William of York was born to Richard Plantagenet 3rd Duke York (age 35) and [his wife] Cecily "Rose of Raby" Neville Duchess York (age 32). He died young. He a great x 2 grandson of King Edward III of England. Coefficient of inbreeding 2.38%.

On 30 Jul 1447 Richard Plantagenet 3rd Duke York (age 35) was appointed Lord Lieutenant of Ireland.

Richard York appointed Lieutenant of Ireland

On 30 Jul 1447 Richard Duke of York (age 35) was appointed Lord Lieutenant of Ireland. An attempt by the Council to isolate Richard (age 35).

Chronicle of Gregory 1448. 1448 Ande that same year the Duke of Yorke, Rycharde Plantagenet (age 36), was exsylyde in to Irlonde for his rebellyon, as thoo a boute the King (age 26) informyde hym, fully ande falsely as it was aftyr warde i-knowe.

After 18 Jun 1448 [his brother-in-law] Edward Neville 1st Baron Bergavenny (age 35) and Katherine Howard Baroness Bergavenny (age 34) were married. He the son of Ralph Neville 1st Earl of Westmoreland and Joan Beaufort Countess of Westmoreland. He a great grandson of King Edward III of England. She a great x 4 granddaughter of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England.

On 07 Nov 1448 [his son] John of York was born to Richard Plantagenet 3rd Duke York (age 37) and [his wife] Cecily "Rose of Raby" Neville Duchess York (age 33). He died young. He a great x 2 grandson of King Edward III of England. Coefficient of inbreeding 2.38%.

On 21 Oct 1449 [his son] George York 1st Duke of Clarence was born to Richard Plantagenet 3rd Duke York (age 38) and [his wife] Cecily "Rose of Raby" Neville Duchess York (age 34) at Dublin Castle, Dublin. He a great x 2 grandson of King Edward III of England. Coefficient of inbreeding 2.38%.

In 1450 [his brother-in-law] Edward Neville 1st Baron Bergavenny (age 37) was created 1st Baron Bergavenny. A new creation since his son had already inherited the title Baron Bergavenny when his mother died in 1448.

Chronicle of Gregory 1450. 02 Feb 1450. Ande the same year, on Candylmas daye, the King was at Cauntyrbury, and whythe him was the [his son-in-law] Duke of Excetyr (age 19), the Duke of Somersette (age 44), my Lord of Schrofuysbury (age 67), whythe many moo othyr lordys and many justyces; and there they helde the cessyons iiij dayes, and there were dampnyde many men of the captayne is men for her rysyng, and for her talkyng a gayne the kyng, havynge more favyr unto the Duke of Yorke (age 38) thenne unto the King. And the dampnyde men were drawe, hanggyde, and quarteryde, but they were pardonnyde to be buryde, botlie her quarters of bodys and her heddys with alle.

On 07 Sep 1450 Richard Plantagenet 3rd Duke York (age 38) landed at Beaumaris, Anglesey.

On 27 Sep 1450 Richard Plantagenet 3rd Duke York (age 39) arrivedin London.

Chronicle of Gregory 1450. 02 Dec 1450. And that same day, the aftyr non, the Duke of Yorke (age 39) roode - thoroughe London. And he made to be cryde in dyvers placys that whatb maner a man that robbyd or ryfylde any persone schulde have as hastely jewys as the said man hadde. And uppon Thursday nexte folowynge the King come fro Westemyster, ryddyng thoroughe London; and whythe the Duke of Yorke (age 39), and the moste dele in substans of alle the lordys in this londe, with her retenowys of fensabylle men ; whyche was a gay and a gloryus syght if hit hadde ben in Fraunce, but not in Ingelonde, for it boldyd some mennys hertys that it causyd aftyr many mannys dethe. Wher was or is the defaute I wotte not, &c.

Note b. what repeated in the MS.

Around 1451 [his son] Thomas of York was born to Richard Plantagenet 3rd Duke York (age 39) and [his wife] Cecily "Rose of Raby" Neville Duchess York (age 35). He died young. He a great x 2 grandson of King Edward III of England. Coefficient of inbreeding 2.38%.

Chronicle of Gregory 1451-1460. 1452. That year it was competent welle and pessabylle as for any rysynge a-mong our selfe, for every man was in cheryte, but sumwhat the hertys of the pepyl hyng and sorowyd for that the Duke of Glouceter was dede, and some said that the Duke of Yorke (age 40) hadde grete wronge, but what wronge there was noo man that darste say, but some grounyd and some lowryd and hadde dysdayne of othyr, &c.

On 02 Oct 1452 [his son] Richard was born to Richard Plantagenet 3rd Duke York (age 41) and [his wife] Cecily "Rose of Raby" Neville Duchess York (age 37) at Fotheringay Castle, Northamptonshire [Map]. He a great x 2 grandson of King Edward III of England. Coefficient of inbreeding 2.38%.

On 08 Jul 1453 [his sister-in-law] Philippa Neville Baroness Dacre of Gilsland (age 67) died at Naworth Castle [Map].

In Oct 1453 Edmund Beaufort 1st or 2nd Duke of Somerset (age 47) was imprisoned by Richard Plantagenet 3rd Duke York (age 42) at Tower of London [Map].

On 27 Mar 1454 Richard Plantagenet 3rd Duke York (age 42) was appointed Lord Protector. [his brother-in-law] Richard Neville Earl Salisbury (age 54) was appointed Lord Chancellor.

In Jan 1455 Richard Plantagenet 3rd Duke York (age 43) was restored 3rd Duke York. [his wife] Cecily "Rose of Raby" Neville Duchess York (age 39) by marriage Duchess York.

First Battle of St Albans

Chronicle of Gregory 1451-1460. 22 May 1455. Ande that year there was a batayle at Synt Albonys by-twyne Kyng Harry the VI (age 33). and the Duke of Yorke (age 43), and this batayle was the weke be-fore Whytte Sonday. And Kyng Harry (age 33) was in harnys his owne propyr person, and was hurte with the shotte of an arowe in the necke. And the Duke of Yorke (age 43) brought him unto London as King and not as a presener. The Erle of Wyltschyre (age 34) bare the kyngys baner that day in the batayle, for he was at that tyme namyd but Syr Jamys Urmon;b and this said Jamys (age 34) sette the kyngys baner agayne an howse ende and fought manly with the helys, for he was a feryd of lesynge of beute, for he was namyd the fayryd knyght of this londe. And with yn a lytyl whyle aftyr was made the Erle of Wyltschyre.

On 22 May 1455 the Wars of the Roses commenced with the First Battle of St Albans. Richard Plantagenet 3rd Duke York (age 43) commanded with Richard "Kingmaker" Neville Earl Warwick, 6th Earl Salisbury (age 26), [his brother-in-law] Richard Neville Earl Salisbury (age 55), Edward Brooke 6th Baron Cobham (age 40) and Walter Strickland (age 44).

The Lancastrians ...

Edmund Beaufort 1st or 2nd Duke of Somerset (age 49) was killed. His son Henry Beaufort 2nd or 3rd Duke of Somerset (age 19) succeeded 2nd Duke Somerset, 5th Earl Somerset. Note his father is frequently incorrectly referred to as the second Duke and Henry as the third Duke. His father's Dukedom, however, was a new creation.

Henry Percy 2nd Earl of Northumberland (age 62) was killed. His son Henry Percy 3rd Earl of Northumberland (age 33) succeeded 3rd Earl of Northumberland, 6th Baron Percy of Alnwick, 14th Baron Percy of Topcliffe. Eleanor Poynings Countess Northumberland (age 33) by marriage Countess of Northumberland.

Thomas Clifford 8th Baron Clifford (age 41) was killed. His son John "Butcher" Clifford 9th Baron Clifford (age 20) succeeded 9th Baron de Clifford, 9th Lord Skipton. Margaret Bromflete Baroness Clifford (age 21) by marriage Baroness de Clifford.

William Cotton (age 45) and Richard Fortescue (age 41) were killed.

Humphrey Stafford 1st Duke of Buckingham (age 52) was wounded and captured.

King Henry VI of England and II of France (age 33), John Dudley 1st Baron Dudley (age 54) and Edmund Dudley (age 30) were captured.

Henry Beaufort 2nd or 3rd Duke of Somerset (age 19) was wounded. James Butler 1st Earl Wiltshire 5th Earl Ormonde (age 34) and John Wenlock 1st Baron Wenlock (age 55) fought.

Richard Cotton of Hampstall Ridware (age 51) and his son William Cotton of Connington in Huntingdonshire (age 27) were killed.

After 25 May 1455 Richard Plantagenet 3rd Duke York (age 43) was appointed Constable of England.

On 20 Jul 1455 [his daughter] Ursula of York was born to Richard Plantagenet 3rd Duke York (age 43) and [his wife] Cecily "Rose of Raby" Neville Duchess York (age 40). She died young. She a great x 2 granddaughter of King Edward III of England. Coefficient of inbreeding 2.38%.

In Nov 1455 Richard Plantagenet 3rd Duke York (age 44) was appointed Lord Protector.

On 25 Jan 1457 [his sister-in-law] Mary or Margery Ferrers (age 63) died.

Before Feb 1458 [his son-in-law] John de la Pole 2nd Duke of Suffolk (age 15) and [his daughter] Elizabeth York Duchess Suffolk (age 13) were married. She by marriage Marchioness Suffolk 1C. She the daughter of Richard Plantagenet 3rd Duke of York (age 46) and Cecily "Rose of Raby" Neville Duchess York (age 42). He the son of William "Jackanapes" de la Pole 1st Duke of Suffolk and Alice Chaucer Duchess Suffolk (age 54). They were half third cousins. He a great x 5 grandson of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England. She a great x 2 granddaughter of King Edward III of England.

On 25 Feb 1458 [his brother-in-law] Ralph Neville (age 66) died at Oversley.

Loveday

On 24 Mar 1458 at Westminster Hall [Map] King Henry VI (age 36) made a great speech [See Chronicle of St Albans] the purpose of which was to ensure future peace in his Kingdom. Some were required to pay fines in recomponse for deaths at the First Battle of St Albans some three years before, some prisoners were released, some were bound to good behaviour, and future arbitration.

After the speech King Henry VI (age 36), Queen Margaret (age 28), John "Butcher" Clifford 9th Baron Clifford (age 22), [his brother-in-law] Richard Neville Earl Salisbury (age 58), Richard "Kingmaker" Neville Earl Warwick, 6th Earl Salisbury (age 29), Henry Beaufort 2nd or 3rd Duke of Somerset (age 22), Richard Plantagenet 3rd Duke York (age 46), Henry Percy 3rd Earl of Northumberland (age 36) and Thomas Percy 1st Baron Egremont (age 35) processed, hand-in-hand to St Paul's Cathedral [Map] and a ttended a service presided over by Cardinal Thomas Bourchier (age 40).

Chronicle of Gregory 1451-1460. 24 Mar 1458. Ande this same year at Covyntre there was made a pesse [Note. peace] by-twyne the Duke of Somersett Harry (age 22), and the [his brother-in-law] Earl of Saulysbury (age 58), and the Erle of Warwycke (age 29), for the dethe of his fadyr Duke of Somersette, that the Duke of Yorke (age 46) put to dethe at Synt Albonys. And this tretys was made at Covyntre, in the holy tyme of Lentyn, by the mene of Kyng Harry the VI. And alle that holy tyme of Lentyn there might noo mane man that shulde preche by-fore the King, but that he shulde shewe his sarmon in wrytyng, were he docter or other, in so moche the lordys woldys A B C wolde assygne what he schulde say, as for any thynge that longyd unto the common wele, and yf he passyd her commaundement he schulde lese his costys, and goo as he come, withowte mete and drynge. But a becheler of holy devynyte come to that cytte, and whenn he come to preche byfore the kyng, as Maystyr Wylliam Saye, Dene of Poulys and Dene of the kyngys chapylle, hadde desyryd and asygnyd, A B C axyd his name, and his name was Mayster Wylliam Ive, at that tyme beyng at Wynchester in Wycham is college. And A B C said that they moste nedys se his sarmon and his purposse, that he was a vysyd to say by-fore the King the Sonday nexte comynge. And he full goodly toke them his papyr; and they seyng and redynge his papyr, commaundyd to leve out and put a way many troughtys. But that same Mayster Wylliam Ive said but lytylle, but whenn he come to pulpyt he sparyd not to sayd the troughthe, and reportyd by-fore the kyng that A B C made the sarmonys that were said fore, and not thoo that prechyd, and that causyd that þe men that prechyd hadde but sympylle sarmons, for her purposse was alle turnyde upsodowne 3 and that they hadde made love days as Judas made whythe a cosseb with Cryste for they cyste ovyr the mane. The grete rewarde that he hadde for his labyr was the rydyng of viij xx myle yn and out for his travayle, and alle his frendys full sory for hym. But qui veritatem dicit caput fractum habebit, &c. And that same year alle thes lordys departyd from the Parlyment, but they come nevyr alle togedyr after that tyme to noo Parlyment nor conselle, but yf it were in fylde with spere and schylde.

Note b. kiss.

Chronicle of Gregory 1459. 1459. Also alle that seson the Erle of Warwyke (age 30) with sowdyers of Calysse were comynge unto the Duke of Yorke (age 47), and he come ovyr-wharte Colsylle be-syde Covyntre, and the Duke of Somerset (age 22) whythe his men rode a-longe thoroughe the towne, and yet non of them mette whythe othyr as it happyd, or by lyckely hode they wold have made a newe fraye. Ande the same day Androwe Throllope consayvyd [Note. conceived] that the Erle of Warwyke (age 30) was goyng unto the Duke of Yorke (age 47) and not unto the King, and utterly forsoke him and come unto the King and was pardonyd; and that made the duke full sore a-frayde when he wyste that some olde soudyers went from him unto the King, &c.

Battle of Blore Heath

Chronicle of Gregory 1459. 23 Sep 1459. Ande this year was done a grete jornaye at the Blowre Hethe by the [his brother-in-law] Erle of Saulysbury (age 59) ande the Quenys galentys. And that day the King made vij knyghtys, first, Syr Robert Molyners, Syr John Daune, Syr Thomas Uttyng, Syr John Brembly, Syr Jon Stanley, Syr John Grysly, and Syr Rychard Hardon; and v of thes knyghtys were slayne full manly in the fylde, and many men of yemonry soore hurte, and a full nobylle knyght, the Lord Audeley (age 61), and Syr Thomas Hamdon, knyght, was the getynge of the fylde, and Thomas Squyer and Counteroller of the Pryncys house full sore hurte. And [the] batayle or jornay lastyd alle the aftyr none, fro one of the clocke tylle v aftyr non, and the chasse lastyd unto vij at the belle in the mornynge. And men were maymyd many one in the Quenys party. There were in the Quenys party vM [Note. 5000], and in that othyr party vC [Note. 500], a grete wondyr that evyr they might stonde the grete multytude not ferynge, the King beyng with yn x myle and the quene (age 29) with yn v myle at the castelle of Egyllyssale [Map]. But the Erle of Saulysbury (age 59) hadde ben i-take, save only a Fryer Austyn schot gonnys [Note. shot guns] alle that nyght in a parke that was at the backe syde of the fylde, and by this mene the erle come to Duke of Yorke (age 48). And in the morowe they founde nothyr man ne ehylde in that parke but the fryer, and he said that for fere he a-bode in that parke alle that nyght. But in the mornyng, by-twyne the fylde and Chester, Syr John Dawne is son that was at home in his fadyrs place hadde worde that his fadyr was slayne; a-non he raysyd his tenantys and toke by-syde a lytyl towne i-namyd Torperlay [Map] Syr Thomas Nevyle (age 29), Syr John Nevyle (age 28), and Syr Thomas Haryngdon (age 59), and brought them unto the castelle of Chester, ande there they a-boode tylle the batayle of Northehampton was done, &c.

Parliament of the Devils

On 09 Oct 1459 Thomas Tresham (age 39) was elected Speaker of the House of Commons at Coventry [Map]. The primary purpose of the Parliament was to attaint the Yorkist leaders:

Richard Plantagenet 3rd Duke York (age 48), his sons [his son] Edward Earl of March (age 17), [his son] Edmund Earl of Rutland (age 16) were attainted, as were [his brother-in-law] Richard Neville Earl Salisbury (age 59) and his sons Richard "Kingmaker" Neville Earl Warwick, 6th Earl Salisbury (age 30) and John Neville 1431-1471 (age 28).

Chronicle of Gregory 1459. After 09 Oct 1459. Also that same year the [his wife] Duchyes of Yorke (age 44) com unto Kyng Harry (age 37) and submyttyd her unto his grace, and she prayde for her husbonde (age 48) that he might come to his answere and to be ressayvyd unto his grace; and the King full humbely grauntyde her grace, and to alle hyrs that wolde come with hyr, and to alle othyr that wolde com yn with yn viij dayes. And after viij days to done þe execusyon of the lawe as hit requyryd. And many men, bothe knyghtys and squyers, come whythe Syr Water Deverose, in her schyrtys and halters in her hondys, fallynge by-fore the King, and alle hadde grace and marcy bothe of lyffe and lym.

Battle of Ludford Bridge

Chronicle of Gregory 1459. 12 Oct 1459. Ande this same year there was a grete afray at Lodlowe by twyne the King (age 37) and the Duke of Yorke (age 48), the [his brother-in-law] Erle of Salusbury (age 59), the Erle of Warwyke (age 30), the [his son] Erle of Marche (age 17). The Duke of Yorke lete make a grete depe dyche and fortefyde it with gonnys, cartys, and stakys, but his party was ovyr weke, for the kyng was mo then xxxM [Note. 3000] of harneysyd men, by-syde nakyd men that were compellyd for to come with the King. And thenne the duke (age 48) fledde fro place to place in Walys, and breke downe the bryggys aftyr him that the kyngys mayny schulde not come aftyr hym. And he wente unto Monde. And there he taryd tylle the jornay was endyd at Northehampton. And he made newe grotys of a newe kune in Irlonde; in on syde of the grote was a crowne and in that othyr syde a crosse. And there he made many newe statutys, and his yong sonys [King Edward V of England and Richard of Shrewsbury 1st Duke of York] were sende by yende the see unto the Duke of Burgayne (age 25) [Note. Husband of Edward's sister [his daughter] Margaret of York Duchess of Burgundy (age 13)], and they were full welle ande worschypfully ressayvyd.

On 12 Oct 1459 the Battle of Ludford Bridge nearly took place at Ludlow [Map]. In the event a large number of the Calais garrison led by Andrew Trollope refused to fight against King Henry VI of England and II of France (age 37) who was present.

The Yorkist Richard Plantagenet 3rd Duke York (age 48), the future [his son] King Edward IV of England (age 17), [his son] Edmund York 1st Earl of Rutland (age 16), Richard "Kingmaker" Neville Earl Warwick, 6th Earl Salisbury (age 30), [his brother-in-law] Richard Neville Earl Salisbury (age 59) left overnight before the battle.

John Dynham 1st Baron Dynham (age 26) and Thomas Parr (age 52) were present.

The Lancastrian army included Humphrey Stafford 1st Duke of Buckingham (age 57) and William Fitzalan 16th Earl of Arundel (age 41).

Richard Grey 3rd Earl Tankerville (age 22) was present on the Yorkist side for which he was subsequently attainted. Earl Tankerville forfeit.

1460 January Raid on Sandwich

Calendars. Membrane 27d. 30 Oct 1459. Farnham Royal, Buckinghamshire [Map]. Commission of array to Richard Wydevyle of Ryvers (age 54), knight, and the sheriff of Kent in Kent, to resist Richard, duke of York (age 48), [his son] Edward Earl of March (age 17), Richard, Earl of Warwick (age 30), and [his brother-in-law] Richard, Earl of Salisbury (age 59), and their accomplices, leagued in rebellion against the king and crown and allowed by certain persons having the keeping of the town and castle of Calais [Map] to enter the same contrary to the king's mandates, and now preparing to arouse congregations and insur rections in the said county; and appointment of the same to arrest all ships and other vessels late of the said Earl of Warwick and all the tackling thereof and to keep the same for the king's use. By K.

1460 Battle of Northampton

Chronicle of Gregory 1460. 10 Jul 1460 And there they mete with the King and foughte manly with the kyngys lordys and mayny, but there was moche favyr in that fylde unto the Erle of Warwycke (age 31). And there they toke the King (age 38), and made newe offycers of the londe, as the chaunceler and tresyrar and othyr, but they occupy de not fo[r]thewith, but abode a seson of the comyng of Duke of York (age 48) out of Irlonde. And in that fylde was slayne the Duke of Bokyngham (age 57), stondyng stylle at his tente, the Erle of Schrovysbury (age 42), the Lord Bemond (age 50), and the Lord Egremond (age 37), with many othyr men. Ande many men were drownyd by syde the fylde in the revyr at a mylle. And that goode knyght Syr Wylliam Lucy (age 56) that dwellyd besyde Northehampton hyrde the gonne schotte, and come unto the fylde to have holpyn the King, but the fylde was done or that he come; an one of the Staffordys was ware of his comynge, and lovyd that knyght is wyffe (age 21) and hatyd hym, and a-non causyd his dethe.

Richard of York claims the Kingdom of England

Chronicle of Gregory 1460. 09 Sep 1460. Ande this same year the Duke of Yorke (age 48) come out of Yrlonde, and londyd at the Redde Clyffe in Loncaschyre, and his lyvery was whyte and brewe in her clothyng, and i-brawderyd a-bove with fetyrlockys. And this he come forthe towarde London; ande then his [his wife] lady the duchyes (age 45) met with him in a chare i-coveryd with blewe felewette, and iiij pore coursserys theryn. And so he come to Habyngdon, and there he sende for trompeters and claryners to bryng him to London, and there he gave them baners with the hole armys of Inglonde without any dyversyte, and commaundyd his swerde to ben borne uppe ryghte be-fore hym; and soo he rode forthe unto Lundon tylle he come to Westemyster to Kyng Harrys palys ande there he claymyde the crowne of Inglonde.

On 10 Oct 1460 Richard Plantagenet 3rd Duke York (age 49) claimed the Kingdom of England in Westminster Hall [Map] witnessed by Cardinal Thomas Bourchier (age 42).

Act of Accord 39 Hen VI

On 25 Oct 1460 Parliament enacted the Act of Accord 39 Hen VI by which Richard Plantagenet 3rd Duke York (age 49) was declared heir to King Henry VI of England and II of France (age 38) disinheriting Edward of Westminster (age 7). At the same Parliament on 31 Oct 1460 Richard Plantagenet 3rd Duke York (age 49) was created Prince of Wales, 1st Duke Cornwall. He was also appointed Lord Protector.

Chronicle of Gregory 1460. Then the Quene (age 30) havynge knowelechynge of this praty whyle sche sende unto the Duke of Somersett (age 24), at that tyme beynge in Dorset schyre at the Castelle of Corffe [Map], and for the Erle of Devyschyre (age 28), and for Elysaundyr Hody, and prayde them to com to her as hastely as they might, with her tenantys as strong in her harnys as men of warre, for the Lord Rosse (age 33), the Lord Clyfforde (age 25), the Baron of Grestocke (age 46), the Lord Nevyle (age 50), the [his brother-in-law] Lord Latymer (age 53), were waytyng a-pon the [his son-in-law] Duke of Excete[r] (age 30) to mete with her at Hulle [Map]. And this mater was not taryd but full prevely i-wrought; and she sende letters unto alle her ehyffe offycers that they wold doo the same, and that they shulde warne alle the servantys that lovyd her or purposyd to kepe and rejoyse her of Yysce, to wayte a-pon her at Hulle by that day as hit a-poyntyd by hyr. Alle thes pepylle were gaderyd and conveyde so prevely that they wer hole in nombyr of xvM [Note. 15000] or any man wolde be-leve it; in so moche yf any man said, or tolde, or talkyd of suche gaderyng, he shulde be schende, and some were in grete donger, for the common pepylle said by thoo that told the, troughthe, "Ye talke ryght ye wolde hit were," and gave noo credens of her sayynge. But the laste the lordys purposyd to knowe the troughthe. And the ix day of December nexte folowyng the Duke of Yorke (age 49), the [his brother-in-law] Erle of Salysbury (age 60), the [his son] Erle Rutlond (age 17) (he was the Duke of Yorke is secunde sone, one the beste dysposyd lord in this londe), and Syr Thomas Haryngdon (age 60), whythe many mo knyghtys and quyers and grete pepylle with hem, and soo departyd out of London towarde Yorke, &c.

Battle of Worksop

On 16 Dec 1460 a Lancastrian force ambushed the forces of the Richard Plantagenet 3rd Duke York (age 49) near Worksop, Nottinghamshire. Andrew Trollope fought for the Lancastrians. The only source for the battle is William of Worcester's book Annales rerum Anglicarum: "In December Parliament adjourned. And the Duke of York, with the Earl of Salisbury and many thousand armed men, were going from London to York, in December 1460, when a portion of his men, the van, as is supposed, or perhaps the scouts were cut off by the people of the Duke of Somerset (age 24) at Worsop".

Battle of Wakefield

Chronicle of Gregory 1460. 30 Dec 1460. Ande the same year, the xxx [30] day of December, the [his son-in-law] Duke of Exceter (age 30), the Duke of Somersett (age 24), the Erle of Northehomberlond (age 39), the Lord Roos (age 33), the Lord Nevyle (age 50), the Lord ClyfForde (age 25), with many mo lordys, knyghtys, squyers, and gentyllys, and the commyns of the Quenys party, met with the Duke of Yorke (age 49) at Wakefylde [Map], and there they made a grete jorney a-pon the lord and Duke of Yorke, and toke him and the [his brother-in-law] Erle of Saulysbury (age 60), the [his son] Erle of Rutlond (age 17), and the Lord Haryngdon (age 18), and Syr Thomas Nevyle (age 30), and Syr Thomas Haryngdon (age 60), and many mo knyghtys were take a slayne by syde alle the comyns. But this good Duke of Yorke with his lordys a-fore said loste her heddys; God have marcy on there soulys, for they loste in that jorneys the nombyr of xxvc [2500] men. And in the Quenys party were slay but ii c [200] men, &c.

On 30 Dec 1460 the Lancastrian army took their revenge for the defeats of the First Battle of St Albans and the Battle of Northampton during the Battle of Wakefield at Sandal Castle [Map]. The Lancastrian army was commanded by [his son-in-law] Henry Holland 3rd Duke Exeter (age 30), Henry Beaufort 2nd or 3rd Duke of Somerset (age 24) and Henry Percy 3rd Earl of Northumberland (age 39), and included John Courtenay 15th Earl Devon (age 25) and William Gascoigne XIII (age 30), both knighted, and James Butler 1st Earl Wiltshire 5th Earl Ormonde (age 40), John "Butcher" Clifford 9th Baron Clifford (age 25), John Neville 1st Baron Neville of Raby (age 50), Thomas Ros 9th Baron Ros Helmsley (age 33), Henry Roos and Thomas St Leger (age 20).

The Yorkist army was heavily defeated.

Richard Plantagenet 3rd Duke York (age 49) was killed. His son [his son] King Edward IV of England (age 18) succeeded 4th Duke York, 7th Richard Plantagenet 3rd Duke York (age 49), 9th Earl Ulster, 3rd Earl Cambridge.

Thomas Neville (age 30), and Edward Bourchier were killed.

Father and son Thomas Harrington (age 60) and John Harrington (age 36) were killed, the former dying of his wounds the day after.

William Bonville 6th Baron Harington (age 18) was killed. His daughter Cecily Bonville Marchioness Dorset succeeded 7th Baroness Harington.

Thomas Parr (age 53) fought in the Yorkist army.

Following the battle [his brother-in-law] Richard Neville Earl Salisbury (age 60) was beheaded by Thomas "Bastard of Exeter" Holland. William Bonville (age 40) was executed.

[his son] Edmund York 1st Earl of Rutland (age 17) was killed on Wakefield Bridge [Map] by John "Butcher" Clifford (age 25) by which he gained his sobriquet "Butcher". Earl of Rutland extinct.

Chronicle of Gregory 1461. Then come tydyngys of the comynge of þea [his son] Erle of Marche (age 18) unto London; then alle the cytte were fayne, and thonkyd God, and said that

He that had Londyn for sake

Wolde no more to them take,

and said, "Lette us walke in a newe wyne yerde, and lette us make us a gay gardon in the monythe of Marche with this fayre whyte ros and herbe, the Erle of Marche (age 18)." And the Erle of Warwycke (age 32) mette with the Erle of Marche by-syde Oxforde, x myle out of hit, at a towne of his owne i-namyd Burford a-pon the Wolde [Map]; for the Erle of Marche come fro Walys, and was full sore a-ferde of the loste of the ij fyldys that were loste by-fore, Wakefylde that one, and Synt Albonys that othyr, and he sorowde sore for his fadyr the Duke of Yorke (age 49), and for his good brother the [his son] Erle of Rutlond (age 17), and for alle othyr lordys and comyns, &c.

Note a. the repeated in MS.

1897. Monument to Richard Plantagenet 3rd Duke York on Manygates Lane [Map] at the location where he is traditionally thought to have been killed at the Battle of Wakefield.

Letters. 1461. Letter XXXVII. Margaret of Anjou (age 30) Queen of Henry IV to the Citizens of London.

Right trusty and well-beloved, we greet you heartily well.

And whereas the late Duke of N. of extreme malice, long hid under colours, imagined by divers and many ways and means the destruction of my lord's (age 39) good grace, whom God of his mercy ever preserve, hath now late, upon an untrue pretence, feigned a title to my lord's crown, and royal estate, and pre-eminence, contrary to his allegiance and divers solemn oaths of his own offer made, uncompelled or constrained, and fully proposed to have deposed him of his regality, he had been (had it not been for) the sad (firm) unchangeable and true dispositions of you and others, his true liegemen, for the which your worshipful dispositions we thank you as heartily as we can. And howbeit, that the same untrue, unsad, and unadvised person, of very pure malice, disposed to continue in his cruelness, to the utterest undoing, if he might, of us, and of my lord's son and ours the prince, which, with God's mercy, he shall not be of power to perform, by the help of you and all other my lord's faithful disposed subjects, hath thrown among you, as we be certainly informed, divers untrue and feigned matters and surmises; and in especial, that we and my lord's said son and ours should newly draw toward you with an unseen power of strangers, disposed to rob and to despoil you of your goods and havings (property); we will that you know for certain that, at such time as we or our said son shall be disposed to see my lord, as our duty is and so binds us to do, you, nor none of you, shall be robbed, despoiled, nor wronged by any person that at that time we or our said son shall be accompanied with, or any other sent in our or his name, praying you, in our most hearty and desirous wise, that [above] all earthly things you will diligently intend (attend) to the surety of my lord's royal person in the mean time; so that through malice of his said enemy he be no more troubled, vexed, nor jeoparded. And, so doing, we shall be unto you such lady as of reason you shall be largely content. Given under our signet, &c.

Coronation of Edward IV

Chronicle of Gregory 1461. 28 Jun 1461. Ande the [his son] King (age 19) taryd in the Northe a grette whyle, a made grete inquerens of the rebellyens a-gayne his fadyr. And toke downe his fadyrs hedde fro the walle of Yorke [Map]. And made alle the contray to ben sworne unt him and to his lawys. And then he returnyd unto Lundon agayne. And there he made xviij [18] knyghtys and many lordys. And then he rode to Westemyster. And there he was crounyd the xxviij day of June, and the year of our lord M1CCCC lxj [1461], blessyd be God of his grete grace, etc.

Reburial of Richard and Edmund of York

Before 29 Jul 1476 the remains of Richard Plantagenet 3rd Duke York and his son [his son] Edmund were removed from Pontefract Castle [Map] to be reburied at St Mary and All Saints Church, Fotheringhay [Map]. On their journey south they spent two nights at Blackfriars Friary, Stamford [Map].

On 29 Jul 1476 Edward I's paternal grand-father [his uncle] Edward of York, Richard of York and his younger brother [his son] Edmund were reburied at St Mary and All Saints in Fotheringhay [Map] in a ceremony attended by [his son] King Edward IV of England (age 34), [his son] George York 1st Duke of Clarence (age 26), Thomas Grey 1st Marquess Dorset (age 21), William Hastings 1st Baron Hastings (age 45), Anthony Woodville 2nd Earl Rivers (age 36).

Thomas Whiting, Chester Harald wrote:

n 24 July [1476] the bodies were exhumed, that of the Duke, "garbed in an ermine furred mantle and cap of maintenance, covered with a cloth of gold" lay in state under a hearse blazing with candles, guarded by an angel of silver, bearing a crown of gold as a reminder that by right the Duke had been a king. On its journey, Richard, Duke of Gloucester, with other lords and officers of arms, all dressed in mourning, followed the funeral chariot, drawn by six horses, with trappings of black, charged with the arms of France and England and preceded by a knight bearing the banner of the ducal arms. Fotheringhay was reached on 29 July, where members of the college and other ecclesiastics went forth to meet the cortege. At the entrance to the churchyard, King Edward waited, together with the Duke of Clarence, the Marquis of Dorset, Earl Rivers, Lord Hastings and other noblemen. Upon its arrival the King 'made obeisance to the body right humbly and put his hand on the body and kissed it, crying all the time.' The procession moved into the church where two hearses were waiting, one in the choir for the body of the Duke and one in the Lady Chapel for that of the Earl of Rutland, and after the King had retired to his 'closet' and the princes and officers of arms had stationed themselves around the hearses, masses were sung and the King's chamberlain offered for him seven pieces of cloth of gold 'which were laid in a cross on the body.' The next day three masses were sung, the Bishop of Lincoln preached a 'very noble sermon' and offerings were made by the Duke of Gloucester and other lords, of 'The Duke of York's coat of arms, of his shield, his sword, his helmet and his coursers on which rode Lord Ferrers in full armour, holding in his hand an axe reversed.' When the funeral was over, the people were admitted into the church and it is said that before the coffins were placed in the vault which had been built under the chancel, five thousand persons came to receive the alms, while four times that number partook of the dinner, served partly in the castle and partly in the King's tents and pavilions. The menu included capons, cygnets, herons, rabbits and so many good things that the bills for it amounted to more than three hundred pounds.

On 01 Apr 1495 [his former wife] Cecily "Rose of Raby" Neville Duchess York (age 79) made her last will. It was proved 27 Aug 1495.

Source: A Selection From the Wills of Eminent Persons by Camden Society (Great Britain). Published 1838. Transcribed by John Gough Nichols and John Bruce.

IN the name of allmyghty God, the blessed Trinite, fader and son and the holigost, trusting in the meanes and mediacions of oure blessed Lady Moder, of oure most blessed Saviour Jh'u Crist, and by the intercession of holy Saint John Baptist, and all the saintes of heven: I, CECILLE, wife unto the right noble prince Richard late Duke of Yorke, fader unto the most cristen prince my Lord and son [his son] King Edward the iiij th, the first day of Aprill the yere of our Lord M.CCCC.lxxxxv. after the computacion of the Church of Englond, of hole mynde and body, loving therfore be it to Jh'u, make and ordeigne my testament in fourme and maner ensuyng.

Furst, I bequeath and surrendour my soule in to the mercifull handes of allmyghty God my maker, and in to protecion of the blessed yrgin our lady Saint Mary, and suffrage of Saint John Baptist, and of all other saintes of heven. Also my body to be buried beside the body of my moost entierly best beloved Lord and housbond, fader unto my said lorde and son, and in Fstamfordhis tumbe within the collegiate church of Fodringhay [Map], a if myn executours by the sufferaunce of the King (age 38) finde goode sufficient therto; and elles at the Kinges (age 38) pleasure. And I will that after my deceasse all my dettes sufficiently appering and proved be paid, thanking oure Lord at this tyme of making of this my testament to the knolege of my conscience I am not muche in dett; and if it happen, as I trust to God it shalnot, that there be not found sufficient money aswell to pay my dettes as to enture my body, than in advoiding such charges as myght growe for the same, the whiche God defende, I lymytte and assigne all such parcelles of plate as belongith to my chapell, pantry, cellour, ewry, and squillery, to the perfourmyng of the same, as apperith in the inventary, except such plate as I have bequeithed. Also I geve and bequeith to the Kinges noble grace all such money as is owing to me of the customes, and two cuppes of gold.

Also I geve and bequeith to the Quene (age 29) a crosse croslette of diamantes, a sawter with claspes of silver and guilte enameled covered with grene clothe of golde, and a pix with the fleshe of Saint Cristofer.

Also I bequeith to my lady the Kinges moder (age 51) a portuos with claspes of gold covered with blacke cloth of golde.

Also I geve to my lord Prince (age 8) a bedde of arres of the Whele of Fortune and testour of the same, a counterpoint of arras and a tappett of arres with the pope.

Also I geve to my lord Henry Duke of Yorke (age 3) b three tappettes of arres, oon of them of the life of Saint John Baptist, another of Mary Maudeleyn, and the thirde of the passion of our Lord and Saint George.

And if my body be buried at Fodringhay [Map] in the colege there with my most entierly best beloved lord and housbond, than I geve to the said colege a square canapie of crymeson clothe of gold with iiij. staves, twoo auter clothes of crymeson clothe of gold, twoo copes of crymeson cloth of gold, a chesibull and twoo tenucles of cryinyson clothe of golcrvith iij. abes, c twoo auter clothes of crymeson damask browdered, a chesibull, twoo tenucles, and iij. copes of blewe velwett brodered, with iij. abes, thre masse bokes, thre grayles, and vij. processioners.

Also I geve to the colege of Stoke Clare [Map] a chesibull and twoo tenucles of playn crymyson cloth of gold with iij. abes, twoo auter clothes, a chesibull, twoo tenucles, and fyve coopes of white damaske browdered, with iij. abes, twoo awter clothes of crymeson velwett upon the velwete (sic), a vestement of crymeson playne velvet, iiij. antiphoners, iiij. grayles, and sixe processioners.

Also I geve to the house of Sion [Map] two of the best coopes of crymyson clothe of gold.

Note. These next four people refer to her grand-daughters, children of Edward IV.

Also I geve to my doughter Brigitte (age 14) the boke of Legenda Aurea in velem, a boke of the life of Saint Kateryn of Sene, a boke of Saint Matilde.

Also I geve to my doughter Cecill (age 26) a portuous with claspes silver and gilte covered with purple velvet, and a grete portuous without note.

Also I geve to my doughter Anne (age 19) the largest bedde of bawdekyn, withe countrepoint of the same, the barge with bailies, tilde, and ores belonging to the same.

Also I geve to my doughter Kateryn (age 15) a traves of blewe satten.

Also I geve to my doughter of [his daughter] Suffolke (age 50) a the chare with the coveryng, all the quoshons, horses, and harneys belonging to the same, and all my palfreys.

Note. The next people are her grand-children, children of her daughter Elizabeth York Duchess Suffolk (age 50).

Also I geve to my son of Suffolke (age 24) b a clothe of estate and iij. quoschons of purpull damaske cloth of gold.

Also I geve to my son Humfrey (age 20) c two awter clothes of blewe damaske brawdered and a vestyment of crymeson satten for Jh'us masse.

Also I geve to my son William (age 17) d a traves of white sarcenet, twoo beddes of downe, and twoo bolsters to the same.

Also I geve to my doughter Anne priores of Sion, a boke of Bonaventure and Hilton in the same in Englishe, and a boke of the Revelacions of Saint Burgitte.

Also I woll that all my plate not bequeithed be sold, and the money thereof be putte to the use of my burying, that is to sey, in discharging of suche costes and expensis as shalbe for carying of my body from the castell of Barkehampstede [Map] unto the colege of Fodringhey [Map]. And if any of the said plate be lefte unexpended I woll the said colege have it.

Also I geve to the colege of saint Antonies in London an antiphoner with the ruelles of musik in the later ynd.

Also I geve unto Master Richard Lessy all suche money as is owing unto me by obligations what soever they be, and also all such money as is owing unto me by the Shirfe of Yorkeshire, to helpe to bere his charges which he has to pay to the Kinges grace, trusting he shall the rather nyghe the said dettes by the help and socour of his said grace.

Also I geve to Master William Croxston a chesibull, stoles, and fanons of blake velwett, with an abe.

Also I geve to Master Eichard Henmershe a chesibill, stoles, and fanons of crymyson damaske, with an abe; and a chesibill, stoles and fanons of crymeson saten, with an abe.

Also I geve to Sir John More a frontell of purpull cloth of gold, a legend boke, and a colett boke.

Also I give to Sir Kandall Brantingham a chesibill, stoles, and fanons of white damaske, orfreys of crymson velvet, with an abe, the better of bothe.

Also I geve to Sir William Grave a chesibill, stoles, and fanons of white damaske, orfreys of crymeson velvett, with an abe; a masse-boke that servith for the closett, a prymour with claspes silver and gilt, covered with blewe velvett, and a sawter that servith for the closett covered with white ledder.

Also I geve to Sir John Blotte a gospell boke, a pistill covered with ledder, and a case for a corporax of grene playne velvett. Also I geve to Sir Thomas Clerk a chesibill, twoo tenucles, stoles, fanons, of rede bawdeken, with iij. abes.

Also I geve to Sir William Tiler twoo coopes of rede bawdekyn.

Also I geve to Robert Claver iij. copes of white damaske brawdered, and a gowne of the Duchie b facion of playne blake velvett furred with ermyns.

Also I geve to John Bury twoo old copes of crymysyn satten cloth of gold, a frontell of white bawdekyn, twoo curteyns of rede sarcenett fringed, twoo curteyns of whit sarcenet fringed, a feder bed, a bolstour to the same, the best of feders, and two whit spervers of lynyn.

Also I geve to John Poule twoo auter clothes, a chesibull, twoo tenucles, stoles, and fanons of white bawdekyn, with iij. abes; a short gowne of purple playne velvett furred with ermyns, the better of ij. and a kirtill of damaske with andelettes of silver and gilt furred.

Also I geve to John Smyth twoo auter clothes, a chesibill, twoo tenucles, stoles, and fanons of blew bawdekyn, with iij. abes. Also I geve to John Bury twoo copes of crymysyn clothe of gold that servith for Sondays.

Also I geve to John Walter a case for corporax of purple playne velvett, twoo cases for corporax of blewe bawdekyn, twoo auter clothes, a chesibill of rede and grene bawdekyn, a canapie of white sarcenett, iij. abes for children, and iiij. pair of parrours of white bawdekyn, twoo pair parrours of crymsyn velvett, twoo pair parrours of rede bawdekyn, a housling towell that servith for my selfe, twoo corteyns of blewe sarcenett fringed, a sudory of crymy-syn and white, the egges blak, a crose cloth and a cloth of Saint John Baptist of sarcenett painted, a long lantorn, a dext standing doble, twoo grete stondardes and ij. litill cofers.

Also I geve to John Peit-wynne twoo vestimentes of white damaske, a white bedde of lynnyn, a federbedde and a bolstour, and a short gowne of purple playne velvet furred with sabilles. Also I geve to Thomas Lentall six auter clothes of white sarcenett, with crosses of crymsyn velvet.

Also I geve to John Long iij. peces of bawdekyn of the lengur sorte. Also I geve to Sir [John] Verney knighte and Margarett his wiffe a a crosse [of] silver and guilte and berall, and in the same a pece of the holy crosse and other diverse reliques.

Also I geve to Dame Jane Pesemershe, widue, myne Inne that is called the George in Grauntham, during terme of her life; and after her decesse I woll that the reversion therof be unto the college of Fodringhay [Map] for evermore, to find a prest to pray for my Lord my housbond and me.

Also I geve to Nicholas Talbott and Jane his wife a spone of gold with a sharp diamount in the ende, a dymy-sent of gold with a collumbine and a diamont in the same, a guirdill of blewe tissue harnessed with gold, a guirdill of gold with a bokull and a pendaunt and iiij. barres of gold, a hoke of gold with iij. roses, a pomeamber of gold garnesshed with a diamont, sex rubies and sex perles, and the surnap and towell to the same.

Also I geve to Richard Boyvile and Gresild his wife my charrett and the horses with the harnes that belongith therunto, a gowne with a dymy trayn of purpull saten furred with ermyns, a shorte gowne of purple saten furred with jennetes, a kirtill of white damaske with aunde lettes silver and gilte, a spone of gold, a dymysynt of gold with a columbyne garnesshed with a diainant, a saphour, an amatist, and viij. perles, a pomeamber of gold enameled, a litell boxe with a cover of gold and a diamant in the toppe.

Also I geve to Richard Brocas and Jane his wife a long gown of purpull velvett upon velvet furred with ermyns, a greate Agnus of gold with the Trinite, Saint Erasmus, and the Salutacion of our Lady; an Agnus of gold with our Lady and Saint Barbara; a litell goblett with a cover silver and part guild; a pair of bedes of white amber gauded with vj. grete stones of gold, part aneled, with a pair of bedes of x. stones of gold and v. of corall; a cofor with a rounde lidde bonde with iron, which the said Jane hath in her keping, and all other thinges that she hath in charge of keping.

Also I geve to Anne Pinchbeke all other myne Agnus unbequeithed, that is to sey, ten of the Trinite, a litell malmesey pott with a cover silver and parte guilte, a possenett with a cover of silver, a short gowne of playne russett velvett furred with sabilles, a short gowne of playne blewe velvett furred with sabilles, a short gowne of purple playn velvet furred with grey, a tester, a siler, and a countrepoint of bawdekyn, the lesser of ij.

Also I geve to Jane Lessy a dymysent of gold with a roos, garnisshed with twoo rubies, a guirdell of purple tissue with a broken bokull, and a broken pendaunt silver and guilte, a guirdill of white riband with twoo claspes of gold with a columbyne, a guirdell of blewe riband with a bokell and a pendaunt of gold, a litell pair of bedes of white amber gaudied with vij. stones of gold, an haliwater stope with a strynkkill silver and gilte, and a laier silver and part guilte.

Also I geve to John Metcalfe and Alice his wife all the ringes that I have, except such as hang by my bedes and Agnus, and also except my signet, a litell boxe of golde with a cover of golde, a pair of bedes of Ixj. rounde stones of golde gaudied with sex square stones of golde enemeled, with a crosse of golde, twoo other stones, and a scalop shele of geete honging by.

Also I geve to Anne Lownde a litell bokull and a litell pendaunt of golde for a guirdill, a litell guirdell of golde and silke with a bokill and a pendaunt of golde, a guirdell of white riband with aggelettes of golde enameled, a hoke of golde playne, a broken hoke of golde enameled, and a litell rounde bottumed basyn of silver.

Also I geve to the house of Asshe-rugge a chesibull and ij. tenucles of crymysyn damaske embrawdered, with thre abes.

Also I geve to the house of Saint Margaretes twoo auter clothes with a crucifix and a vestiment of grete velvet.

Also I geve to the parish church of Stoundon a coope of blewe bawdekyn, the orffreys embrawdered.

Also I geve to the parishe church of Much Barkehampstede a coope of blewe bawdekyn, the orffreys embrawdered.

Also I geve to the parish church of Compton by sides Guilford a eorporax case of blake cloth of gold and iiij. auter clothes of white sarcenett embrawdered with garters.

Also I geve to Alisaunder Cressener my best bedde of downe and a bolster to the same.

Also I geve to Sir Henry Haidon knyght a tablett and a cristall garnesshed with ix. stones and xxvij. perles, lacking a stone and iij. perles.

Also I geve to Gervase Cressy a long gown of playn blewe velvet furred with sabilles.

Also I geve to Edward Delahay twoo gownes of musterdevilers furred with mynckes, and iiij u of money.

Also I geve to Thomas Manory a short gowne of crymesyn playn velvet lyned, purfilled with blake velvet, and iiij ll in money.

Also I geve to John Broune all such stuf as belongith to the kechyn in his keping at my place at Baynardcastell in London, and iiij u in money.

Also I geve to William Whitington a short gown of russett cloth furred with matrons and calabour wombes, a kirtill of purpull silke chamblett with awndelettes silver and gilte, all such floures of brawdery werke and the cofer that they be kept in, and xls. in money.

Also I geve to all other gentilmen that be daily a waiting in my houshold with Mr. Richard Cressy and Robert Lichingham everich of theime iiij u in money.

Also I geve to every yoman that be daily ad waiting in my houshold with John Otley xls. in money.

Also I geve to every grome of myne xxvj s. viij d. in money. And to every page of myne xiij s. iiij d. in money.

Also I geve to Robert Harison xls. in money and all the gootes.

And if ther be no money founde in my cofers to perfourme this my will and bequest, than I will that myne executours, that is to sey the reverend fader in God Master Olyver King bisshop of Bath (age 63), Sir Reignolde Bray (age 55) knight, Sir Thomas Lovell, councellours to the Kinges grace, Master William Pikinham doctour in degrees dean of the colege of Stoke Clare, Master William Felde master of the colege of Fodringhey, and Master Richard Lessy dean of my chapell, havyng God in reverence and drede, unto whome I geve full power and auctorite to execute this my will and testament, make money of such goodes as I have not geven and bequeithed, and with the same to content my dettes and perfourme this my will and testament.

And the foresaid reverend fader in God, Sir Rignold Bray knyght, Sir Thomas Lovell knyght, Master William Pikenham, and Master William Felde, to be rewarded of suche thinges as shalbe delivered unto theme by my commaundement by the hondes of Sir Henry Haidon knyght stieward of my houshold and Master Richard Lessy, humbly beseching the Kinges habundant grace in whome is my singuler trust to name such supervisour as shalbe willing and favorabull diligently to se that this my present testament and will be perfittely executed and perfourmyd, gevyng full power also to my said executours to levey and receyve all my dettes due and owing unto me at the day of my dethe, as well of my receyvours as of all other officers, except such dettes as I have geven and bequeathed unto Master Richard Lessy aforesaid, as is above specified in this present will and testament.

And if that Master Richard Lessy cannot recover such money as I have geven to hym of the Shirffes of Yorkeshire and of my obligacions, than I will he be recompensed of the revenues of my landes to the sume of v c. marcs at the leest.

IN WITTENESSE HEROF I have setto my signet and signemanuell at my castell of Berkehamstede [Map] the last day of May the yere of our Lord abovesaid, being present Master Richard Lessy, Sir William Grant my confessour, Richard Brocas clerc of my kechyn, and Gervays Cressy. Proved at "Lamehithe" the 27 th day of August, A.D. 1495, and commission granted to Master Richard Lessy the executor in the said will mentioned to administer, &c. &c.

On 31 May 1495 [his former wife] Cecily "Rose of Raby" Neville Duchess York (age 80) died. She was buried at St Mary and All Saints Church, Fotheringhay [Map].

In 1566 Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (age 32) visited St Mary and All Saints Church, Fotheringhay [Map]. Upon discovering the tombs of her Yorkist ancestors were damaged and exposed to the elements following the destruction of the choir in the Reformation. The remains of [his uncle] Edward York 2nd Duke of York 1st Duke Albemarle were reburied in newly consytucted tombs. Richard Plantagenet 3rd Duke York. Presumably the remains of his wife [his former wife] Cecily "Rose of Raby" Neville Duchess York and their son [his son] Edmund York 1st Earl of Rutland were also reburied.

The History of King Richard the Third by Thomas More. Richard, Duke of York, a noble man and a mighty, had begun not by war but by law to challenge the crown, putting his claim into the Parliament. There his cause was either for right or favor so far forth advanced that King Henry (although he had a goodly prince utterly rejected his own blood; the crown was by authority of Parliament entailed unto the Duke of York, and his male issue in remainder, immediately after the death of King Henry. But the Duke, not enduring so long to tarry, but intending under pretext of dissension and debate arising in the realm, to reign before his time and to take upon him the rule in King Henry's life, was with many nobles of the realm at Wakefield slain, leaving three sons - [his son] Edward, [his son] George, and Richard.

All three, as they were great states of birth, so were they great and stately of stomach, greedy and ambitious of authority, and impatient of partners. Edward, revenging his father's death, deprived King Henry and attained the crown.

Manners Augmented Arms. Manners Arms in chief England Henry IV Arms. The augmentation was granted by King Henry VIII of England and Ireland at the time of his creation as Earl of Rutland in recognition of his descent in the maternal line from Richard Plantagenet 3rd Duke York.

Archaeologia Volume 29 Section X. 1. Letter of Richard, Duke of York, to Elizabeth Wodevile.

Right trusty and welbeloved, we grete you wel; And forsomoche as we are credibly enfourmed that our right herty and welebilovede knyght, Sir Hugh John, for the grete wommanhode and gentillesse approved and knowen in your persone, ye beyng sooule and to be maried, his hert holy have, wherof we are right wel pleased. How it be of your disposicioun towardes him in that bihalve as yet to us is unknowen, We, therefore, as for the feith, true and good lordship we owe unto him at this tyme, and so wol continue, Desire and hertley praie you ye wol on your partie be to him wel willed to the perfourmyng of this our writyng and his desire. Wherein ye shal do not onely to our pleasire, but we doubte not to you grete wele and worshipe in tyme comyng. Certefiyng you, if ye fulfille our entent in this matier, we wol and shul be to him and you suche lord as shal be to your bother grete wele and worship by the grace of God, who precede and guyde you in al hevenly felicitee and welfare. Writen &c.

By Richard Duk of York. To Dame Elizabeth Wodehille.

Chronicle of Gregory 1450. Ande in the ende of the said same year Rychard, the Duke of Yorke, come to the said Parlymentt, for the said Duke was before banyschyd for certayne yerys, whythe a notabylle felyschippe of fensabylle men, and the Duke of Northefolke whythe a grete multytude of defensabylle men. And every lord whythe her retynowe welle harnysyd and welle be-sene ; and every lord hadde his bagge a-pon his harnys, and her mayny also, that they might ben knowe by her baggys and levereys.

The Princes of the Tower described as Illegitimate

The History of King Richard the Third by Thomas More. "For as that worshipful man thoroughly made clear to you, the children of King Edward the Fourth were never lawfully begotten, forasmuch as the King (while his true wife, Dame Elizabeth Lucy, was still living) was never lawfully married unto the Queen, their mother, whose blood, except that he set voluptuous pleasure before his honor, was fully unsuitable to be matched with his; and the mingling of their bloods together has been the effusion of the greater part of the noble blood of this realm. Whereby it may well seem that the marriage was not well made, out of which there is so much mischief grown. For lack of such lawful coupling, and also of other things which the said worshipful Doctor rather signified than fully explained, and which things shall not be spoken by me as the things wherein every man forbears to say because he knows to avoid the displeasure of my noble Lord Protector, who bears, as nature requires, a filial reverence to the Duchess his mother, for these causes before mentioned, I say, that is, for lack of other issue lawfully coming of the late noble Prince Richard, Duke of York, to whose royal blood the crown of England and of France is by the high authority of Parliament entailed, the right and title of the same is by the just course of inheritance, according to the common law of this land, handed down and come unto the most excellent Prince, the Lord Protector, as the very lawfully begotten son of the remembered noble Duke of York.

Chronicle of Gregory 1460. And that same nyght the King remevyde unto London a-gayne his wylle, to the byschoppe is palys of London, and the Duke of Yorke com unto him that same nyght by the torchelyght and toke a-pon him as kyng, and said in many placys that this is owrys by very ryght. Ande then the quene hyrynge this she voydyde unto Walys, but she was met with be-syde the Castelle of Malepas [Map], and a servand of her owne that she hadde made bothe yeman and gentylman, and aftyr a-poyntyd for to be in offysce with her son the prynce, spoylyde her and robbyde hyr, and put her soo in dowt of her lyffe and sonys lyffe also. And then she com to the Castelle of Hardelowe [Probably Denbigh Castle, Possibly Hawarden, Flintshire] in Walys, and she hadde many grete gyftys and gretely comfortyd, for she hadde nede there of, for she hadde a full esy many a-boute hyr, the nombyr of iiij personnys. And moste comynly she rode by-hynde a yonge poore gentylle-man of xiiij year age, his name was Jon Combe, i-borne at Amysbery [Map] in Wyltschyre. And there hens she remevyd full prevely unto the Lord Jesper, lord and Erle of Penbroke, for she durste not a byde in noo place that [was] a opyn but in pryvatt. The cause was that conter fete tokyns were sende unto her as thoughe that they hadde come from her moste dradde lord the Kyng Harry the VI; but it was not of his sendyng, nothyr of [his] a doynge, but forgyd thyngys, for they that brought the tokyns were of the kyngys howse, and some of the pryncys howse, and some of her owne howse, and bade her beware of the tokyns, that she gave noo credans there too; for at the kyngys departynge fro Covyntre towarde the fylde of Northehampton, he kyste her and blessyd the prynce, and commaundyd her that she shulde not com unto him tylle that [he] a sende a specyalle tokyn unto her that no man knew but the King and she. For the lordys wolde fayne hadde her unto Lundon, for they knew welle that alle the workyngys that were done growe by hyr, for she was more wyttyer then the King, and that apperythe by his dedys, &c.

Richard Plantagenet 3rd Duke York 1411-1460 appears on the following Descendants Family Trees:

King Edward "Longshanks" I of England 1239-1307

King Edward III of England 1312-1377

Eleanor Plantagenet Countess Arundel and Surrey 1318-1372

Richard Fitzalan 10th Earl Arundel 8th Earl Surrey 1306-1376

Thomas Holland 2nd Earl Kent 1350-1397

Philippa of Hainault Queen Consort England 1314-1369

Royal Ancestors of Richard Plantagenet 3rd Duke York 1411-1460

Kings Wessex: Great x 11 Grand Son of King Edmund "Ironside" I of England

Kings Gwynedd: Great x 9 Grand Son of Owain "Great" King Gwynedd

Kings Seisyllwg: Great x 15 Grand Son of Hywel "Dda aka Good" King Seisyllwg King Deheubarth

Kings Powys: Great x 10 Grand Son of Maredudd ap Bleddyn King Powys

Kings England: Great Grand Son of King Edward III of England

Kings Scotland: Great x 9 Grand Son of Malcolm III King Scotland

Kings Franks: Great x 7 Grand Son of Louis VII King Franks

Kings France: Great x 3 Grand Son of Philip "The Fair" IV King France

Royal Descendants of Richard Plantagenet 3rd Duke York 1411-1460

King Edward IV of England x 1

King Richard III of England x 1

Queen Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom x 4

Queen Consort Camilla Shand x 3

Diana Spencer Princess Wales x 14

Ancestors of Richard Plantagenet 3rd Duke York 1411-1460

Great x 4 Grandfather: King Henry III of England Son of King John "Lackland" of England

Great x 3 Grandfather: King Edward "Longshanks" I of England Son of King Henry III of England

Great x 2 Grandfather: King Edward II of England Son of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: Ferdinand III King Castile III King Leon Great Grand Son of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 3 Grandmother: Eleanor of Castile Queen Consort England 2 x Great Grand Daughter of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 4 Grandmother: Joan Dammartin Queen Consort Castile and Leon

Great x 1 Grandfather: King Edward III of England Son of King Edward II of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: Philip "Bold" III King France 2 x Great Grand Son of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 3 Grandfather: Philip "The Fair" IV King France 3 x Great Grand Son of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 2 Grandmother: Isabella of France Queen Consort England 4 x Great Grand Daughter of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: Henry I King Navarre 4 x Great Grand Son of King William "Conqueror" I of England

Great x 3 Grandmother: Joan Blois I Queen Navarre 3 x Great Grand Daughter of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 4 Grandmother: Blanche Capet Queen Navarre 2 x Great Grand Daughter of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

GrandFather: Edmund of Langley 1st Duke of York Son of King Edward III of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: John Hainault I Count Hainault 4 x Great Grand Son of King William "Conqueror" I of England

Great x 3 Grandfather: John Hainault II Count Hainault II Count Holland 5 x Great Grand Son of King William "Conqueror" I of England

Great x 4 Grandmother: Adelaide Gerulfing Countess Hainault 4 x Great Grand Daughter of King William "Conqueror" I of England

Great x 2 Grandfather: William Hainault I Count Hainault III Count Avesnes III Count Holland II Count Zeeland 6 x Great Grand Son of King William "Conqueror" I of England

Great x 3 Grandmother: Philippa Luxemburg Countess Hainault and Holland 5 x Great Grand Daughter of King William "Conqueror" I of England

Great x 4 Grandmother: Margaret of Bar Countess Luxemburg and Namur 4 x Great Grand Daughter of King William "Conqueror" I of England

Great x 1 Grandmother: Philippa of Hainault Queen Consort England 5 x Great Grand Daughter of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: Philip "Bold" III King France 2 x Great Grand Son of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 3 Grandfather: Charles Valois I Count Valois 3 x Great Grand Son of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 2 Grandmother: Joan Valois Countess Zeeland Holland Avesnes and Hainault 4 x Great Grand Daughter of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: Charles II King Naples 2 x Great Grand Son of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 3 Grandmother: Margaret Capet Countess Valois 3 x Great Grand Daughter of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 4 Grandmother: Mary of Hungary Queen Consort Naples

Father: Richard of Conisbrough 1st Earl Cambridge Grand Son of King Edward III of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: Sancho IV King Castile IV King Leon 3 x Great Grand Son of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 3 Grandfather: Ferdinand IV King Castile IV King Leon 4 x Great Grand Son of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 4 Grandmother: Maria Molina Queen Consort Castile Queen Consort Leon

Great x 2 Grandfather: Alfonso "Avenger" XI King Castile 4 x Great Grand Son of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: Denis I King Portugal 2 x Great Grand Son of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 3 Grandmother: Constance Burgundy Queen Consort Castile Queen Consort Leon 3 x Great Grand Daughter of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 4 Grandmother: Elisabeth Barcelona Queen Consort Portugal 6 x Great Grand Daughter of King William "Conqueror" I of England

Great x 1 Grandfather: Peter "Cruel" I King Castile 5 x Great Grand Son of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: Denis I King Portugal 2 x Great Grand Son of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 3 Grandfather: Alfonso "Brave" IV King Portugal 3 x Great Grand Son of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 4 Grandmother: Elisabeth Barcelona Queen Consort Portugal 6 x Great Grand Daughter of King William "Conqueror" I of England

Great x 2 Grandmother: Maria Burgundy Queen Consort Castile 4 x Great Grand Daughter of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: Sancho IV King Castile IV King Leon 3 x Great Grand Son of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 3 Grandmother: Beatrice Ivrea Queen Consort Portugal 4 x Great Grand Daughter of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 4 Grandmother: Maria Molina Queen Consort Castile Queen Consort Leon

GrandMother: Isabella of Castile Duchess York 6 x Great Grand Daughter of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 3 Grandfather: Garcia Padilla

Great x 2 Grandfather: Juan García Padilla 1st Lord Villagera

Great x 1 Grandmother: Maria Padilla

Great x 3 Grandfather: Fernán González Henestrosa

Great x 2 Grandmother: María González Henestrosa Lady Villagera

Richard Plantagenet 3rd Duke of York Great Grand Son of King Edward III of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: Roger Mortimer 1st Earl March 3 x Great Grand Son of King John "Lackland" of England

Great x 3 Grandfather: Edmund Mortimer 4 x Great Grand Son of King John "Lackland" of England

Great x 4 Grandmother: Joan Geneville Baroness Mortimer 2nd Baroness Geneville 7 x Great Grand Daughter of King Henry I "Beauclerc" England

Great x 2 Grandfather: Roger Mortimer 2nd Earl March 5 x Great Grand Son of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 3 Grandmother: Elizabeth Badlesmere Countess Northampton 4 x Great Grand Daughter of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 4 Grandmother: Margaret Clare Baroness Badlesmere 3 x Great Grand Daughter of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 1 Grandfather: Edmund Mortimer 3rd Earl March, Earl Ulster 6 x Great Grand Son of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 2 Grandmother: Philippa Montagu Countess March

Great x 4 Grandfather: William Grandison 1st Baron Grandison

Great x 3 Grandmother: Catherine Grandison Countess of Salisbury

Great x 4 Grandmother: Sibylla Tregoz Baroness Grandison

GrandFather: Roger Mortimer 4th Earl March 6th Earl Ulster Great Grand Son of King Edward III of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: King Edward II of England Son of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England

Great x 3 Grandfather: King Edward III of England Son of King Edward II of England

Great x 4 Grandmother: Isabella of France Queen Consort England 4 x Great Grand Daughter of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 2 Grandfather: Lionel Plantagenet 1st Duke of Clarence Son of King Edward III of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: William Hainault I Count Hainault III Count Avesnes III Count Holland II Count Zeeland 6 x Great Grand Son of King William "Conqueror" I of England

Great x 3 Grandmother: Philippa of Hainault Queen Consort England 5 x Great Grand Daughter of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 4 Grandmother: Joan Valois Countess Zeeland Holland Avesnes and Hainault 4 x Great Grand Daughter of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 1 Grandmother: Philippa Plantagenet Countess March 5th Countess Ulster Grand Daughter of King Edward III of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: John Burgh

Great x 3 Grandfather: William Donn Burgh 3rd Earl Ulster Great Grand Son of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England

Great x 4 Grandmother: Elizabeth Clare Lady Verdun Grand Daughter of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England

Great x 2 Grandmother: Elizabeth Burgh Duchess of Clarence 2 x Great Grand Daughter of King Henry III of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: Henry Plantagenet 3rd Earl of Leicester 3rd Earl Lancaster Grand Son of King Henry III of England

Great x 3 Grandmother: Maud Plantagenet Countess Ulster Great Grand Daughter of King Henry III of England

Great x 4 Grandmother: Maud Chaworth

Mother: Anne Mortimer 2 x Great Grand Daughter of King Edward III of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: Robert de Holand of Upholland

Great x 3 Grandfather: Robert Holland 1st Baron Holand

Great x 2 Grandfather: Thomas Holland 1st Earl Kent 4 x Great Grand Son of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: Alan Zouche 1st Baron Zouche Ashby 2 x Great Grand Son of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 3 Grandmother: Maud Zouche Baroness Holand 3 x Great Grand Daughter of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 4 Grandmother: Eleanor Segrave

Great x 1 Grandfather: Thomas Holland 2nd Earl Kent Great Grand Son of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: King Edward "Longshanks" I of England Son of King Henry III of England

Great x 3 Grandfather: Edmund of Woodstock 1st Earl Kent Son of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England

Great x 4 Grandmother: Margaret of France Queen Consort England 3 x Great Grand Daughter of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 2 Grandmother: Joan "Fair Maid of Kent" Princess Wales Grand Daughter of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: John Wake 1st Baron Wake of Liddell 2 x Great Grand Son of King John "Lackland" of England

Great x 3 Grandmother: Margaret Wake Countess Kent 3 x Great Grand Daughter of King John "Lackland" of England

Great x 4 Grandmother: Joan Fiennes Baroness Wake Liddell 4 x Great Grand Daughter of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

GrandMother: Eleanor Holland Countess March and Ulster 2 x Great Grand Daughter of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: Richard Fitzalan 8th Earl of Arundel 3 x Great Grand Son of King John "Lackland" of England

Great x 3 Grandfather: Edmund Fitzalan 9th Earl of Arundel 4 x Great Grand Son of King John "Lackland" of England

Great x 4 Grandmother: Alice Saluzzo Countess Arundel 6 x Great Grand Daughter of King William "Conqueror" I of England

Great x 2 Grandfather: Richard Fitzalan 10th Earl of Arundel 8th Earl of Surrey 5 x Great Grand Son of King John "Lackland" of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: William Warenne

Great x 3 Grandmother: Alice Warenne Countess Arundel

Great x 4 Grandmother: Joan Vere

Great x 1 Grandmother: Alice Fitzalan Countess Kent 2 x Great Grand Daughter of King Henry III of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: Edmund "Crouchback" Plantagenet 1st Earl of Leicester 1st Earl Lancaster Son of King Henry III of England

Great x 3 Grandfather: Henry Plantagenet 3rd Earl of Leicester 3rd Earl Lancaster Grand Son of King Henry III of England

Great x 4 Grandmother: Blanche Capet Queen Navarre 2 x Great Grand Daughter of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 2 Grandmother: Eleanor Plantagenet Countess Arundel and Surrey Great Grand Daughter of King Henry III of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: Patrick Chaworth

Great x 3 Grandmother: Maud Chaworth