Biography of William Parr 1st Marquess Northampton 1512-1571

Paternal Family Tree: Parr

Maternal Family Tree: Joan Beauchamp 1370

1543 Creation of Garter Knights

1543 Parr Family Ennobled

1547 Edward VI Appointments

1549 Kett's Rebellion

1550 Visit of the French Ambassadors

1553 Trial and Execution of Lady Jane Grey's Supporters

1554 Execution of Lady Jane Grey and her Faction

1559 Creation of Garter Knights

1562 News Years Day Gift Giving

1563 Creation of Garter Knights

In 1508 [his father] Thomas Parr (age 25) and [his mother] Maud Green (age 15) were married. He a great x 4 grandson of King Edward III of England.

In 1512 William Parr 1st Marquess Northampton was born to Thomas Parr (age 29) and Maud Green (age 19) at Blackfriars Church Holborn.

On 11 Nov 1517 [his father] Thomas Parr (age 34) died.

On 09 Feb 1527 William Parr 1st Marquess Northampton (age 15) and Anne Bourchier 7th Baroness Bourchier (age 10) were married. They lived apart for the first twelve years of their marriage. She the daughter of Henry Bourchier 2nd Earl Essex 3rd Count Eu and Mary Saye Countess Essex and Eu (age 53). They were third cousin once removed. He a great x 5 grandson of King Edward III of England. She a great x 4 granddaughter of King Edward III of England.

On 01 Dec 1531 [his mother] Maud Green (age 39) died.

Around 1539 Hans Holbein The Younger (age 42). Drawing of William Parr 1st Marquess Northampton (age 27).

In 1539 William Parr 1st Marquess Northampton (age 27) was created 1st Baron Parr of Kendal.

On 13 Mar 1540 [his father-in-law] Henry Bourchier 2nd Earl Essex 3rd Count Eu died. Earl Essex, Viscount Bourchier extinct. His daughter [his wife] Anne Bourchier 7th Baroness Bourchier (age 23) succeeded 7th Baroness Bourchier. John Bourchier 2nd Earl Bath (age 41) succeeded 2nd Count Eu. Neither he or his descendants used the title.

1543 Creation of Garter Knights

In 1543, probably around St George's Day, 23 Apr 1543, King Henry VIII of England and Ireland (age 51) created three new Knights of the Garter:

310th. John Dudley 1st Duke Northumberland (age 39).

311th. William Paulet 1st Marquess Winchester (age 60).

312th. William Parr 1st Marquess Northampton (age 31).

Letters and Papers 1543. 22 Jan 1543. Cap. xliii. [o. n. 39]. Whereas [his wife] lady Anne (age 26), wife of Sir William Parre lord Parre (age 31), continued in adultery notwithstanding admonition, and, finally, two years past, left his company and has since had a child begotten in adultery, that the said child and all future children she may have shall be held bastards.

22 Jan 1543. Once William Parr 1st Marquess Northampton (age 31) and [his wife] Anne Bourchier 7th Baroness Bourchier (age 26) did live together both commenced affairs. She with John Lyngfield, prior of St. James's Church [Map], in Tanbridge, Surrey [Source. Wikipedia. However, there is no church of St James in Tandbridge?], by whom she had an illegitimate child named John Parr. He with Dorothy Braye Baroness Chandos and Knollys (age 19). To protect the interest of his subsequent children Parr (age 31) pursued legislation to disinherit her child.

A Treatise on Adultery. The first of these cases is that of [his wife] Lady Parr (age 26), in the 34th Hen. VIII.; and the Act1 states, "that for the last two years she had eloped from her husband, William Lord Parr (age 31), and had not in that time ever returned to, nor had any carnal intercourse with him, but had been gotten with child by one of her adulterers, and been delivered of such child, which child being, as is notoriously known, begotten in adultery, and born during the espousals" between her and Lord Parr, "by the law of this realm is inheritable, and may pretend to inherit all, &c.;" and the Act therefore declares the said child to be a bastard.

Note 1. The Act, which is styled in the Lords' Journals, a Bill "to bar and make base and bastards the children which be, or shall be borne in adulteiy by the Lady Anne, wife of the Lord Parr," was read a first time on the 15th March 1543, bat it appears to have been altered by the Commons. — Lords' Journalls, I., 217. 223. 224. 230. 233. In the 6th Edw. VI., 1552, a Bill passed for annulling Lord Parr's (then Marquis of Northampton) marriage with Lady Anne Bourchier, and confirming his marriage with Elisabeth, daughter of Lord Cobham, and for the legitimation of the children that shall be had between them; but the Earl of Derby, the Bishops of Norwich and Carlisle, and Lord Stourton dissented. — Ibid, p. 409.418. The Statute of the 6 Edw. VI was, however, repealed in the 1st of Mary, 1555.

On 17 Apr 1543 William Parr 1st Marquess Northampton (age 31) and Anne Bourchier 7th Baroness Bourchier (age 26) were divorced by an Act of Parliament and their children declared illegitimate.

Parr Family Ennobled

On 23 Dec 1543 Henry VIII (age 52) enobled his [his sister] new wife's (age 31) brother (age 31) and [his uncle] uncle (age 60) at ceremony in the Presence Chamber, Hampton Court Palace [Map]. Henry Grey 1st Duke of Suffolk (age 26) and Edward Stanley 3rd Earl of Derby (age 34) were present. Christopher Barker read the Patents.

William Parr 1st Baron Parr of Horton (age 60) was created 1st Baron Parr of Horton. William was sixty with five daughters. He died four years later at which time the Barony became extinct.

William Parr 1st Marquess Northampton (age 31) was created 1st Earl Essex. His estranged wife [his former wife] Anne Bourchier 7th Baroness Bourchier (age 26) was daughter of the last Earl of Essex of the Fifth Creation. A somewhat curious choice given his wife had eloped the year previous year with John Lyngfield, the prior of Tandbridge, Surrey [Map], by whom she had an illegitimate child.

In 1545 [his future brother-in-law] William Brooke 10th Baron Cobham (age 17) and Dorothy Neville Baroness Cobham (age 20) were married. He had been a ward of her father George Neville 5th and 3rd Baron Bergavenny. They were half second cousin once removed. He a great x 5 grandson of King Edward III of England. She a great x 4 granddaughter of King Edward III of England.

Diary of Edward VI. 31 Jan 1547. The next day, being the [31st] of [January], he was brought to the towre of London, whear he taried th'espace of three wekes; and in the mean season the counsel sat every day for the performaunce of the will1, and at length thought best that the erle of Hartford shuld be made Due of Somerset, sir Thomas Seimour Lord Sudley, the erle of Essex Marquis of Northampton (age 35), and divers knights should be mad Barons, as the lord Sheffield (age 25), with divers other.2 Also thei thought best to chose the duke of Somerset to be Protectour of the realm and Governour of the Kinges person during his minorite, to which al the gentlemen and lordes did agre becaus he was the Kinges oncle on his mother's side.3 Also in this time the late King was buried at Windsor with much solemnite, and th' officers broke their staves, hurling them into the grave.4 But thei were restored to them again when thei come to the towre.

Note 1. The Will of Henry the Eighth was printed at length in 4to. 1793. The proceedings of the privy council with regard to its execution will be found in the Appendix.

Note 2. The creations were:

1. The protector to be Duke of Somerset;

2. The earl of Essex (age 35) (brother to the queen dowager) to be Marquess of Northampton;

3. The lord Lisle (age 43) to be Earl of Warwick;

4. the lord chancellor Wriothesley (age 41) to be Earl of Southampton;

5. sir Thomas Seymour (age 39) to be Lord Seymour of Sudeley;

6. sir Richard Rich (age 50) to be Lord Rich of Leez;

7. sir William Willoughby (age 32) to be Lord Willoughby of Parham; and

8. sir Edmund Sheffield (age 25) to be Lord Sheffield of Butterwick. The ceremonial of their creations will be found in the Appendix.

Note 3. On the subject of the Protectorate the reader is referred to the Appendix. The duke was also constituted Lord Treasurer on the 10th of February, and the next day sworn in to that office before the lord chancellor in Westminster hall. He further became Earl Marshal (see the next page), both these high offices being vacated by the attainder of the duke of Norfolk.

Note 4. The ceremonial of the Funeral of Henry the Eighth is printed at length in Strype's Eccles. Memorials, vol. ii. Appx. A. The interment was accomplished on the 14th Feb.

Edward VI Appointments

After 16 Feb 1547. The date uncertain but likely to be after the funeral of Henry VIII (deceased) King Edward VI of England and Ireland (age 9) made a number of new appointments although given King Edward VI of England and Ireland (age 9) was only nine years old at the time, the titles were, in effect, bestowed by Edward Seymour 1st Duke of Somerset (age 47).

William Parr 1st Marquess Northampton (age 35) was created 1st Marquess Northampton.

Thomas Seymour 1st Baron Seymour (age 39) was created 1st Baron Seymour of Sudeley and appointed Lord High Admiral.

New Garter Knights:

318th Henry Grey 1st Duke of Suffolk (age 30).

319th Edward Stanley 3rd Earl of Derby (age 37).

320th Thomas Seymour 1st Baron Seymour (age 39).

321st William Paget 1st Baron Paget Beaudasert (age 41).

John Carey (age 56) and Henry Huberthorne were knighted by King Edward VI of England and Ireland (age 9).

In 1548 William Parr 1st Marquess Northampton (age 36) and Elisabeth Brooke Marchioness Northampton (age 21) were married. She by marriage Marchioness Northampton. They were fourth cousins. He a great x 5 grandson of King Edward III of England. She a great x 5 granddaughter of King Edward III of England.

Kett's Rebellion

Diary of Edward VI. Aug 1549. Now to Northfolk.4 The people sodenly gathered together in Norfolke, and encreased to a great nomber; against whom was the lord marquise Northampton (age 37) sent, with the nombre of 10601a horsmen, who winning the towne of Norwich, kept it one day and one night, and the next day in the morning with losse of 100 departed out of the towne; among whom the lord Sheffield (deceased)2a was slaine. There were takin divers gentlemen and serving men to the nombre of 30, with wich victory the rebels were very glade. But afterward, hearing that th'erle of Warwic (age 45) came against them, thei began to stay upon a strong plat of ground upon a hil niere to the towne of Norwich, having the towmie confederat with them. Th'erle of Warwic (age 45) came with the nombre of 6000 men and 1500 horsmen, and entred into the toune of Norwich, wich having wone, it was so weke that he cold scarcely defend it, and oftentimes the rebels came into the streets killing divers of his mene, and were repulsed again; ye, and the townsmen were gieven to mischief themselfis. So, having endured ther assaultis three dayes, and stoped there vitailes, the rebels were constrained for lake of raeat to remove, whome th'erle of Warwic (age 45) folowed with 1000 Almans and al his horsemen, leaving th'English footmen in the towme, and overcam them in plaine battail, killing 2000 of them and taking Keit there captain, who in January folowing was hanged at Norwich, and his head hanged out. Kelt's brother was taken also, and punished alike.3a.

Note 4. Of the Norfolk rebellion a history was written in Latin by Alexander Nevylle, secretary to archbishop Parker, the archbishop himself having been present in the city of Norwich during the tumults, against which his oratory was unsuccessfully inhsted. It was printed in 1575, under the title, "Alexandri Nevylli Angli de Furoribus Nolfolciensium, Ketto duce. Liber unus. Ejusdem Norwicus. Ex ofEcina Henrici Bynneman, 1575." There was a second edition in 1582; and an English translation, made by Richard Woods, was printed in 1615, entitled, "Norfolk Furies and their Foyle, under Kett, their accursed Captaine. Second edition, 1623." See Upcott's British Topography, pp. 972, 973. In the first instance the duke of Somerset himself intended to take the field against "one Kett, a tanner, who hath taken upon himself our royal power and dignity, and calleth himself master and king of Norfolk and Suffolk." See letter under the King's signet, dated 6th August, printed by Strype, Memorials, II. i. 174, from MS. Cotton. Vesp. P. ixi. A subsequent proclamation, dated 16th August, when it was determined to send the earl of Warwick (age 45) on this service, is partly given ibid. p. 176.

Note 1a. So the MS., perhaps an error for 1600.

Note 2a. Edmund Sheffield (deceased), raised to the peerage in 1547 (see p. 211).

Note 3a. "The 29 of November, Robert Ket, and William Ket his brother, were delivered out of the Tower of London to sir Edmond Windham, knight, and sherifie of Norfolke, to be conveyed to Norwich, where Robert Ket was hanged in chains on the top of Norwich castle, and William Ket likewise hanged on the top of Windham steeple." Stowe's Chronicle.

On 01 Aug 1549 the rebels defeated a royal army led by William Parr 1st Marquess Northampton (age 37).

Diary of Edward VI. 06 Oct 1549. In the meane season in Englond rose great sturres, like to increase much if it had not been well forseen.1 The counsel, about 19 of them, were gathered in London, thinking to mete with the lord Protectour (age 49), and to make him amend some of his disordres. He, fearing his state, caused the secretary [Petre (age 44)] in my name to be sent to the lordes, to know for what cause they gathered their powres togethers, and, if they ment to talke with him, that they should come in peacable maner. The next morning, being the 6 of October, and Saturday [Sunday], he commaunded the armoure to be brought downe out of th'armury of Hampton court, about 600 harnesses, to arme both his and my men withal, the gates of the hous to be rempared; peple to be raysed. Peple came abundantly to the house. That night, with al the peple, at 9 or 10 a cloke at night, I went to Windsore [Map], and there was watch and ward kept every night. The lordis sat in open places of London, calling for gentlemen before them, and declaring the causes of accusation of the lord Protectour (age 49), and caused the same to be proclaimed. After wich time few came to Windsore, but only myn owne men of the garde, whom the lordes willed, fearing the rage of the peple so lately quietid. Then begane the Protectour (age 49) to treate by letters, sending Sir Philip Hobbey (age 44), lately cum from his ambassad in Flaundres to see to his famyly, who brought in his returne a letter to the Protectour (age 49) very gentle, wich he delivered to hime, another to me, another to my house, to declare his fautes, ambicion, vain glorie, entriag into rashe warres in mine youth, negligent loking on Newhaven, enriching of himself of my treasour, folowing his owne opinion, and doing al by his owne authorite, et [?]; wich lettres was openly redd, and immediately the lordes came to Windsore, toke him, and brought him through Holborn to the Tower. Afterward I came to Ampton court [Map], wheir they appointed by my consente six lordes of the counsel to be attendant on me, at lest tow, and fower knightes; lordes, the marches Northampton (age 37), th'erles of Warwike (age 45) and Arondel, lordes Russel (age 64), Seintjone, and Wentworth; knigh(tes) sir Andrew Dudely (age 42), sir Edward Rogers (age 51), sir Thomas Darcy, sir Thomas Wroth.1a After I came through London to Westmuster.2a The lord of Warwike made Admyral of England.3a Sir Thomas Cheiney sent to the em perour for relief4, wich he could not obteine. Mr. Wotton5 made secretary. The lord Protectour, by his owne agreement and submission, lost his protectourship, treasourirshipe, marchalshipe, al his moveables, and niere 2,000 pound lande, by acte of parliement.

Note 1. Under the influence of the earl of Warwick (age 45), seconded by the ex-chancellor Southampton and the Romanist party, a majority of the council now undertook to terminate the supreme dictatorship assumed by the Protector. It appears that Somerset's suspicions of his insecurity were first alarmed by learning that the councillors in London dined at each others' houses (see Tytler, p. 249); he consequently took measures on the 5th October, if not before (see the documents quoted in p. 285 hereafter), to strengthen his military resources. According to the record of the council, entered in their register, they had appointed on the morning of Sunday the 6th of October "to repayr to Hampton court, accompanied with their ordinary numbers of servants, to have had friendly communication with the lord Protectour about the reformation of the state;" when, "as they were booted and ready to have mounted upon their horses," they "were certainely advertised, as well as credible reportes of diverse gentlemen, as by letters subscribed by the hands of the said lord Protectour, that he, having some intelligence of their lordships' intents, and moved with the conscience of his ill-government, whereof he would abyde no reformation, had suddenly raised a power of the commons, to the intent, if their lordships had come to the court, to have destroyed them; which power he had levyed as well by letters whereunto he caused his Matie to set his most gracious hand, as by most sedicious bills, which he had devised for that purpose, the tenor whereof word for word foloweth. Good People," &c. (not entered in the Council Book, but preserved in the State Paper office, see hereafter, p. 242). Their lordships consequently determined to remain in London, assembling themselves at Ely Place, then the mansion of the earl of Warwick (age 45), in Holborn, where the following councillors were present: lord St. John, lord great master (who had been with the Protector at Hampton court only two days before), the earls of Warwick (age 45), Arundel (age 37), and Southampton, mr. secretary Petre (age 44), sir Edward North, sir Richard Southwell (age 46), sir Edmund Peckham (age 54), sir Edward Wotton (age 59), and mr. doctor Wotton dean of Canterbury. Their first step was to unfold their views to the magistrates of London, who consequently held a court of aldermen at Guildhall that same afternoon, and their proceedings will be found detailed at full by Stowe. The council sent out various letters to countermand and counteract the orders issued by the Protector, and also to levy forces on their own party; and, sending for the lieutenant of the Tower of London sir John Markham, they "required him to suffer certain others to enter for the good keeping thereof to his Majesties use; whereunto the said lieutenant according, sir Edmund Peckham (age 54) knight and Leonard Chamberlayne esquire, with their servants, were commanded to enter into the Tower, as associates to the said lieutenant, for the better presidy and guard of the same."

The next morning, Monday Oct. 7, the council met at Mercers' hall in London, in number sixteen, there being present, in addition to those of the day before, the lord chancellor (age 52) (Rich), mr. treasurer (Cheyne), sir John Gage, sir Edward Mountagu, sir Ralph Sadler (age 42), and sir John Baker. They were informed that, during the previous night, the lord Protector had hastily conveyed the King from Hampton court to Windsor castle, and they directed to Windsor the letters hereafter noticed.

On the 8th, at 9 a.m. they met at Guildhall, with the further accession to their company of the marquess of Northampton (age 37) and the earl of Shrewsbury. The mayor, aldermen, and common council were ordered to attend them, and, the lord chancellor (age 52) and others (as Stowe relates) having declared divers abuses of the lord Protector, they persuaded the citizens to take their part. "The lords dined with master Yorke, one of the sheriffes, and in the afternoone proclamation was made in divers places of the cittie, with trumpets, heraults, and kings at armes, wherein was contained divers articles touching the evill government of the lord Protector."

On the 9th the council was held "at the house of mr. Yorke, sheriff of London" (this was the ancient mansion, then belonging to the Crown, called the Duke's Place in Southwark, the new sheriff being master of the mint then established there). The names of the lord privy seal (Russell), the master of the horses (Herbert (age 48)), the lord Wentworth, and the vice-chamberlain (Wingfield), are also entered as present in council; but the two former were certainly this day at Wilton, as shown by their autograph signatures to the letter mentioned hereafter, and none of the four signed the council's letters of this day.

"The tenth of October (says Stowe, but this certainly should be the 9th), by a common councell at the guild-hall, was granted five hundred men of the citie (one hundred to be horsemen) to be readie on the next morrow: and this day the lords dined with master Yorke, one of the sheriffes of London."

On the 10th, "the same appearance of the councell as before" assembled "at the house of the lord St. John, lord great master, being in London," when they were informed" that, through their former letters, and other means by them devised, and by the dihgent travail also of the archbishop of Canterbury and sir William Paget, then being at Windsor, the Kinges Matie owne servants were again restored to their places of attendance about his Matie person, and that the duke of Somerset's servants and others of the bands were sequestered from his Majtie Having received the private communication from Paget, noticed hereafter, they this day sent to Windsor sir Anthony Wingfield the vice-chamberlain, sir Anthony Sellenger one of the gentlemen of the privy chamber, and sir John Williams treasurer of the augmentations and revenues of the crown, with their servants, for the better guard of the King's person, and for the prevention of Somerset's escape. These officers effected the arrest of the duke the next morning; and, on Sunday the 12th, the lords in a body repaired to Windsor "and presented themselves forthwith before the King's Matie, most humbly on their knees, declaring to the same the occasion and order of their doings, the which his Matie did accept in most gratious part, giving to their lordships his Matie most hearty thanks." Calling before them sir Thomas Smith, sir Michael Stanhope, sir John Thynne (age 34), Edward Wolfe one of his Matie privy chamber, and William Gray esquire, of Reading, "adherents of the said duke, and the principal instruments and councellours that he did use, both at this time, and otherwise also in the affairs of his government," they charged them with their offences, and ordered them to the Tower of London, sir Thomas Smith being at the same time sequestered from the council, and deprived of his secretaryship.

On the 13th, the duke himself "being sent for t'appeare before their lordships, and charged by them with his faults, was with the others before named sent to the Tower of London, under the conduct of the earls of Sussex (not Southampton, as some of the chroniclers state) and Huntingdon, the lords Grey and Burgayny, sir John Gage constable of the Tower, and certain other gentlemen and their bands. This day also the King's Matie departed from Windsor to Hampton court."

Such is the account of this revolution which the privy council were pleased to place upon record. The course of these important events may be further traced by abundant documentary evidence, the greater part of which has been published, but scattered in various places. The two letters placed first in the annexed list may be regarded as a portion of the series — the first clouds that foreboded the coming storm: —

May 8, 1549. A letter of warning from sir William Paget to the lord Protector, remonstrating on his angry and snappish conduct towards those of the council who differed from him or ventured to express their own sentiments. Transcript in MS. Cotton. Titus F. m.; printed by Strype, Memorials, ii. Appendix GG.

July 7. A second, and very long, letter of expostulation and advice, written by Paget when abroad, upon hearing of the insurrection in the West. Transcript in MS. Cotton. Titus F. m.; another in State Paper office. Domestic Edw. VI. vol. viii. art. 4; printed by Strype, Memorials, ii. App. HH.

Oct. 1 [or 5 ?] a letter, signed by the King and the Protector, summoning all the King's loving subjects with all haste to repair to Hampton Court, "in most defensible array, with harness and weapons, to defend his most royal person, and his most entirely beloved uncle the lord Protector, against whom certain hath attempted a most dangerous conspiracy." It is plainly dated "the furstoi October; "but was received (by a party unnamed) on "the vj of October, of George Dunstalle my lord of Canterbury's servant." In the State Paper office. Domestic Edw. VI. vol. ix. art. 1; printed in Tytler's "England under Edward VI. and Mary," i. 205. Another (transcript) copy in the State Paper office, dated Oct. 5, is addressed "To all Justices of peace, mayers, shrives, balives, constables, hed boroughes, and all other the Kynges Matie officers and subjects."

Oct. 4. A letter from the lords at Hampton court to [his father-in-law] lord Cobham (age 52), deputy of Calais, directing him to select twenty gunners from Calais, and send them to lord Clinton (age 37) (at Boulogne), is signe.d by the Protector, archbishop Cranmer, W. St. John, Wm. Paget, and Wm. Petre (age 44). Original in MS. Harl. 284, fol. 46, printed by Tytler, i. 211.

Oct. 5. Letter of the Protector to the lord privy seal and sir William Herbert (age 48), then in command of the forces lately employed against the "Western rebels, requesting both of them to come to Hampton court, and the latter by post, and his servants to follow. In the State Paper office. Domestic Edw. VI., vol. ix. art. 5; unpublished.

Letter signed by the Protector, the King's signature being prefixed by a stamp, to Sir Harry Seymour, to levy horse and foot. In State Paper office, art. 3, partly printed by Tytler, p. 213.

Oct. 6. Circular letter, of the like form, summoning those to whom it was sent to repair to Hampton court. In State Paper office, printed by Tytler, p. 214.

Letter under the King's signet, dated from Hampton court, addressed to the lord mayor, aldermen, and citizens of London, requiring them to levy men, to watch their gates, and to send one thousand, well harnessed, and with good and convenient weapons, to be at Hampton court that night, or at least on the morrow before noon. This was accompanied by a letter requiring credence to the bearer, Owen Claydon, signed EDWARD and SOMERSET; printed in Poxe's Actes and Monuments, under the head of "The troubles of the duke of Somerset;" and in Hollnshed's Chronicle.

Letter under the King's signet to the lord privy seal and sir William Herbert (age 48), announcing that "suche a henous and grevus conspiracye as never was seen, is attempted against us," &c. Transcript in the State Paper office, art. 9.

Another like letter to the same parties, desiring them to assemble with all expedition as many men, both horse and foot, as they could, and bring them to Hampton court. Transcript in the State Paper office, art. 8.

A third letter to the same, representing the matter more at fuU, and desiring them to repair "with such force as ye have" to Windsor castle. Contemporary transcript in the State Paper office, art. 6; printed by Foxe, Actes and Monuments.

A shorter letter of the same date desiring the same parties to give credence to lord Edward Seymour, the Protector's eldest son, who was the bearer of one or more of the preceding letters. Transcript in the State Paper office, art. 7.

A letter from the Protector to the earl of Shrewsbury, requiring his aid; printed in Lodge's Illustrations of British History, i. 135.

Letter of certain of the council to the lord mayor, &c. denouncing the conduct of the Protector, and requiring that no harness, weapons, or munitions should be sent to him. It is signed by nine councillors — St. John, Northampton (age 37), Warwick (age 45), Arundel (age 37), Southampton, Petre (age 44), North, Gage, and Southwell; printed in Foxe and Holinshed.

Circular letter of the council in London, being a summons to arm in support of their side of the dispute. An original copy, undirected, but having the autograph signatures of R. Ryche, cane, W. Seint John, W. Northt., J. Warwyk (age 45), Arundell (age 37), F. Shrewesbury (age 49), Henry Sussex, T. Cheyne, Edward North, and John Gage: in the State Paper office, art. 10.

Oct. 7. Circular letters from the council to the sheriffs, forbidding the levies ordered to be raised by the Protector. One undirected is preserved in the State Paper office, art. 20, bearing the autograph signatures of the same councillors as above, except Cheyne.

Another letter nearly of the same import, addressed to certain commissioners: signed Kke the last, excepting that it wants the names of the earls of Arundel (age 37) and Shrewsbury, and has that of Edward Mountagu. Ibid. art. 21.

Letters under the signet, signed both by the King and Somerset, directing levies to be made by the bailiffs of Uxbridge, Hillington, and Cullam. Dated "at our castle of Windsor." Original in State Paper office, art. 15.

Letter of the lord Protector, now at Windsor, to the lords in London, declaring his intention, "if you will take no other way but violence, to defend us (as nature and our allegiance doth bind us) to extremity of death, and to put all to God's hand, who giveth the victory as it pleaseth him." He desires an answer either by secretary Petre (age 44), whom he had sent with a message, or, if they would not let him leave them, by the bearer. Original in the State Paper office, art. 16, signed only by the Protector's hand, printed by Tytler, p. 214; also previously pubHshed by Foxe, Holinshed, and Stowe.

The lords of the council in London to those at Windsor, requiring the duke of Somerset to absent himself from his Majesty, and to disperse the force which he had levied. "Consider, my lords, for God's sake, we heartely pray you, that we be almost the hole Councell," viz. the chancellor Eich, lord great master St. John, marquess of Northampton (age 37), earls of Warwick (age 45), Arundel (age 37), Shrewsbury, and Southampton, sir Thomas Cheyne, sir William Petre (age 44), sir Edward North, sir John Gage, sir Ealph Sadleyr, sir Richard Southwell (age 46), and dr. Nicholas Wotton — in all fourteen. Sent by master Hunnings, a clerk of the council. Original in MS. Cotton. Calig. B. vn. fol. 404; printed in Strype's Ecclesiastical Memorials, vol. ii. App. No. 44; Ellis's Letters, I. ii. 166. Draft copy in State Paper office, art. 22.

Letter to the King, signed by the same councillors, with the addition of sir Edward Mountagu. Original in MS. Cotton. Titus, B. ii. fol. 35; three draft copies in State Paper office, Nos. 17, 18, and 20; printed in Burnet's History of the Keformation, Part II. Book I. Eecords, No. 41.

To this day (Oct. 7) probably belongs a document which Mr. Tytler has edited, i. 207, with the date Oct. 4, from the State Paper office, art. 13, being suggestions for a letter to be written by the King strongly justifying the general conduct of the Protector. On the second leaf of the same sheet are various memoranda in the same handwriting, (but not copied by Tytler,) consisting partly of informations and partly of suggestions, apparently intended for the eye of the Protector. Among the latter are these: —

"Also that the Kinges matie wold make a letter unto the Maior, sherifes and aldremen of the citie, and to be delyvered unto the messenger by the Kinges own hande.

"Also lettre unto the lordes wylleng that asm any of them as are his treue honorable [subjects] shuld repayre unto him against his ennemys, or else they sought his blode aswell as his uncle's."

A previous paragraph states, "Also that upon sondaie [Oct. 6] my lorde grete m"^ [St. John] entered into the Tower of London to the Kinges use, and have made mr. Peckeham [sir Edward Peckham, treasurer of the mint,] lieutenant therof, and given him allowance for a table."

"Also the disobedyence of mr. Markham [the lieutenant of the Tower] in his office.

"Also that sir Thomas Darcy is laid in the Tower as a traytor."

Oct. 8. Circular letters to counties, countermanding the duke of Somerset's orders for levies, and charging all men to follow their vocations peaceably. Two copies (undirected), each bearing the autograph signatures of — E. Eyche, cane. W. Seint John, W. Northt., J. Warwyk (age 45), Arundell (age 37), F. Shrewesbury (age 49), Thomas' Southampton, William Petre (age 44), Nicholas Wotton, Edward Mountagu, Jo. Baker, are in the State Paper office, art. 28, 29.

Autograph letter of Harry lord Morley, acknowledging the council's summons, and expressing his readiness "with that pore power I have within one bower's warnyng, so ether to lyve or to dy." Dated from Mark hall. In State Paper office, art. 30.

Reply of the lord privy seal and sir William Herbert (age 48), written from Andover, to the lord Protector: after having received other letters from the lords dated the same day (Oct. 6) as the Protector's letter to them. Contemporary transcript in the State Paper office, printed by Tytler, p. 217: the substance given in Foxe's Actes and Monuments.

Letter from the lords at Windsor (Cranmer, Paget, and Smith) to those in London, in answer to theirs sent the day before. Original in the State Paper office, art. 26, printed by Tytler, p. 223; contemporary transcript in MS. Cotton. Caligula, B. vii. fol. 406; also printed in Stowe's Chronicle, and by Todd, in his Life of Cranmer, 1832, vol, iii. p. 57, Strype and Sharon Turner having considered the archbishop to have been the writer of it.

Letter from the King to the lords in London, entreating them to hold a moderate course; being accompanied by "certain articles exhibited unto us by our said uncle, signed with his own hand." Original in the State Paper office, art. 24; printed by Tytler, p. 220. Draft copy in MS. Cotton. Caligula, B. vn. fol. 405.

"Articles offered by me the lord Protector to the King's majestic, in the presence of his highnes counsail and other his majesties lordes and gentlemen at Wyndesor, to be declared in my behalf to the lordes and the reste of his highnes counsail remayning in London." Original in the State Paper office, marked 24 i. It is signed both at the beginning and end by the King, and at the foot by Somerset: contemporary copy in MS. Cotton. Caligula, B. vn. fol. 407; printed in Burnet, No. 42; Ellis, I. ii. 173.

Private letter from the duke of Somerset to the earl of Warwick (age 45), soliciting reconciliation. Printed in Stowe's Chronicle.

Private letter from secretary Smith to secretary Petre (age 44), earnestly begging him to advocate moderation. Original in the State Paper office, art. 27, printed by Tytler, p. 228. There is also (art. 39) a second letter of Smith to Petre (age 44), which commences with thanking "my lords of Warwicke (age 45), Arondell, and yow, that my brother George had leave to come and visite me." It is written in a tone somewhat less anxious than the other, yet it is difficult to say whether a few hours before or a few hours after.

Sir Philip Hoby (age 44) was the bearer of these five documents. On the same day the council were actively proceeding in their prosecution of the Protector, by issuing a public proclamation. The charges it contained against him are given by Foxe and by Stowe.

Oct. 9. The following anecdote regarding this day is related on the authority of sir Thomas Smith, who remained faithful to the Protector: —

"Sir Phillip Hobby, [having] receaved an answere of the lordes in London by letter, came out of London, and by the way, faininge he had loste his letter out of his poquet, said to his man he would returne for a newe, and willed him to goe to the courte and tell the Counsell all should be well. This excuse was of purpose before devised by the lords, to the end they might winne tyme the better that they might doe their feates. The next daye he came to the courte with a letter to the Kinge from the lordes, and before he delivered said thus —

"Sir Phillip Hobby's saying or mesuage declared to the duke of Somerset, the archebishop of Canterbury, sir W. Pagett mr. comptrolor, sir Thomas Smithe secretary, in the presence of mr. Cecill, sir John Thinne, sir Richard Cotton, and divers others; reported by sir Thomas Smith.'" MS. Harl. 353, fol. 77; printed by Tytler, p. 238.

Letter from the lords in London, to the King. Printed from the Council Book, by Burnet, No. 43. Draft copy in the State Paper office, art. 35.

Reply of the lords in London to those at Windsor, sent by sir Philip Hoby (age 44). Original, with fifteen autograph signatures, in MS. Cotton. Caligula, B. vii. fol. 408; draft copy in State Paper office, art. 37; printed from the former in Ellis's Letters, I. ii. 169; and from the Council book by Burnet, No. 44.

Letter from the lord privy seal and sir William Herbert (age 48) to the lords of the council, dated from Wilton, they having retired farther with their military forces, instead of advancing. Original in State Paper office, art. 31, printed by Tytler, p. 231.

Letter of the lord privy seal and sir W. Herbert (age 48) to the sheriff of Gloucestershire. "The like letters are goone unto other shirrefes, not only to the sherrifes, but also to every justice of peace and gentleman privately." Summoning levies to repair to Wilton, from which town the letter is dated. Contemporary copy in the State Paper office, art. 31 i.

Letters, addressed to the lady Mary and the lady Elizabeth respectively, relating, on the part of the council, the events that had occurred, and denouncing the pride and ambition of the Protector. Original draft in the State Paper office, art. 33; printed by Tytler, p. 248.

Oct. 10. Letter of the archbishop of Canterbury, sir William Paget, and sir Thomas Smith, the lords at Windsor, acknowledging the receipt of the letter brought by sir Philip Hoby (age 44), and professing themselves ready to obey the directions of those in London. Sir Philip Hoby (age 44) returned with their submission. Original in MS. Cotton. Caligula, B. VII. fol. 412; printed in Ellis's Letters, I. ii. 171; also printed, from the Council Book, by Burnet, No. 45.

Letter from the lords in London to sir William Paget, acknowledging a credence sent them by his servant Bedill, and desiring him to give firm credence to the bearer mr. vicechamberlain sir Anthony Wingfield, who was also captain of the guard. In a postscript (to wliicli the council repeated their signatures), it was intimated to Paget that "if yow shall see any good oportunite for this purpose, and if it may be conveniently doon, as by your sei-vant's message it semed," the duke should be apprehended, and also secretary Smith, sir John Thynne, Richard Whalley, and William Cycill, who was then the duke's private secretary and master of his court of requests. Original in MS. Cotton. Caligula, B. vn. fol. 410; printed by Ellis, I. ii. 173.

A Proclamacion, set furth by the body and state of the Kynges majesties privey counsayle, concernyng the devisers, writers and casters abrode of certain vile, slaunderous, and moste trayterous letters, billes, scrowes, and papers, tendyng to the seducement of the Kynges majesties good and lovyng subjectes: persons "whiche do labor now to maintain the trayterous doynges of the duke of Somerset," for that purpose "doon devise the moste vile, false, and traiterous billes, papers, and bokes that ever wer hard of, strawyng the same in the stretes, as well within the citie of London as in diverse tounes and other places in the country, wherein thei do falsely and traitorously travaile to slaunder the Kynges majesties oounsaill, thinkynge thereby to amase and abuse his majesties good subjects, whiche bee in areadinesse to joyne with the said counsaill for delivery of the Kyng our sovereigne lordes most royall persone, remainyng to his greate perill and daunger in the saied duke's custody." A reward of one hundred crounes is offered for the apprehension of every offender. This document, of which the draft is in the State Paper office, art. 40, is extant in an original broadside copy preserved in the collection of the Society of Antiquaries, It is subscribed by the names of all the following councillors:

The Lorde Riche (age 52), Lord Chancellor.

The Lorde Sainct Jhon, Lorde Great Master, and President of the Counsaill.

The Lorde Eussell, Lorde Privey Scale,

The Lorde Marques of Northampton (age 37).

The Erle of Warwicke (age 45), Lorde Greate Chamberlain.

The Erle of Arundell (age 37), Lorde Chamberlain.

The Erle of Shrewsbery,

The Erle of Southampton,

The Lorde Wentworth.

Sir Thomas Cheiney, Knight of the Order, and Threasaurer of the Kynges Maiesties house, and Lord Warden of the Cinque Portes.

Sir Willyam Herbert (age 48), Knight, Master of the Kynges Majesties horses.

Sir Anthony Wingfeld, Knight of the Order, the Kynges Majesties vice Chamberlein, and Capitain of the Garde.

Sir Jhon Gage, Knight of the Order, Constable of the Towre.

Sir Willyam Petre (age 44), Knight, Secretary.

Sir Edward North, Knight.

Sir Edward Montague, Knight, Chief Justice of the Comon Place.

Sir Raufe Sadler (age 42), Knight.

Sir Jhon Baker, Knight.

Sir Edward Wotton (age 59), Knight.

Master doctor Wotton, Deane of Cantorbury.

Sir Richard Southwell (age 46), Knight.

Sir Edmund Peckham (age 54), Knyght, high Threasaurer of all the Kynges Majesties Myntes.

Of the handbills mentioned in this proclamation, two are preserved in the State Paper office: one (art. 11 of the volume so often cited) commencing, "Moste loving and trew Ynglishmen," and signed, "By the Kynges true and loving subject to his poure, Henry A." This is supposed to have been "cast about" in the city of London (see before, p. 233), and it is indorsed. Rede itt and gyve itt furth. (Printed by Tytler, p. 209: the word "conspire" in p. 210, should be read serve?) The other (art. 12) is indorsed, "The copie of the bill sowed emongest the commons" (printed by Tytler, p. 210, where, for "the extortions of gentlemen," read "the extortiouse gentylmen"). There can be little doubt that this was the very bill which the lord privy seal found at Andover; where, he tells the council, "The gentlemen had received like letters from the King's majestie as we had done; and the commons had found bills that were sown abroad, to raise them in the Kinges name and the Protector's quarrel, as by a copy of one of the same bills, which ye shall also receive herewith, your Lordships may more plainly perceive." In his letter written to the duke of Somerset the day before, Russell had directly taxed him with the authorship of these papers: "Your Grace's proclamations and billets sent abroad for the raising of the commons we mishke very much." It is to be considered that the nobility, with great effort and much difficidty, had very recently succeeded in suppressing various insurrections, which they attributed in part to the Protector's former conduct towards the comnion people; they now detected him in acts calculated to provoke a repetition of such troubles. This indiscretion had the effect of arraying them against him, and throwing them into the hands of the more subtle and insidious Warwick (age 45).

Oct. 11. Letter written partly by Wingfield, and partly by Paget, signifying to the council the arrest of the duke, and describing the King's behaviour. It is signed also by Cranmer. Original in the State Paper office, art. 42; printed by Tytler, p. 241.

Minute of the whole discourse of the duke of Somerset's doings, addressed to the English ambassadors abroad. In the State Paper office, art. 41.

A circular letter from the council to counties, announcing the dispersal of the forces assembled by the duke of Somerset, and staying any further musters. Contemporary copy in MS. Cotton. Titus, B, ir. fol. 30.

Another circular letter announcing the duke's arrest, and directing the parties addressed "to staye your nombres at home, without taking eny further traveile for this matter." One with the autograph signatures of eleven councillors in State Paper office, art. 44.

Oct. 14. Letter of the council to the lieutenant of the Tower, that he sujBfer no one to speak with the duke of Somerset or any other prisoner. Ibid. art. 45.

Articles objected to the duke of Somerset. These have never been edited accurately. The most perfect printed copy is that in Stowe's Chronicle (but in article 12 for Iniunction read Commission; in article 26 the 6 instead of "9 of October," and there are other errors.) In Foxe's Actes and Monuments, the 29 articles are reduced to 20, by the omission of the 10th, 20th, 21st, 24th, 25th, 26th, 27th, 28th, and 29th. Hohnshed follows Foxe. Hay ward's copy (Life and Eeign of King Edward VI.) is imperfect, by the omission of the 28th article, as well as by a modernization of the language throughout; and Burnet copies Hayward. Strype in his Life of Cramner, p. 265, has pointed out the significance of the 10th article, which charged the Protector with having laid the blame of the insurrections on the nobility; and it is to be regretted that Strype did not print the draft copy which he had seen. It was, as he imagined, in the handwriting of bishop Gardiner: but this was a very bold surmise. Strype is in error in attributing these articles to the time of the duke's "second apprehension and trial." There is an old transcript of the whole 29 articles in MS. Addit. Brit. Mus. 9069; which is worth consulting if no other can be recovered.

Dec. 23. The duke of Somerset's submission, having read and considered the said 29 articles. Printed in Stowe's Chronicle.

Feb. 2. His second submission, dated from the Tower. Also in Stowe.

Feb. 6. His recognizance in 1000/. to reside at the King's manor of Sheen or his own house at Syon, without passing the limit of four miles from either house. In the Eegister of the Privy Council.

The 6 of February the duke of Somerset was delivered out of the Tower, and that night he supped at sir John Yorke's, one of the sheriffes of London," (Stowe,) where, it appears from the council book, the lords assembled to welcome him.

Feb. 16. A pardon to the duke by letters patent under this date is printed in Rymer, Foedera, &c. xv. 205.

Note 1a. Of the "four principal gentlemen of his Highness' privy chambre" (the knights) it was also ordered that "two at the least should be continually attendants, .. to whom was advanced, above their accustomed fee of L li. by the yeare, the yearly fee of L li. more, in consideration of the singular care and travail that they should have about his Majesties person." (Council Book.) See further arrangements under the 20th April, 1550, hereafter.

Diary of Edward VI. Around 14 Oct 1549. Th' erle of Arrundel1 committed to his house for certaine crimes of suspicion agaiast him, as pluking downe of boltes and lokkes at Westmuster, geving of my stuff away, et [?]. and put to fine of 12,000 pound, to be paide a 1,000 pound yerely; of wich he was after releasid1a

Note 1. There is a mystery hitherto unexplained about this disgrace of the earl of Arundel (age 37). The frivolous charges above recorded were fastened upon a presumed mal-administration of his office of chamberlain of the household: but political causes were doubtless at work. I have found no document relative to his "committal to his house;" but his last attendance at a council as lord chamberlain vras on the 11th Jan. 1549-50. On the 21st Feb. "the lord of Arundell (age 37) appearing before the lord treasurer [Wiltshire], lord great chamberlayne [Northampton (age 37)], lord Wentworth, and mr. secretary Wootton, declaring to him that, touching his offences, the Kinges majtie referred to his choyce whether he would stand to the tryall of the law, or submit himselfe to such fine as his Majtie by the advice of the lords would set upon him, the same earle made answer that he would submit himselfe to suche order by fine as his Highness would impose and lay upon him; whereupon it was declared unto him that he should forgoe th' office of the lord chamberlayne and the other office about his Majtie [i.e. as one of the six lords attendant, see p. 242], the stewardship of Petworth, and the master of the games there, and his warrant that he had for the mynt, and pay xij. M' li. fyne, to be paid by M' li. by the year." (Council Book.) The lord Wentworth was his successor as lord chamberlain. On the 8th of July the council directed "a letter to th' erle of Arundell (age 37) to repaire into Sussex, there to remaigne till Mighelmas, and to be in areadiness to serve whensoever he shoulde be called upon by the Kinges matie lievetenaunte or his deputie." There are subsequent entries in the council book showing that the earl for some time stoutly resisted this banishment, and finally came to a compromise upon the point. But we shall find him again in trouble at the time of the duke of Somerset's second prosecution.

It appears that the same suspicions affected several of the Romanist party, including sir Richard Southwell (age 46) and sir Thomas Arundel, the earl's brother-in-law. Bishop Pouet, in his "Short Treatise of Politic Power," published in 1556, thus refers to this crisis: "When Wriothesly, Arundel [i.e. sir Thomas], and Southwel conspired with the ambitious and subtil Alcibiades of England the earl of Warwic, after duke of Northumberland, to pull the good duke of Somerset, King Edward's uncle and Protector, out of his authority, and by forging a great many false letters and lies to make the Protector hated brought to pass Warwic's purpose, who then for a while but they three? Wriothesly that before was banished the court, is lodged, with his wife and son, next the King: every man repaireth to Wriothesly, honoureth Wriothesly, saith unto Wriothesly, as the Assyrians did to Haman, and all things be done by his advice, and who but Wriothesly?

Arundel (age 37) is promised to be next to the King, groom of his stoole, or comptroller of his house, at the least. Southwel, for his whisking and double diligence, must be a great counsellor in any wise. But what was the end? The earl, as crafty as the best, seeing that his desire should not take place if these men might have that they hoped for, so handleth the matter, that Wriothesly is fain in the night to get him out of the court to his own house, where, upon narrow examination, fearing lest he should come to some open .shameful end, he poisoned himself, or pined away for thought. [He was not present at a council after the 18th Oct. 1549. Having been confined to his house, he obtained leave, on the 28th June, being then very sick, to repair to country air in Hampshire, where he died July 31, 1550.] Southwel is committed to the Fleet; where, being examined, he confessed enough to be hanged for, and had gone very near it, had not his examiners, upon hope of his amendment, — breaking out of his eye, but not out of his heart, — obtained the earl's favour. And at th' erle's sute Arundel hathe his head with the axe divided from the shoulders." [Feb. 26, 1551-2.] This last passage, when quoted by Strype (Eccles. Memorials, ii. 307), was inexcusably interpolated, in order to make it apply to the earl of Arundel, who was supposed by that historian to be the person of whom Ponet spoke. Strype has in this respect misled Carte (iii. 247).

Note 1a. See hereafter, under the 6th Jan. 1550-1.

Annales of England by John Stow. 02 Feb 1550. On Candlemas day, William L. Saint-John earle of Wiltshire (age 67), L. great master, and president of the Counsell, was made Lord Treasurer: John Dudley earle of Warwike (age 46), lord great chamberlaine, was made lorde great master; William Parre Marques of Northhampton (age 38), was made Lorde great Chamberlaine: Lord Wentworth (age 49) was made L. chamberlaine of houshold: Sir Anthony Wingfield (age 63) captaine of the guard, was made comptroller of the kings house; and Thomas Darcy (age 43) knight, was made viz chamberlaine, and captaine of the Guard: and the earle of Arundel late lord Chamberlaine, with the Earle of Southampton (age 44), were put of the counsell, and commanded to heepe their houses in London.

The submission of the D. of Somerset (age 50) prisoner in the tower, made the 2, of Febuary.

Diary of Edward VI. 02 Feb 1550. Sir Anthony Wingfeld (age 63), before visechamberlaine, made controller. Sir Thomas Darcy (age 43) made visechamberlaine.3

Note 3. "On Candlemas day, [Feb. 2] William lord Saint John (age 67) earl of Wiltshire, lord great master, president of the councell, was made Lord Treasurer; John Dudley (age 46) earl of Warwich, lord great chamberlain, was made Lord Great Master; William Parre (age 38), marques of Northampton, was made Lord Great Chamberlain; lord Wentworth was made Lord Cham

Diary of Edward VI. 21 Apr 1550. The marquis du Means (age 31), the duc d'Anguien, and the constable's sone (deceased) arrived at Dover.2

Note 2. On the 17th letters had been addressed "to the [his father-in-law] lord Cobham (age 53) in answer to his, that the coming over of the French hostages remaining at Callays be referred to themselves to come or tarry. If they come before the receipt of the cc m1 crownes, that then the lords appoint some to have the charge of them; if after, that then they may come at theire libertie; howbeit that in both cases they be provided of good shipps and of some of good behaviour to conduct, and that the lords of the councell be advertised beforehand of their comming, to th'end order may be given in that behalf accordingly."

"April XX., A letter to sir Thomas Cheyney knight, lord wardeigne of the Cinque Ports, to repaire to Dover, there to meet iij of the French hostaiges, that is to weete mounsr. Denghuyen, le marques du Mayne, and mounsr. Montemorencye eldest son to the conestable of France, who for the French parte, in lieu of the duke of Suffolk, th'erle of Hertford, and the lorde Matraverse with others for th'Englishe part, are delivered for performance of the covenants mentioned in the treatie of this last peace concluded at Boloigne: which iij hostaiges shall retoume home upon the retourne of all our hostaiges laied for the delivery of Boloigne, the first payment being made by the French. For the suretie of whose second payment iij other hostaiges, mounsr. Tremoyle (age 29), mounsr. vidame de Chartiers, and mounsr. Hanniball D'oy th'admirall's only sonne, shall remayne here.

"And forasmuche as these iij French hostaiges are of the principall nobihtie of France, it was also agreed that the lorde marques of Northampton (age 38) high chamberlain of England, with an honorable companie, that is to wete, th'erle of Rutland (age 23), the lorde Lisle, the lorde Russell, the lord Graye, the lord William Howarde, the lord Braye, sir Anthony SeUenger, sir William Stafforde, sir John Cuttes, sir Peter Mewtas, and certain other gentlemen, shulde encounter them by the waye between Dover and London, to conduct them the more honorablie according to their estates." (Council Book.)

Diary of Edward VI. 23 Apr 1550. Mons. Trimouille and the vicedam of Chartres and mons. Henaudiere cam to the court, and saw the ordre of the garter1 and the knightes with the souverain receive the communion.

Note 1. "At a chaptre holden at Grenwiche on St. George's daye at eveninge, being the xxiijd day of Aprille, and likewise the next day by the soreraigne of the noble order of the Garter, then present with the Soveraigne the duke of Somerset, the marques of Dorsett (age 33), the marques of Northampton (age 38), th'erle of Bedford, th'erle of Wiltishere, the lord Pagett, sir Thomas Chenye, sir John Gage, sir Anthony Wingfelde, and sir Anthony Sentleger." See further in Anstis, Register of the Order of the Garter, ii. 445.

Diary of Edward VI. 07 May 1550. The councel drue a boke for every shier, who shuld be lieutenants in them, and who shuld tary with me;2 but the lieutenants wer appointed to tary till Chastillon's, Sarcy, and Bouchetel's coming, and then to depart.

Note 2. At this period lords lieutenant were only incidentally appointed, either on occasion of insurrections (as before in p. 228, &c.) or when the King was going a journey or progress, as was now the case. The appointments made at the present date are not stated in the Council Book; but subsequent entries disclose who the noblemen were. The earl of Warwick took care that the duke of Somerset should be away from the King: and he was stationed at Reading, as lieutenant of Oxfordshire and some adjoining counties (see hereafter, under July 26). After Michaelmas the lords were recalled to court. In the minutes of the council held at Oatlands [Map] on the 24th Sept. is mention of "a letter for the revocation of the duke of Somerset dated the 6th Septembre;" and "a letter for revocation of my lord wardein to repair to the court at his libertie." The next day, "letters of revocation to the lord marquess of Northampton (age 38) touching his lieutenantship; and the like to the lord chancellour (age 53), th'erle of Oxford, and sir Thomas Darcie."

Diary of Edward VI. 15 May 1550. It was apointed that al the light horsmen of Bolein [Boulogne] and the men of armes shuld be paid their wages, and be led by the lord marquis of Northampton (age 38), capitain of the pensionaries, and al the gard of Bolein [Boulogne] under the lord admiral. Also that the chiefest capitaines shuld be sent, with 600 with them, to the strenghthening of the frontieres of Scoteland.

The comprehension of peax with Scoteland1 was accepted so fare as the league went, and sealed with the (unfinished).

Note 1. The act of comprehension of Scotland in the peace with France, dated at Edinburgh 13 kal. Maii 1555, and sealed with the great seal of Scotland, is printed in Rymer's Foedera, &c. xv. 255.

Visit of the French Ambassadors

Diary of Edward VI. 25 May 1550. The embassadours came to the court, where thei saw me take the oth for th'acceptation of the treaty1, and afterward dined with me; and after diner saw a pastime of tenne against tenne at the ring, wherof on th'on(e) sid(e) were the duke of Sowthfolk, the vice-dam, the lord Lisle (age 23), and seven other gentlemen, appareled in yelow; on the other, the lord Stra(nge), mons. Henadoy, and yeight other, in blew.

Note 1. "The next day, being Whitsunday, assigned for the taking of the oath and ratification, we, the marquesses of Dorset (age 33) and Northampton (age 38), the lord privy seal, and lord Paget, went again with barges to conduct them to the court, which then, what with our own nation and theirs, was very much replenished. The King's matie, after the communion and service in the chapel beneath, in the presence of mons. Chastillon, his colleagues, and us all of his highness' privy council, besides others standers-by, did read the oath and subscribe the same, with the circumstances thereto belonging; and that day the French commissioners, with their ambassador here resident, dined with the King, and were of his Matie most friendly entertained." (Narrative addressed to sir John Mason (age 47), as before.)

Diary of Edward VI. 28 May 1550. The same went to see Hampton court [Map], where thei did hunt4, and the same night retourne to Durasme place.

Note 4. "Wednesday, they were conveyed by me, the marquess of Northampton (age 38), to Hampton court, where they dined, hunted, and that night returned." (Ibid.)

Diary of Edward VI. 08 Jun 1550. Also the vicedam (age 28)1 made a great souper to the duke of Somerset (age 50) and the marquis of Northampton (age 38), with divers masques and other conceites.

Note 1. The vidame of Chartres (age 28) seems to have signalised himself among the French visitors by his hospitality. On the 4th of June the council sent "a letter to the customers of London to suffer the visdame to take and lande xliij tonnes of Gascon wine for his own provision without oustome-paying." Again on the 7th Jan. 1550-1, xxv or xxvj tonne.

Diary of Edward VI. 09 Jun 1550. The duke of Somerset (age 50), marquis Northampton (age 38), lord tresorer (age 67) (St. John, the earl of) Bedford, and the secretary Petre (age 45), went to the bishope of Winchester (age 67)2, to know to what he wold stike. He mad(e) answer that he wold obey, and set furth al thinges set furth by me and my parliement; and if he were troubled in conscience he wold revele it to the counsel, and not reason openly against it.3

Note 2. Gardiner (age 67) was now a prisoner in the Tower. The King paid great attention to the course of the proceedings directed by the council against the bishop, in relation to which several passages will occur in the succeeding pages. Foxe, in the first edition of his Actes and Monuments, inserted the record of these proceedings at very great length; which in subsequent editions was materially abridged, but in the last, by the Rev. S. E. Cattley, it is restored to its place, and occupies pp. 24-267 of the sixth volume. The depositions of many of the principal nobility and courtiers who had been present at Gardiner's (age 67) trial sermon (already noticed in p. 59), contain many remarkable statements and biographical particulars.

Note 3. See the report made by the duke of Somerset and the rest, in Foxe, (edit. Cattley,) iv. 79, and Gardiner's own more particular account of this conference at p. 113.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 02 Nov 1551. The ij day of November cam to Londun from Hamton courtte [Map] and landyd at Benard castyll [Map] the old Qwyne of Schottes (age 35), and cam rydyng to the bysshope('s) palles at Powlles with many lordes, the duke of Suffoke (age 34), my lord marqwes of Northamptun (age 39), my lord of Warwyke (age 24), the lord Welebe (age 34), my lord Haward (age 41), my lord Rosselle (age 66), lord Bray, and dyvers mo lords and knyghtes and gentyllmen, and then cam the Qwyne of Schottes and alle owre lades and her gentyll women and owre gentyll women to the nomber of a C. and ther was sent her mony grett gyftes by the mayre and aldermen, as beyffes, mottuns, velles, swines, bred, wylld ffulle, wyne, bere, spysys, and alle thyngs, and qwaylles, sturgeon, wod and colles, and samons, by dyver men.

Note. Visit of the old queen of Scots. The queen dowager of Scotland (Mary of Guise) embarked at Edinburgh to visit her daughter in France, Sept. 7, 1550. On her return she landed at Portsmouth on the 2d Nov. 1551. (Lettres de Marie Stuart, edited by the Prince Alexandre Labanoff, 8vo. 1844, vol. i. 5.) The privy council addressed, "25 Sept. 1551. A Letter to the lord chauncelor requiring him to passe under the greate seal a saulf-conduct graunted by the kinges majestie to the dowager of Scotlande, and to retayne with him for a record the originall thereof sent him signed by his highnes." The saulf-conduct itself is printed in Rymer's Collection, xv. 290: it bears an earlier date, viz. 17 Sept. Some subsequent minutes of the Privy Council relating to preparations for this visit are given by Strype. There are many particulars of it in king Edward's Diary, and a narrative of the queen's reception is in MS. Harl. 290, art. 2.

Note. Funeral of sir Michael Lyster. The name of the lord chief justice of the king's bench was sir Richard Lyster, but that of his eldest son, here recorded, was sir Michael. See the memoir on the monument of sir Richard Lyster at St. Michael's church, Southampton, by Sir F. Madden, in the Winchester volume of the Archæological Institute. There is a portrait of a lady Lyster among the Holbein Heads: it may be doubtful to which lady of the name it belongs (see the pedigree given by Sir F. Madden); but Mr. Lodge, in his accompanying memoir, supposed it to be that of lady Mary, daughter of the earl of Southampton, wife of sir Richard, grandson of the chief justice. (See her funeral afterwards, p. 273.)

Diary of Edward VI. 01 Dec 1551. He answered he did not entend to raise London, [...] His assembling of men was but for his owne defence. He did not determin to kill the duke of Northumberland (age 47), the marquis (age 39), etc., but spake of it and determined after the contrary; and yet seamid to confess he went about there death. The lordis went togither. The duke of Northumberland (age 47) wold not agree that any searching of his death shuld bee treason. So the lordis acquited him of high treason, and condemned him of treason feloniouse, and so he was adjuged to be hangid. He gave thankis to the lordis for there open trial, and cried mercy of the duke of Northumberland (age 47), the marquis of Northampton (age 39), and th'erle of Penbroke (age 50) for his ill meaning against them, and made suet for his life, wife and children, servauntes and dettes, and so departed without the ax of the Toure. The peple, knowing not the matter, shouted hauf a douzen times, so loud that frome the halle dore it was hard at Chairing crosse plainly, and rumours went that he was quitte of all.

Wriothesley's Chronicle 1551. 01 Dec 1551. The first daye of December, beinge Tuesday, the Duke of Somersett (age 51) was had from the Tower of London [Map] by water and shott London bridge at v of the clocke in the morninge, and so went to Westminster, where was made ready a great scaffold in Westminster Hall [Map], and there the sayd Duke appeared, afore the Lordes and Peeres of the Realme, the Lord William Pawlet (age 68), Marques of Winchester and Lord High Treasurer of England, that daye sittinge under the cloath of estate as High Stuard of England; the indytement of the sayd duke beinge read, he was imedyately arraigned on the same for felony and treason, and after tryed by his peeres the nobles there presenta, which did quitt him of the treason but found him guilty of the felonyb, whereupon after their verdite giuen he had iudgment giuen to be had [thence to] the place [he came from] and from thence to the place of execution, there to be hanged till he were dead; but the people in the hall, supposinge that he had bene clerely quitt, when they see the axe of the Tower put downe, made such a shryke and castinge up of caps, that it was hard into the Longe Acre beyonde Charinge Crosse, and allso made the Lordes astonyed, and word likewise sent to London, which the people reioysed at; and about v of the clocke at night the sayd Duke landed at the Crane in the Vintre, and so [was] had thorough Can[dle]wyke Streete to the Tower, the people cryinge God saue him all the way as he wentj thinkinge that he had clerely bene quitt, but they were deceyued, but hoopinge he should haue the Kinges pardon.

Note a. His judges were Northumberland (age 47), Northampton (age 39), Pembroke (age 50), and the other leading members of the government, - the very parties against whom he was said to have conspired, - and the witnesses against him were not produced, bnt only their written depositions read, as was frequently the custom in those days.

Note b. For having designed the killing of the Duke of Northumberland (age 47) and the others, although on consideration he had determined to abandon it; "yet," adds Edward VI. in his Journal, "he seemed to confess he went about their death."

Henry Machyn's Diary. 07 Dec 1551. The vij day of Desember at Hyd parke [Map] a gret muster of men of armes: the furst the kynges trumpeters; [then] my lord Bray, in gylt harnes, captayn of the pe[nsioners, and a] gret baner of the kynges armes; and then cam the pensyoners in caumplet harnes, and gret hars, in [white and] blake, v and v a ranke, and after them cam the[ir servants, in number] a C. with grett harse, and harnes in whyt and blake, [and speres]. The secound my lord Tresorer, a C. men of arms, broderyd cott, red and whyt, and ther spers, ys [standard] a faucon of gold. The iij was [the] duke of Northumberland (age 47), with [C. men] of armes in welvet in-brodery, trumpeters, [his standard] a lyon crounyd gold. The iiij my lord marqws Northamtun (age 39) a C. men of armes, in yelow and [black], spers and pensels and trumpeters. The yerlle of Bedford (age 66) a C. men of armes and [in] red and whyt, ys standard a gott whyt, and a trumpeter, and pensels and spers, cotes red and whyt and blake. The yerle of Rottland (age 25) a C. men of armes in yelow and bluw; ys standard a pekoke, and pensels. The yerle of Huntyntun (age 37) men of armes 1. in bluw, and speres, and standard, and pensels. The yerle of Penbroke (age 50) C. men of armes. My [his father-in-law] lord Cobam (age 54) 1. men of armes, in blak and whyt. My lord Chamburlayne l. men of armes, cote(s) of whyt [and] red, and speres cotes in-brodere, and pensels. M. tresorer Cheyney a C. men of armes, all blake, and speres and pensells, by-syd costerells and geton.... and armes a-pone the blake at ... pryche the Skott of saynt Peters in Cornhyll ... the morow dyd pryche doythur Bartelett a godly ... at the berehyng was the masters and compeny of the ...

Note. Muster in Hyde Park. This is described nearly in the same terms in the King's diary. Burnet has misprinted the date Dec. 4 instead of 7.

Note. The Scot of St. Peter's in Cornhill. This preacher has been before mentioned in p. 6 as "the Skott the curett" of St. Peter's. Whether he was the same as Richardson, whose popularity as a preacher is mentioned in p. 91, has not been ascertained.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 14 May 1552. The xiiij day of May my lord marqwes [of Northampton's] (age 40) men of armes did muster in More felds [Map] ... compeny and grett horssys, and a trompett blow ... nombur of a C. men of armes and welle h[arnessed.]

Henry Machyn's Diary. 16 May 1552. [The vj, the lord] Grett Chamburlayn, [marqwes of Northampton (age 40); his] standard yelow and blakke, a mayden hed [crowned gold; his coats] yelow welvet the alffe ys men, and th'odur [half cloth] and fott men in yelow welvet, and pensels.

Chronicle of Queen Jane and Two Years of Queen Mary 1553. 13 Jul 1553. After the dyner the duke (age 49) went into the quene (age 17), wher his comyssion was by that tyme sealed for his liefetenantship of the armye, and ther he tooke his leave of hir; and so dyd certayn other lordes also. Then, as the duke cam thoroughe the counsayle chamber, he tooke his leave of the erle of Arundell (age 41), who praied God be with his grace; saying he was very sory yt was not his chaunce to go with him and beare him companye, in whose presence he coulde fynde in his harte to spende his bloode, even at his foote. Then my lorde of Arundell (age 41) tooke also my lordes boy Thomas Lovell (age 27) by the hande, and saide, "Farewell, gentyll Thomas (age 27), with all my harte." Then the duke cam downe, and the lorde marques (age 41),a my lorde Grey, with diverse other, and went out of the Tower and tooke their boote and went to Dyrrame Place or Whithall, wher that night they musteryd their company in names, and the next day in the morning the duke departed, to the nomber of vj c men or theraboutes. And as they went thoroughe Shordyshe [Map], saieth the duke to one that rid by him,b "The people precec to se us, but not one sayeth God spede us."

Note a. The marquess of Northampton (age 41).

Note b. Stowe has altered this to the lord Grey.

Note c. presse in Stowe.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 26 Jul 1553. The xxvj day of July cam unto the Towre my lord marqwes of Northamton (age 41), by and my lord Robart Dudley (age 21), and the bysshop of London (age 53), and ser Recherd Corbett; and after cam in to the Towre my lord cheyffe justes Chamley (age 58), the lord Montyguw (age 68), at v of the cloke at nyght.

Note. The lord Montague. The person intended by this designation was sir Edward Montague, who was lord chief justice of the common pleas, as sir Roger Cholmley was of the king's bench. The new queen appointed sir Richard Morgan and sir Thomas Bromley in their places.

Trial and Execution of Lady Jane Grey's Supporters

Henry Machyn's Diary. 17 Aug 1553. The xvij day of August was mad a grett skaffold in Westmynster hall agaynst the morow, for the duke of Northumberland (age 49) commyng to be raynyd, with odur, as the marqwes of Northamton (age 41) and the yerle of Warwyke (age 26).

Henry Machyn's Diary. 18 Aug 1553. The xviij day of August was reynyd at Westmynster hall the marqwes of Northamton (age 41), and the duke (age 49), and th'erle of Warwyke (age 26), and so they wher condemnyd to be had to the place that thay cam fro, and from thens to be drane thrugh London onto Tyburne [Map], and ther to be hangyd, and then to be cott downe, and ther bowells to be brentt, and ther heds to be sett on London bryge and odur [places.]

On 18 Aug 1553 William Parr 1st Marquess Northampton (age 41) was degraded 312th Knight of the Garter for having supported the cause of Jane "Nine Days Queen" Grey I Queen England and Ireland (age 17) for which he had been attainted, convicted of treason and sentenced to death. Marquess Northampton, Earl Essex forfeit. He was released after a few months following the accession of Elizabeth I.

Execution of Lady Jane Grey and her Faction

Chronicle of Queen Jane and Two Years of Queen Mary Feb 1554. 12 Feb 1554. The monday, being the xij th of Februarie, about ten of the clocke, ther went out of the Tower to the scaffolde on Tower hill, the lorde Guilforde Dudley (age 19), sone to the late duke of Northumberland, husbande to the lady Jane Grey (age 18), daughter to the duke of Suffolke (age 37), who at his going out tooke by the hande sir Anthony Browne (age 25), maister John Throgmorton (age 30), and many other gentyllmen, praying them to praie for him; and without the bullwarke Offeleya the sheryve receyved him and brought him to the scaffolde, where, after a small declaration, having no gostlye fatherb with him, he kneeled downe and said his praiers; then holding upp his eyes and handes to God many tymesc; and at last, after he had desyred the people to pray for him, he laide himselfe along, and his hedd upon the block, which was at one stroke of the axe taken from him.

Note, the lorde marques (age 42)d stode upon the Devyl's towre, and sawe the executyon. His carcas throwne into a carre, and his hed in a cloth, he was brought into the chappell [Map] within the Tower, wher the ladye Jane (age 18), whose lodging was in Partrige's house, dyd see his ded carcase taken out of the cart, aswell as she dyd see him before on lyve going to his deathe, a sight to hir no lessee then deathf.

Note a. Sir Thomas Offley; see note in Machyn's Diary, p. 353.

Note b. He had probably refused the attendance of a Roman Catholic priest, and was not allowed one of his own choice.

Note c. Misread by Stowe with teares.

Note d. The marquess of Northampton (age 42).

Note e. no lesse in MS., not worse as given by Stowe and Holinshed.

Note f. "Great pitie was it for the casting awaye of that fayre Ladye, whome nature had not onely so bewtified, but God also had endewed with singuler gyftes and graces, so that she ignorantly receaved that which other wittingly devised and offred unto her.

"And in like manner that comely, vertuous, and goodly gentleman the lorde Gylford Duddeley most innocently was executed, whom God had endowed with suche vertues, that even those that never before the tyme of his execution saw hym, dyd with lamentable teares bewayle his death." Grafton's Abridgment, 1563.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 24 Mar 1554. The xxiiij day of Marche was delevered owt of the Towre [Map] and had the quen('s) (age 38) pardon the lord marques of Northamtun (age 42), my lord [his father-in-law] Cobham (age 57), and ij of ys sunes, and dyvers odur mo.

On 29 Sep 1558 [his father-in-law] George Brooke 9th Baron Cobham (age 61) died. His son [his brother-in-law] William Brooke 10th Baron Cobham (age 30) succeeded 10th Baron Cobham. Dorothy Neville Baroness Cobham (age 33) by marriage Baroness Cobham.

In 1559 William Parr 1st Marquess Northampton (age 47) was restored 1st Marquess Northampton, 1st Earl Essex.

1559 Creation of Garter Knights

Henry Machyn's Diary. 23 Apr 1559. [The xxiij day of April, being saint George's day, the Queen (age 25) went about the hall, and all the knights of the] Garter that [went singing in proces]syon, and a-bowt the cowrt; the sam day at after [noon were] knyghtes electyd of the Garter the duke of Norfok (age 23), the marques of Northamtun (age 47) [Note. Restored since he had been degraded in 1553], the erle of Rutland (age 32), and my lord Robard Dudley (age 26), the master of the quen('s) horse.

On 23 Apr 1559 Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (age 25) created Garter Knights:

340th Thomas Howard 4th Duke of Norfolk (age 23).

341st Henry Manners 2nd Earl of Rutland (age 32).

342nd Robert Dudley 1st Earl of Leicester (age 26).

William Parr 1st Marquess Northampton (age 47) was restored 312th. He had been degraded in 1553.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 06 Jun 1559. [The vj day of June saint George's feast was kept at Windsor [Map];] the yerle of Pembroke (age 58) was the [Queen's substitute,] lord Montycutt (age 30) and my lord of ....; ther was stallyd at that tyme the duke of [Norfolk] (age 23), my lord marques of Northamtun (age 47), and the yerle of [Rutland] (age 32), and my lord Robart Dudley (age 26) the master of the quen('s) horse, nuw mad knyghtes of the Garter, and ther was gret [feasting] ther, and ther be-gane the comunion that day and Englys.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 15 May 1559. The xv day of May dyd pryche at Powlles [cross] [Map] master Gryndalle (age 40), and ther was the quens consell, the duke of Norfoke (age 23), my lord keper of the seylle, and my lord of Arundell (age 47), my lord treysorer (age 76), my lord marques of Northamtun (age 47), my lord admerall (age 49), my lord of Sussex (age 34), my lord of Westmorland (age 34), my lord of Rutland (age 32), and mony mo lordes and knyghtes, my lord mare (age 50) and the althermen; and after sermon done they whent to my lord mayre (age 50) to dener, and my lord Russell (age 32).

Henry Machyn's Diary. 05 Oct 1559. [The] v day of October cam to [London by Ald]gatt the prynse of Sweythen (age 25), and [so to Leadenhall], and done [down] Gracyous-strett [Map] corner in a howse stod [the lord] marques of Northamtun (age 47) and my lord Ambros Dudley (age 29) [and other gentlemen and] lades; and my lord of Oxford (age 43) browth (him) from Col[chester] [Map] and my lord Robart Dudley (age 27), the master of the quen('s) horse; and trumpettes bloyng in dyvers places; and thay had [a great] nombur of gentyllmen ryd with cheynes a-for them, and after them a ij C [200] of yomen rydyng, and so rydyng over the bryge unto the bysshope of Wynchastur plasse [Map], for [it] was rychely hangyd with ryche cloth of arres, wrought with gold and sylver and sylke, and ther he remanyth.

On 25 Feb 1560 [his brother-in-law] William Brooke 10th Baron Cobham (age 32) and Frances Newton Baroness Cobham (age 21) were married at Whitehall Palace [Map]. She by marriage Baroness Cobham. He a great x 5 grandson of King Edward III of England.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 28 Apr 1560. The sam day at after-none att the court was grett justes, my lord of Sussex (age 35) and my lord Robartt Dudley (age 27) and ij more a-gaynst the yerle of Northumberland (age 32) and my lord Ambrose Dudley (age 30) and my lord of Hunsdon (age 34) and master Cornewalles and (blank): and ther was mony stayffes broken; and ther stod in the standyng as juges my lord markes of Northamtun (age 48), my lord of Ruttland (age 33), and my lord of Penbroke (age 59), and my lord admerall (age 50) and the Frenche inbassadur, and master Garter (age 50) and master Norey (age 50) dyd wrytt wome [whom] dyd rune; and by chanse of the brykyng of a stayff a pesse fluw up wher the juges sitt and hyt my lord of Penbroke (age 59) (blank) and ther rod the trumpeters and the haroldes of armes.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 18 Feb 1561. The iij yere of quen Elezabeth (age 27) the xviij day of [February] was sant Gorge fest; how all the knyghtes of the garter stod that day in order, the furst

On the Quen['s side.]

The Quen('s) grace (age 27).

The kyng Phelype (age 33).

The constabulle of France (age 67).

The yerle of Arundell (age 48).

The yerle of Darbe (age 51).

The duke of Northfoke (age 24).

The lord Pagett (age 55).

The yerle of Westmerland (age 36).

The lord chamburlayn, Haward (age 51).

The yerle of Shrowsbere (age 33)

The lord Montyguw-Browne (age 32).

The lord Gray of Wyltun (age 52).

On the Emperowre('s) syd.

The emperowre Ferna[ndo.] (age 57)

The prynse of Pyamont (age 32).

The duke Vanholtt (age 35).

The markes of Wynchester, tresorer (age 78).

The yerle of Penbroke (age 60).

The lord admerall Clynton (age 49).

The maques of Northamtun-Pare (age 49).

The yerle of Rutland-Rosse (age 34).

The yerle of Sussex (age 36).

The lord of Lugborow (age 40).

The lord Robart Dudley (age 28).

The lord of Hunsdon-Care (age 34).

Henry Machyn's Diary. 10 Jun 1561. [The x day of July the Queen (age 27) came by water] unto the Towre of London [Map] by x [of the clock, until] v at nyght, and whent and sa(w) all her my[nts; and they gave the] Quen serten pesses of gold, and gayff the [lord] of Hunsdon (age 35) had on, and my lord marques of [Northampton,] (age 49) and her grace whent owt of the yron gatt [over] Towre hyll [Map] unto Algatt chyrche, and so down Hondyche [Map] [to the] Spyttyll, and so downe Hoge lane, and so over the feldes to the Charter howse my lord North('s) (age 65) plase, with trumpetes and the penssyonars and the haroldes of armes and the servantes, and then cam gentyllmen rydyng, and after lordes, and then [the] lord of Hunsdon (age 35) and bare the sword a-for the quen, and then cam [ladies] rydyng; and the feldes full of pepull, gret nombur [as ever was] sene; and ther tared tylle Monday.

1562 News Years Day Gift Giving

On 01 Jan 1562 the New Years Gift Giving was held. Those who gave gifts provide an interesting who's who of the Elizabethan Court soon after Elizabeth I's Coronation. Queen Elizabeth (age 28) was present since a number are described as "With the Qene her Majestie."

For 'dimy' read 'demi' ie half-sovereigns.

Neweeyeur's Gyftes gevon to the Quene her Majestie by those Parsons whose Names hereafter ensue, the first of January, the Yere above wrytten.

By the Lady Margaret Strainge (age 22), a little round mounte of golde to conteyne a pomaunder in it. With the Qene her Majestie. Note. Lady Margaret Strange married Henry Stanley Lord Strange (age 30) on 07 Feb 1555. In 1561 he had not succeeded to Earldom of Derby and was known by the courtesy title Lord Strange. She is listed first since she was one of the few remaining direct descendants of Henry VII, being a great-granddaughter by his daughter Mary Tudor. Margaret Clifford (age 22) was first in line to succeed in 1568 but died in 1596 before Elizabeth I.

Dukes, Marquises and Earls.

By the Duke of Norfolke (age 25), in a purse of purple silke and golde knit, in sundry coynes of golde £20 0s 0d.

By the Marquis of Winchester (age 79), High Threasourer of Englande, in a purse of crymsen satten, in angells £20 0s 0d.

By the Marquis of Northampton (age 50), in a purse of crymsen silke and gold knit, in dimy soveraignes £20 0s 0d.

By the Earle of Arundell (age 49), Lord Steward, in a paper, in angels, £30 0s 0d.

By the Earle of Shrewesburye (age 34), in a red silke purse, in dimy soveraignes £20 0s 0d.

By the Earle of Darbye (age 52), in a purse of crymsen satten, embraudered with golde, in dimy soveraignes £20 0s 0d.

By the Earle of Pembroke (age 61), in a purse of black silk and silver knit, in new angells £30 0s 0d.

By the Earle of Bedforde (age 35), in a purse of black silk and golde knytt, in dimy soveraignes £20 0s 0d.

By the Earle of Rutlande (age 35), in a purse of red silk and golde knytt, in dimy soveraigns and angells £20 0s 0d.

By the Earle of Huntingdon, in a red silk purse, in angells £15 0s 0d.

By the Earle of Westmerlande (age 37), in a red silk purse, in dimy soveraigns £10 0s 0d.

By the Earle of Oxforde (age 46), in a red silk purse, in dimy soveraigns £10 0s 0d.

By the Earle of Northumberlande (age 34), in a purse of black silke and silver knytt, in angells £10 0s 0d. With the Quene her Highness.

By the Earle of Warwike (age 32), a smocke wrought with black silk, a peire of slevis, and a partelett wrought with gold, silver, and black silke. Delivered to the Baroness Cobham (age 23).

By the Viscounte Mountague (age 33), in a purse of cloth of golde, in dimy soveraignes £10 0s 0d. With her said Majestie.

Bishops. The list of Bishops ends with "With her said Majestie"; unclear whether this refers to all the Bishops listed.

By the Archbusshop of Caunterbury (age 57), in a red silk purse, in dimy soveraigns £40 0s 0d.

By the Archbusshop of York (age 61), in soveraigns £30 0s 0d.

By the Busshop of Duresme (age 42), in a purse of crymson silk and gold knytt, in angells £30 0s 0d.

By the Busshop of Ely (age 69), in a red vellat purse, in angells £30 0s 0d.

By the Busshop of Wynchester (age 52), in a purse of crymsen silk and gold knytt and set with pearles, in angells £20 0s 0d.

By the Busshop of London (age 43), in a red satten purse, in dimy soveraignes £20 0s 0d.

By the Busshop of Salisbury (age 39), in a red satten purse, in dimy soveraignes £20 0s 0d.

By the Busshop of Worcester (age 43), in a black vellat purse, in dimy soveraignes £20 0s 0d.

By the Busshop of Lyncoln (age 42), in a red purse, in dimy soveraignes £20 0s 0d.

By the Busshop of Chychester (age 64), in a red purse, in dimy soveraignes £10 0s 0d.

By the Busshop of Norwich (age 50), in a blew silk purse £13 6s 8d.

By the Busshop of Hereforde (age 52), in a green silk purse, in dimy soveraignes £10 0s 0d.

By the Busshop of Lychfield and Coventry (age 48), in a red satten purse, in angells £13 0s 0d.

By the Busshop of Rochester (age 48), in a red purse, in gold £13 6s 8d.

By the Busshop of Saint Davies (age 55), in a red silk purse, in angells £10 0s 0d.

By the Busshop of Bathe, in a purse of red silk, in angells £10 0s 0d.

By the Busshop of Exetour, in a blew silk purse, in angells £10 0s 0d.

By the Busshop of Peterborowe, in a red purse, in dimy soveraignes £10 0s 0d.

By the Busshop of Chester, in a red purse, in angells and soveraignes £10 0s 0d.

Duchesses and Countesses.

By the Duchess of Norfolke (age 22), in a prse of crymsen silk and gold knyt, in angells £20 0s 0d.

By the Duchess of Somerset (age 65), in a purse of silver and black silk, in royalls and ducketts £14 0s 0d. Probably the Dowager Duchess of Somerset since her husband Edward Seymour 1st Duke of Somerset had been executed in 1552, and their children disinherited as a result.

By the Countess of Surrey, in a purse of tawny silk and gold, in dimy soveraignes £5 0s 0d. Dowager since her husband Henry Howard 1516-1547, by courtesy Earl Surrey, had been executed in 1547.

By the Countess of Pembroke (age 38), in a cherry bag of crymsen satten, in new angells £15 0s 0d.

By the Countess of Bedford (age 36), in a purse of crymsen silk and silver knytt, in dimy soveraignes £10 0s 0d.

By the Countess of Darby (age 51), in a purse of crymson sattin embrodred with gold, in dimy soveraignes £10 0s 0d.

By the Countess of Oxford (age 36), in a red purse, in dimy soveraignes £5 0s 0d.

By the Countess of Shrewisbury, Dowager (age 62), in a purse of black silk knytt, in dimy soveraignes £12 0s 0d.

By the Countess of Shrewisbury (age 37), in a red silk purse knytt, in dimy soveraignes £10 0s 0d.

By the Countess of Huntingdon, Dowager (age 51), in a red purse, in dimy soveraignes £10 0s 0d.

By the Countess of Huntingdon (age 24), in a red purse, in angells £10 0s 0d.

By the Countess of Northumberland (age 24), in a purse of black silk and silver knytt, in angells £10 0s 0d.

By the Countess of Rutland (age 29), in a red purse, in dimy soveraignes £13 6s 8d.

Viscountesses.

By the Vicountess Hereford, Dowager (age 42), six hankercheffes edged with gold delivered to the said Baroness Cobham (age 23).

By the Vicountess Mountague (age 24), in a purse of cloth of gold, in dimy soveraignes £10 0s 0d.

Lordes.

By the Lorde Keeper of the Great Seale, Bacon (age 51), in a purse of silver knytt, in angells £13 6s 8d.

By the Lorde William Howard, Lord Chamberlen (age 52), in a purse of crymsen silk and gold knytt, in dimy soveraignes £10 0s 0d.

By the Lorde Pagett (age 56), in a greene purse in dimy soveraignes £13 6s 8d.

By the Lorde Clynton, Lord Admyrall (age 50), in gold £10 0s 0d.

By the Lorde Riche (age 65), in a red satten purse, in dimy soveraignes £20 0s 0d.

By the Lorde North (age 66), in a purse of purple silk and silver, in dimy soveraignes £20 0s 0d.

By the Lorde Lumley (age 29), in a paper, in angells £20 0s 0d.

By the Lorde Hastings of Loughboro (age 41), in a red silk purse, in French crowns £13 0s 0d.

By the Lorde Stafford (age 60), in a red purse, in dimy soveraignes £5 0s 0d.

By the Lorde Windsor (age 30), in a purse of crymsn silk and gold knytt, in dimy soveraignes £10 0s 0d. With her said Majestie.

by Lorde John Graye (age 38), a haunce pott of allabaster garnished with silver gilt. Delivered in charge to John Asteley, Esq Master and Threasourer of her Highnes Jewels and Plate. Lord John Grey assumed to be a courtesy title his father being Thomas Grey 2nd Marquess Dorset.

By the Lorde Barkeley (age 27), in a red purse, in gold £10 0s 0d.

By the Lorde Mountejoye (age 29), in a red purse, in dimy soveraignes £10 0s 0d.

By the Lorde Abergavennye (age 36), in a purse of red silke, in dimy soveraignes £5 0s 0d.

By the Lorde Scrowpe (age 28), in a purse of blak silk and silver knytt, in angells £10 0s 0d.

By the Lorde Caree of Hundesdon (age 35), in a purse of crymsen silk, in double ducketts £13 6s 8d.

By the Lorde Strainge (age 30), in a purse of red silk and gold, in dimy soveraignes £5 0s 0d. Lord Strange being the courtesy title for the Earldom of Derby. He wouldn't inherit until 1572.

By the Lorde Darcey of Chichey (age 30), in a red purse, in dimy soveraignes, £10 0s 0d.

By the Lorde Shefild (age 24), in a red silk purse, in gold £10 0s 0d.

By the Lorde Shandowes (age 40), in a blak silk purse, in angells £10 0s 0d. With her said Majestie.

Ladyes.

By the Baroness Howarde (age 47), in a purse of crymsen silk and knytt, in dimy soveraignes £10 0s 0d. With her said Majestie.

By the Baroness Clinton (age 35), a peire of sleevis of gold, pulled out with lawne. Delivered to the said Baroness Cobham (age 23).

By the Baroness Genevillet, in gold £6 13s 4d.

By the Lady Barkeley (age 24), Lord Barkeley's wife, in gold £5 0s 0d.

By the Lady Mountejoye (age 30), in a red silk purse, in angells £10 0s 0d.

By the Lady Abergavenny, in a red satten purse, in dimy soveraignes £5 0s 0d.

By the Lady Caree of Hundesdon (age 33), in a blak purse knytt, in angells £10 0s 0d.

By the Lady Taylboyes, Sir Peter Carewe's (age 48) wyfe, in a purse of blak silk and silver, in dimy soveraignes £10 0s 0d. With her said Majestie.

By the Baroness Cobham (age 23), a partelett and a peire of sleeves of sypers wrought with silver and blak silke. Re-delivered to herself.

By the Lady Dakers (age 21), a warming ball of gold, per oz. 3 oz. dim. With her said Majestie.

By the Lady Shefilde (age 20), a paire of sleeves wrought with fringe of blak silk and lozeng of gold. Delivered to the said Baroness Cobham.

By the Margaret Baroness Scrope (age 18), in a purse of blak silk and silver, in angells £7 0s 0d. With her said Majestie.

By the Lady Shandowes (age 38), a peire of sleeves and a partlett of gold and silver knytt, cawle fashion. Delivered to the said Baroness Cobham.

By the Lady Knowlles (age 38), a feyne carpett of needleworke, theverende frienged and buttoned with gold and silk. Delivered to John Torneworth, Groom of the Privy Chamber.

By the Lady Butler, in a little white purse, in French crowns £6 0s 0d. With her said Majestie. Unclear as to who Lady Butler refers to.

By the Lady Raclyef, a peire of sleeves of cameryk, all over sett with purle, and two sweet bags. Delivered to the said Baroness Cobham.

1563 Creation of Garter Knights

Henry Machyn's Diary. 22 Apr 1563. The xxij day of Aprell, was sant Gorge's evyn, at v of the cloke the knyghtes of the Garter cam downe from the quen('s) chambur thrugh the halle to here chapell, and yt was strod with gren ryssys, [and all] the haroldes in ther cott armurs, master Perkullys, master Ruges-dragon, master Lanckaster, master Rychmond, and master Somersett, and master Norray (age 65) and master Clarenshux (age 53), master Garter (age 53), and master dene, my lord of Hunsdon (age 37), my lord Montyguw (age 34), my lord Robartt (age 30), my lord of Lughborow (age 42), the yerle of Shrowsbere (age 35), my lord admeralle (age 51), my lord chamburlayn, the yerle of Ruttland (age 36), the yerle of Darbe (age 53), the marques of Northamtun (age 51), the duke of Northfoke (age 27), (the) yerle of Arundell (age 50), and the yerle of Penbroke (age 62), and so evere man to ys own plase in the chapell of ther owne sett.... cam a prosessyon up thrugh the halle to .... furst the serjant of the vestre with a sylver rod, [then the] chylderyn in ther surples, and then the qwyre sy[nging the English] prosessyon in copes of cloth of gold to the nombur of .... haroldes of armes and sergantes of armes, furst Ruges[croix and] Ruge-dragon, and then cam master Lonkastur and master Rychmond and master [Somerset;] furst my lord of Hunsdon, my lord Montyguw, my lord Robartt, my lord of Lowthborow, my lord admeralle, my lord chamburlayn, the yerle of Rutland, the yerle of [Shrewsbury,] the yerle of Darbe, the yerle of Penbroke, the marques of [Northampton,] the yerle of Arundell, the duke of Northfoke; and then [master Garter,] master Norres (age 65), the dene of the chapell, they iij in cremesun saten v[elvet;] and next the byshope of Wynchestur and ser Wylliam Peter in [robes of] cremesun velvett with red crosses on ther robes, and ser .... and the yerle of Northumberland bare the sword, and the(n) the [Queen] in her robe, and master Knolles bare the quen('s) trayn, and after ....

On 02 Apr 1565 [his wife] Elisabeth Brooke Marchioness Northampton (age 38) died.

In 1570 [his former brother-in-law] George Brooke (age 36) died.

In May 1571 William Parr 1st Marquess Northampton (age 59) and Helena Snakenbourg Marchioness Northampton (age 22) were married. She by marriage Marchioness Northampton. The difference in their ages was 37 years. He a great x 5 grandson of King Edward III of England.

On 28 Oct 1571 William Parr 1st Marquess Northampton (age 59) died at Warwick Priory [Map]. He was buried in the Chancel of St Mary's Church, Warwick [Map]. His funeral was paid for by Queen Elizabeth I of England and Ireland (age 38). Marquess Northampton and Baron Parr of Kendal extinct.

In 1576 Thomas Gorges of Longford Castle (age 40) and [his former wife] Helena Snakenbourg Marchioness Northampton (age 27) were married secretly.

On 10 Apr 1635 [his former wife] Helena Snakenbourg Marchioness Northampton (age 86) died at Redlynch, Somerset.

John Brooke and Alice Norton were married. He a great x 5 grandson of King Edward III of England.

Thomas Brooke and Christina Duke were married. He a great x 5 grandson of King Edward III of England.

William Parr 1st Marquess Northampton 1512-1571 appears on the following Descendants Family Trees:

Ralph Neville 1st Earl of Westmoreland 1364-1425

Joan Beaufort Countess of Westmoreland 1379-1440

Alice Montagu 5th Countess of Salisbury 1407-1462

Richard Neville Earl Salisbury 1400-1460

Royal Ancestors of William Parr 1st Marquess Northampton 1512-1571

Kings Wessex: Great x 15 Grand Son of King Edmund "Ironside" I of England

Kings Gwynedd: Great x 11 Grand Son of Owain "Great" King Gwynedd

Kings Seisyllwg: Great x 17 Grand Son of Hywel "Dda aka Good" King Seisyllwg King Deheubarth

Kings Powys: Great x 12 Grand Son of Maredudd ap Bleddyn King Powys

Kings England: Great x 5 Grand Son of King Edward III of England

Kings Scotland: Great x 10 Grand Son of William "Lion" I King Scotland

Kings Franks: Great x 11 Grand Son of Louis VII King Franks

Kings France: Great x 7 Grand Son of Philip "The Fair" IV King France

Ancestors of William Parr 1st Marquess Northampton 1512-1571

Great x 3 Grandfather: William Parr

Great x 2 Grandfather: John Parr

Great x 4 Grandfather: John Ros

Great x 3 Grandmother: Elizabeth Ros

Great x 4 Grandmother: Catherine Latimer

Great x 1 Grandfather: Thomas Parr 7 x Great Grand Son of King John "Lackland" of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: John Crophull

Great x 3 Grandfather: Thomas Crophull 5 x Great Grand Son of King John "Lackland" of England

Great x 4 Grandmother: Margaret Verdun Baroness Hussey 4 x Great Grand Daughter of King John "Lackland" of England

Great x 2 Grandmother: Agnes Crophull 6 x Great Grand Daughter of King John "Lackland" of England

GrandFather: William Parr 8 x Great Grand Son of King John "Lackland" of England

Great x 3 Grandfather: William Tunstall

Great x 2 Grandfather: Thomas Tunstall

Great x 1 Grandmother: Alice Tunstall

Great x 4 Grandfather: John Harrington of Farleton

Great x 3 Grandfather: Nicholas Harrington of Hornby

Great x 4 Grandmother: Katherine Banastre

Great x 2 Grandmother: Isabella Harrington

Great x 3 Grandmother: Isabel English

Father: Thomas Parr 4 x Great Grand Son of King Edward III of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: Hugh Fitzhugh 2nd Baron Fitzhugh

Great x 3 Grandfather: Henry Fitzhugh 3rd Baron Fitzhugh

Great x 4 Grandmother: Joan Scrope Baroness Fitzhugh

Great x 2 Grandfather: William Fitzhugh 4th Baron Fitzhugh 6 x Great Grand Son of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: Robert Grey 4 x Great Grand Son of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 3 Grandmother: Elizabeth Grey Baroness Fitzhugh 5 x Great Grand Daughter of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 1 Grandfather: Henry Fitzhugh 5th Baron Fitzhugh 7 x Great Grand Son of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: Robert Willoughby 4th Baron Willoughby 9 x Great Grand Son of King Henry I "Beauclerc" England

Great x 3 Grandfather: William Willoughby 5th Baron Willoughby 7 x Great Grand Son of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 4 Grandmother: Margery Zouche Baroness Willoughby of Eresby 6 x Great Grand Daughter of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 2 Grandmother: Margery Willoughby Baroness Fitzhugh 7 x Great Grand Daughter of King John "Lackland" of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: Roger Strange 5th Baron Strange Knockin 8 x Great Grand Son of King Henry I "Beauclerc" England

Great x 3 Grandmother: Lucy Strange Baroness Willoughby Eresby 6 x Great Grand Daughter of King John "Lackland" of England

Great x 4 Grandmother: Aline Fitzalan Baroness Strange Knockin 5 x Great Grand Daughter of King John "Lackland" of England

GrandMother: Elizabeth Fitzhugh Baroness Vaux Harrowden 3 x Great Grand Daughter of King Edward III of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: John Neville 3rd Baron Neville of Raby 4 x Great Grand Son of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 3 Grandfather: Ralph Neville 1st Earl of Westmoreland 5 x Great Grand Son of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 4 Grandmother: Maud Percy Baroness Neville Raby 5 x Great Grand Daughter of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England

Great x 2 Grandfather: Richard Neville Earl Salisbury Great Grand Son of King Edward III of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: John of Gaunt 1st Duke Lancaster Son of King Edward III of England

Great x 3 Grandmother: Joan Beaufort Countess of Westmoreland Grand Daughter of King Edward III of England

Great x 4 Grandmother: Katherine Roet Duchess Lancaster

Great x 1 Grandmother: Alice Neville Baroness Fitzhugh 2 x Great Grand Daughter of King Edward III of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: John Montagu 3rd Earl Salisbury 2 x Great Grand Son of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England

Great x 3 Grandfather: Thomas Montagu 1st Count Perche 4th Earl Salisbury 3 x Great Grand Son of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England

Great x 4 Grandmother: Maud Francis Countess of Salisbury

Great x 2 Grandmother: Alice Montagu 5th Countess of Salisbury 3 x Great Grand Daughter of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: Thomas Holland 2nd Earl Kent Great Grand Son of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England

Great x 3 Grandmother: Eleanor Holland 2 x Great Grand Daughter of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England

Great x 4 Grandmother: Alice Fitzalan Countess Kent 2 x Great Grand Daughter of King Henry III of England

William Parr 1st Marquess Northampton 5 x Great Grand Son of King Edward III of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: Thomas Green

Great x 3 Grandfather: Thomas Green

Great x 2 Grandfather: Thomas Green 4 x Great Grand Son of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: Richard Talbot 7th Baron Strange Blackmere 4th Baron Talbot 2 x Great Grand Son of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England

Great x 3 Grandmother: Mary Talbot 3 x Great Grand Daughter of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England

Great x 4 Grandmother: Ankaret Strange 7th Baroness Strange Blackmere, Baroness Talbot 5 x Great Grand Daughter of King John "Lackland" of England

Great x 1 Grandfather: Thomas Green 5 x Great Grand Son of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: John Ferrers 4th Baron Ferrers of Chartley 7 x Great Grand Son of King Henry I "Beauclerc" England

Great x 3 Grandfather: Robert Ferrers 5th Baron Ferrers of Chartley 3 x Great Grand Son of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England

Great x 4 Grandmother: Elizabeth Stafford Baroness Cobham, Ferrers and Strange 2 x Great Grand Daughter of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England

Great x 2 Grandmother: Philippa Ferrers 4 x Great Grand Daughter of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England

Great x 4 Grandfather: Edward Despencer 1st Baron Despencer, Baron Burghesh 2 x Great Grand Son of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England

Great x 3 Grandmother: Margaret Despencer Baroness Ferrers of Chartley 3 x Great Grand Daughter of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England

Great x 4 Grandmother: Elizabeth Burghesh 3rd Baron Burghesh 5 x Great Grand Daughter of King John "Lackland" of England

GrandFather: Thomas Green 6 x Great Grand Son of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England

Great x 2 Grandfather: John Throckmorton of Fladbury

Great x 1 Grandmother: Maud Throckmorton

Mother: Maud Green 7 x Great Grand Daughter of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England

Great x 1 Grandfather: John Fogge

GrandMother: Joan aka Jane Fogge

Great x 3 Grandfather: Nicholas Haute

Great x 2 Grandfather: William Haute

Great x 1 Grandmother: Alice Haute

Great x 4 Grandfather: John Woodville

Great x 3 Grandfather: Richard Woodville

Great x 2 Grandmother: Joan Woodville

Great x 4 Grandfather: Thomas Bittelsgate

Great x 3 Grandmother: Joan Bittelsgate

Great x 4 Grandmother: Joan Beauchamp