Earl Richmond

Earl Richmond is in Earldoms of England Alphabetically.

1359 Double Royal Wedding

1435 Death of John of Bedford

1478 Execution of George Duke of Clarence

1485 Battle of Bosworth

1485 Coronation of Henry VII

Earl Richmond (1st Creation)

In 1136 Alan "Black" Penthièvre 1st Earl Richmond (age 36) was created 1st Earl Richmond.

Before 1138 Alan "Black" Penthièvre 1st Earl Richmond (age 38) and Bertha Canhiart I Duchess Brittany (age 13) were married. She by marriage Countess Richmond. The difference in their ages was 25 years. She the daughter of Conan "Fat" Canhiart III Duke Brittany (age 41) and Matilda Fitzroy Duchess Brittany. He the son of Stephen Penthièvre Count Tréguier and Hawise Guingamp. They were half second cousin once removed. She a granddaughter of King Henry I "Beauclerc" England.

On 15 Sep 1146 Alan "Black" Penthièvre 1st Earl Richmond (age 46) died at Brittany [Map]. His son Conan "The Young" Penthièvre IV Duke Brittany (age 8) succeeded 2nd Earl Richmond.

On 20 Feb 1171 Conan "The Young" Penthièvre IV Duke Brittany (age 33) died. His daughter Constance Penthièvre Duchess Brittany (age 10) succeeded Duchess Brittany, 3rd Countess Richmond.

On 05 Sep 1201 Constance Penthièvre Duchess Brittany (age 40) died. Her son Arthur Plantagenet 3rd Duke Brittany (age 14) succeeded 3rd Duke Brittany, 4th Earl Richmond.

In 1203 Arthur Plantagenet 3rd Duke Brittany (age 16) was murdered at Rouen, France [Map]. His half sister Alix Thouars Duchess of Brittany (age 1) succeeded 5th Countess Richmond. Her half-sister Eleanor "Fair Maid of Britanny" 4th Countess of Richmond (age 19), who was imprisoned from 1202 to her death, also used the title Countess of Richmond.

In or before 1217 Peter of Dreux aka Mauclerc Duke Brittany (age 30) and Alix Thouars Duchess of Brittany (age 15) were married. He by marriage Duke Brittany 1221 Dreux, Earl Richmond. She the daughter of Guy Thouars and Constance Penthièvre Duchess Brittany. He the son of Robert Capet II Count Dreux (age 62) and Yolande Coucy Countess Dreux (age 52). They were fourth cousins. She a great x 3 granddaughter of King Henry I "Beauclerc" England.

In 1221 Alix Thouars Duchess of Brittany (age 19) died. Earl Richmond extinct. It isn't clear why her son didn't inherit the title? Her husband had been created Earl Richmond in his own right in 1218 so possible her son didn't inherit the first, contested, creation since he would succeed to the second creation.

On 02 Oct 1386 John Montfort V Duke Brittany (age 47) and Joanna of Navarre Queen Consort England (age 16) were married at Saillé [Map]. She by marriage Duchess Brittany 1221 Dreux, Countess Richmond. His third marriage, her first. The marriage proceeded when her father Charles "Bad" II King Navarre (age 53) agreed to give his daughter 120,000 gold francs and to pay 6,000 francs owed to John, duke of Brittany (age 47), for the rent of certain lands. He, John, gave her the cities of Nantes [Map] and Guerrand [Map]. The difference in their ages was 31 years. She the daughter of Charles "Bad" II King Navarre (age 53) and Joan Valois Queen Consort Navarre. They were second cousin twice removed. He a great x 2 grandson of King Henry III of England. She a great x 4 granddaughter of King Henry III of England.

Earl Richmond (2nd Creation)

In 1218 Peter of Dreux aka Mauclerc Duke Brittany (age 31) was created 1st Earl Richmond.

In 1235 Peter of Dreux aka Mauclerc Duke Brittany (age 48) forfeit the title of Earl Richmond since he was then aligned to the Kingdom of France.

In 1268 John "The Red" Capet I Duke Brittany (age 50) was restored 2nd Earl Richmond.

On 08 Oct 1286 John "The Red" Capet I Duke Brittany (age 68) died. His son John Capet II Duke Brittany (age 47) succeeded 2nd Duke Brittany 1221 Dreux, 3rd Earl Richmond.

Around 1296 John Capet II Duke Brittany (age 57) was deprived of the Earldom of Richmond since he had begun to support France.

On 15 Oct 1306 John Capet 4th Earl Richmond (age 40) was restored 4th Earl Richmond.

In 1334 John Capet 4th Earl Richmond (age 68) died. His nephew John Capet III Duke Brittany (age 47) succeeded 5th Earl Richmond.

On 30 Apr 1341 John Capet III Duke Brittany (age 55) died. Earl Richmond extinct. The succession of the Duchy of Brittany was disputed between Joan "Lame" Capet Countess Penthièvre (age 22) and John Montfort IV Duke Brittany (age 46) leading to the War of the Breton Succession. Joanna Dampierre Duchess Brittany (age 46) by marriage Duchess Brittany 1221 Dreux. His niece Joan "Lame" Capet Countess Penthièvre (age 22) succeeded Duchess Brittany 1221 Dreux. Charles "Saint" Chatillon Duke Brittany (age 22) by marriage Duke Brittany 1221 Dreux. His half brother John Montfort IV Duke Brittany (age 46) succeeded IV Duke Brittany 1221 Dreux.

In 1372 John Montfort V Duke Brittany (age 33) succeeded 6th Earl Richmond. Joan Holland Duchess Brittany (age 22) by marriage Countess Richmond.

Earl Richmond (3rd Creation)

In Apr 1240 Peter of Savoy 1st Earl of Richmond (age 37) was created 1st Earl Richmond although he never used the title. He had been granted the honour of Richmond rather than the Earldom.

On 15 May 1268 Peter of Savoy 1st Earl of Richmond (age 65) died. He left the Honour of Richmond to his niece Eleanor of Provence Queen Consort England (age 45) who transferred it to the crown.

Earl Richmond (4th Creation)

After 30 Apr 1341 Robert III Artois (age 54) was created 1st Earl Richmond.

Between 06 Oct 1342 and 20 Nov 1342 Robert III Artois (age 55) died. Earl Richmond extinct.

Earl Richmond (5th Creation)

In 1342 John of Gaunt 1st Duke Lancaster (age 1) was created 1st Earl Richmond. It isn't clear whether his older brothers Edward "Black Prince" (age 11) and Lionel Plantagenet 1st Duke of Clarence (age 3) had been created Earls before this time.

On 19 May 1359 , or thereabouts, a double-royal wedding celebration took place at Reading Abbey, Berkshire [Map] whereby two children of King Edward III of England (age 46) were married:

John of Gaunt 1st Duke Lancaster (age 19) and Blanche Plantagenet Duchess Lancaster (age 14) were married. She by marriage Countess Richmond. She the daughter of Henry of Grosmont 1st Duke Lancaster (age 49) and Isabel Beaumont Duchess Lancaster (age 39). He the son of King Edward III of England (age 46) and Philippa of Hainault Queen Consort England (age 44). They were half second cousin once removed. She a great x 2 granddaughter of King Henry III of England.

John Hastings 2nd Earl Pembroke (age 11) and Margaret Plantagenet Countess of Pembroke (age 12) were married. At the time John Hastings 2nd Earl Pembroke (age 11) was a ward of King Edward III of England (age 46) who would enjoy the benefit of the substantial revenue of the Earldom of Pembroke until John came of age nine years later in 1368. She died two or so years later probably of plague. She the daughter of King Edward III of England (age 46) and Philippa of Hainault Queen Consort England (age 44). He the son of Laurence Hastings 1st Earl Pembroke and Agnes Mortimer Countess of Pembroke (age 42). They were half fourth cousins. He a great x 5 grandson of King John "Lackland" of England.

In Sep 1372 John of Gaunt 1st Duke Lancaster (age 32) surrendered the Earldom of Richmond to his father King Edward III (age 59).

Earl Richmond (6th Creation)

On 24 Nov 1413 John Lancaster 1st Duke Bedford (age 24) was created 1st Earl Richmond.

On 14 Sep 1435 John Lancaster 1st Duke Bedford (age 46) died at Rouen Castle [Map] without legitimate issue. Duke Bedford, Duke Bedford, Earl Kendal and Earl Richmond extinct. Humphrey Lancaster 1st Duke Gloucester (age 44) became heir to the throne.

Earl Richmond (7th Creation)

On 15 Dec 1449 Edmund Tudor 1st Earl Richmond (age 19) was created 1st Earl Richmond by King Henry VI of England and II of France (age 28).

On 01 Nov 1455 Edmund Tudor 1st Earl Richmond (age 25) and Margaret Beaufort Countess Richmond (age 12) were married at Bletsoe Castle [Map]. She by marriage Countess Richmond. She the daughter of John Beaufort 1st Duke of Somerset and Margaret Beauchamp Duchess Somerset (age 45). He the son of Owen Tudor (age 55) and Catherine of Valois Queen Consort England. He a great x 5 grandson of King Edward "Longshanks" I of England. She a great x 2 granddaughter of King Edward III of England.

On 03 Nov 1456 Edmund Tudor 1st Earl Richmond (age 26) died of plague at Carmarthen Castle [Map] leaving his twelve year old wife Margaret Beaufort Countess Richmond (age 13) pregnant with their child Henry Tudor, the future King Henry VII. His son Henry Tudor succeeded 2nd Earl Richmond.

On 30 Oct 1485 King Henry VII of England and Ireland (age 28) was crowned VII King England by Cardinal Thomas Bourchier (age 67) at Westminster Abbey [Map]. Margaret Beaufort Countess Richmond (age 42), his mother, attended.

Robert Dymoke (age 24) attended as the Kings' Champion.

John de Vere 13th Earl of Oxford (age 43) carried the King's train.

Earl Richmondmerged with the Crown.

Earl Richmond (8th Creation)

In or after 1461 George York 1st Duke of Clarence (age 11) was created 1st Earl Richmond. The seventh creation was still extant being held by King Henry VII of England and Ireland (age 3) which was not recognised by the Yorkists.

On 18 Feb 1478 George York 1st Duke of Clarence (age 28) was drowned in a butt of wine (Malmsey) wine in the Bowyer Tower in the Tower of London [Map]. Duke Clarence, Earl Salisbury extinct. "in a butt of Malmsey wine" may refer to 1 a butt full of Malmsey wine or 2 a butt that once contained Malmsey wine that was subsequently re-used for another purpose such as washing or bathing.

William Hussey (age 35) conducted the impeachment of the Duke of Clarence for treason.

Richard, Duke of Gloucester (age 25) succeeded 2nd Earl Richmond.

The only other person known to have been executed, or ritually killed, by drowning in a butt of wine is Muirchertach mac Muiredaig High King of Ireland (as reported by the Annals of Ulster) in his case at Newgrange Passage Tomb [Map].

On 22 Aug 1485 King Richard III of England (age 32) was killed during the Battle of Bosworth. His second cousin once removed Henry Tudor  (age 28) succeeded VII King England. Earl Richmond forfeit.

Those supporting Henry Tudor included:

John Blount 3rd Baron Mountjoy (age 35).

John Cheney 1st Baron Cheyne (age 43).

Richard Guildford (age 35).

Walter Hungerford (age 21).

Thomas Stanley 1st Earl of Derby (age 50).

John Wingfield.

Edward Woodville Lord Scales (age 29).

Edward Courtenay 1st Earl Devon (age 26).

Rhys ap Thomas Deheubarth (age 36).

Jasper Tudor 1st Duke Bedford (age 53).

William Beaumont 2nd Viscount Beaumont (age 47).

Giles Daubeney 1st Baron Daubeney (age 34).

William Stanley (age 50).

Roger Kynaston of Myddle and Hordley (age 52).

Henry Marney 1st Baron Marney (age 38).

William Brandon (age 29) was killed.

James Harrington (age 55) was killed.

John Howard 1st Duke of Norfolk (age 60) was killed and attainted. He was buried firstly at Thetford Priory, Norfolk [Map] and therafter at Church of St Michael the Archangel, Framlingham [Map]. Duke Norfolk, Baron Mowbray, Baron Segrave forfeit.

John Sacheverell (age 85) was killed.

Philibert Chandee 1st Earl Bath

William Norreys (age 44), Gilbert Talbot (age 33), John de Vere 13th Earl of Oxford (age 42) and John Savage (age 41) commanded,.

Robert Poyntz (age 35) was knighted.

Those who fought for Richard III included:

John Bourchier 6th Baron Ferrers of Groby (age 47).

John Conyers (age 74).

Thomas Dacre 2nd Baron Dacre Gilsland (age 17).

William Berkeley 1st Marquess Berkeley (age 59).

Richard Fitzhugh 6th Baron Fitzhugh (age 28).

John Scrope 5th Baron Scrope of Bolton (age 48).

Thomas Scrope 6th Baron Scrope Masham (age 26).

Henry Grey 4th or 7th Baron Grey of Codnor (age 50).

Edmund Grey 1st Earl Kent (age 68).

Ralph Neville 3rd Earl of Westmoreland (age 29).

John de la Pole 1st Earl Lincoln (age 23).

Humphrey Stafford (age 59).

George Talbot 4th Earl of Shrewsbury (age 17).

Thomas Howard 2nd Duke of Norfolk (age 42) was wounded, captured and imprisoned in the Tower of London [Map] for three years. He was attainted; Earl Surrey forfeit.

Francis Lovell 1st Viscount Lovell (age 29) fought and escaped.

John Zouche 7th Baron Zouche Harringworth (age 26) was captured.

John Babington (age 62), William Alington (age 65), Robert Mortimer (age 43), Robert Brackenbury, Richard Ratclyffe (age 55) and Richard Bagot (age 73) were killed

Walter Devereux Baron Ferrers of Chartley (age 53) was killed.

William Catesby (age 35) was executed at Leicester, Leicestershire [Map] after the battle.

George Stanley 9th Baron Strange Knockin 5th Baron Mohun Dunster (age 25) held as a hostage by Richard III before the Battle of Bosworth.

Henry Percy 4th Earl of Northumberland (age 36) betrayed King Richard III of England (age 32) by not committing his forces at the Battle of Bosworth.

John Iwardby (age 35) was killed.