Europe, British Isles, England, City of London, Moorgate, Guildhall [Map]

Guildhall is in Moorgate.

1450 Jack Cade's Rebellion

1502 Trial of James Tyrrell

1554 Wyatt's Rebellion

1554 Wyatt's Rebellion Executions

1615 Thomas Overbury Murder and Trial of his Murderers

1644 Execution of Alexander Carew 2nd Baronet

Chronicle of Gregory 1443. 1443 [possibly 1442]. Ande that same year there was founde in a walle in the Gylhalle [Map] a certayne some of mony, and alle in pense, and every peny weyde j d. ob., and some a goode dele more, and some more; and it was of many dyvers cunys [coins], for some were made yn London and some in Cheschyre, and some in Lancaster, and in many othyr dyvers placys of the londe, but alle was the kyngys owne kune [coin].

1450 Jack Cade's Rebellion

Chronicle of Gregory 1450. 04 Jul 1450. Ande in the morne he come yn a-gayne, that sory and sympylle and rebellyus captayne why the his mayny; that was Satyrday, and it was also a Synt Martyn is day1, the dedycacyon of Synt Martynys in the Vyntry [Map], the iiij day of Juylle. And thenne dyvers questys were i-sompnyd at the Gylhalle [Map]; and ther Robert Home beynge alderman was a-restydeand brought in to Newegate. And that same day Wylliam Crowemere (age 34), squyer, and Scheryffe of Kentt, was be-heddyde in the fylde whythe out Algate at the mylys ende be-syde Clopton is Place. And a nothyr man that was namyde John Bayle was be-heddyd at the Whytte Chapylle. And the same day aftyr-non was be-heddyd in Cheppe a-fore the Standard [Map], Syr Jamys Fynes (age 55), beyng that tyme the lord Saye and Grrette Treserer of Ingelonde, the whyche was brought oute of the Toure of London [Map] unto the Gylde Halle [Map], and there of dyvers tresons he was exampnyd, of whyche he knowlachyd of the dethe of that notabylle and famos prynce the Duke of Glouceter. And thenne they brought him unto the Standard in Cheppe [Map], and there he ressayvyd his jewys and his dethe. And so forthe alle the iij [3] heddys that day smetyn of were sette uppon the Brygge of London [Map], and the ij othyr heddys takyn downe that stode a-pon the London Brygge by-fore. And at the comyng of the camptayne yn to Sowtheworke, he lete smyte of the hedde of a strong theff that was namyd Haywardyn.

Note 1. The Translation of St. Martin of Tours.

Wriothesley's Chronicle 1485-1509. 08 Jun 1492. The Queenes (age 26) mother (age 55)l deceased, and the Lowersm set upon Guylde Hall [Map].

Note l. Elizabeth Woodville (age 55), widow of Edward IV.

Note m. Towers.

Trial of James Tyrrell

On 02 May 1502 James Tyrrell (age 47) confessd to the murder of the Princes in the Tower at Guildhall [Map] during the Trial of James Tyrrell attended by King Henry VII of England and Ireland (age 45) and Elizabeth York Queen Consort England (age 36).

Wriothesley's Chronicle 1485-1509. 1505. This yeare was a great strife for th' election of the sheriffs in the Guylde Hall [Map]. One parte woulde have William Fitz-Williams, marchante taylor, and another Boger Grove, grocer, who at length was admitted for one of the sheriffes.a

Note a. The two sheriffs chosen for the yetr 1606 were Richard Shore and Roger Grore.

Wriothesley's Chronicle 1530-1539. 29 Oct 1530. This yeare, the morrowe after Simon and Jude,c which was the Majors feast, there dyned in the Guylde hall [Map] at the said feast the Lorde Chauncellor of Englande (age 52), the Duke of Northfolke (age 57), the Duke of Suffolke (age 46), and 9 Earles and a Bishopp, sittinge all at one table, prepared in the Majors courte in the Guyld hall [Map], and two other side tables sittinge with lordes and knightes.

Note c. October 29.

On 09 May 1546 George Blagge (age 34) was induced to deny the efficacy of the Mass, by trickery he alleged, while walking home after church. He was immediately summoned by Thomas Wriothesley (age 40), the Lord Chancellor, and sent to Newgate Prison [Map]. At his trial at the Guildhall [Map], the main witnesses for the prosecution were Littleton (age 41) and Sir Hugh Calverley (age 42), MP for Cheshire. On their evidence, Blagge (age 34) was sentenced to be burned for heresy the following Wednesday. Fortunately for him, the Lord Privy Seal, John Russell (age 61), appealed on his behalf to the king (age 54), who had not heard of the proceedings to that point. Henry (age 54) immediately pardoned Blagge and ordered Wriothesley to release him.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 14 Mar 1551. The xiiij day of Marche wa(s) raynyd at the yeld-halle [Map] a C [100] mareners for robyng on the see, and the captayne, behyng a Skott, was cared to Nugate [Map] the sam day, and serten cast.

Wriothesley's Chronicle 1551. 30 Nov 1551. The 30 of November, beinge St. Andrewes day the Apostle, at night my Lord Mayor (age 20) received a letter from the Kinges Maiesties Counsell, Mr. Recorder then being present with the mayor in his house; wherupon my Lord Mayor sent ymmediately to warne the Aldermen and theyr deputyes to be afore him at the Guylde hall [Map] the morowe after, beinge the first daye of December, at vii of the of clocke in the morninge; at which court, on theyr appearance, the sayd letter was read, which was that the Mayor and Aldermen should see to the safegard of the city for that day and night for feare of suspected and lewde persons; that done by the assent of the Court, euery alderman in his ward should ymmediately by himselfe or his deputy cause euery constable in his warde to wame euery householder within his precinct to see to his familie and to keepe his house, and to haue in a readines a man in hames in his owne house, and not goo abroade till they should be called, if need were. And further that that night they should cause a good and substantiall double watche to be kept widi householders in euery warde, which ymmedyately was done.

Diary of Edward VI. 08 Jun 1552. The lordes of the counsel sat at Gildhaul [Map] in London, where in the presence of a thousand peple they declared to the maire and bretherne their slouthfulnes in suffering unreasonable prices of thinges, and to craftesmen their wilfulnes etc, telling them that if apon this admonition they did not amende, I was holly determined to call in their liberties as confiscat, and to appoint officers that shold loke to them.

On 13 Nov 1553 Lady Jane Grey (age 17) was tried at Guildhall [Map].

Henry Machyn's Diary. 22 Jan 1554. The xxij day of January was reynyd at yeld hall [Map] the lord Robart Dudlay (age 21) for tresun, the duke of Northumberland('s) sune, and cast the sam day.

Wyatt's Rebellion

Henry Machyn's Diary. 01 Feb 1554. The sam day at after-non was a proclamasyon in Chepesyde, Ledyn-hall, and at sant Magnus [Map] corner, with harold of armes and on of the quen['s] trumpeters blohyng, and my lord mare, and my lord admerall (age 44) Haward, and the ij shreyffs, that ser Thomas Wyatt (age 33) was proclamyd traytur and rebellyous, and all ys fellowes, agaynst the Quen('s) mageste and her consell, and that he wold have the Quen in costody, and the Towre of London in kepyng; and thay convayd unto evere gatt gonnes and the bryge; and so evere gatt with men in harnes nyght and days. And a-bowt iij of the cloke at after-non the Quen('s) (age 37) grace cam rydyng from Westmynster unto yeld-hall with mony lordes, knyghts and lades, and bysshopes and haroldes of armes, and trompeturs blohynge and all the gard in harnes. [Then she declared, in an oration to the mayor and the city, and to her council, her mind concerning her marriage, that she never intended to marry out of her realm but by her council's consent and advice; and that she would never marry but all her true] sogettes [subjects] shall be content, [or else she would live] as her grace has don hederto. [But that her gr]ace wyll call a parlement [as] shortely as [may be, and] as thay shall fynd, and that [the earl of] Penbroke (age 53) shall be cheyffe capten and generall agaynst ser Thomas Wyatt (age 33) and ys felous in the [field,] that my lord admerall (age 44) for to be sosyatt with the [lord mayor] to kepe the cete from all commars therto. [After this] the Quen('s) grace came from yeld-hall [Map] and rod to the iij cranes [Map] in the vyntre, and toke her barge [to] Westmynster to her own place the sam day.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 17 Apr 1554. The xvij day of Aprell was had to Yeld-hall [Map] ser Necolaus Frogmortun (age 39), ser James a Croft (age 36), master Wynter, master Vaghan; and ther Waghan gaff evedens agaynst ser Necolas Frogmortun (age 39) of tresun, but the qwest dyd qwytt hym.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 29 Apr 1554. The xxix day of Aprell was raynyd at Yeldhall [Map] ser James a Croft (age 36), late depute of Yrland, and cast; and master Wynter whent ther too.

Wyatt's Rebellion Executions

Wriothesley's Chronicle 29 Apr 1554. 29 Apr 1554. The 29 of Aprill Sir James Croft (age 36), knight, was arrayned in the Guildhall [Map] of treason, and there by a jurie of the citizens of London condemned and had judgment of death.

Henry Machyn's Diary. Before 08 May 1554. The day of May was raynyd at Yeld-hall [Map] master Wylliam Thomas, clarke to the consell, and cast to suffer deth, to be dran and quartered.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 27 May 1555. The xxvij day of May was the Clarkes' prossessyon from Yerdhall [Map] college, and ther was a goodly masse be hard, and evere clarke havyng a cope and garland, with C. stremers borne, and the whettes playng round Chepe, and so to Ledynhall [Map] unto sant Albro chyrche [Map], [and ther] thay putt off ther gayre, and ther was the blessyd sacrament borne with torche-lyght a-bowt, and from thens unto the Barbur-hall to dener.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 30 Aug 1555. The xxx day of August was cast at yeld-hall [Map], for robyng of the quen('s) warderobe, one John Boneard, a servantt of hers, dwellyng be-syd the Warderobe at the Blake Frers, and cast. The sam day were cast, for robyng of ther masturs, ij. wher prentes, and the thurd was a servyngman, the prentes dwellyng in Boke larbere, for kepyng of herers, and after send unto the bysshop('s) presun at Startford in Essex.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 12 May 1556. The xij day of May was raynyd at Yeld-hall [Map] Wylliam Stantun, sum-tyme captayn, and cast to be drane from the Towre unto Tyburne, and hangyd and quartered, for a consperacy against the kyng and the quen and odur maters.

Note. P. 105. Conspiracy of Throgmorton, Udall, &c. The intention was to rob the exchequer, as stated in the preceding page. The person called "Wodall" and "Waddall" by Machyn, is named Richard Udall by Holinshed (but once, p. 1766, 1. 6, misprinted Veale). He was probably Richard, a younger son of sir William Uvedale of Wickham, Hants, by Dorothy, daughter and co-heir of Thomas Troyne (see the pedigree in Hutchins's Dorsetshire, 2nd edit. vol. ii. p. *503). A curious paper showing the interchanging of the names of Uvedale and Woddall will be found in the Collectanea Topogr. et Genealogica, 1838, v. 241.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 15 Jun 1556. The xv day of June was raynyd at Yeld-hall [Map] [master] Lecknolle, grome porter unto kyng Edward the vj and quen Mare, the iij yere of quen Mare, and cast to suffer deth.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 31 Jul 1556. The xxxj day of July was raynyd at the Yeld-halle [Map] .... robars of the see a vj, and the morow after thay wher hangyd at Wapyng at the low-water marke.

Note. P. 111. Pirates hung at Wapping at the low-water mark. Other instances of this will be found at pp. 131, 231, 256, 281. Stowe mentions Wapping as "the usuall place of execution for hanging of pirats and sea-rovers, at the low-water marke, there to remaine till three tides had overflowed them:" adding, that in his time the gallows had been removed to a greater distance from the city, in consequence of the street which had grown up within the last fifty years, "almost to Radcliffe, a good mile from the Tower."

Henry Machyn's Diary. 31 Oct 1557. The xxix day of October dyd my nuw lorde mayre [take] ys owth at Westmynster; and all the craftes of London [in their] bargys, and the althermen; and after-ward landyd at Powlles warf; and at the Powlles cheyrche-yerd ther the pagantt stod; and the bachelers with ther saten hodes and a lx pore men in gownes, and targets and gayffelyns in ther handes, and the trumpetes and the whettes playhyng, unto Yeld-halle [Map]; and ther dynyd, and after to Powlles, and after to my lord mayre('s) howse, and ther the althermen, and the craftes, and the bachelers, and the pagantt browth hym home.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 16 Mar 1558. The xvj day of Marche my lord mare and the althermen wher commondyd unto Yeld-halle [Map], for thay had a commondement by the qwyen (age 42) that thay shuld lend the quen a (blank) of H.; for ther sat my lord stresorer (age 75), my lord preve-saylle (age 52), and the bysshope of Elly (age 52) as commyssyonars, and my lord chanseler (age 57), with odur of the conselle.... with ij whyt branchys and xij torchys .... great tapurs, and after a grett dener within the ....

Henry Machyn's Diary. 19 Mar 1558. The xix day of Marche my lord mayre and the althermen whent unto Yeld-halle [Map], and ther all the craftes in London browth in the bylles what ther compene wold lend unto the quen('s) (age 42) grace for to helpe her in her fa ... toward the wars.

Note. P. 168. Loan from the city to the queen. A loan was then called a "prest," which is probably the word our diarist could not remember. The amount of this prest was 20,000l. and it was to bear interest at 12 per cent. (Stowe.)

Henry Machyn's Diary. 22 Mar 1558. The xxij day of Marche my lord mayre and the althermen whent unto Yeld-Halle [Map], and ther the quen('s) consell cam theder, furst my lord chanseler (age 57), my lord treysorer (age 75), my lord of preve-selle (age 52), the bysshope of Ele (age 52), and ser John Baker, secretore Peter, and mony more, and after whent to my lord mare to dener.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 01 Aug 1558. The furst day of August was chossen shreyff [for the] kyng at Yeld-halle [Map] master Hawes clothworker, [and] after was chosen shreyff of London master Cha[mpion] draper by the come(n)s [commons] of the cete.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 07 Apr 1559. The vij day was chosen at Yeld-halle [Map] a-for my lord mayre (age 50) and the masters the althermen, and all the comm(on)ers of the cete, and the craftes of London, the masters of the bryghows, master Wylliam Draper, yrmonger, and master Assyngton, lether-seller.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 01 Dec 1559. The furst day of Desember was raynyd at the Yeld-hall [Map] master Grymston captayn.

Note. P. 218. Captain Grimston arraigned for the loss of Calais. This was sir Edward Grimston, who had been appointed comptroller of Calais, Aug. 28, 1552 (King Edward's Diary.) See the pedigree of Grimston in Clutterbuck's Hertfordshire, i. 95.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 20 Dec 1559. The sam day was raynyd at the Yeld-hall [Map] master Hodylston and master Chamburlayn, captayn of the castyll in Calles, and cast boyth to suffer deth.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 10 Jun 1561. The x day of June was grantyd at Yeld-halle [Map] by my lord mare (age 52) and my masters the althermen and the commen consell iij xv toward the beldyng of Powlles chyrche [Map] and the stepulle, with as grett sped as they may gett tymbur rede [ready], and odur thynges, and worke-men.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 20 Apr 1562. The xx day of Aprell was reynyd at Yeld-hall [Map] a grett compene of marenars for robyng on the see, and a (blank) wher cast to be hangyd at a low-water mark.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 09 May 1562. The ix day of May was a lade and here ij systers browth to Yeld-hall [Map], for ther was a quest that shuld .... of them for ther nostylevyng [naughty living] of baldre done.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 07 Jul 1562. The vij day of July, Symon Smyth browth to the gyld-halle [Map] Kynlure Machen for to have lyssens [license] to have here to have a hosband Edward Gardener cowper, and they wher browth in-to the consell chamber a-for my lord mayre and the althermen and master recorder and master Surcott and master Marche, and they wher examynyd whether they where sure or not, but at the last yee sayd .... dowther [daughter] of Cristofer Machyn [Note. the author of the diary].

Henry Machyn's Diary. 01 Aug 1562. The sam day my lord mare (age 66) and the althermen and all craftes of London whent to Yeld-hall [Map] to chuse a nuw shreyff, and thay dyd chuse master Chamburlayn altherman, yrmonger, shreyff for the nex(t) yere.

Note. P. 289. Alderman Chamberlain chosen sheriff. "Rychard Chamberlen, ironmonger, alderman and late shreve of London, dyed on tuesday the xixth of November, 1566, in A° 9° Elizabeth' Regine, at his howsse in the parishe of St. Olyff in the Old Jury, and was beryed on Monday 25. of November, in the parishe churche there. He married first Anne, doughter of Robert Downe of London, ironmonger, and had issue Elizabeth wyff to Hugh Stewkley of London lawyar, Thomas Chamberlen, Rychard, Alexander, Robert, Margery, John, George; secondly, Margarat, wedo of Bristo groser of London, doter and one of th'eyrs of Nycolas Hurleton, of Cheshire, somtyme clerk of the grene cloth to king H. 8. She dyed sans issu." (MS. Harl. 897, f. 30.) Alderman Chamberlain's epitaph will be found in Stowe.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 06 Aug 1562. The vj day of August was reynyd at Yeld-hall [Map] vij, vj for qwynnyng [coining]; iiij was cast for deth, Thomas Wylford, Thomas Borow, ... Maltby, Phelipe Furney gold-smyth, and ij fr[eely] qwytt; and ther satt a-pone them my lord [justice] Chamley, ser Recherd Sakefeld, the master of the rolles, sir Martin Bowes (age 65), ser Wylliam Garett, ser William Huett, master re[corder], master Surcott, and master Chydley and master Eldertun.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 29 Oct 1562. The xxix day of October the nuw mare (age 53) [went by] water unto Westmynster, and all the althermen and the craftes of London in barges deckyd with stremars, [and there] was a goodly fuste [feast] decked with stremars and banars, with drumes, trumpetes, and gones to Westmynster playce [palace], [where] he toke ys oythe, and so home to Beynard castylle [Map], [and] with all the artheralthmen; and in Powlles chyrcheyerd [Map] ther mett (him) all the bachelars in cremesun damaske hodes, with drumes and flutes and trumpettes blohyng, and a lx powre men in bluw gownes and red capes [caps], and with targettes and jaffelyns [and] grett standardes, and iiij grett banars of armes and ... and after a goodly pagantt with goodly musyke plahyng; and to Yeld-halle [Map] to dener, for ther dynyd mony of the consell and all the juges and mony nobull men and women; and after dener the mare and all the althermen yede to Powlles with all musyke.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 16 Jun 1563. The xvj day of June dyd ryd in a care [to the] yeld-hall [Map] docthur Langton the phesyssyon in a g[own] of damaske lynyd with velvett and a cott of velvett .... and a cape [cap] of velvett, and he had pynd a bluw ho[od on] ys cape, and so cam thrugh Chepe-syd on the market [day,] and so a-bowtt London, for was taken with ij wenchys yonge a-tones.

Thomas Overbury Murder and Trial of his Murderers

After 01 Oct 1615 Gervase Helwys (age 54), Thomas Monson 1st Baronet (age 50), the gaoler Richard Weston, widow of a London doctor Mrs Anne Turner, and an apothecary James Franklin were tried for the murder of Thomas Overbury at the Guildhall [Map] by Edward Coke (age 63) and Francis Bacon 1st Viscount St Alban (age 54). It was ruled that "poisons" had been "administered" in the form of "jellies" and "tarts" by Weston, Turner and Franklin at the direction of Frances Howard Countess Essex and Somerset (age 25). Frances Howard Countess Essex and Somerset (age 25) admitted her guilt. Her husband Robert Carr 1st Earl Somerset (age 28) maintained his innocence despite King James I of England and Ireland and VI of Scotland (age 49) urging him to admit his guilt to avoid James being implicated. Frances Howard Countess Essex and Somerset (age 25) and Robert Carr 1st Earl Somerset (age 28) were found guilty and sentenced to death. King James I of England and Ireland and VI of Scotland (age 49) commuted their sentence to life imprisonment. They, along with Monson (age 50), were subsequently pardoned.

The evidence for Gervase Helwys (age 54) appeared to indicated he had attempted to undermine the plot to poison Thomas Overbury.

Execution of Alexander Carew 2nd Baronet

On 19 Nov 1644 Alexander Carew 2nd Baronet (age 35) was tried for treason, for attempting to betray the Parliamentary cause, by court-martial and convicted at Guildhall [Map].

On 23 Dec 1644 Alexander Carew 2nd Baronet (age 35) was beheaded at Tower Hill [Map]. His son John Carew 3rd Baronet (age 9) succeeded 3rd Baronet Carew of Antony in Cornwall.

Evelyn's Diary. 05 Jul 1660. I saw his Majesty (age 30) go with as much pomp and splendor as any earthly prince could do to the great city feast, the first they had invited him to since his return; but the exceeding rain which fell all that day much eclipsed its lustres. This was at Guildhall [Map], and there was also all the Parliament men, both Lords and Commons. The streets were adorned with pageants, at immense cost.

Pepy's Diary. 25 Feb 1661. Sir Wm. Pen (age 39) and I to my Lord Sandwich's (age 35) by coach in the morning to see him, but he takes physic to-day and so we could not see him. So he went away, and I with Luellin to Mr. Mount's chamber at the Cockpit [Map], where he did lie of old, and there we drank, and from thence to W. Symons where we found him abroad, but she, like a good lady, within, and there we did eat some nettle porrige, which was made on purpose to-day for some of their coming, and was very good. With her we sat a good while, merry in discourse, and so away, Luellin and I to my Lord's, and there dined. He told me one of the prettiest stories, how Mr. Blurton, his friend that was with him at my house three or four days ago, did go with him the same day from my house to the Fleet tavern by Guildhall [Map], and there (by some pretence) got the mistress of the house into their company, and by and by Luellin calling him Doctor she thought that he really was so, and did privately discover her disease to him, which was only some ordinary infirmity belonging to women, and he proffering her physic, she desired him to come some day and bring it, which he did.

Pepy's Diary. 27 Feb 1661. Then came into the garden to me young Mr. Powell and Mr. Hooke that I once knew at Cambridge, and I took them in and gave them a bottle of wine, and so parted. Then I called for a dish of fish, which we had for dinner, this being the first day of Lent; and I do intend to try whether I can keep it or no. My father dined with me and did show me a letter from my brother John (age 20), wherein he tells us that he is chosen Schollar of the house,' which do please me much, because I do perceive now it must chiefly come from his merit and not the power of his Tutor, Dr. Widdrington, who is now quite out of interest there and hath put over his pupils to Mr. Pepper, a young Fellow of the College. With my father to Mr. Rawlinson's (age 47), where we met my uncle Wight, and after a pint or two away. I walked with my father (who gave me an account of the great falling out between my uncle Fenner and his son Will) as far as Paul's Churchyard, and so left him, and I home. This day the Commissioners of Parliament begin to pay off the Fleet, beginning with the Hampshire, and do it at Guildhall [Map], for fear of going out of town into the power of the seamen, who are highly incensed against them.

Pepy's Diary. 07 Mar 1661. This morning Sir Williams both went to Woolwich, Kent [Map] to sell some old provisions there. I to Whitehall, and up and down about many businesses. Dined at my Lord's, then to Mr. Crew (age 63) to Mr. Moore, and he and I to London to Guildhall [Map] to see the seamen paid off, but could not without trouble, and so I took him to the Fleece Tavern, Cornhill, where the pretty woman that Luellin lately told me the story of dwells, but I could not see her. Then towards home and met Spicer, D. Vines, Ruddiard, and a company more of my old acquaintance, and went into a place to drink some ale, and there we staid playing the fool till late, and so I home.

Pepy's Diary. 12 Mar 1661. At the office about business all the morning, so to the Exchange [Map], and there met with Nick Osborne lately married, and with him to the Fleece, where we drank a glass of wine. So home, where I found Mrs. Hunt in great trouble about her husband's losing of his place in the Excise. From thence to Guildhall [Map], and there set my hand to the book before Colonel King for my sea pay, and blessed be God! they have cast me at midshipman's pay, which do make my heart very glad. So, home, and there had Sir W. Batten (age 60) and my Lady and all their company and Capt. Browne and his wife to a collation at my house till it was late, and then to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 16 Mar 1661. Early at Sir Wm. Pen's (age 39), and there before Mr. Turner did reconcile the business of the purveyance between us two. Then to Whitehall to my Lord's, and dined with him, and so to Whitefriars and saw "The Spanish Curate", in which I had no great content. So home, and was very much troubled that Will. staid out late, and went to bed early, intending not to let him come in, but by and by he comes and I did let him in, and he did tell me that he was at Guildhall [Map] helping to pay off the seamen, and cast the books late. Which since I found to be true. So to sleep, being in bed when he came.

Pepy's Diary. 23 Oct 1661. And thence home, calling by the way to see Sir Robert Slingsby (age 50), who continues ill, and so home. This day all our office is invited against Tuesday next, my Lord Mayor's day, to dinner with him at Guildhall [Map]. This evening Mr. Holliard (age 52) came and sat with us, and gave us both directions to observe.

Pepy's Diary. 29 Oct 1661. This day I put on my half cloth black stockings and my new coat of the fashion, which pleases me well, and with my beaver I was (after office was done) ready to go to my Lord Mayor's feast, as we are all invited; but the Sir Williams were both loth to go, because of the crowd, and so none of us went, and I staid and dined with them, and so home, and in evening, by consent, we met at the Dolphin, where other company came to us, and should have been merry, but their wine was so naught, and all other things out of order, that we were not so, but staid long at night, and so home and to bed. My mind not pleased with the spending of this day, because I had proposed a great deal of pleasure to myself this day at Guildhall [Map]. This Lord Mayor, it seems, brings up again the Custom of Lord Mayors going the day of their installment to Paul's, and walking round about the Cross, and offering something at the altar.

Pepy's Diary. 24 Jun 1662. At noon to the Change [Map], where I begin to be known also, and so home to dinner, and then to the office all the afternoon dispatching business. At night news is brought me that Field the rogue hath this day cast me at Guildhall [Map] in £30 for his imprisonment, to which I signed his commitment with the rest of the officers; but they having been parliament-men, that he hath begun the law with me; and threatens more, but I hope the Duke of York (age 28) will bear me out.

Pepy's Diary. 05 Dec 1662. This being done, I walked towards Guildhall [Map], thither being summoned by the Commissioners for the Lieutenancy; but they sat not this morning. So meeting in my way W. Swan, I took him to a house thereabouts, and gave him a morning draft of buttered ale1; he telling me still much of his Fanatique stories, as if he were a great zealot, when I know him to be a very rogue. But I do it for discourse, and to see how things stand with him and his party; who I perceive have great expectation that God will not bless the Court nor Church, as it is now settled, but they must be purified. The worst news he tells me, is that Mr. Chetwind is dead, my old and most ingenious acquaintance. He is dead, worth £3,000, which I did not expect, he living so high as he did always and neatly. He hath given W. Symons his wife £300, and made Will one of his executors.

Note 1. Buttered ale must have been a horrible concoction, as it is described as ale boiled with lump sugar and spice.

Pepy's Diary. 23 May 1663. Thence home by water, and after a dance with Pembleton to my office and wrote by the post to Sir W. Batten (age 62) at Portsmouth, Hampshire [Map] to send for him up against next Wednesday, being our triall day against Field at Guildhall [Map], in which God give us good end. So home: to supper and to bed.

Pepy's Diary. 03 Jun 1663. Up betimes, and studying of my double horizontal diall against Dean Honiwood comes to me, who dotes mightily upon it, and I think I must give it him. So after talking with Sir W. Batten (age 62), who is this morning gone to Guildhall [Map] to his trial with Field, I to my office, and there read all the morning in my statute-book, consulting among others the statute against selling of offices, wherein Mr. Coventry (age 35) is so much concerned; and though he tells me that the statute do not reach him, yet I much fear that it will.

Pepy's Diary. 29 Oct 1663. At noon I went forth, and by coach to Guild Hall [Map] (by the way calling at Mr. Rawlinson's (age 49)), and there was admitted, and meeting with Mr. Proby (Sir R. Ford's (age 49) son), and Lieutenant-Colonel Baron, a City commander, we went up and down to see the tables; where under every salt there was a bill of fare, and at the end of the table the persons proper for the table. Many were the tables, but none in the Hall but the Mayor's and the Lords of the Privy Council that had napkins1 or knives, which was very strange. We went into the Buttry, and there stayed and talked, and then into the Hall again: and there wine was offered and they drunk, I only drinking some hypocras, which do not break my vowe, it being, to the best of my present judgement, only a mixed compound drink, and not any wine2. If I am mistaken, God forgive me! but I hope and do think I am not.

Note 1. As the practice of eating with forks gradually was introduced from Italy into England, napkins were not so generally used, but considered more as an ornament than a necessary. "The laudable use of forks, Brought into custom here, as they are in Italy, To the sparing of napkins". Ben Jonson, The Devil is an Ass, act v., sc. 3. The guests probably brought their own knife and fork with them in a case.-M.B.

Note 2. A drink, composed usually of red wine, but sometimes of white, with the addition of sugar and spices. Sir Walter Scott ("Quarterly Review", vol. xxxiii.) says, after quoting this passage of Pepys, "Assuredly his pieces of bacchanalian casuistry can only be matched by that of Fielding's chaplain of Newgate, who preferred punch to wine, because the former was a liquor nowhere spoken against in Scripture"..

Pepy's Diary. 30 Nov 1663. From him and Sir W. Pen (age 42) and I back again and 'light at the 'Change [Map], and to the Coffee-house, where I heard the best story of a cheate intended by a Master of a ship, who had borrowed twice his money upon the bottomary, and as much more insured upon his ship and goods as they were worth, and then would have cast her away upon the coast of France, and there left her, refusing any pilott which was offered him; and so the Governor of the place took her and sent her over hither to find an owner, and so the ship is come safe, and goods and all; they all worth £500, and he had one way or other taken £3000. The cause is to be tried to-morrow at Guildhall [Map], where I intend to be.

Pepy's Diary. 01 Dec 1663. After dinner I to Guild Hall [Map] to hear a tryall at King's Bench, before Lord Chief Justice Hide (age 68), about the insurance of a ship, the same I mention in my yesterday's journall, where everything was proved how money was so taken up upon bottomary and insurance, and the ship left by the master and seamen upon rocks, where, when the sea fell at the ebb, she must perish. The master was offered helpe, and he did give the pilotts 20 sols to drink to bid them go about their business, saying that the rocks were old, but his ship was new, and that she was repaired for £6 and less all the damage that she received, and is now brought by one, sent for on purpose by the insurers, into the Thames, with her cargo, vessels of tallow daubed over with butter, instead of all butter, the whole not worth above £500, ship and all, and they had took up, as appeared, above £2,400. He had given his men money to content them; and yet, for all this, he did bring some of them to swear that it was very stormy weather, and [they] did all they could to save her, and that she was seven feete deep water in hold, and were fain to cut her main and foremast, that the master was the last man that went out, and they were fain to force (him) out when she was ready to sink; and her rudder broke off, and she was drawn into the harbour after they were gone, as wrecke all broken, and goods lost: that she could not be carried out again without new building, and many other things so contrary as is not imaginable more. There was all the great counsel in the Kingdom in the cause; but after one witnesse or two for the plaintiff, it was cried down as a most notorious cheate; and so the jury, without going out, found it for the plaintiff. But it was pleasant to see what mad sort of testimonys the seamen did give, and could not be got to speak in order: and then their terms such as the judge could not understand; and to hear how sillily the Counsel and judge would speak as to the terms necessary in the matter, would make one laugh: and above all, a Frenchman that was forced to speak in French, and took an English oathe he did not understand, and had an interpreter sworn to tell us what he said, which was the best testimony of all.

Pepy's Diary. 08 Feb 1664. Thence to the 'Change [Map] by coach, and after some business done, home to dinner, and thence to Guildhall [Map], thinking to have heard some pleading, but there were no Courts, and so to Cade's, the stationer, and there did look upon some pictures which he promised to give me the buying of, but I found he would have played the Jacke with me, but at last he did proffer me what I expected, and I have laid aside £10 or £12 worth, and will think of it, but I am loth to lay out so much money upon them.

Evelyn's Diary. 29 Oct 1664. Was the most magnificent triumph by water and land of the Lord Mayor. I dined at Guildhall [Map] at the upper table, placed next to Sir H. Bennett (age 46), Secretary of State, opposite to my Lord Chancellor (age 55) and the Duke of Buckingham (age 36), who sat between Monsieur Comminges, the French Ambassador, Lord Treasurer (age 57), the Dukes of Ormond (age 54) and Albemarle (age 55), Earl of Manchester (age 62), Lord Chamberlain, and the rest of the great officers of state. My Lord Mayor came twice up to us, first drinking in the golden goblet his Majesty's (age 34) health, then the French King's as a compliment to the Ambassador; we returned my Lord Mayor's health, the trumpets and drums sounding. The cheer was not to be imagined for the plenty and rarity, with an infinite number of persons at the tables in that ample hall. The feast was said to cost £1,000. I slipped away in the crowd, and came home late.

Pepy's Diary. 14 Mar 1666. Thence to Guildhall [Map] (in our way taking in Dr. Wilkins), and there my Lord and I had full and large discourse with Sir Thomas Player, the Chamberlain of the City (a man I have much heard of for his credit and punctuality in the City, and on that score I had a desire to be made known to him), about the credit of our tallys, which are lodged there for security to such as should lend money thereon to the use of the Navy. And I had great satisfaction therein: and the truth is, I find all our matters of credit to be in an ill condition.

Pepy's Diary. 02 Apr 1666. Up, and to the office and thence with Mr. Gawden to Guildhall [Map] to see the bills and tallys there in the chamber (and by the way in the streete his new coach broke and we fain to take an old Hackney).

Pepy's Diary. 24 Dec 1666. At noon to prevent my Lord Bruncker's (age 46) dining here I walked as if upon business with him, it being frost and dry, as far as Paul's, and so back again through the City by Guildhall [Map], observing the ruines thereabouts, till I did truly lose myself, and so home to dinner. I do truly find that I have overwrought my eyes, so that now they are become weak and apt to be tired, and all excess of light makes them sore, so that now to the candlelight I am forced to sit by, adding, the snow upon the ground all day, my eyes are very bad, and will be worse if not helped, so my Lord Bruncker (age 46) do advise as a certain cure to use greene spectacles, which I will do.

Pepy's Diary. 19 Dec 1667. At noon, to avoid being forced to invite him to dinner, it being his first day, and nobody inviting him, I did go to the 'Change [Map] with Sir W. Pen (age 46) in his coach, who first went to Guildhall [Map], whither I went with him, he to speak with Sheriff Gawden-I only for company; and did here look up and down this place, where I have not been before since the fire; and I see that the city are got a pace on in the rebuilding of Guildhall [Map].

Pepy's Diary. 02 Dec 1668. Up, and at the office all the morning upon some accounts of Sir Prince, and at noon abroad with W. Hewer (age 26), thinking to have found Mr. Wren (age 39) at Captain Cox's, to have spoke something to him about doing a favour for Will's uncle Steventon, but missed him. And so back home and abroad with my wife, the first time that ever I rode in my own coach, which do make my heart rejoice, and praise God, and pray him to bless it to me and continue it. So she and I to the King's playhouse, and there sat to avoid seeing Knepp in a box above where Mrs. Williams happened to be, and there saw "The Usurper"; a pretty good play, in all but what is designed to resemble Cromwell and Hugh Peters, which is mighty silly. The play done, we to White Hall; where my wife staid while I up to the Duchesse's (age 31) and Queen's (age 30) side, to speak with the Duke of York (age 35): and here saw all the ladies, and heard the silly discourse of the King (age 38), with his people about him, telling a story of my Lord Rochester's (age 21) having of his clothes stole, while he was with a wench; and his gold all gone, but his clothes found afterwards stuffed into a feather bed by the wench that stole them. I spoke with the Duke of York (age 35), just as he was set down to supper with the King (age 38), about our sending of victuals to Sir Thomas Allen's (age 35) fleet hence to Cales [Cadiz] to meet him. And so back to my wife in my coach, and so with great content and joy home, where I made my boy to make an end of the Reall Character, which I begun a great while ago, and do please me infinitely, and indeed is a most worthy labour, and I think mighty easy, though my eyes make me unable to attempt any thing in it. To-day I hear that Mr. Ackworth's cause went for him at Guildhall [Map], against his accusers, which I am well enough pleased with.

Pepy's Diary. 07 May 1669. So to the Treasury chamber, and then walked home round by the Excise Office, having by private vows last night in prayer to God Almighty cleared my mind for the present of the thoughts of going to Deb. at Greenwich, Kent [Map], which I did long after. I passed by Guildhall [Map], which is almost finished, and saw a poor labourer carried by, I think, dead with a fall, as many there are, I hear.

Evelyn's Diary. 31 Jul 1673. I went to see the pictures of all the judges and eminent men of the Long Robe, newly painted by Mr. Wright (age 56), and set up in Guildhall [Map], costing the city £1,000. Most of them are very like the persons they represent, though I never took Wright to be any considerable artist.

Evelyn's Diary. 05 May 1695. I came to Deptford, Kent [Map] from Wotton, Surrey [Map], in order to the first meeting of the Commissioners for endowing an hospital [Map] for seamen at Greenwich; it was at the Guildhall [Map], London. Present, the Archbishop of Canterbury (age 58), Lord Keeper, Lord Privy Seal, Lord Godolphin (age 49), Duke of Shrewsbury (age 34), Duke of Leeds (age 63), Earls of Dorset (age 52) and Monmouth (age 37), Commissioners of the Admiralty and Navy, Sir Robert Clayton, Sir Christopher Wren (age 71), and several more. The Commission was read by Mr. Lowndes, Secretary to the Lords of the Treasury, Surveyor-General.

Evelyn's Diary. 21 Apr 1696. We had a meeting at Guildhall [Map] of the grand committee about settling the draught of Greenwich Hospital [Map].