Biography of William Thomas Greenwell 1777-1856

In 1777 William Thomas Greenwell was born.

1820 to 1918. 27 South Bailey, Durham. William Thomas Greenwell (age 43) lived here.

Before 23 Mar 1820 William Thomas Greenwell (age 43) and Dorothy Smales were married.

On 23 Mar 1820 [his son] Reverend William Greenwell was born to William Thomas Greenwell (age 43) and [his wife] Dorothy Smales at Greenwell Ford, Lanchester.

In 1856 William Thomas Greenwell (age 79) died.

Wiltshire Archaeological Magazine 1907 V35 Pages 1-20. No. 7. One hundred and fifty small fiat circular beads of jet or shale (only one hundred and forty-four are represented here, as six are preserved in a piece of clay, as found1.

No. 7a. Largest bead.

No. 7b. Smallest bead.

No. 7c. Fossil encrinite used as a bead.

Note 1. Beads apparently identical with these have been found, by Canon Greenwell, British Barrows, p. 419, fig. 159; by J. K. Mortimer, "Burials Mounds of East Yorkshire," p. 138, Pl. XLIV.; ibid, p. 223, Pl. LXXVII.; and at Lake, Ancient Wilts, p. 210, Stourhead Cat., No. 172b.

150 shale beads from a shale bead necklace. Collection of [Map].

Wiltshire Archaeological Magazine 1907 V35 Pages 1-20. No. 17. Nine feet almost due south of the skeleton and 1ft. 2in. below the present surface, a vessel of the cinerary urn type was disclosed. It had been crushed into several pieces by the weight of the earth above, and was also slightly damaged by the workman's pick; it has, however, been repaired and is now complete. It stood in an upright position, but with no signs of ashes or of burnt material of any sort inside it, nor was there any sign of an interment, burnt or unburnt, near it1. Immediately beneath it the earth was a little reddened and discoloured as if by fire, and there were a few specks of charcoal; but the traces of fire were slight, and quite local. The vessel might be chosen as typical of a cinerary urn from its general shape and heavy overhanging rim, which latter feature Canon Greenwell says may be regarded as the principal characteristic of this class of urn2. But in spite of its form, as it contained no bones or ashes, one is forced to the conclusion that it may have served the purpose of a food vessel, and that it had probably contained some form of food offering made to the dead at some time subsequent to the burial, and during or after the piling up of the barrow.

Note 1. Canon Greenwell says: "In a few instances a sepulchral vase has occurred in a barrow not in close proximity with any interment," British Barrows, p. 61.

Collared urn decorated with vertical lines around rim and 2 rows of cord impressed chevrons around collar bordered by two cord impressed lines at top and bottom, found upright in cist with no cremated remains. Collection of [Map].

Wiltshire Archaeological Magazine 1907 V35 Pages 1-20. No. 15. This small rude cup-like vase should perhaps be classed as belonging to the type known as "incense cups". It is decorated with a series of small oblong punctures in would-be vertical rows, the rows are fairly straight at first, but the artist seems soon to have got into difficulties, and the lines become increasingly slanting until they are at such an angle that they never reach the bottom at all, and are allowed half-way down the side to merge into the other lines. The more perfect portion of the rim is J of an inch in width, and has been decorated with a chevron pattern of lines drawn from edge to edge; the triangular spaces between the lines have punctured dots in them, and these dots and lines appear to have been filled in with some white stuff as if for the purpose of making the pattern stand out more clearly. Canon Greenwell mentions a somewhat similar case, where a pattern seems to have been emphasised by means of a white substance filling in the lines on an incense cup from a barrow at Aldbourne, Wilts1. One half of the cup is much more crumbly and decayed than the other; from this part the white filling is absent and the edges are blackened as if it had been in a fire, and more affected by it on one side than the other. It would seem that the crudeness of the ornamentation could only have been the result of sheer carelessness, or of an intelligence and skill equal to that of a child.

Archæogia, LII., p. 53. The same peculiarity may be seen on a drinking cup from Roundway Down, in the Museum at Devizes.

Miniature (incense) cup with vertical and diagonal lines of impressed dots around body, and forming zig-zags around rim. Collection of [Map].

Harold Gray 1902. The excavations were begun on 8th August, 1901, by making a cutting, called Section I, through the ditch, 12 feet (3.66 m.) wide, close up to the south-south-east causeway. Roman remains were looked for under the turf, but without success. The only finds here were thirteen teeth of ox ("1" on plan and section, fig. 3), strewn on the limestone floor at the bottom, and at a depth of 5.4 feet (1.65 m.) pieces of red-deer's antler, one piece 15 inches long (38 cm.), found resting against the rock-side of the ditch on a solid vein of clay, running through the limestone floor ("2" on plan and on the section fig. 3). It appears probable that these fragments may have been the remains of a kind of pick for loosening the previously fractured limestone at the time the ditch was first excavated, in the same manner as the antlers of the Stone Age in Grimes Graves described by Canon Greenwell1. A deer's horn pick, figured by Professor McKenny Hughes, was found at Horningsea in 19022. Mr. W. Gowland, F.S.A., has recently figured a deer's horn pick found at Stonehenge, and many splinters of antlers of deer, one being embedded in a lump of chalk3. Such implements could not have been utilised for splitting limestone, but they would be useful in digging some of the looser material. Fifteen fragments of antlers of red-deer were found by General Pitt-Rivers at the bottom of the ditch of Wor Barrow, Handley Down, Dorset, among Stone Age relics4. Nothing else was found in Section 1. Its greatest depth was 5.4 (1.65 m.). The filling consisted of turf and turf-mould 6 inches (15 cm.); mould mixed with small pieces of chert, 18 inches (45.7 m.), followed by a stiff clayey-mould to the bottom. The hard sides of the ditch and causeway were exposed.

Note 1. Journal of the Ethnological Society, ii. 426.

Note 2. Proceedings of the Cambridge Antiquarian Society, x., plate ix. fig. 1.

Note 3. "Recent Excavations at Stonehenge," Archæologia, lviii., 49, 72, and 86.

Note 4. Excavations in Cranborne Chase, iv. 133. See also vol, iii. 135.