Europe, British Isles, South-East England, Kent, Canterbury [Map]

Canterbury, Kent is in Kent.

754 Canterbury Fire

851 Battle of Ockley

1012-Siege of Canterbury

1236 Wedding of Henry III and Eleanor of Provence

1321 Siege of Leeds Castle

1322 Trial and Execution of Lord Badlesmere

1625 Charles I and Henrietta Maria's First Meeting

1647 Plum Pudding Riots

Bede. AUGUSTINE, COMING INTO BRITAIN, FIRST PREACHED IN THE ISLE OF THANET [Map] TO KING ETHELBERT (age 47), AND HAVING OBTAINED LICENCE, ENTERED THE KINGDOM OF KENT, IN ORDER TO PREACH THEREIN. [A.D. 597.]

Augustine (age 57), thus strengthened by the confirmation of the blessed Father Gregory (age 57), returned to the work of the word of God, with the servants of Christ, and arrived in Britain. The powerful Ethelbert (age 47) was at that time king of Kent; he had extended his dominions as far as the great river Humber, by which the Southern Saxons are divided from the Northern. On the east of Kent is the large Isle of Thanet [Map] containing according to the English way of reckoning, 600 families, divided from the other land by the river Wantsum, which is about three furlongs over, and fordable only in two places, for both ends of it run into the sea. In this island landed the servant of our Lord, Augustine (age 57), and his companions, being, as is reported, nearly forty men. They had, by order of the blessed Pope Gregory (age 57), taken interpreters of the nation of the Franks, and sending to Ethelbert (age 47), signified that they were come from Rome, and brought a joyful message, which most undoubtedly assured to all that took advantage of it everlasting joys in heaven and a kingdom that would never end with the living and true God. The king (age 47) having heard this, ordered them to stay in that island [Map] where they had landed, and that they should be furnished with all necessaries, till he should consider what to do with them. For he had before heard of the Christian religion, having a Christian wife of the royal family of the Franks, called Bertha (age 32); whom he had received from her parents, upon condition that she should be permitted to practice her religion with the Bishop Luidhard, who was sent with her to preserve her faith. Some days after, the king (age 47) came into the island, and sitting in the open air, ordered Augustine (age 57) and his companions to be brought into his presence. For he had taken precaution that they should not come to him in any house, lest, according to an ancient superstition, if they practiced any magical arts, they might impose upon him, and so get the better of him. But they came furnished with Divine, not with magic virtue, bearing a silver cross for their banner, and the image of our Lord and Saviour painted on a board; and singing the litany, they offered up their prayers to the Lord for the eternal salvation both of themselves and of those to whom they were come. When he had sat down, pursuant to the king's (age 47) commands, and preached to him and his attendants there present, the word of life, the king (age 47) answered thus:—"Your words and promises are very fair, but as they are new to us, and of uncertain import, I cannot approve of them so far as to forsake that which I have so long followed with the whole English nation. But because you are come from far into my kingdom, and, as I conceive, are desirous to impart to us those things which you believe to be true, and most beneficial, we will not molest you, but give you favourable entertainment, and take care to supply you with your necessary sustenance; nor do we forbid you to preach and gain as many as you can to your religion." Accordingly he permitted them to reside in the city of Canterbury [Map], which was the metropolis of all his dominions, and, pursuant to his promise, besides allowing them sustenance, did not refuse them liberty to preach. It is reported that, as they drew near to the city, after their manner, with the holy cross, and the image of our sovereign Lord and King, Jesus Christ, they, in concert, sung this litany: "We beseech Thee, O Lord, in all Thy mercy, that thy anger and wrath be turned away from this city, and from the holy house, because we have sinned. Hallelujah."

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 604. This year Augustine (age 64) consecrated two bishops, Mellitus and Justus. Mellitus he sent to preach baptism to the East-Saxons. Their king was called Seabert, the son of Ricola, Ethelbert's (age 54) sister, whom Ethelbert (age 54) placed there as king. Ethelbert (age 54) also gave Mellitus the bishopric of London; and to Justus he gave the bishopric of Rochester, which is twenty-four miles from Canterbury, Kent [Map].

Charter 3. 605. In nomine Domini nostri Iesu Christi. Notum sit omnibus tam presentibus quam posteris quod ego Æthelbertus (age 55) Dei gratia rex Anglorum, per euangelicum genitorem meum Augustinum de idolatra factus Christicola, tradidi Deo per ipsum antistitem aliquam partem terre iuris mei sub orientali muro ciuitatis Dorobernie [Map], ubi scilicet per eundem in Christo institutorem monasterium in honore principum apostolorum Petri et Pauli condidi, et cum ipsa terra et cum omnibus que ad ipsum monasterium pertinent perpetua libertate donaui, adeo ut nec mihi nec alicui successorum meorum regum nec ulli unquam potestati siue ecclesiastice siue seculari quicquam inde liceat usurpare, sed in ipsius abbatis sint omnia libera dicione. Si quis uero de hac donatione nostra aliquid minuere aut irritum facere temptauerit, auctoritate et beati pape Gregorii nostrique apostoli Augustini simul et nostra imprecatione sit hic segregatus ab omni sancte ecclesie communione et in die iudicii ab omni electorum societate. Circumcingitur hec terra his terminibus: in oriente ecclesia sancti Martini, et inde ad orientem be sywenne dune, et sic ad aquilonem be wykenge mearce, iterumque ad orientem et ad austrum be burnware mearce, item ad orientem et ad austrum be suth burnware mearke, et sic ad austrum et occidentem be kynges mearke, item ad aquilonem et orientem be kynges mearce, sicque ad occidentem to riðere ceape, et ita ad aquilonem to druting stræte. Actum est hoc in ciuitate Dorouernie, anno ab incarnatione Christi .dcv., indictione .vi.

Ego Athelbertus (age 55) rex Anglorum hanc donationem meam signo sancte crucis propria manu confirmaui.

Ego Augustinus gratia Dei archiepiscopus libenter subscripsi.

Ego Eadbaldus regis filius faui.

Ego Hamigisilus dux laudaui.

Ego Hocca comes consensi.

Ego Augemundus referendarius approbaui.

Ego Graphio comes benedixi.

Ego Tangisilus regis optimas confirmaui.

Ego Pinca consensi.

Ego Geddi corroboraui.

A.D. 605 (Canterbury). Æthelberht, king of the English, to St Augustine for the minster of SS Peter and Paul (St Augustine's), Canterbury; grant of land to the east of Canterbury. Latin with bounds.

Archive: Canterbury, St Augustine's

MSS: 1. Cambridge, Corpus Christi College, 111, pp. 310-11 (s. xvi)

Note 2. Cambridge, Corpus Christi College, 189, 46rv (s. xiv)

Note 3. Cambridge, Trinity Hall, 1, 22r (facsimile of lost single sheet, s. xv; Deanesly 1942, pl. facing p. 114)

Note 4. Cambridge, Trinity Hall, 1, 22r (s. xv)

Note 5. BL Add. 53710, 2v-3r (s. xiv)

Note 6. BL Add. 53710, 254r (s. xvi)

Note 7. BL Cotton Claud. D. x, 9r (s. xiii)

Note 8. BL Cotton Jul. D. ii, 84r (s. xiii)

Note 9. BL Cotton Tib. A. ix, 107v-108r (s. xiv)

Note 10. BL Cotton Vesp. B. xx, 277rv (s. xii; Gem 1997, p. 53)

Note 11. BL Cotton Vitell. A. ii, 6v (s. xii)

Note 12. BL Harley 358, 47v-48r (s. xvi)

Note 13. BL Lansdowne 447, 23v-24r (s. xvii)

Note 14. BL Lansdowne 863, 90v (s. xvi)

Note 15. Bodleian, Add. C. 296, 77r (s. xvii; ex 11)

Note 16. Bodleian, Dugdale 11, 20v (s. sxvii)

Note 17. Bodleian, Tanner 165, 97r (s. xv)

Note 18. Winchester, Cathedral Library, XXB, 157rv (s. xvi)

Printed: Spelman, Concilia, i. 119, ex MS 3; Twysden, X Scriptores, cols 1761-2 ex MS 5; Mon. Angl., i. 24, ex ? MS 10; Alford 1663, ii. 3; Wilkins, Concilia, iv. 728 ex Spelman; K 3 ex MS 3 etc.; Mon., Angl. (rev. edn), i. 110 (no. 36) ex MS 17, i. 126-7 (no. 2) ex 1st edn; Hardwick, Elmham, pp. 111-13, ex MS 3; HS, pp. 55-6, ex K etc.; B 5; Pierquin, Recueil, pt 1, no. 3; Kelly, St Augustine's, no. 2, ex MSS 3, 8, 10; Morris 1995, pp. 103-4, ex B.

Translated: Davis, Thorne, pp. 8-9 (ex Twysden, X Scriptores).

Comments: HS, pp. 55-6, questionable or spurious; Stevenson 1891, p. 742 n. 22, spurious, forged after 1066; Turner 1915, pp. xx-xxi; Wallenberg, KPN, p. 5, on place-names; Deanesly 1941/1, pp. 55-69; Deanesly 1942, pp. 104-10, authentic; Levison 1946, pp. 174-233, spurious, forged in late 11th century; Hunter 1973, on MS 3; Scharer 1982, p. 59, spurious; Sparks and Tatton-Brown 1987, p. 204, on bounds; Kelly 1988, perhaps forged soon after Conquest; Kelly, St Augustine's, pp. 11-13, spurious, forged on the basis of S 2; Morris 1995, pp. 89-98, some authentic basis.

Charter S2. 605. In nomine Domini nostri Iesu Christi. Omnem hominem qui secundum Deum uiuit et remunerari a Deo sperat et optat, oportet ut piis precibus consensum hilariter ex animo prebeat, quoniam certum est tanto facilius ea que ipse a Deo poposcerit consequi posse, quanto et ipse libentius Deo aliquid concesserit. Quocirca ego Æthilberhtus (age 55) rex Cantie, cum consensu uenerabilis archiepiscopi Agustini ac principum meorum, dabo et concedo Deo in honore sancti Petri aliquam partem terre iuris mei quæ iacet in oriente ciuitatis Dorobernie [Map], ita dumtaxat ut monasterium ibi construatur, et res quæ supra memoraui in potestate abbatis sit, qui ibi fuerit ordinatus. Igitur adiuro et precipio in nomine Domini Dei omnipotentis qui est omnium rerum iudex iustus1 ut prefata terra subscripta donatione sempiternaliter sit confirmata, ita ut nec mihi nec alicui successorum meorum regum aut principum siue cuiuslibet conditionis dignitatibus et ecclesiasticis gradibus de ea aliquid fraudare liceat. Si quis uero de hac donatione nostra aliquid minuere aut irritum facere temptauerit, sit in presenti separatus a sancta communione corporis et sanguinis Christi, et in die iudicii ob meritum malitie suæ a consortio sanctorum omnium segregatus. Circumcincta est hec terra his terminibus: in oriente ecclesia sancti Martini, in meridie uia oþ burhgat, in occidente et in aquilone drutingestræte. Acta in ciuitate Dorouerni anno ab incarnatione Christi .dcv., indictione .vi.

Ego Æthelbertus (age 55) rex Cancie sana mente integroque consilio donacionem meam signo sancte crucis propria manu roboraui confirmauique.

Ego Ægustinus gratia Dei archiepiscopus testis consenciens libenter subscripsi.

Eadbald. Hamigils. Augemund referendarius. Hocca. Grafio. Thangil. Pinca. Geddi.

Note 1. Ps. vii. 12: qui est omnium iudex iustus

A.D. 605 (Canterbury). Æthelberht (age 55), king of Kent, to St Peter; grant of land to the east of Canterbury for the foundation of a minster. Latin with English bounds.

Archive: Canterbury, St Augustine's

MSS: 1. Cambridge, Corpus Christi College, 111, p. 310 (s. xvi)

Note 2. Cambridge, Trinity Hall, 1, 21v (facsimile of lost single sheet, s. xv; Hunter 1973, pl. 1; Kelly, St Augustine's, pl. 1)

Note 3. Cambridge, Trinity Hall, 1, 21v (s. xv)

Note 4. Canterbury, City Archives, Roll I/Z/1 m. 3 (s. xvi)

Note 5. BL Add. 53710, 221v (s. xiv)

Note 6. BL Add. 53710, 253v-254r (s. xvi)

Note 7. BL Cotton Claudius D. x, 61r (s. xiv)

Note 8. BL Cotton Cleop. F. i, 236r (s. xvi)

Note 9. BL Harley 358, 47v (s. xvi)

Note 10. BL Lansdowne 447, 23v (s. xvii)

Note 11. PRO Ch.R 20 Edw. II, m. 2

Note 12. PRO Ch.R. 36 Edw. III, m. 7

Note 13. PRO Ch.R. 8 Hen. IV, m. 6

Note 14. PRO Pat. R. 2 Hen. VI, pt 3, m. 5

Note 15. PRO Pat. R. 4 Edw. IV, pt 4, m. 29

Note 16. PRO Pat. R. 14 Hen. VII, pt 1, m. 16

Note 17. Bodleian, Dodsworth 10, 7r (s. xvii)

Note 18. Bodleian, Dodsworth 120, 115rv (s. xvii)

Note 19. Bodleian, Dugdale 11, 20r (s. xvii)

Note 20. Bodleian, Engl. Hist. C. 241, 21v (s. xvi)

Note 21. Winchester, Cathedral Library, XXB, 157r (s. xvi)

Printed: Spelman, Concilia, i. 118-19; Twysden, X Scriptores, col. 2123 ex MS 5; Mon. Angl., i. 23, ex ? MS 7; Alford 1663, ii. 76; Somner 1703, Appendix, p. 6, ex ? MS 5; Wilkins, Concilia, iv. 728, ex Spelman; K 2 ex MS 3; Mon. Angl. (rev. edn), i. 126 (no. 1); Hardwick, Elmham, pp. 109-10, ex MSS 2, 3; HS, pp. 54-5, ex K etc.; B 4 ex K, HS etc.; Pierquin, Recueil, pt 1, no. 2; Kelly, St Augustine's, no. 1, ex MSS 2, 7, 21; Morris 1995, pp. 102-3, ex B.

Translated: Davis, Thorne, pp. 565-6 (ex Twysden, X Scriptores).

Comments: HS, pp. 54-5, spurious or questionable; Turner 1915, p. xx, suspicious; Wallenberg, KPN, pp. 4-5, on place-names; Deanesly 1941/1, pp. 53-9; Deanesly 1942, p. 104 n. 7; Levison 1946, pp. 174-233, spurious, probably forged in late 11th century; Hunter 1973, on MS 2; Scharer 1982, p. 59, spurious; Kelly 1988, perhaps forged shortly before Conquest; Kelly, St Augustine's, pp. 4-9, fabrication partly modelled on a lost charter of Æthelberht II (725-62), witness-list may derive from a lost 7th-century source; Morris 1995, pp. 89-98, some authentic basis.

754 Canterbury Fire

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 754. This year died Cuthred, king of the West-Saxons; and Sebright, his relative, succeeded to the kingdom, which he held one year; Cyneard  succeeded Humferth in the see of Winchester; and Canterbury, Kent [Map] was this year on fire.

Battle of Ockley

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 851. This year Alderman Ceorl, with the men of Devonshire, fought the heathen army at Wemburg [Map], and after making great slaughter obtained the victory. The same year King Athelstan and Alderman Elchere fought in their ships, and slew a large army at Sandwich [Map] in Kent, taking nine ships and dispersing the rest. The heathens now for the first time remained over winter in the Isle of Thanet [Map]. The same year came three hundred and fifty ships into the mouth of the Thames; the crew of which went upon land, and stormed Canterbury, Kent [Map] and London; putting to flight Bertulf, king of the Mercians, with his army; and then marched southward over the Thames into Surrey. Here Ethelwulf and his son Ethelbald, at the head of the West-Saxon army, fought with them at Ockley [Map], and made the greatest slaughter of the heathen army that we have ever heard reported to this present day. There also they obtained the victory.

Assers Life of Alfred 851. 851. 4. The Danes sack Canterbury.12 The same year a great army of heathen came with three hundred and fifty ships to the mouth of the river Thames, and sacked Dorubernia, or Canterbury, Kent [Map]13, [and also London] (which lies on the north bank of the river Thames, on the confines of Essex and Middlesex, though in truth that city belongs to Essex); and they put to flight Beorhtwulf, King of Mercia, with all the army which he had led out to oppose them.

Note 12. From the Chronicle.

Note 13. MS. Cantwariorum civitatem; Chron. Cantwaraburg.

Assers Life of Alfred 870. 870. 34. Ceolnoth dies.76 That same year Ceolnoth, Archbishop of Canterbury, went the way of all flesh, and was buried in peace in that city [Map].

Note 76. Mostly from the Chronicle.

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 1009. This year were the ships ready, that we before spoke about; and there were so many of them as never were in England before, in any king (age 43) days, as books tell us. And they were all transported together to Sandwich, Kent [Map]; that they should lie there, and defend this land against any out-force. But we have not yet had the prosperity and the honour, that the naval armament should be useful to this land, any more than it often before was. It was at this same time, or a little earlier, that Brihtric, brother of Earldorman Eadric "Streona aka Acquisitive" Mercia, betrayed Wulnoth, the South-Saxon knight, father of Earl Godwin (age 8), to the king (age 43); and he went into exile, and enticed the navy, till he had with him twenty ships; with which he plundered everywhere by the south coast, and wrought every kind of mischief. When it was told the navy that they might easily seize him, if they would look about them, then took Brihtric with him eighty ships; and thought that he should acquire for himself much reputation, by getting Wulnoth into his hands alive or dead. But, whilst they were proceeding thitherward, there came such a wind against them, as no man remembered before; which beat and tossed the ships, and drove them aground; whereupon Wulnoth soon came, and burned them. When this was known to the remaining ships, where the king (age 43) was, how the others fared, it was then as if all were lost. The king (age 43) went home, with the aldermen and the nobility; and thus lightly did they forsake the ships; whilst the men that were in them rowed them back to London. Thus lightly did they suffer the labour of all the people to be in vain; nor was the terror lessened, as all England hoped. When this naval expedition was thus ended, then came, soon after Lammas, the formidable army of the enemy, called Thurkill's army, to Sandwich, Kent [Map]; and soon they bent their march to Canterbury, Kent [Map]; which city they would quickly have stormed, had they not rather desired peace; and all the men of East-Kent made peace with the army, and gave them 3,000 pounds for security. The army soon after that went about till they came to the Isle of Wight; and everywhere in Sussex, and in Hampshire, and also in Berkshire, they plundered and burned, as THEIR CUSTOM IS.54 Then ordered the king (age 43) to summon out all the population, that men might hold firm against them on every side; but nevertheless they marched as they pleased. On one occasion the king (age 43) had begun his march before them, as they proceeded to their ships, and all the people were ready to fall upon them; but the plan was then frustrated through Earldorman Eadric "Streona aka Acquisitive" Mercia, AS IT EVER IS STILL. Then after Martinmas they went back again to Kent, and chose their winter-quarters on the Thames; obtaining their provisions from Essex, and from the shires that were next, on both sides of the Thames. And oft they fought against the city of London; but glory be to God, that it yet standeth firm: and they ever there met with ill fare. Then after midwinter took they an excursion up through Chiltern55, and so to Oxford, Oxfordshire [Map]; which city they burned, and plundered on both sides of the Thames to their ships. Being fore-warned that there was an army gathered against them at London, they went over at Staines; and thus were they in motion all the winter, and in spring, appeared again in Kent, and repaired their ships.

Note 54. These expressions in the present tense afford a strong proof that the original records of these transactions are nearly coeval with the transactions themselves. Later MSS. use the past tense.

Note 55. i.e. the Chiltern Hills; from which the south-eastern part of Oxfordshire is called the Chiltern district.

1012-Siege of Canterbury

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 1011. This year sent the king (age 45) and his council to the army, and desired peace; promising them both tribute and provisions, on condition that they ceased from plunder. They had now overrun East-Anglia, and Essex, and Middlesex, and Oxfordshire, and Cambridgeshire, and Hertfordshire, and Buckinghamshire, and Bedfordshire, and half of Huntingdonshire, and much of Northamptonshire; and, to the south of the Thames, all Kent, and Sussex, and Hastings, and Surrey, and Berkshire, and Hampshire, and much of Wiltshire. All these disasters befel us through bad counsels; that they would not offer tribute in time, or fight with them; but, when they had done most mischief, then entered they into peace and amity with them. And not the less for all this peace, and amity, and tribute, they went everywhere in troops; plundering, and spoiling, and slaying our miserable people. In this year, between the Nativity of St. Mary and Michaelmas, they beset Canterbury, Kent [Map], and entered therein through treachery; for Elfmar delivered the city to them, whose life Archbishop Elfeah (age 58) formerly saved. And there they seized Archbishop Elfeah (age 58), and Elfward the king's steward, and Abbess Leofruna56, and Bishop Godwin; and Abbot Elfmar they suffered to go away. And they took therein all the men, and husbands, and wives; and it was impossible for any man to say how many they were; and in the city they continued afterwards as long as they would. And, when they had surveyed all the city, they then returned to their ships, and led the archbishop with them. Then was a captive he who before was of England head and Christendom;- there might be seen great wretchedness, where oft before great bliss was seen, in the fated city, whence first to us came Christendom, and bliss 'fore God and 'fore the world. And the archbishop (age 58) they kept with them until the time when they martyred him.

Note 56. "Leofruna abbatissa".-Flor. The insertion of this quotation from Florence of Worcester is important, as it confirms the reading adopted in the text. The abbreviation "abbt", instead of "abb", seems to mark the abbess. She was the last abbess of St. Mildred's in the Isle of Thanet; not Canterbury, as Harpsfield and Lambard say.

On 29 Dec 1172 Hugh Lacy (age 38) visited Canterbury, Kent [Map].

Wedding of Henry III and Eleanor of Provence

Chronica Majora. 14 Jan 1236. Anno Domini 1236, which was the twentieth year of the reign of King Henry the Third, he held his court at Winchester at Christmas, where he observed that festival with rejoicings. He was at this time anxiously looking for the return of the special messengers, whom he had sent into Provence to Raymond (age 38), count of that province, with letters containing his own inmost thoughts about contracting a marriage with his daughter Eleanor (age 13). This said count was a man of illustrious race and brave in battle, but, by continual wars, he had wasted almost all the money he possessed. He had married the daughter (age 38) of Thomas, the late count of Savoy, and sister of the present count, Amadeus (age 39), a woman of remarkable beauty, by name Beatrice (age 38). This lady had issue by the aforesaid count, two daughters of great beauty, the elder of whom, named Margaret (age 15), was married to Louis (age 21), the French king, as we are told by a clerk named John de Gates; and the king of England had now, by the aforesaid messengers, demanded the younger one, a young lady of handsome appearance, in marriage. In order to obtain this favour, he had secretly sent Richard, prior of Hurle, in advance, who faithfully and with diligence brought the matter to a conclusion. On the prior's returning and telling the king the result, the latter sent him back to the count with some other messengers, namely, the bishops Hugh of Ely, and Robert of Hereford, and the brother of Robert de SANFORD, the master of the Knights Templars. These messengers were received by the count on their arrival in Provence with the greatest honour and respect, and from his hands received his daughter Eleanor, for the purpose of being united to the King of England; she was also attended by her uncle, William, bishop elect of Valentia; a man of distinction, and by the count of Champagne, a relation of the English king. The king of Navarre, on learning that they would travel through his territories, went joyfully to meet them, and accompanied them as a guide through his dominions during a journey of five days and more; he also, from his natural generosity, paid all their expenses, both for horses and attendants. Their retinue consisted of more than three hundred horsemen, not including the people who followed them in great numbers. On reaching the boundaries of France, they obtained not only a safe but honourable passage through that country, under conduct of the French king (age 21) and his queen (age 15), the sister of the lady about to be married to the English king, and also of Blanche (age 47), the French king's mother. They embarked at the port of Sandwich [Note. Should be Wissant], and with full sail made for Dover, Kent [Map], where they arrived, after a quick passage, before they were expected. Having thus safely landed, they set out for Canterbury, Kent [Map], and were met by the king, who rushed into the arms of the messengers, and, having seen the lady and received possession of her, he married her at Canterbury; the ceremony being performed on the fourteenth of January, by Edmund, archbishop (age 61) of that place, assisted by the bishops, who had come with the lady, in the presence of the other nobles and prelates of the kingdom. On the 19th of January the king went to Westminster, where an extra-ordinary solemnity took place on the following day, which was Sunday, at which the king wore his crown and Eleanor was crowned queen. Thus was Henry the Third married at Canterbury, and the nuptials were celebrated in London, at Westminster, on the feast of St. Fabian and St. Sebastian.

Calendars. 22 Jan 1308 King Edward II of England (age 23). Dover, Kent [Map] To the Sheriff of Kent. Order to provide 75 thousands of wood and 200 quarters of charcoal for the expenses of the King's household on his return from parts beyond the sea, so that he have at Dover, Kent [Map] against the King's return 25 thousands of wood and 30 quarters of coal, and at Canterbury, Kent [Map] 30 thousands of wood and 100 quarters of coal, and at Rochester, Kent [Map] (Rofham) 20 thousands of wood and 70 quarters of coal; to be delivered by indenture to John de Sumery, scullion (scutell') of the king's household, or such as supply his place. Witness: Piers Gaveston 1st Earl Cornwall (age 24).

Calendars. 24 Jan 1308 King Edward II of England (age 23). Canterbury, Kent [Map]. To the Sheriffs of London. Order to deliver John de la Dune, Roger de Hopton, Richard le Harpour, Roger de Soppewalle, Roger le Keu, Rober le Hunt, Thomas de Sydenham, Henry le Gardener, Thomas de la More, Philip Kemp, John le Wayt, and John le Wodeward, the men and servants of Adam de Kyngeshemede, in the King's prison of Newgate [Map] for a trespass committed by them upon the King's men at Westminster [Map], from prison upon their finding sufficient mainpernor's to have them before the King (age 23) or his Lieutenant in the quinzaine of the Purification of St Mary to stand to right concerning the said trespass. Witness: Piers Gaveston 1st Earl Cornwall (age 24).

Siege of Leeds Castle

In Oct 1321 Isabella of France Queen Consort England (age 26) was returning from Canterbury, Kent [Map] to London. She sought accommodation at Leeds Castle, Kent [Map] which was under the protection of Margaret Clare Baroness Badlesmere (age 34) the wife of Bartholomew Badlesmere 1st Baron Badlesmere (age 46). Margaret Clare Baroness Badlesmere (age 34) refused entry to the Queen killing around six of her retinue when they tried to force entry. King Edward II of England (age 37) commenced the Siege of Leeds Castle. Once King Edward II of England (age 37) gained possession of the castle, he had the garrison hanged from the battlements. His wife Margaret Clare Baroness Badlesmere (age 34), her five children (Margery Badlesmere Baroness Ros of Helmsley (age 13), Maud Badlesmere Countess of Oxford (age 13), Elizabeth Badlesmere Countess Northampton (age 8), Giles Badlesmere 2nd Baron Badlesmere (age 6) and Margaret Badlesmere Baroness Tibetot (age 6)), and her nephew Bartholomew "The Elder" Burghesh 1st Baron Burghesh (age 34), were imprisoned in the Tower of London [Map].

Trial and Execution of Lord Badlesmere

On 14 Apr 1322 Bartholomew Badlesmere 1st Baron Badlesmere (age 46) was tried by Henry Cobham 1st Baron Cobham (age 62) at Canterbury, Kent [Map].

Sentenced to death Bartholomew Badlesmere 1st Baron Badlesmere (age 46) was drawn for three miles behind a horse to Blean, Canterbury, where he held property, where he was beheaded. His head was displayed on the Burgh Gate, Canterbury at Canterbury and the rest of his body left hanging at Blean, Canterbury. He was buried at Whitefriars. His nephew Henry Burghesh's (age 30) lands were also seized. These were restored around 1326.

On 03 Oct 1404 Joan Burghesh Baroness Dunster (age 85) died at Guest House Canterbury Cathedral. She was buried at Canterbury, Kent [Map].

Chronicle of Gregory 1436. 22 Jul 1436. And on Mary Magdelene is day the kyng (age 14) hylde his counselle at Cauntyrbury [Map], whythe a grete party of his lordys.

Chronicle of Gregory 1438. 04 Jun 1438. Ande the same year the iiij day of June certayne men of Kentte were a-reste at Maydestone [Map] for rysynge, and v. of them were drawe, hanggyde, and quarteryde, and be-heddyde, and her heddys were sette on Londyn Brygge [Map]; and some of her heddys at Cauntyrbury [Map] and in othyr certayne townys in Kente a boute in the schyre, for to cause men to be ware. And that year was grete dyrthe of corne, for a buschclle of whete was worthe ij s vj d. And that year was grete pestylaunce, and namely in the northe contraye.

Hall's Chronicle 1522. 27 May 1522. The King of England (age 30) was come to Canterbury [Map], the twenty-seventh day of May, and received by the Archbishop (age 72): and hearing of the Emperors arrival, with a small company on the Wednesday, being the Ascension eve, he rode to Dover, and with much joy and gladness the Emperor (age 22) and he met, and there tarried the Ascension Day, and on Friday, the King brought the Emperor aboard on his new ship, called the Henry Grace Dieu, a ship of fifteen hundred tons and rowed about to all his great ships, which then lay in Dover road. The Emperor and his lords, much praised the making of the ships, and especially the artillery, they said, they never saw ships so armed.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 14 Mar 1551. The xiiij day of Marche was hangyd, in Smyth-feld [Map], on John Mosbe and ys syster, for the death of a gentyll man of Feyversham, one M. Arden the custemer, and ys owne wyff was decaul.... and she was burnyd at Canturbery [Map] and her sarvand hangyd ther, and ij at Feyversham and on at Hospryng, and nodur in the he way to Canturbery, for the death of M. Arden of Feyversham. [and at Flusshyng was bernyd Blake Tome for the sam deth of M. Arden. [Note. This last line was added to the entry some time after it was written.]

Note. The murder of master Arden of Feversham. The particulars of this memorable domestic tragedy will be found very fully narrated in Holinshed's Chronicle; and from the Wardmote Book of Feversham in Jacob's History of that town, 8vo. 1774, p. 197. See also a long narrative among Stowe's transcripts, MS. Harl. 542, ff. 34-37. It created so great a public interest that it became the subject not only of a Ballad which will be found in Evans's collection, 1810, vol. iii. pp. 217-225; but also of a Play published in 4to. 1592, again in 1599 and 1633, and lastly in 1770, when the editor, Edward Jacob, esq. who afterwards published the History of Feversham above mentioned, in his preface offered "some reasons in favour of its being the earliest dramatic work of Shakspeare now remaining." Mr. Collier's remarks on this subject will be found in his History of the Stage and of Dramatic Poetry, iii. 52. Lillo also began a tragedy founded on the same story, which was finished by Dr. John Hoadly, and printed in 12mo. 1762.

The concern taken by the government in the prosecution of the parties guilty of this murder, is shown by the following extracts from the Privy Council book:-

"1551, 5th Marche. A Lettere to the Justyces of Peace in Kente, advertesinge them the order taken for the punishmente of those that murdered Mr. Ardeyrn; Videliset, Sicely Pounder, widowe, and Thomas Mosbye, to be hanged in Smithfield, in London; Alice Ardeyrn, to be burned at Canterburye, and Bradshawe, to be hanged there in cheanes; Michaell Saunderson, to be hanged, drawne, and quartered, at Feversham, and Elizabeth Stafford to be burned there." (MS. Harl. 352, fol. 156.) On the same day, "A Letter to the Sherifes of London, to receave of the Sherife of Kent, Cicelye Poundere, widowe, and Thomas Mosbye, to be hanged in Smithfield, for the Murder of Thomas Ardeine of Fevershame; and a Letter to the Maiore of Canterburye, to receave of the Sherife of Kente Alice Ardeine, to be burned at Canterburye, and Bradshawe, to be hanged there, for the Murder of Mr. Ardeine." (lb. fol. 157.)

The actual murderer, and also one Greene, a confederate, had escaped. The following entries will be found to correct and explain Holinshed's account of their capture.

"1551, 28th May. A Lettere to Mr. North, to enlarge one Bate out of thecountere, who convayed away one Greene, of Fevershame, after the Murdere of Mr. Ardeine was ther don, and undertaketh to brynge forthe Greene again, yf he may have libertie; providinge that he take sufficient sureties, either to become prisonere againe, or else to bringe forthe the said Greene." (lb. fol. 174.)

"1551, 15th June. A Letter to Sr. William Godolphine knighte, of thankes for his dilligence in the apprehencione of Blacke Will, that killed Mr. Arderne of Feversham, and to send him in saufe garde, with promise of paymente for the charges of the bringeres "It appears from Holinshed and from our Diary (in which this person is called Black Tom,) that he was not sent home, according to this request, but was "burnt on a scaffold, at Flushing, in Zealand."

Henry Machyn's Diary. 10 Dec 1558. The sam mornyng my lord cardenall (deceased) was [removed from] Lambeth [Map], and cared toward Canturbery [Map] with grett [company in] blake; and he was cared in a charett with [banner-]rolles wroth [wrought] with fyne gold and grett baners [of arms,] and iiij baners of santes in owllo [oil].

On 13 Oct 1566 Richard Boyle 1st Earl Cork was born at Canterbury, Kent [Map].

Evelyn's Diary. 12 Oct 1641. From Dover, I that night rode post to Canterbury, Kent [Map]. Here I visited the cathedral [Map], then in great splendour, those famous windows being entire, since demolished by the fanatics. The next morning, by Sittingboume [Map], I came to Rochester [Map], and thence to Gravesend [Map], where a light-horseman (as they call it) taking us in, we spent our tide as far as Greenwich [Map]. From hence, after we had a little refreshed ourselves at the College, (for by reason of the contagion then in London we balked the inns,) we came to London landing at Arundel-stairs [Map]. Here I took leave of his Lordship (age 56), and retired to my lodgings in the Middle Temple, being about two in the morning, the 14th of October.

Plum Pudding Riots

The Dec 1647 Plum Pudding Riots was a response to Puritan attempts to cease the celebration of Holy Days. The attempt to cancel Christmas in particular, with its twelve days of festivities, caused riots to break out in Canterbury, Kent [Map].

Evelyn's Diary. 27 Jun 1650. The next morning, by four, we set out for Canterbury, Kent [Map], where I met with my Lady Catherine Scott, whom that very day twelve months before I met at sea going for France; she had been visiting Sir Thomas Peyton, not far off, and would needs carry me in her coach to Gravesend. We dined at Sittingbourne, came late to Gravesend, and so to Deptford, taking leave of my lady about four the next morning.

Evelyn's Diary. 12 Aug 1650. Set out for Paris [Map], taking post at Gravesend, Kent [Map], and so that night to Canterbury, Kent [Map], where being surprised by the soldiers, and having only an antiquated pass, with some fortunate dexterity I got clear of them though not without extraordinary hazard, having before counterfeited one with success, it being so difficult to procure one of the rebels without entering into oaths, which I never would do. At Dover, money to the searchers and officers was as authentic as the hand and seal of Bradshawe himself, where I had not so much as my trunk opened.

Evelyn's Diary. 06 Feb 1652. I embarked early in the packet boat, but put my goods in a stouter vessel. It was calm, so that we got not to Dover [Map] till eight at night. I took horse for Canterbury, Kent [Map], and lay at Rochester [Map]; next day, to Gravesend [Map], took a pair of oars, and landed at Sayes Court [Map], where I stayed three days to refresh, and look after my packet and goods, sent by a stouter vessel. I went to visit my cousin, Richard Fanshawe (age 43), and divers other friends.

Evelyn's Diary. 05 Jan 1665. I arrived at Canterbury, Kent [Map], and went to the cathedral [Map], exceedingly well repaired since his Majesty's (age 34) return.

Evelyn's Diary. 09 Jan 1665. To Deal, Kent [Map]. 10th. To Sandwich, Kent [Map], a pretty town, about two miles from the sea. The Mayor and officers of the Customs were very diligent to serve me. I visited the forts in the way, and returned that night to Canterbury, Kent [Map].

Evelyn's Diary. 13 May 1672. To Canterbury, Kent [Map]; visited Dr. Bargrave, my old fellow-traveler in Italy, and great virtuoso.

Evelyn's Diary. 19 May 1672. We passed by Rickborough [Map], and in sight of Reculvers [Map], and so through a sweet garden, as it were, to Canterbury, Kent [Map].

Evelyn's Diary. 12 Nov 1675. We came to Canterbury, Kent [Map]: and, next morning, to Dover, Kent [Map].

On 08 May 1740 Claudia Rondeau was born to Claudius Rondeau and Jane Goodwin (age 41) posthumously at Canterbury, Kent [Map]. She died three weeks old.

On 14 Jan 1807 Henry Weekes was born in Canterbury, Kent [Map].

Watling Street 10 Richborough to Canterbury. Rutupiae [Map], Reculver, Kent [Map], Portus Lemanis [Map] to Durovernum [Map]. This route wasn't included in Margery's scheme for Watling Street.

Europe, British Isles, South-East England, Kent, Canterbury, Blean

On 14 Apr 1322 Bartholomew Badlesmere 1st Baron Badlesmere (age 46) was tried by Henry Cobham 1st Baron Cobham (age 62) at Canterbury, Kent [Map].

Sentenced to death Bartholomew Badlesmere 1st Baron Badlesmere (age 46) was drawn for three miles behind a horse to Blean, Canterbury, where he held property, where he was beheaded. His head was displayed on the Burgh Gate, Canterbury at Canterbury and the rest of his body left hanging at Blean, Canterbury. He was buried at Whitefriars. His nephew Henry Burghesh's (age 30) lands were also seized. These were restored around 1326.

Europe, British Isles, South-East England, Kent, Canterbury, Burgh Gate

On 14 Apr 1322 Bartholomew Badlesmere 1st Baron Badlesmere (age 46) was tried by Henry Cobham 1st Baron Cobham (age 62) at Canterbury, Kent [Map].

Sentenced to death Bartholomew Badlesmere 1st Baron Badlesmere (age 46) was drawn for three miles behind a horse to Blean, Canterbury, where he held property, where he was beheaded. His head was displayed on the Burgh Gate, Canterbury at Canterbury and the rest of his body left hanging at Blean, Canterbury. He was buried at Whitefriars. His nephew Henry Burghesh's (age 30) lands were also seized. These were restored around 1326.

Europe, British Isles, South-East England, Kent, Canterbury Castle [Map]

In 1247 Nicholas Moels (age 52) was appointed Constable of Canterbury Castle.

In 1463 William Peche (age 42) was appointed Constable of Canterbury Castle.

Europe, British Isles, South-East England, Kent, Canterbury, Church of St John the Baptist

In 926 Archbishop Athelm died. He was buried in the Church of St John the Baptist, Canterbury.

Europe, British Isles, South-East England, Kent, Canterbury, Iffin's Wood Bowl Barrow [Map]

Iffin's Wood Bowl Barrow is also in Bronze Age Barrows.

Archaeologia Volume 30 Section IV. 09 Feb 1843. Account of the opening by Matthew Bell, Esq. of an ancient British Barrow, in Iffins Wood [Map], near Canterbury, in the month of January, 1842, in a Letter from John Yonge Akerman (age 36) Esq. F.S.A., to Sir Henry Ellis, K.H., F.R.S., Secretary.

Read 9th February 1843.

Europe, British Isles, South-East England, Kent, Canterbury, King's School

Around 1536 William Brooke 10th Baron Cobham (age 8) educated at King's School.

Around 1576 Richard Boyle 1st Earl Cork (age 9) educated at King's School.

Europe, British Isles, South-East England, Kent, Canterbury, St Augustine's Abbey [Map]

Hall's Chronicle 1522. 31 May 1522. The same day at afternoon, the two noble princes marched forward to Canterbury, where the Mayor and Aldermen received them without the town, with a solemn oration, to whom the Emperor’s Secretary answered ornately. Then the Princes with their swords borne naked before them, and the Emperour (age 22) on the right hand, entered the city of Canterbury, and so with procession were brought to Christes Church [Map] where the Archbishop (age 72) and twelve prelates mitred, received them under a canopy, and so they offered to the Sacrament, and the Emperor was brought to the Bishop’s palace, where he lay for that night, and the King lodged at St Augustine’s [Map].

On 13 Jun 1625 King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland (age 24) and Henrietta Maria Bourbon Queen Consort England (age 15) met for the first time at St Augustine's Abbey [Map].

Bede. They proceeded by sea to Marseilles, and thence by land to Arles, and having there delivered to John, archbishop of that city, Pope Vitalian's letters of recommendation, were by him detained till Ebrin, the king's mayor of the palace, sent them a pass to go where they pleased. Having received the same, Theodore repaired to Agilbert, bishop of Paris, of whom we have spoken above, and was by him kindly received, and long entertained. But Hadrian went first to Emme, and then to Faro, bishops of Sens and Meaux, and lived with them a considerable time; for the hard winter had obliged them to rest wherever they could. King Egbert, being informed by messengers that the bishop they had asked of the Roman prelate was in the kingdom of France, sent thither his prefect, Redfrid, to conduct him; who, being arrived there, with Ebrin's leave, conveyed him to the port of Quentavic; where, being indisposed, he made some stay, and as soon as he began to recover, sailed over into Britain. But Ebrin detained Hadrian, suspecting that he went on some message from the emperor to the kings of Britain, to the prejudice of the kingdom, of which he at that time took especial care; however, when he found that he really had no such commission, he discharged him, and permitted him to follow Theodore. As soon as he came, he received from him the monastery of St. Peter the apostle [Map], where the archbishops of Canterbury are usually buried, as I have said before; for at his departure, the apostolic lord had ordered that he should provide for him in his diocese, and give him a suitable place to live in with his followers.

Europe, British Isles, South-East England, Kent, Canterbury, St George's Place

Europe, British Isles, South-East England, Kent, Canterbury, 33 St George's Place

02 Apr 1911. The Census records Jane Morris nee Burden (age 71), Elizabeth Burden (age 69) and a Lady's Maid living at 33 St George's Place.

Europe, British Isles, South-East England, Kent, Canterbury, St Martin's Church

580. St Martin's was the private chapel of Queen Bertha of Kent (age 15). Her pagan husband, King Æthelberht of Kent (age 30), facilitated her in continuing to practise her religion by renovating a Romano-British building around 580.

Bede. ST. AUGUSTINE IN KENT FOLLOWED THE DOCTRINE AND MANNER OF LIVING OF THE PRIMITIVE CHURCH, AND SETTLED HIS EPISCOPAL SEE IN THE ROYAL CITY. [A.D. 597.]

As soon as they entered the dwelling-­place assigned them they began to imitate the course of life practiced in the primitive church; applying themselves to frequent prayer, watching and fasting; preaching the word of life to as many as they could; despising all worldly things, as not belonging to them; receiving only their necessary food from those they taught; living themselves in all respects conformably to what they prescribed to others, and being always disposed to suffer any adversity, and even to die for that truth which they preached. In short, several believed and were baptized, admiring the simplicity of their innocent life, and the sweetness of their heavenly doctrine. There was on the east side of the city a church dedicated to the honour of St. Martin, built whilst the Romans were still in the island, wherein the queen (age 32), who, as has been said before, was a Christian, used to pray. In this they first began to meet, to sing, to pray, to say mass, to preach, and to baptize, till the king (age 47), being converted to the faith, allowed them to preach openly, and build or repair churches in all places.

When he, among the rest, induced by the unspotted life of these holy men, and their delightful promises, which, by many miracles, they proved to be most certain, believed and was baptized, greater numbers began daily to flock together to hear the word, and, forsaking their heathen rites, to associate themselves, by believing, to the unity of the church of Christ. Their conversion the king (age 47) so far encouraged, as that he compelled none to embrace Christianity, but only showed more affection to the believers, as to his fellow-­citizens in the heavenly kingdom. For he had learned from his instructors and leaders to salvation, that the service of Christ ought to be voluntary, not by compulsion. Nor was it long before he gave his preachers a settled residence in his metropolis of Canterbury, with such possessions of different kinds as were necessary for their subsistence.

Around 1035 Archbishop Eadsige served as a suffragan or coadjutor bishop to Archbishop Æthelnoth of Canterbury, with his see located at the church of St Martin in Canterbury.

Europe, British Isles, South-East England, Kent, Canterbury, Whitefriars

On 14 Apr 1322 Bartholomew Badlesmere 1st Baron Badlesmere (age 46) was tried by Henry Cobham 1st Baron Cobham (age 62) at Canterbury, Kent [Map].

Sentenced to death Bartholomew Badlesmere 1st Baron Badlesmere (age 46) was drawn for three miles behind a horse to Blean, Canterbury, where he held property, where he was beheaded. His head was displayed on the Burgh Gate, Canterbury at Canterbury and the rest of his body left hanging at Blean, Canterbury. He was buried at Whitefriars. His nephew Henry Burghesh's (age 30) lands were also seized. These were restored around 1326.