Biography of Stephen Fox 1627-1716

Paternal Family Tree: Fox of Farley

On 27 Mar 1627 Stephen Fox was born to William Fox of Farley Wiltshire.

On 08 Dec 1651 Stephen Fox (age 24) and Elizabeth Whittle were married.

On 02 Jan 1660 [his son] Charles Fox was born to Stephen Fox (age 32) and [his wife] Elizabeth Whittle in Brussels [Map]. His godfather was King Charles II of England Scotland and Ireland (age 29).

Pepy's Diary. 24 May 1660. Up, and made myself as fine as I could, with the Tinning stockings on and wide canons1 that I bought the other day at Hague. Extraordinary press of noble company, and great mirth all the day. There dined with me in my cabin (that is, the carpenter's) Dr. Earle (age 59)2 and Mr. Hollis (age 60)3, the King's (age 29) Chaplins, Dr. Scarborough4, Dr. Quarterman, and Dr. Clerke, Physicians, Mr. Darcy, and Mr. Fox (age 33)5 (both very fine gentlemen), the King's (age 29) servants, where we had brave discourse. Walking upon the decks, where persons of honour all the afternoon, among others, Thomas Killigrew (a merry droll, but a gentleman of great esteem with the King), who told us many merry stories: one, how he wrote a letter three or four days ago to the Princess Royal, about a Queen Dowager of Judaea and Palestine, that was at the Hague incognita, that made love to the King, &c., which was Mr. Cary (a courtier's) wife that had been a nun, who are all married to Jesus. At supper the three Drs. of Physic again at my cabin; where I put Dr. Scarborough in mind of what I heard him say about the use of the eyes, which he owned, that children do, in every day's experience, look several ways with both their eyes, till custom teaches them otherwise. And that we do now see but with one eye, our eyes looking in parallel lines. After this discourse I was called to write a pass for my Lord Mandeville (age 26) to take up horses to London, which I wrote in the King's (age 29) name,-[This right of purveyance was abolished in Charles's reign.]-and carried it to him to sign, which was the first and only one that ever he signed in the ship Charles. To bed, coming in sight of land a little before night.

Note 1. Cannions, boot hose tops; an old-fashioned ornament for the legs. That is to say, a particular addition to breeches.

Note 2. John Earle (age 59), born about 1601; appointed in 1643 one of the Westminster Assembly of Divines, but his principles did not allow him to act. He accompanied Charles II when he was obliged to fly from England. Dean of Westminster at the Restoration, Bishop of Worcester, November 30th, 1662, and translated to Salisbury, September 28th, 1663. He was tender to the Nonconformists, and Baxter wrote of him, "O that they were all such!" Author of "Microcosmography". Died November 17th, 1665, and was buried in the chapel of Merton College, of which he had been a Fellow. Charles II had the highest esteem for him.

Note 3. Denzil Holles (age 60), second son of John, first Earl of Clare, born at Houghton, Notts, in 1597. He was one of the five members charged with high treason by Charles I in 1641. He was a Presbyterian, and one of the Commissioners sent by Parliament to wait on Charles II at the Hague. Sir William Lower, in his "Relation", 1660, writes: "All agreed that never person spake with more affection nor expressed himself in better terms than Mr. Denzil Hollis, who was orator for the Deputies of the Lower House, to whom those of London were joined". He was created Baron Holles on April 20th, 1661, on the occasion of the coronation of Charles II

Note 4. Charles Scarburgh, M.D., an eminent physician who suffered for the royal cause during the Civil Wars. He was born in London, and educated at St. Paul's School and Caius College, Cambridge. He was ejected from his fellowship at Caius, and withdrew to Oxford. He entered himself at Merton College, then presided over by Harvey, with whom he formed a lifelong friendship. He was knighted by Charles II in 1669, and attended the King in his last illness. He was also physician to James II and to William III., and died February 26th, 1693-4.

Note 5. Stephen Fox (age 33), born 1627, and said to have been a choir-boy in Salisbury Cathedral. He was the first person to announce the death of Cromwell to Charles II, and at the Restoration he was made Clerk of the Green Cloth, and afterwards Paymaster of the Forces. He was knighted in 1665. He married Elizabeth, daughter of William Whittle of Lancashire. (See June 25th, 1660.) Fox died in 1716. His sons Stephen and Henry were created respectively Earl of Ilchester and Lord Holland.

Evelyn's Diary. 20 Oct 1660. I dined at the Clerk Comptroller's of the Green Cloth (age 33), being the first day of the re-establishment of the Court diet, and settling of his Majesty's (age 30) household.

Pepy's Diary. 07 Nov 1660. Office Day. This day my father came to dine at my house, but being sent for in the morning I could not stay, but went by water to my Lord, where I dined with him, and he in a very merry humour (present Mr. Borfett and Childe) at dinner: he, in discourse of the great opinion of the virtue-gratitude (which he did account the greatest thing in the world to him, and had, therefore, in his mind been often troubled in the late times how to answer his gratitude to the King, who raised his father), did say it was that did bring him to his obedience to the King; and did also bless himself with his good fortune, in comparison to what it was when I was with him in the Sound, when he durst not own his correspondence with the King; which is a thing that I never did hear of to this day before; and I do from this raise an opinion of him, to be one of the most secret men in the world, which I was not so convinced of before. After dinner he bid all go out of the room, and did tell me how the King had promised him £4000 per annum for ever, and had already given him a bill under his hand (which he showed me) for £4000 that Mr. Fox (age 33) is to pay him. My Lord did advise with me how to get this received, and to put out £3000 into safe hands at use, and the other he will make use of for his present occasion. This he did advise with me about with much secresy. After all this he called for the fiddles and books, and we two and W. Howe, and Mr. Childe, did sing and play some psalmes of Will. Lawes's, and some songs; and so I went away. So I went to see my Lord's picture, which is almost done, and do please me very well. Hence to Whitehall to find out Mr. Fox (age 33), which I did, and did use me very civilly, but I did not see his lady, whom I had so long known when she was a maid, Mrs. Whittle.

Pepy's Diary. 10 Nov 1660. So to Whitehall to look but could not find Mr. Fox (age 33), and then to Mr. Moore at Mr. Crew's (age 62), but missed of him also. So to Paul's Churchyard, and there bought Montelion, which this year do not prove so good as the last was; so after reading it I burnt it. After reading of that and the comedy of the Rump, which is also very silly, I went to bed. This night going home, Will and I bought a goose.

Pepy's Diary. 11 Nov 1660. Home to dinner, and then walked to Whitehall, it being very cold and foul and rainy weather. I found my Lord at home, and after giving him an account of some business, I returned and went to my father's (age 59) where I found my wife, and there we supped, and Dr. Thomas Pepys (age 39), who my wife told me after I was come home, that he had told my brother Thomas that he loved my wife so well that if she had a child he would never marry, but leave all that he had to my child, and after supper we walked home, my little boy carrying a link, and Will leading my wife. So home and to prayers and to bed. I should have said that before I got to my Lord's this day I went to Mr. Fox's (age 33) at Whitehall, when I first saw his lady, formerly [his wife] Mrs. Elizabeth Whittle, whom I had formerly a great opinion of, and did make an anagram or two upon her name when I was a boy. She proves a very fine lady, and mother to fine children. To-day I agreed with Mr. Fox (age 33) about my taking of the; £4000 of him that the King had given my Lord.

Pepy's Diary. 12 Nov 1660. Lay long in bed to-day. Sir Wm. Batten (age 59) went this morning to Deptford, Kent [Map] to pay off the Wolf. Mr. Comptroller and I sat a while at the office to do business, and thence I went with him to his house in Lime Street, a fine house, and where I never was before, and from thence by coach (setting down his sister at the new Exchange) to Westminster Hall [Map], where first I met with Jack Spicer and agreed with him to help me to tell money this afternoon. Hence to De Cretz, where I saw my Lord's picture finished, which do please me very well. So back to the Hall, where by appointment I met the Comptroller, and with him and three or four Parliament men I dined at Heaven, and after dinner called at Will's on Jack Spicer, and took him to Mr. Fox's (age 33), who saved me the labour of telling me the money by giving me; £3000 by consent (the other £1000 I am to have on Thursday next), which I carried by coach to the Exchequer, and put it up in a chest in Spicer's office. From thence walked to my father's (age 59), where I found my wife, who had been with my father to-day, buying of a tablecloth and a dozen of napkins of diaper the first that ever I bought in my life. My father and I took occasion to go forth, and went and drank at Mr. Standing's, and there discoursed seriously about my sister's coming to live with me, which I have much mind for her good to have, and yet I am much afeard of her ill-nature. Coming home again, he and I, and my wife, my mother and Pall, went all together into the little room, and there I told her plainly what my mind was, to have her come not as a sister in any respect, but as a servant, which she promised me that she would, and with many thanks did weep for joy, which did give me and my wife some content and satisfaction. So by coach home and to bed. The last night I should have mentioned how my wife and I were troubled all night with the sound of drums in our ears, which in the morning we found to be Mr. Davys's jack1, but not knowing the cause of its going all night, I understand to-day that they have had a great feast to-day.

Note 1. The date of the origin of smoke jacks does not appear to be known, but the first patent taken out for an improved smoke-jack by Peter Clare is dated December 24th, 1770. The smoke jack consists of a wind-wheel fixed in the chimney, which communicates motion by means of an endless band to a pulley, whence the motion is transmitted to the spit by gearing. In the valuable introduction to the volume of "Abridgments of Specifications relating to Cooking, 1634-1866" (Patent Office), mention is made of an Italian work by Bartolomeo Scappi, published first at Rome in 1572, and afterwards reprinted at Venice in 1622, which gives a complete account of the kitchens of the time and the utensils used in them. In the plates several roasting-jacks are represented, one worked by smoke or hot air and one by a spring.

Pepy's Diary. 14 Nov 1660. Office Day. But this day was the first that we do begin to sit in the afternoon, and not in the forenoon, and therefore I went into Cheapside to Mr. Beauchamp's, the goldsmith, to look out a piece of plate to give Mr. Fox (age 33) from my Lord, for his favour about the £4,000, and did choose a gilt tankard. So to Paul's Churchyard and bought "Cornelianum dolium1:".

Note 1. "Cornelianum dolium" is a Latin comedy, by T. R., published at London in 1638. Douce attributed it to Thomas Randolph (d. 1635). The book has a frontispiece representing the sweating tub which, from the name of the patient, was styled Cornelius's tub. There is a description of the play in the "European Magazine", vol. xxxvii. (1805), p. 343.

Pepy's Diary. 15 Nov 1660. To Westminster, and it being very cold upon the water I went all alone to the Sun and drank a draft of mulled white wine, and so to Mr. De Cretz, whither I sent for J. Spicer (to appoint him to expect me this afternoon at the office, with the other £1000 from Whitehall), and here we staid and did see him give some finishing touches to my Lord's picture, so at last it is complete to my mind, and I leave mine with him to copy out another for himself, and took the original by a porter with me to my Lord's, where I found my Lord within, and staid hearing him and Mr. Child playing upon my Lord's new organ, the first time I ever heard it. My Lord did this day show me the King's (age 30) picture, which was done in Flanders, that the King did promise my Lord before he ever saw him, and that we did expect to have had at sea before the King came to us; but it came but to-day, and indeed it is the most pleasant and the most like him that ever I saw picture in my life. As dinner was coming on table, my wife came to my Lord's, and I got her carried in to my Lady, who took physic to-day, and was just now hiring of a French maid that was with her, and they could not understand one another till my wife came to interpret. Here I did leave my wife to dine with my Lord, the first time he ever did take notice of her as my wife, and did seem to have a just esteem for her. And did myself walk homewards (hearing that Sir W. Pen (age 39) was gone before in a coach) to overtake him and with much ado at last did in Fleet Street, and there I went in to him, and there was Sir Arnold Brames, and we all three to Sir W. Batten's (age 59) to dinner, he having a couple of Servants married to-day; and so there was a great number of merchants, and others of good quality on purpose after dinner to make an offering, which, when dinner was done, we did, and I did give ten shillings and no more, though I believe most of the rest did give more, and did believe that I did so too. From thence to Whitehall again by water to Mr. Fox (age 33) and by two porters carried away the other £1000. He was not within himself, but I had it of his kinsman, and did give him £4. and other servants something; but whereas I did intend to have given Mr. Fox (age 33) himself a piece of plate of £50 I was demanded £100, for the fee of the office at 6d. a pound, at which I was surprised, but, however, I did leave it there till I speak with my Lord. So I carried it to the Exchequer, where at Will's I found Mr. Spicer, and so lodged it at his office with the rest. From thence after a pot of ale at Will's I took boat in the dark and went for all that to the old Swan [Map], and so to Sir Wm. Batten's, and leaving some of the gallants at cards I went home, where I found my wife much satisfied with my Lord's discourse and respect to her, and so after prayers to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 20 Nov 1660. From thence, after a pot of ale with Mr. Shepley at a house hard by, I went by link home, calling a little by the way at my father's (age 59) and my uncle Fenner's, where all pretty well, and so home, where I found the house in a washing pickle, and my wife in a very joyful condition when I told her that she is to see the Queen (age 50) next Thursday, which puts me in mind to say that this morning I found my Lord in bed late, he having been with the King, Queen, and Princess, at the Cockpit [Map]1 all night, where. General Monk (age 51) treated them; and after supper a play, where the King did put a great affront upon Singleton's' musique, he bidding them stop and bade the French musique play, which, my Lord says, do much outdo all ours. But while my Lord was rising, I went to Mr. Fox's (age 33), and there did leave the gilt tankard for Mrs. Fox, and then to the counting-house to him, who hath invited me and my wife to dine with him on Thursday next, and so to see the Queen (age 50) and Princesses.

Note 1. The Cockpit [Map] at Whitehall. The plays at the Cockpit [Map] in Drury Lane were acted in the afternoon.

Pepy's Diary. 22 Nov 1660. This morning came the carpenters to make me a door at the other side of my house, going into the entry, which I was much pleased with. At noon my wife and I walked to the Old Exchange, and there she bought her a white whisk1 and put it on, and I a pair of gloves, and so we took coach for Whitehall to Mr. Fox's (age 33), where we found Mrs. Fox within, and an alderman of London paying £1000 or £1500 in gold upon the table for the King, which was the most gold that ever I saw together in my life. Mr. Fox (age 33) came in presently and did receive us with a great deal of respect; and then did take my wife and I to the Queen's (age 50) presence-chamber; where he got my wife placed behind the Queen's (age 50) chair, and I got into the crowd, and by and by the Queen (age 50) and the two Princesses came to dinner. The Queen (age 50) a very little plain old woman, and nothing more in her presence in any respect nor garb than any ordinary woman. The Princess of Orange I had often seen before. The Princess Henrietta is very pretty, but much below my expectation; and her dressing of herself with her hair frized short up to her ears, did make her seem so much the less to me. But my wife standing near her with two or three black patches on, and well dressed, did seem to me much handsomer than she. Dinner being done, we went to Mr. Fox's (age 33) again, where many gentlemen dined with us, and most princely dinner, all provided for me and my friends, but I bringing none but myself and wife, he did call the company to help to eat up so much good victuals. At the end of dinner, my Lord Sandwich's (age 35) health was drunk in the gilt tankard that I did give to Mrs. Fox the other day. After dinner I had notice given me by Will my man that my Lord did inquire for me, so I went to find him, and met him and the Duke of York (age 27) in a coach going towards Charing Cross. I endeavoured to follow them but could not, so I returned to Mr. Fox (age 33), and after much kindness and good discourse we parted from thence. I took coach for my wife and me homewards, and I light at the Maypole in the Strand, and sent my wife home. I to the new playhouse and saw part of the "Traitor", a very good Tragedy; Mr. Moon did act the Traitor very well. So to my Lord's, and sat there with my Lady a great while talking. Among other things, she took occasion to inquire (by Madame Dury's late discourse with her) how I did treat my wife's father and mother. At which I did give her a good account, and she seemed to be very well opinioned of my wife. From thence to White Hall at about 9 at night, and there, with Laud the page that went with me, we could not get out of Henry the Eighth's gallery into the further part of the boarded gallery, where my Lord was walking with my Lord Ormond; and we had a key of Sir S. Morland's, but all would not do; till at last, by knocking, Mr. Harrison the door-keeper did open us the door, and, after some talk with my Lord about getting a catch to carry my Lord St. Albans a goods to France, I parted and went home on foot, it being very late and dirty, and so weary to bed.

Note 1. A gorget or neckerchief worn by women at this time. "A woman's neck whisk is used both plain and laced, and is called of most a gorget or falling whisk, because it falleth about the shoulders". -Randle Hohnt (quoted by Planche).

Evelyn's Diary. 27 Nov 1660. Came down the Clerk Comptroller (age 33) [of the Green Cloth] by the Lord Steward's appointment, to survey the land at Sayes Court [Map], on which I had pretense, and to make his report.

Pepy's Diary. 22 Jan 1661. From thence I to Mr. Bowyer's, and there sat a while, and so to Mr. Fox's (age 33), and sat with them a very little while, and then by coach home, and so to see Sir Win. Pen (age 39), where we found Mrs. Martha Batten and two handsome ladies more, and so we staid supper and were very merry, and so home to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 24 Jan 1661. At home all day. There dined with me Sir William Batten (age 60) and his lady and daughter, Sir W. Pen (age 39), Mr. Fox (age 33) (his lady being ill could not come), and Captain Cuttance; the first dinner I have made since I came hither. This cost me above £5, and merry we were-only my chimney smokes. In the afternoon Mr. Hater bringing me my last quarter's salary, which I received of him, and so I have now Mr. Barlow's money in my hands. The company all go away, and by and by Sir Wms. both and my Lady Batten and his daughter come again and supped with me and talked till late, and so to bed, being glad that the trouble is over.

Pepy's Diary. 03 Feb 1661. So to Mr. Fox's (age 33), unbid; where I had a good dinner and special company. Among other discourse, I observed one story, how my Lord of Northwich (age 75), at a public audience before the King of France (age 22), made the Duke of Anjou (age 20) cry, by making ugly faces as he was stepping to the King, but undiscovered1. And how Sir Phillip Warwick's' (age 51) lady (age 54) did wonder to have Mr. Darcy (age 45) send for several dozen bottles of Rhenish wine to her house, not knowing that the wine was his.

Note 1. This story relates to circumstances which had occurred many years previously. George, Lord Goring (age 75), was sent by Charles I as Ambassador Extraordinary to France in 1644, to witness the oath of Louis XIV. to the observance of the treaties concluded with England by his father, Louis XIII, and his grandfather, Henry IV. Louis XIV. took this oath at Ruel, on July 3rd, 1644, when he was not yet six years of age, and when his brother Philippe, then called Duke of Anjou, was not four years old. Shortly after his return home, Lord Goring was created, in September, 1644, Earl of Norwich, the title by which he is here mentioned. Philippe, Duke of Anjou, who was frightened by the English nobleman's ugly faces, took the title of Duke of Orléans after the death of his uncle, Jean Baptiste Gaston, in 1660. He married his cousin, Henrietta of England. B.

Pepy's Diary. 19 Aug 1661. At the office all the morning; at noon the children are sent for by their mother my Lady Sandwich (age 36) to dinner, and my wife goes along with them by coach, and she to my father's and dines there, and from thence with them to see Mrs. Cordery, who do invite them before my father goes into the country, and thither I should have gone too but that I am sent for to the Privy Seal, and there I found a thing of my Lord Chancellor's (age 52)1 to be sealed this afternoon, and so I am forced to go to Worcester House, where severall Lords are met in Council this afternoon. And while I am waiting there, in comes the King in a plain common riding-suit and velvet cap, in which he seemed a very ordinary man to one that had not known him. Here I staid till at last, hearing that my Lord Privy Seal had not the seal here, Mr. Moore and I hired a coach and went to Chelsy, and there at an alehouse sat and drank and past the time till my Lord Privy Seal came to his house, and so we to him and examined and sealed the thing, and so homewards, but when we came to look for our coach we found it gone, so we were fain to walk home afoot and saved our money.

Note 1. This "thing" was probably one of those large grants which Clarendon quietly, or, as he himself says, "without noise or scandal", procured from the king. Besides lands and manors, Clarendon states at one time that the king gave him a "little billet into his hand, that contained a warrant of his own hand-writing to Sir Stephen Fox (age 34) to pay to the Chancellor the sum of £20,000, (approximately 10 million dollars in the year 2000) of which nobody could have notice". In 1662 he received £5,000 out of the money voted to the king by the Parliament of Ireland, as he mentions in his vindication of himself against the impeachment of the Commons; and we shall see that Pepys, in February, 1664, names another sum of £20,000 given to the Chancellor to clear the mortgage upon Clarendon Park; and this last sum, it was believed, was paid from the money received from France by the sale of Dunkirk. B.

In Nov 1661 Stephen Fox (age 34) was elected MP Salisbury.

Pepy's Diary. 07 Sep 1662. Lord's Day. Up betimes and round about by the streets to my office, and walked in the garden and in my office till my man Will rose, and then sent to tell Sir J. Minnes (age 63) that I would go with him to Whitehall, which anon we did, in his coach, and to the Chapell, where I heard a good sermon of the Dean of Ely's, upon returning to the old ways, and a most excellent anthem, with symphonys between, sung by Captain Cooke (age 46). Then home with Mr. Fox (age 35) and his [his wife] lady; and there dined with them, where much company come to them. Most of our discourse was what ministers are flung out that will not conform: and the care of the Bishop of London (age 64) that we are here supplied with very good men.

Pepy's Diary. 21 Sep 1662. By and by, after mass was done, a fryer with his cowl did rise up and preach a sermon in Portuguese; which I not understanding, did go away, and to the King's chappell, but that was done; and so up to the Queen's presence-chamber, where she and the King (age 32) was expected to dine: but she staying at St. James's, they were forced to remove the things to the King's presence [chamber]; and there he dined alone, and I with Mr. Fox (age 35) very finely; but I see I must not make too much of that liberty for my honour sake only, not but that I am very well received.

Pepy's Diary. 01 Mar 1663. Lord's Day. Up and walked to White Hall, to the Chappell, where preached one Dr. Lewes, said heretofore to have been a great witt; but he read his sermon every word, and that so brokenly and so low, that nobody could hear at any distance, nor I anything worth hearing that sat near. But, which was strange, he forgot to make any prayer before sermon, which all wonder at, but they impute it to his forgetfulness. After sermon a very fine anthem; so I up into the house among the courtiers, seeing the fine ladies, and, above all, my Baroness Castlemaine's (age 22), who is above all, that only she I can observe for true beauty. The King (age 32) and Queen (age 24) being set to dinner I went to Mr. Fox's (age 35), and there dined with him. Much genteel company, and, among other things, I hear for certain that peace is concluded between the King (age 32) of France and the Pope; and also I heard the reasons given by our Parliament yesterday to the King (age 32) why they dissent from him in matter of Indulgence, which are very good quite through, and which I was glad to hear.

In 1665 Stephen Fox (age 37) was knighted.

Pepy's Diary. 01 Jun 1665. That done, we walked to Cornehill [Map], and there at Mr. Cade's' stood in the balcon and saw all the funeral, which was with the blue-coat boys and old men, all the Aldermen, and Lord Mayor, &c., and the number of the company very great; the greatest I ever did see for a taverne. Hither come up to us Dr. Allen, and then Mr. Povy (age 51) and Mr. Fox (age 38). The show being over, and my discourse with Mr. Povy (age 51), I took coach and to Westminster Hall [Map], where I took the fairest flower, and by coach to Tothill Fields [Map] for the ayre till it was dark. I 'light, and in with the fairest flower to eat a cake, and there did do as much as was safe with my flower, and that was enough on my part.

Pepy's Diary. 23 Jun 1665. Thence well satisfied I and Creed to Mr. Fox (age 38) at White Hall to speak with him about the same matter, and having some pretty satisfaction from him also, he and I took boat and to Fox Hall, where we spent two or three hours talking of several matters very soberly and contentfully to me, which, with the ayre and pleasure of the garden, was a great refreshment to me, and, 'methinks, that which we ought to joy ourselves in.

Pepy's Diary. 06 Apr 1666. Thence with them home a little, and so to White Hall and there met by agreement with Sir Stephen Fox (age 39) and Mr. Ashburnham (age 62), and discoursed the business of our Excise tallys; the former being Treasurer of the guards, and the other Cofferer of the King's household. I benefitted much by their discourse. We come to no great conclusion upon our discourse, but parted, and I home, where all things, methinks, melancholy in the absence of my wife. This day great newes of the Swedes declaring for us against the Dutch, and, so far as that, I believe it. After a little supper to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 25 May 1666. Thence home, and there find Knipp at dinner with my wife, now very big, and within a fortnight of lying down. But my head was full of business and so could have no sport. So I left them, promising to return and take them out at night, and so to the Excise Office, where a meeting was appointed of Sir Stephen Fox (age 39), the Cofferer, and myself, to settle the business of our tallys, and it was so pretty well against another meeting.

Pepy's Diary. 28 May 1666. Up and to my chamber to do some business there, and then to the office, where a while, and then by agreement to the Excise Office, where I waited all the morning for the Cofferer and Sir St. Foxe's (age 39) coming, but they did not, so I and the Commissioners lost their labour and expectation of doing the business we intended.

Evelyn's Diary. 08 Aug 1666. Dined at Sir Stephen Fox's (age 39) with several friends and, on the 10th, with Mr. Odart, Secretary of the Latin tongue.

Pepy's Diary. 14 Oct 1666. A very foul morning, and rained; and sent for my cloake to go out of the church with. So dined, and after dinner (a good discourse thereat to my brother) he and I by water to White Hall, and he to Westminster Abbey. Here I met with Sir Stephen Fox (age 39), who told me how much right I had done myself, and how well it is represented by the Committee to the House, my readinesse to give them satisfaction in everything when they were at the office. I was glad of this. He did further discourse of Sir W. Coventry's (age 38), great abilities, and how necessary it were that I were of the House to assist him. I did not owne it, but do myself think it were not unnecessary if either he should die, or be removed to the Lords, or any thing to hinder his doing the like service the next trial, which makes me think that it were not a thing very unfit; but I will not move in it. He and I parted, I to Mrs. Martin's, thinking to have met Mrs. Burrows, but she was not there, so away and took my brother out of the Abbey and home, and there to set some accounts right, and to the office to even my Journall, and so home to supper and to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 02 Nov 1666. At home to dinner, and there come Mr. Pierce, surgeon, to see me, and after I had eat something, he and I and my wife by coach to Westminster, she set us down at White Hall, and she to her brother's (age 26). I up into the House, and among other things walked a good while with the Serjeant Trumpet, who tells me, as I wished, that the King's Italian here is about setting three parts for trumpets, and shall teach some to sound them, and believes they will be admirable musique. I also walked with Sir Stephen Fox (age 39) an houre, and good discourse of publique business with him, who seems very much satisfied with my discourse, and desired more of my acquaintance. Then comes out the King (age 36) and Duke of York (age 33) from the Council, and so I spoke awhile to Sir W. Coventry (age 38) about some office business, and so called my wife (her brother (age 26) being now a little better than he was), and so home, and I to my chamber to do some business, and then to supper and to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 14 Dec 1666. The house sat till three o'clock, and then up: and I home with Sir Stephen Fox (age 39) to his house to dinner, and the Cofferer (age 62) with us. There I find Sir S. Fox's Stephen Fox (age 39) and [his wife] lady, a fine woman, and seven the prettiest children of theirs that ever I knew almost. A very genteel dinner, and in great state and fashion, and excellent discourse; and nothing like an old experienced man and a courtier, and such is the Cofferer Ashburnham (age 62).

Pepy's Diary. 16 Jan 1667. So home to dinner, and found Balty (age 27), told him the good news, and then after dinner away, I presently to White Hall, and did give the Duke of York (age 33) a memorial of the salt business, against the Council, and did wait all the Council for answer, walking a good while with Sir Stephen Fox (age 39), who, among other things, told me his whole mystery in the business of the interest he pays as Treasurer for the Army. They give him 12d. per pound quite through the Army, with condition to be paid weekly. This he undertakes upon his own private credit, and to be paid by the King (age 36) at the end of every four months. If the King (age 36) pay him not at the end of the four months, then, for all the time he stays longer, my Lord Treasurer (age 59), by agreement, allows him eight per cent. per annum for the forbearance. So that, in fine, he hath about twelve per cent. from the King (age 36) and the Army, for fifteen or sixteen months' interest; out of which he gains soundly, his expense being about £130,000 per annum; and hath no trouble in it, compared, as I told him, to the trouble I must have to bring in an account of interest. I was, however, glad of being thus enlightened, and so away to the other council door, and there got in and hear a piece of a cause, heard before the King (age 36), about a ship deserted by her fellows (who were bound mutually to defend each other), in their way to Virginy, and taken by the enemy, but it was but meanly pleaded.

Pepy's Diary. 24 Feb 1667. By and by comes Sir S. Fox (age 39), and he and I walked and talked together on many things, but chiefly want of money, and the straits the King (age 36) brings himself and affairs into for want of it. Captain Cocke (age 50) did tell me what I must not forget: that the answer of the Dutch, refusing The Hague for a place of treaty, and proposing the Boysse, Bredah, Bergen-op-Zoome, or Mastricht, was seemingly stopped by the Swede's Embassador (though he did show it to the King (age 36), but the King (age 36) would take no notice of it, nor does not) from being delivered to the King (age 36); and he hath wrote to desire them to consider better of it: so that, though we know their refusal of the place, yet they know not that we know it, nor is the King (age 36) obliged to show his sense of the affront. That the Dutch are in very great straits, so as to be said to be not able to set out their fleete this year.

Pepy's Diary. 14 Mar 1667. By and by comes the King (age 36) and Duke of York (age 33), and presently the officers of the Ordnance were called; my Lord Berkeley (age 65), Sir John Duncomb (age 44), and Mr. Chichly (age 52); then we, my Lord Bruncker (age 47), Sir W. Batten (age 66), Sir W. Pen (age 45), and myself; where we find only the King (age 36) and Duke of York (age 33), and my Lord Treasurer (age 60), and Sir G. Carteret (age 57); where I only did speak, laying down the state of our wants, which the King (age 36) and Duke of York (age 33) seemed very well pleased with, and we did get what we asked, £500,000, assigned upon the eleven months' tax: but that is not so much ready money, or what will raise £40,000 per week, which we desired, and the business will want. Yet are we fain to come away answered, when, God knows, it will undo the King's business to have matters of this moment put off in this manner. The King (age 36) did prevent my offering anything by and by as Treasurer for Tangier, telling me that he had ordered us £30,000 on the same tax; but that is not what we would have to bring our payments to come within a year. So we gone out, in went others; viz., one after another, Sir Stephen Fox (age 39) for the army, Captain Cocke (age 50) for sick and wounded, Mr. Ashburnham (age 63) for the household.

Pepy's Diary. 14 Mar 1667. Up, and with Sir W. Batten (age 66) and Sir W. Pen (age 45) to my Lord Treasurer's (age 60), where we met with my Lord Bruncker (age 47) an hour before the King (age 36) come, and had time to talk a little of our business. Then come much company, among others Sir H. Cholmly (age 34), who tells me that undoubtedly my Lord Bellasses (age 52) will go no more as Governor to Tangier, and that he do put in fair for it, and believes he shall have it, and proposes how it may conduce to his account and mine in the business of money. Here we fell into talk with Sir Stephen Fox (age 39), and, among other things, of the Spanish manner of walking, when three together, and shewed me how, which was pretty, to prevent differences.

Pepy's Diary. 22 Mar 1667. Up and by coach to Sir Ph. Warwicke (age 57) about business for Tangier about money, and then to Sir Stephen Fox (age 39) to give him account of a little service I have done him about money coming to him from our office, and then to Lovett's and saw a few baubling things of their doing which are very pretty, but the quality of the people, living only by shifts, do not please me, that it makes me I do no more care for them, nor shall have more acquaintance with them after I have got my Baroness Castlemayne's (age 26) picture home.

Pepy's Diary. 04 Apr 1667. Thence with him to my Lord Treasurer's (age 60), and there walked during Council sitting with Sir Stephen Fox (age 40), talking of the sad condition of the King's purse, and affairs thereby; and how sad the King's life must be, to pass by his officers every hour, that are four years behind-hand unpaid. My Lord Barkeley (age 65) [of Stratton] I met with there, and fell into talk with him on the same thing, wishing to God that it might be remedied, to which he answered, with an oath, that it was as easy to remedy it as anything in the world; saying, that there is himself and three more would venture their carcasses upon it to pay all the King's debts in three years, had they the managing his revenue, and putting £300,000 in his purse, as a stock. But, Lord! what a thing is this to me, that do know how likely a man my Lord Barkeley (age 65) of all the world is, to do such a thing as this. Here I spoke with Sir W. Coventry (age 39), who tells me plainly that to all future complaints of lack of money he will answer but with the shrug of his shoulder; which methought did come to my heart, to see him to begin to abandon the King's affairs, and let them sink or swim, so he do his owne part, which I confess I believe he do beyond any officer the King (age 36) hath, but unless he do endeavour to make others do theirs, nothing will be done. The consideration here do make me go away very sad, and so home by coach, and there took up my wife and Mercer, who had been to-day at White Hall to the Maundy1, it being Maundy Thursday; but the King (age 36) did not wash the poor people's feet himself, but the Bishop of London did it for him, but I did not see it, and with them took up Mrs. Anne Jones at her mother's door, and so to take the ayre to Hackney, where good neat's tongue, and things to eat and drink, and very merry, the weather being mighty pleasant; and here I was told that at their church they have a fair pair of organs, which play while the people sing, which I am mighty glad of, wishing the like at our church at London, and would give £50 towards it. So very pleasant, and hugging of Mercer in our going home, we home, and then to the office to do a little business, and so to supper at home and to bed.

Note 1. The practice of giving alms on Maundy Thursday to poor men and women equal in number to the years of the sovereign's age is a curious survival in an altered form of an old custom. The original custom was for the King (age 36) to wash the feet of twelve poor persons, and to give them a supper in imitation of Christ's last supper and his washing of the Apostles' feet. James II was the last sovereign to perform the ceremony in person, but it was performed by deputy so late as 1731. The Archbishop of York was the King's deputy on that occasion. The institution has passed through the various stages of feet washing with a supper, the discontinuance of the feet washing, the substitution of a gift of provisions for the supper, and finally the substitution of a gift of money for the provisions. The ceremony took place at the Chapel Royal, Whitehall; but it is now held at Westminster Abbey. Maundy is derived from the Latin word 'maudatum', which commences the original anthem sung during the ceremony, in reference to Christ's command.

Pepy's Diary. 01 May 1667. Up, it being a fine day, and after doing a little business in my chamber I left my wife to go abroad with W. Hewer (age 25) and his mother in a Hackney coach incognito to the Park, while I abroad to the Excise Office first, and there met the Cofferer (age 63) and Sir Stephen Fox (age 40) about our money matters there, wherein we agreed, and so to discourse of my Lord Treasurer (age 60), who is a little better than he was of the stone, having rested a little this night. I there did acquaint them of my knowledge of that disease, which I believe will be told my Lord Treasurer (age 60).

Pepy's Diary. 03 May 1667. So I with them to Westminster by coach; the Cofferer (age 63) telling us odd stories how he was dealt with by the men of the Church at Westminster in taking a lease of them at the King's coming in, and particularly the devilish covetousness of Dr. Busby. Sir Stephen Fox (age 40), in discourse, told him how he is selling some land he hath, which yields him not above three per cent., if so much, and turning it into money, which he can put out at ten per cent.; and, as times go, if they be like to continue, it is the best way for me to keep money going so, for aught I see. I to Westminster Hall [Map], and there took a turn with my old acquaintance Mr. Pechell, whose red nose makes me ashamed to be seen with him, though otherwise a good-natured man.

Pepy's Diary. 03 May 1667. Thence I presently to the Excise Office, and there met the Cofferer (age 63) and Sir Stephen Fox (age 40) by agreement, and agreed upon a method for our future payments, and then we three to my Lord Treasurer (age 60), who continues still very ill. I had taken my stone with me on purpose, and Sir Philip Warwicke (age 57) carried it in to him to see, but was not in a condition to talk with me about it, poor man.

Pepy's Diary. 26 Jun 1667. So we parted, and I to White Hall, as I said before, and there met with Sir Stephen Fox (age 40) and Mr. Scawen, who both confirm the news of the Parliament's meeting. Here I staid for an order for my Tangier money, £30,000, upon the 11 months' tax, and so away to my Lord Arlington's (age 49) office, and there spoke to him about Mr. Lanyon's business, and received a good answer, and thence to Westminster Hall [Map] and there walked a little, and there met with Colonell Reames (age 53), who tells me of a letter come last night, or the day before, from my Lord St. Albans (age 62), out of France, wherein he says, that the King of France (age 28) did lately fall out with him, giving him ill names, saying that he had belied him to our King, by saying that he had promised to assist our King, and to forward the peace; saying that indeed he had offered to forward the peace at such a time, but it was not accepted of, and so he thinks himself not obliged, and would do what was fit for him; and so made him to go out of his sight in great displeasure: and he hath given this account to the King (age 37), which, Colonell Reymes tells me, puts them into new melancholy at Court, and he believes hath forwarded the resolution of calling the Parliament.

Pepy's Diary. 09 Sep 1667. Thence carried Creed to White Hall, and there my wife and I took coach and home, and both of us to Sir W. Batten's (age 66), to invite them to dinner on Wednesday next, having a whole buck come from Hampton Court [Map], by the warrant which Sir Stephen Fox (age 40) did give me.

Pepy's Diary. 08 Dec 1667. At noon to dinner, where W. How with us, and after dinner, he being gone, I to my chamber again till almost night, and then took boat, the tide serving, and so to White Hall, where I saw the Duchesse of York (age 30), in a fine dress of second mourning for her mother, being black, edged with ermine, go to make her first visit to the Queene (age 58) since the Duke of York (age 34) was sick; and by and by, she being returned, the Queene (age 58) come and visited her. But it was pretty to observe that Sir W. Coventry (age 39) and I, walking an hour and more together in the Matted Gallery, he observed, and so did I, how the Duchesse, as soon as she spied him, turned her head a one side. Here he and I walked thus long, which we have not done a great while before. Our discourse was upon everything: the unhappiness of having our matters examined by people that understand them not; that it was better for us in the Navy to have men that do understand the whole, and that are not passionate; that we that have taken the most pains are called upon to answer for all crimes, while those that, like Sir W. Batten and Sir J. Minnes (age 68), did sit and do nothing, do lie still without any trouble; that, if it were to serve the King (age 37) and kingdom again in a war, neither of us could do more, though upon this experience we might do better than we did; that the commanders, the gentlemen that could never be brought to order, but undid all, are now the men that find fault and abuse others; that it had been much better for the King (age 37) to have given Sir J. Minnes (age 68) and Sir W. Batten £1000 a-year to have sat still, than to have had them in his business this war: that the serving a Prince that minds not his business is most unhappy for them that serve him well, and an unhappiness so great that he declares he will never have more to do with a war, under him. That he hath papers which do flatly contradict the Duke of Albemarle's (age 59) Narrative; and that he hath been with the Duke of Albemarle (age 59) and shewed him them, to prevent his falling into another like fault: that the Duke of Albemarle (age 59) seems to be able to answer them; but he thinks that the Duke of Albemarle (age 59) and the Prince are contented to let their Narratives sleep, they being not only contradictory in some things (as he observed about the business of the Duke of Albemarle's (age 59) being to follow the Prince upon dividing the fleete, in case the enemy come out), but neither of them to be maintained in others. That the business the other night of my Lord Anglesey (age 53) at the Council was happily got over for my Lord, by his dexterous silencing it, and the rest, not urging it further; forasmuch as, had the Duke of Buckingham (age 39) come in time enough, and had got it by the end, he, would have toused him in it; Sir W. Coventry (age 39) telling me that my Lord Anglesey (age 53) did, with such impudence, maintain the quarrel against the Commons and some of the Lords, in the business of my Lord Clarendon (age 58), that he believes there are enough would be glad but of this occasion to be revenged of him. He tells me that he hears some of the Thomsons (age 60) are like to be of the Commission for the Accounts, and Wildman (age 46), which he much wonders at, as having been a false fellow to every body, and in prison most of the time since the King's coming in. But he do tell me that the House is in such a condition that nobody can tell what to make of them, and, he thinks, they were never in before; that every body leads, and nobody follows; and that he do now think that, since a great many are defeated in their expectation of being of the Commission, now they would put it into such hands as it shall get no credit from: for, if they do look to the bottom and see the King's case, they think they are then bound to give the King (age 37) money; whereas, they would be excused from that, and therefore endeavour to make this business of the Accounts to signify little. I spoke with him about my Lord Sandwich's (age 42) business, in which he is very friendly, and do say that the unhappy business of the prizes is it that hath brought all this trouble upon him, and the only thing that made any thing else mentioned, and it is true. So having discoursed with him, I spent some time with Sir Stephen Fox (age 40) about the business of our adjusting the new method of the Excise between the Guards household and Tangier, the Lords Commissioners of the Treasury being now resolved to bring all their management into a course of payment by orders, and not by tallies, and I am glad of it, and so by water home late, and very dark, and when come home there I got my wife to read, and then come Captain Cocke (age 50) to me; and there he tells me, to my great satisfaction, that Sir Robert Brookes (age 30) did dine with him today; and that he told him, speaking of me, that he would make me the darling of the House of Commons, so much he is satisfied concerning me. And this Cocke (age 50) did tell me that I might give him thanks for it; and I do think it may do me good, for he do happen to be held a considerable person, of a young man, both for sobriety and ability. Then to discourse of business of his own about some hemp of his that is come home to receive it into the King's stores, and then parted, and by and by my wife and I to supper, she not being well, her flux being great upon her, and so to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 12 Dec 1667. Rose before day, and took coach, by daylight, and to Westminster to Sir G. Downing's (age 42), and there met Sir Stephen Fox (age 40), and thence he and I to Sir Robert Longs (age 67) to discourse the business of our orders for money, he for the guards, and I for Tangier, and were a little angry in our concerns, one against the other, but yet parted good friends, and I think I got ground by it.

Pepy's Diary. 23 Dec 1667. So to the Commissioners of the Treasury, and there I had a dispute before them with Sir Stephen Fox (age 40) about our orders for money, who is very angry, but I value it not. But, Lord! to see with what folly my Lord Albemarle (age 59) do speak in this business would make a man wonder at the good fortune of such a fool.

Pepy's Diary. 07 Jan 1668. Up, weary, about 9 o'clock, and then out by coach to White Hall to attend the Lords of the Treasury about Tangier with Sir Stephen Fox (age 40), and having done with them I away back again home by coach time enough to dispatch some business, and after dinner with Sir W. Pen's (age 46) coach (he being gone before with Sir Prince) to White Hall to wait on the Duke of York (age 34), but I finding him not there, nor the Duke of York (age 34) within, I away by coach to the Nursery, where I never was yet, and there to meet my wife and Mercer and Willet as they promised; but the house did not act to-day; and so I was at a loss for them, and therefore to the other two playhouses into the pit, to gaze up and down, to look for them, and there did by this means, for nothing, see an act in "The Schoole of Compliments" at the Duke of York's (age 34) house, and "Henry the Fourth" at the King's house; but, not finding them, nor liking either of the plays, I took my coach again, and home, and there to my office to do business, and by and by they come home, and had been at the King's house, and saw me, but I could [not] see them, and there I walked with them in the garden awhile, and to sing with Mercer there a little, and so home with her, and taught her a little of my "It is decreed", which I have a mind to have her learn to sing, and she will do it well, and so after supper she went away, and we to bed, and there made amends by sleep for what I wanted last night.

Pepy's Diary. 13 May 1668. Up, and by water to White Hall, and so to Sir H. Cholmly's (age 35), who not being up I made a short visit to Sir W. Coventry (age 40), and he and I through the Park to White Hall, and thence I back into the Park, and there met Sir H. Cholmly (age 35), and he and I to Sir Stephen Fox's (age 41), where we met and considered the business of the Excise, how far it is charged in reference to the payment of the Guards and Tangier.

Pepy's Diary. 15 May 1668. Up, and betimes to White Hall, and there met with Sir H. Cholmly (age 35) at Sir Stephen Fox's (age 41), and there was also the Cofferer (age 64), and we did there consider about our money and the condition of the Excise, and after much dispute agreed upon a state thereof and the manner of our future course of payments.

Pepy's Diary. 14 Aug 1668. Thence to White Hall, and there wait at the Council-chamber door a good while, talking with one or other, and so home by water, though but for a little while, because I am to return to White Hall. At home I find Symson, putting up my new chimney-piece, in our great chamber, which is very fine, but will cost a great deal of money, but it is not flung away. So back to White Hall, and after the council up, I with Mr. Wren (age 39), by invitation, to Sir Stephen Fox's (age 41) to dinner, where the Cofferer (age 64) and Sir Edward Savage; where many good stories of the antiquity and estates of many families at this day in Cheshire, and that part of the Kingdom, more than what is on this side, near London. [his wife] My Lady [Fox] dining with us; a very good lady, and a family governed so nobly and neatly as do me good to see it.

Pepy's Diary. 14 Aug 1668. Thence the Cofferer (age 64), Sir Stephen (age 41), and I to the Commissioners of the Treasury about business: and so I up to the Duke of York (age 34), who enquired for what I had promised him, about my observations of the miscarriages of our Office1 and I told him he should have it next week, being glad he called for it; for I find he is concerned to do something, and to secure himself thereby, I believe: for the world is labouring to eclipse him, I doubt; I mean, the factious part of the Parliament. The Office met this afternoon as usual, and waited on him; where, among other things, he talked a great while of his intentions of going to Dover soon, to be sworn as Lord Warden, which is a matter of great ceremony and state, and so to the Temple [Map] with Mr. Wren (age 39), to the Attorney's chamber, about business, but he abroad, and so I home, and there spent the evening talking with my wife and piping, and pleased with our chimney-piece, and so to bed.

Note 1. This refers to the letter on the affairs of the office which Pepys prepared, and respecting which, and the proceedings which grew out of it, so many references are made in future pages of the Diary.

Pepy's Diary. 14 Sep 1668. After dinner, I by water to, White Hall; and there, with the Cofferer (age 64) and Sir Stephen Fox (age 41), attended the Commissioners of the Treasury, about bettering our fund; and are promised it speedily.

Pepy's Diary. 27 Sep 1668. Thence, he gone, I to the Queen's Chapel, and there heard some good singing; and so to White Hall, and saw the King (age 38) and Queen (age 29) at dinner and thence with Sir Stephen Fox (age 41) to dinner: and the Cofferer (age 64) with us; and there mighty kind usage, and good discourse.

Pepy's Diary. 09 Nov 1668. Thence to White Hall with him, to the Committee of Tangier; a day appointed for him to give an account of Tangier, and what he did, and found there, which, though he had admirable matter for it, and his doings there were good, and would have afforded a noble account, yet he did it with a mind so low and mean, and delivered in so poor a manner, that it appeared nothing at all, nor any body seemed to value it; whereas, he might have shewn himself to have merited extraordinary thanks, and been held to have done a very great service: whereas now, all that cost the King (age 38) hath been at for his journey through Spain thither, seems to be almost lost. After we were up, Creed and I walked together, and did talk a good while of the weak report my Lord made, and were troubled for it; I fearing that either his mind and judgment are depressed, or that he do it out of his great neglect, and so my fear that he do all the rest of his affairs accordingly. So I staid about the Court a little while, and then to look for a dinner, and had it at Hercules-Pillars, very late, all alone, costing me 10d. And so to the Excise Office, thinking to meet Sir Stephen Fox (age 41) and the Cofferer (age 64), but the former was gone, and the latter I met going out, but nothing done, and so I to my bookseller's, and also to Crow's (age 51), and there saw a piece of my bed, and I find it will please us mightily.

Around 1669 [his daughter] Jane Fox Countess Northampton was born to Stephen Fox (age 41) and [his wife] Elizabeth Whittle.

In 1672 Stephen Fox (age 44) bought the manor of Redlynch, Somerset.

Before 1675 [his son-in-law] Charles Cornwallis 3rd Baron Cornwallis (age 19) and [his daughter] Elizabeth Fox Baroness Cornwallis were married at Westminster Abbey [Map]. She by marriage Baroness Cornwallis.

In 1679 [his son] Charles Fox (age 18) and [his daughter-in-law] Elizabeth Carr Trollope (age 18) were married. There was no issue from the marriage. She brought the Water Eaton estate, near Cricklade, and £6000 and/or £2000 each year to the marriage

On 27 Feb 1679 Stephen Fox (age 51) was elected MP Westminster.

Evelyn's Diary. 17 Jun 1679. Thence to Chelsea, to Sir Stephen Fox (age 52), and my lady, in order to the purchase of the Countess of Bristol's (age 59) house there, which she desired me to procure a chapman for.

Evelyn's Diary. 08 Aug 1679. I went this morning to show my Lord Chamberlain (age 61), his Lady (age 45), and the Duchess of Grafton (age 11), the incomparable work of Mr. Gibbon (age 31), the carver, whom I first recommended to his Majesty (age 49), his house being furnished like a cabinet, not only with his own work, but divers excellent paintings of the best hands. Thence, to Sir Stephen Fox's (age 52), where we spent the day.

Evelyn's Diary. 08 Nov 1679. At Sir Stephen Fox's (age 52), and was agreeing for the Countess of Bristol's (age 59) house at Chelsea, within £500.

Evelyn's Diary. 30 Jan 1680. I supped with Sir Stephen Fox (age 52), now made one of the Lords Commissioners of the Treasury.

Evelyn's Diary. 06 Sep 1680. I dined with Sir Stephen Fox (age 53), now one of the Lords Commissioners of the Treasury. This gentleman came first a poor boy from the choir of Salisbury, then he was taken notice of by Bishop Duppa, and afterward waited on my Lord Percy (brother to Algernon, Earl of Northumberland), who procured for him an inferior place among the clerks of the kitchen and Greencloth side, where he was found so humble, diligent, industrious, and prudent in his behavior, that his Majesty being in exile, and Mr. Fox waiting, both the King (age 50) and Lords about him frequently employed him about their affairs, and trusted him both with receiving and paying the little money they had. Returning with his Majesty (age 50) to England, after great want and great sufferings, his Majesty (age 50) found him so honest and industrious, and withal so capable and ready, that, being advanced from clerk of the kitchen to that of the Greencloth, he procured to be paymaster of the whole army, and by his dexterity and punctual dealing he obtained such credit among the bankers, that he was in a short time able to borrow vast sums of them upon any exigence. The continual turning thus of money, and the soldiers' moderate allowance to him for keeping touch with them, did so enrich him, that he is believed to be worth at least £200,000, honestly got and unenvied; which is next to a miracle. With all this he continues as humble and ready to do a courtesy as ever he was.

Evelyn's Diary. 06 Sep 1680. He is generous, and lives very honorably, of a sweet nature, well-spoken, well-bred, and is so highly in his Majesty's (age 50) esteem, and so useful, that being long since made a knight, he is also advanced to be one of the Lords Commissioners of the Treasury, and has the reversion of the Cofferer's place after Harry Brouncker (age 53). He has married his [his daughter] eldest daughter (age 11) to my [his future son-in-law] Lord Cornwallis (age 15), and gave her £12,000, and restored that entangled family besides. He matched his son to [his daughter-in-law] Mrs. Trollop (age 19), who brings with her (besides a great sum) near, if not altogether, £2,000 per annum. Sir Stephen's [his wife] lady (an excellent woman) is sister to Mr. Whittle (age 49), one of the King's (age 50) chirurgeons. In a word, never was man more fortunate than Sir Stephen; he is a handsome person, virtuous, and very religious.

Before 19 Feb 1681 [his brother-in-law] Sackville Whittle (age 50) and Margaret Fox were married.

On 19 Feb 1681 [his brother-in-law] Sackville Whittle (age 50) died. He was buried in Westinster Abbey.

On 28 Feb 1681 [his daughter] Elizabeth Fox Baroness Cornwallis died.

Evelyn's Diary. 16 May 1681. Came my Lady Sunderland (age 35), to desire that I would propose a match to Sir Stephen Fox (age 54) for her son (age 6), Lord Spencer, to marry [his daughter] Mrs. Jane (age 12), Sir Stephen's (age 54) daughter. I excused myself all I was able; for the truth is, I was afraid he would prove an extravagant man: for, though a youth of extraordinary parts, and had an excellent education to render him a worthy man, yet his early inclinations to extravagance made me apprehensive, that I should not serve Sir Stephen (age 54) by proposing it, like a friend; this being now his only daughter, well-bred, and likely to receive a large share of her father's opulence. Lord Sunderland (age 39) was much sunk in his estate by gaming and other prodigalities, and was now no longer Secretary of State, having fallen into displeasure of the King (age 50) for siding with the Commons about the succession; but which, I am assured, he did not do out of his own inclination, or for the preservation of the Protestant religion, but by mistaking the ability of the party to carry it. However, so earnest and importunate was the Countess (age 35), that I did mention it to Sir Stephen, who said it was too great an honor, that his daughter (age 12) was very young, as well as my Lord, and he was resolved never to marry her without the parties' mutual liking; with other objections which I neither would or could contradict. He desired me to express to the Countess the great sense he had of the honor done him, that his daughter and her son were too young, that he would do nothing without her liking, which he did not think her capable of expressing judiciously, till she was sixteen or seventeen years of age, of which she now wanted four years, and that I would put it off as civilly as I could.

Evelyn's Diary. 02 Jun 1681. I went to Hampton Court [Map], when the Surrey gentlemen presented their addresses to his Majesty (age 51), whose hand I kissed, introduced by the Duke of Albemarle (age 27). Being at the Privy Council, I took another occasion of discoursing with Sir Stephen Fox (age 54) about his [his daughter] daughter (age 12) and to revive that business, and at least brought it to this: That in case the young people liked one the other, after four years, he first desiring to see a particular of my Lord's (age 39) present estate if I could transmit it to him privately, he would make her portion £14,000, though to all appearance he might likely make it £50,000 as easily, his eldest son (age 15) having no child and growing very corpulent.

Evelyn's Diary. 14 Sep 1681. Dined with Sir Stephen Fox (age 54), who proposed to me the purchasing of Chelsea College, which his Majesty (age 51) had sometime since given to our Society, and would now purchase it again to build a hospital [Map]; or infirmary for soldiers there, in which he desired my assistance as one of the Council of the Royal Society.

Evelyn's Diary. 14 Jan 1682. Dined at the Bishop of Rochester's (age 57), at the Abbey [Map], it being his marriage day, after twenty-four years. He related to me how he had been treated by Sir William Temple, foreseeing that he might be a delegate in the concern of my Baroness Ogle (age 14) now likely come in controversy upon her marriage with Mr. Thynn (age 34); also how earnestly the late Earl of Danby (age 49) [NOTE. The word 'late' suggest the Earl being dead but may refer to his downfall around 1678], Lord Treasurer, sought his friendship, and what plain and sincere advice he gave him from time to time about his miscarriages and partialities; particularly his outing Sir John Duncomb (age 60) from being Chancellor of the Exchequer, and Sir Stephen Fox (age 54), above all, from being Paymaster of the Army. The Treasurer's (age 49) excuse and reason was, that Fox's (age 54) credit was so over great with the bankers and monied men, that he could procure none but by his means, "for that reason", replied the Bishop (age 57), "I would have made him my friend, Sir Stephen (age 54) being a person both honest and of credit". He told him likewise of his stateliness and difficulty of access, and several other miscarriages, and which indeed made him hated.

Evelyn's Diary. 27 Jan 1682. This evening, Sir Stephen Fox (age 54) acquainted me again with his Majesty's (age 51) resolution of proceeding in the erection of a Royal Hospital for emerited soldiers on that spot of ground which the Royal Society had sold to his Majesty (age 51) for £1,300, and that he would settle £5,000 per annum on it, and build to the value of £20,000 for the relief and reception of four companies, namely, 400 men, to be as in a college, or monastery. I was therefore desired by Sir Stephen (age 54) (who had not only the whole managing of this, but was, as I perceived, himself to be a grand benefactor, as well it became him who had gotten so vast an estate by the soldiers) to assist him, and consult what method to cast it in, as to the government. So, in his study we arranged the governor, chaplain, steward, housekeeper, chirurgeon, cook, butler, gardener, porter, and other officers, with their several salaries and entertainments. I would needs have a library, and mentioned several books, since some soldiers might possibly be studious, when they were at leisure to recollect. Thus we made the first calculations, and set down our thoughts to be considered and digested better, to show his Majesty (age 51) and the Archbishop. He also engaged me to consider of what laws and orders were fit for the government, which was to be in every respect as strict as in any religious convent.

Evelyn's Diary. 25 May 1682. I was desired by Sir Stephen Fox (age 55) and Sir Christopher Wren (age 58) to accompany them to Lambeth, Surrey [Map], with the plot and design of the college to be built at Chelsea, to have the Archbishop's approbation. It was a quadrangle of 200 feet square, after the dimensions of the larger quadrangle at Christ church, Oxford, for the accommodation of 440 persons, with Governor of and officers. This was agreed on.

Evelyn's Diary. 04 Aug 1682. With Sir Stephen Fox (age 55), to survey the foundations of the Royal Hospital begun at Chelsea.

Evelyn's Diary. 16 Jun 1683. I went to Windsor, Berkshire [Map], dining by the way at Chiswick, at Sir Stephen Fox's (age 56), where I found Sir Robert Howard (that universal pretender), and Signor Verrio (age 47), who brought his draught and designs for the painting of the staircase of Sir Stephen's (age 56) new house.

Evelyn's Diary. 04 Oct 1683. Surfeiting of this, I dined at Sir Stephen Fox's (age 56) and went contented home to my poor, but quiet villa. What contentment can there be in the riches and splendor of this world, purchased with vice and dishonor?.

Evelyn's Diary. 02 Jan 1684. I din'd at Sr Ste. Fox's (age 56): after dinner came a fellow who eate live charcoal, glowingly ignited, quenching them in his mouth, and then champing and swallowing them down. There was a dog also which seem'd to do many rational actions.

Evelyn's Diary. 24 Oct 1684. I din'd at Sir Stephen Fox's (age 57) with the Duke of Northumberland (age 18). He seem'd to be a young gentleman of good capacity, well bred, civil, and modest: newly come from travell, and had made his campaigne at the siege of Luxemburg. Of all his Ma*s (age 54) children (of which he had now six Dukes) this seem'd the most accomplish'd and worth the owning. He is extraordinary handsome and well shap'd. What ye Dukes of Richmond (age 12) and St. Alban's (age 14) will prove, their youth does not yet discover; they are very pretty boys.

In 1685 Stephen Fox (age 57) was elected MP Salisbury.

Evelyn's Diary. 07 Mar 1685. Much I could enlarge on every peribd of this hasty account, but that I ease and discharge my overcoming passion for the present, so many things worthy an excellent Christian and dutifull child crowding upon me. Never can I say enough, oh deare, my deare child, whose memory is so precious to me! This deare child was born at Wotton [Map] in the same house and chamber in which I first drew my breath, my wife (age 50) having retir'd to my brother there in the great sicknesse that yeare upon the first of that moneth, and neere the ve'ry houre that I was borne, upon the last: viz. October. 16 March. She was interr'd in the South-east end of the Church at Deptford, neere her grandmother and severall of my younger children and relations. My desire was she should have ben carried and layed among my own parents and relations at Wotton, where I desire to be interr'd myselfe, when God shall call me out of this uncertaine transitory life, but some circumstances did not permit it. Our vicar Dr. Holden preach'd her funeral sermon on 1 Phil. 21. "For to me to live is Christ and to die is gaine", upon which he made an apposite discourse, as those who heard it assur'd me (for griefe suffer'd me not to be present), concluding with a modest recital of her many virtues and signal piety, so as to draw both teares and admiration from the hearers. I was not altogether unwilling that something of this sort should be spoken, for the edification and encouragement of other young people. Divers noble persons honour'd her funeral, some in person, others sending their coaches, of wch there were six or seven with six horses, viz. the Countesse of Sunderland (age 39), Earle of Clarendon, Lord Godolphin (age 39), Sr Stephen Fox (age 57), Sr Wm Godolphin, Viscount Falkland, and others. There were distributed amongst her friends about 60 rings. Thus liv'd, died, and was buried the joy of my life, and ornament of her sex and of my poore family ! God Almighty of his infinite mercy grant me the grace thankfully to resigne myselfe and all I have, or had, to his Divine pleasure, and in his good time, restoring health and comfort to my family: "teach me so to number my days that I may apply my heart to wisdom", be prepar'd for my dissolution, and that into the hands of my blessed Saviour I may recommend my spirit ! Amen !

Evelyn's Diary. 06 Sep 1685. About 6 o'clock came Sl Dudley (age 44) and his brother Roger North (age 32), and brought the greate seale from my Lord Keeper (age 47), who died ye day before at his house [Map] in Oxfordshire. the King went immediately to Council; every body guessing who was most likely to succeed this greate officer; most believing it could be no other than my Lord Chief Justice Jefferies (age 40), who had so vigorously prosecuted the late rebells, and was now gone the Western circuit, to punish the rest that were secur'd in the several counties, and was now neere upon his returne. I tooke my leave of his Ma* (age 51), who spake very graciously to me, and supping that night at Sr Stephen Fox's (age 58), I promis'd to dine there the next day.

Evelyn's Diary. 27 Oct 1685. I was invited to dine at Sir Ste. Fox's (age 58) with my Lord Lieutenant, where was such a dinner for variety of all things as I had seldome seene, and it was so for the trial of a master cooke whom Sir Stephen (age 58) had recommended to go with his Lordship Into Ireland; there were all ye dainties not onely of the season, but of what art could add, venison, plaine solid meate, fowle, bak'd and boil'd meates, banquet [desert], &c. in exceeding plenty and exquisitely dress'd. There also din'd my Lord Ossory (age 20) and Lady (the Duke of Beaufort's daughter) (age 21), my Lady Treasurer, Lord Cornbery (age 23), &c.

In 1686 [his son-in-law] George Compton 4th Earl of Northampton (age 21) and [his daughter] Jane Fox Countess Northampton (age 17) were married. He the son of James Compton 3rd Earl of Northampton and Mary Noel Countess Northampton.

Evelyn's Diary. 03 Jan 1687. There was now another change of the great officers. The Treasury was put into commission, two professed Papists among them, viz, Lords Bellasis (age 72) and Dover (age 51), joined with the old ones, Lord Godolphin (age 41), Sir Stephen Fox (age 59), and Sir John Ernley.

Evelyn's Diary. 18 Aug 1688. My lady (age 42) carried us to see [his son-in-law] Lord Northampton's (age 23) Seat, a very strong, large house, built with stone, not altogether modern. They were enlarging the garden, in which was nothing extraordinary, except the iron gate opening into the park, which indeed was very good work, wrought in flowers painted with blue and gilded. There is a noble walk of elms toward the front of the house by the bowling green. I was not in any room of the house besides a lobby looking into the garden, where my Lord (age 23) and his new [his daughter] Countess (age 19) (Sir Stephen Fox's (age 61) daughter, whom I had known from a child) entertained the Countess (age 42) and her daughter the Countess of Arran (age 21) (newly married to the son (age 30) of the Duke of Hamilton (age 53)), with so little good grace, and so dully, that our visit was very short, and so we returned to Althorpe [Map], twelve miles distant.

Evelyn's Diary. 01 Nov 1688. Dined with Lord Preston (age 39), with other company, at Sir Stephen Fox's (age 61). Continual alarms of the Prince of Orange (age 37), but no certainty. Reports of his great losses of horse in the storm, but without any assurance. A man was taken with divers papers and printed manifestoes, and carried to Newgate [Map], after examination at the Cabinet Council. There was likewise a declaration of the States for satisfaction of all public ministers at The Hague, except to the English and the French. There was in that of the Prince's an expression, as if the Lords both spiritual and temporal had invited him over, with a deduction of the causes of his enterprise. This made his Majesty (age 55) convene my Lord of Canterbury (age 71) and the other Bishops now in town, to give an account of what was in the manifesto, and to enjoin them to clear themselves by some public writing of this disloyal charge.

In 1691 Stephen Fox (age 63) was elected MP Westminster.

On 11 Aug 1696 [his wife] Elizabeth Whittle died.

In 1698 Stephen Fox (age 70) was elected MP Cricklade.

On 12 Sep 1704 [his son] Stephen Fox-Strangways 1st Earl of Ilchester was born to Stephen Fox (age 77).

On 28 Sep 1705 [his son] Henry Fox 1st Baron Holland was born to Stephen Fox (age 78).

In 21 Sep 1713 [his son] Charles Fox (age 53) died predeacsing his father.

On 28 Oct 1716 Stephen Fox (age 89) died.

Before 1725. John James Baker. Portrait of Stephen Fox.

[his daughter] Charlotte Fox was born to Stephen Fox.

[his daughter] Elizabeth Fox Baroness Cornwallis was born to Stephen Fox and Elizabeth Whittle