Royal Society

Royal Society is in Societies.

Evelyn's Diary. 01 Sep 1659. I communicated to Mr. Robert Boyle (age 32), son to the Earl of Cork, my proposal for erecting a philosophic and mathematic college.

Evelyn's Diary. 16 Jan 1661. I went to the Philosophic Club, where was examined the Torricellian experiment. I presented my Circle of Mechanical Trades, and had recommended to me the publishing what I had written of Chalcography.

Pepy's Diary. 23 Jan 1661. To the office all the morning. My wife and people at home busy to get things ready for tomorrow's dinner. At noon, without dinner, went into the City, and there meeting with Greatorex (age 36), we went and drank a pot of ale. He told me that he was upon a design to go to Teneriffe to try experiments there. With him to Gresham Colledge1 (where I never was before), and saw the manner of the house, and found great company of persons of honour there; thence to my bookseller's, and for books, and to Stevens, the silversmith, to make clean some plate against to-morrow, and so home, by the way paying many little debts for wine and pictures, &c., which is my great pleasure. Home and found all things in a hurry of business, Slater, our messenger, being here as my cook till very late. I in my chamber all the evening looking over my Osborn's works and new Emanuel Thesaurus Patriarchae. So late to bed, having ate nothing to-day but a piece of bread and cheese at the ale-house with Greatorex (age 36), and some bread and butter at home.

Note 1. Gresham College occupied the house of Sir Thomas Gresham, in Bishopsgate Street, from 1596, when Thomas Gresham and Lady Gresham, Sir Thomas's widow, died. The meeting which Pepys attended was an early one of the Royal Society, which was incorporated by royal charter in 1663.

Pepy's Diary. 04 Feb 1661. Home, and then with my wife to see Sir W. Batten (age 60), who could not be with us this day being ill, but we found him at cards, and here we sat late, talking with my Lady and others and Dr. Whistler1, who I found good company and a very ingenious man. So home and to bed.

Note 1. Daniel Whistler, M.D., Fellow of Merton College, whose inaugural dissertation on rickets in 1645 contains the earliest printed account of that disease. He was Gresham Professor of Geometry, 1648-57, and held several offices at the College of Physicians, being elected President in 1683. He was one of the original Fellows of the Royal Society. Dr. Munk, in his "Roll of the Royal College of Physicians", speaks very unfavourably of Whistler, and says that he defrauded the college. He died May 11th, 1684.

Evelyn's Diary. 06 Feb 1661. To London, to our Society, where I gave notice of the visit of the Danish Ambassador-Extraordinary, and was ordered to return him their acceptance of that honor, and to invite him the next meeting day.

Evelyn's Diary. 13 Mar 1661. Our Society now gave in my relation of the Peak of Teneriffe, in the Great Canaries, to be added to more queries concerning divers natural things reported of that island.

Evelyn's Diary. 01 Apr 1661. I dined with that great mathematician and virtuoso, Monsieur Zulichem, inventor of the pendule clock, and discoverer of the phenomenon of Saturn's annulus: he was elected into our Society.

Evelyn's Diary. 03 May 1661. This evening, I was with my Lord Brouncker (age 50), Sir Robert Murray (age 53), Sir Patrick Neill, Monsieur Zulichem, and Bull (all of them of our Society, and excellent mathematicians), to show his Majesty (age 30), who was present, Saturn's annulus, as some thought, but as Zulichem affirmed with his balteus (as that learned gentleman had published), very near eclipsed by the moon, near the Mons Porphyritis; also, Jupiter and satellites, through his Majesty's (age 30) great telescope, drawing thirty-five feet; on which were divers discourses.

Evelyn's Diary. 14 May 1661. His Majesty (age 30) was pleased to discourse with me concerning several particulars relating to our Society, and the planet Saturn, etc., as he sat at supper in the withdrawing-room to his bedchamber.

Evelyn's Diary. 20 Nov 1661. At the Royal Society, Sir William Petty (age 38) proposed divers things for the improvement of shipping; a versatile keel that should be on hinges and concerning sheathing ships with thin lead.

Evelyn's Diary. 03 Dec 1661. By universal suffrage of our philosophic assembly, an order was made and registered that I should receive their public thanks for the honorable mention I made of them by the name of Royal Society, in my Epistle dedicatory to the Lord Chancellor (age 52), before my Traduction of Naudæus. Too great an honor for a trifle.

Pepy's Diary. 28 Apr 1662. The Doctor and I begun philosophy discourse exceeding pleasant. He offers to bring me into the college of virtuosoes [The Royal Society.] and my Lord Brouncker's acquaintance, and to show me some anatomy, which makes me very glad; and I shall endeavour it when I come to London. Sir W. Pen (age 41) much troubled upon letters came last night. Showed me one of Dr. Owen's1 to his son, [William Penn (age 17), the celebrated Quaker.] whereby it appears his son is much perverted in his opinion by him; which I now perceive is one thing that hath put Sir William so long off the hooks. By coach to the Pay-house, and so to work again, and then to dinner, and to it again, and so in the evening to the yard, and supper and bed.

Note 1. John Owen, D.D., a learned Nonconformist divine, and a voluminous theological writer, born 1616, made Dean of Christ Church in 1653 by the Parliament, and ejected in 1659-60. He died at Ealing in 1683.

Evelyn's Diary. 10 Jun 1662. I returned to London, and presented my History of Chalcography (dedicated to Mr. Boyle (age 35)) to our Society.

Evelyn's Diary. 13 Aug 1662. Our Charter being now passed under the broad Seal, constituting us a corporation under the name of the Royal Society for the improvement of natural knowledge by experiment, was this day read and was all that was done this afternoon, being very large.

Evelyn's Diary. 29 Aug 1662. The Council and Fellows of the Royal Society went in a body to Whitehall [Map], to acknowledge his Majesty's (age 32) royal grace in granting our Charter, and vouchsafing to be himself our founder; when the President made an eloquent speech, to which his Majesty (age 32) gave a gracious reply and we all kissed his hand. Next day we went in like manner with our address to my Lord Chancellor (age 53), who had much promoted our patent: he received us with extraordinary favor. In the evening I went to the Queen-Mother's (age 52) Court, and had much discourse with her.

Evelyn's Diary. 17 Sep 1662. We now resolved that the Arms of the Society should be a field argent, with a canton of the arms of England; the supporters two talbots argent; crest, an eagle Or holding a shield with the like arms of England, viz, three lions. The words "Nullius in verbâ". It was presented to his Majesty (age 32) for his approbation, and orders given to Garter King-at-Arms (age 51) to pass the diploma of their office for it.

Evelyn's Diary. 15 Oct 1662. I this day delivered my "Discourse concerning Forest Trees" to the Society, upon occasion of certain queries sent to us by the Commissioners of his Majestie's Navy, being the first book that was printed by order of the Society, and by their printer, since it was a corporation.

Pepy's Diary. 20 May 1663. Up and to my office, and anon home and to see my wife dancing with Pembleton about noon, and I to the Trinity House, Deptford [Map] to dinner and after dinner home, and there met Pembleton, who I perceive has dined with my wife, which she takes no notice of, but whether that proceeds out of design, or fear to displease me I know not, but it put me into a great disorder again, that I could mind nothing but vexing, but however I continued my resolution of going down by water to Woolwich, Kent [Map], took my wife and Ashwell; and going out met Mr. Howe come to see me, whose horse we caused to be set up, and took him with us. The tide against us, so I went ashore at Greenwich, Kent [Map] before, and did my business at the yard about putting things in order as to their proceeding to build the new yacht ordered to be built by Christopher Pett1, and so to Woolwich, Kent [Map] town, where at an alehouse I found them ready to attend my coming, and so took boat again, it being cold, and I sweating, with my walk, which was very pleasant along the green come and pease, and most of the way sang, he and I, and eat some cold meat we had, and with great pleasure home, and so he took horse again, and Pembleton coming, we danced a country dance or two and so broke up and to bed, my mind restless and like to be so while she learns to dance. God forgive my folly.

Note 1. In the minutes of the Royal Society is the following entry: "June 11, 1662. Dr. Pett's brother shewed a draught of the pleasure boat which he intended to make for the King (age 32)" (Birch's "History of the Royal Society", vol. i., p. 85). Peter Pett had already built a yacht for the King (age 32) at Deptford.

Pepy's Diary. 02 Oct 1663. So home to dinner with my wife, who is over head and eares in getting her house up, and so to the office, and with Mr. Lewes, late, upon some of the old victuallers' accounts, and so home to supper and to bed, up to our red chamber, where we purpose always to lie. This day I received a letter from Mr. Barlow, with a Terella1, which I had hoped he had sent me, but to my trouble I find it is to present from him to my Lord Sandwich (age 38), but I will make a little use of it first, and then give it him.

Note 1. Professor Silvanus P. Thompson, F.R.S., has kindly supplied me with the following interesting note on the terrella (or terella): The name given by Dr. William Gilbert, author of the famous treatise, "De Magnete" (Lond. 1600), to a spherical loadstone, on account of its acting as a model, magnetically, of the earth; compass-needles pointing to its poles, as mariners' compasses do to the poles of the earth. The term was adopted by other writers who followed Gilbert, as the following passage from Wm. Barlowe's "Magneticall Advertisements" (Lond. 1616) shows: "Wherefore the round Loadstone is significantly termed by Doct. Gilbert Terrella, that is, a little, or rather a very little Earth: For it representeth in an exceeding small model (as it were) the admirable properties magneticall of the huge Globe of the earth" (op. cit, p. 55). Gilbert set great store by his invention of the terrella, since it led him to propound the true theory of the mariners' compass. In his portrait of himself which he had painted for the University of Oxford he was represented as holding in his hand a globe inscribed terella. In the Galileo Museum in Florence there is a terrella twenty-seven inches in diameter, of loadstone from Elba, constructed for Cosmo de' Medici. A smaller one contrived by Sir Christopher Wren (age 39) was long preserved in the museum of the Royal Society (Grew's "Rarities belonging to the Royal Society", p. 364). Evelyn was shown "a pretty terrella described with all ye circles and skewing all y magnetic deviations" (Diary, July 3rd, 1655).

On 30 Nov 1663 Abraham Hill (age 30) was elected Treasurer of the Royal Society which office he held until 30 Nov 1665.

Evelyn's Diary. 30 Nov 1663. Was the first anniversary of our Society for the choice of new officers, according to the tenor of our patent and institution. It being St. Andrew's day, who was our patron, each fellow wore a St. Andrew's cross of ribbon on the crown of his hat. After the election we dined together, his Majesty (age 33) sending us venison.

Evelyn's Diary. 16 Dec 1663. To our Society, where Mr. P. Balle, our treasurer at the late election, presented the Society with an iron chest, having three locks, and in it £100 as a gift.

Evelyn's Diary. 16 Feb 1664. I presented my "Sylva" to the Society; and next day to his Majesty (age 33), to whom it was dedicated; also to the Lord Treasurer (age 56) and the Lord Chancellor (age 54).

Evelyn's Diary. 08 Jun 1664. To our Society, to which his Majesty (age 34) had sent that wonderful horn of the fish which struck a dangerous hole in the keel of a ship in the India sea, which, being broken off with the violence of the fish, and left in the timber, preserved it from foundering.

Pepy's Diary. 25 Jun 1664. At noon to dinner, and then to my office busy, and by and by home with Deane (age 30) to a lesson upon raising a Bend of Timbers1, and he being gone I to the office, and there came Captain Taylor, and he and I home, and I have done all very well with him as to the business of the last trouble, so that come what will come my name will be clear of any false dealing with him. So to my office again late, and then to bed.

Note 1. This seems to refer to knee timber, of which there was not a sufficient supply. A proposal was made to produce this bent wood artificially: "June 22, 1664. Sir William Petty (age 41) intimated that it seemed by the scarcity and greater rate of knee timber that nature did not furnish crooked wood enough for building: wherefore he thought it would be fit to raise by art, so much of it in proportion, as to reduce it to an equal rate with strait timber" (Birch's "History of the Royal Society",).

Evelyn's Diary. 05 Oct 1664. To our Society. There was brought a newly-invented instrument of music, being a harpsichord with gut-strings, sounding like a concert of viols with an organ, made vocal by a wheel, and a zone of parchment that rubbed horizontally against the strings.

Evelyn's Diary. 23 Nov 1664. Our statutes now finished, were read before a full assembly of the Royal Society.

Pepy's Diary. 02 Jan 1665. Thence to my bookseller's and at his binder's saw Hooke's (age 29) book of the microscope1, which is so pretty that I presently bespoke it, and away home to the office, where we met to do something, and then though very late by coach to Sir Ph. Warwicke's (age 55), but having company with him could not speak with him.

Note 1. "Micrographia: or some physiological descriptions of minute bodies made by Magnifying Glasses. London, 1665", a very remarkable work with elaborate plates, some of which have been used for lecture illustrations almost to our own day. On November 23rd, 1664, the President of the Royal Society was "desired to sign a licence for printing of Mr. Hooke's microscopical book". At this time the book was mostly printed, but it was delayed, much to Hooke's disgust, by the examination of several Fellows of the Society. In spite of this examination the council were anxious that the author should make it clear that he alone was responsible for any theory put forward, and they gave him notice to that effect. Hooke made this clear in his dedication (see Birch's "HISTORY", vol. i., pp. 490-491).

Pepy's Diary. 09 Jan 1665. To the Duke (age 31), and there did our usual worke. Here I saw the Royal Society bring their new book, wherein is nobly writ their charter' and laws, and comes to be signed by the Duke (age 31) as a Fellow; and all the Fellows' hands are to be entered there, and lie as a monument; and the King (age 34) hath put his with the word Founder.

Pepy's Diary. 15 Feb 1665. Thence with Creed to Gresham College, where I had been by Mr. Povy (age 51) the last week proposed to be admitted a member1 and was this day admitted, by signing a book and being taken by the hand by the President, my Lord Brunkard (age 45), and some words of admittance said to me. But it is a most acceptable thing to hear their discourse, and see their experiments; which were this day upon the nature of fire, and how it goes out in a place where the ayre is not free, and sooner out where the ayre is exhausted, which they showed by an engine on purpose. After this being done, they to the Crowne Taverne, behind the 'Change [Map], and there my Lord and most of the company to a club supper; Sir P. Neale (age 52), Sir R. Murrey, Dr. Clerke, Dr. Whistler, Dr. Goddard, and others of most eminent worth. Above all, Mr. Boyle (age 38) to-day was at the meeting, and above him Mr. Hooke (age 29), who is the most, and promises the least, of any man in the world that ever I saw. Here excellent discourse till ten at night, and then home, and to Sir W. Batten's (age 64), where I hear that Sir Thos. Harvy intends to put Mr. Turner out of his house and come in himself, which will be very hard to them, and though I love him not, yet for his family's sake I pity him. So home and to bed.

Note 1. According to the minutes of the Royal Society for February 15th, 1664-65, "Mr. Pepys was unanimously elected and admitted". Notes of the experiments shown by Hooke and Boyle are given in Birch's "History of the Royal Society", vol. ii., p. 15.

Pepy's Diary. 19 Mar 1665. Lord's Day. Mr. Povy (age 51) sent his coach for me betimes, and I to him, and there to our great trouble do find that my Lord FitzHarding (age 35) do appear for Mr. Brunkard (age 38)1 to be Paymaster upon Povy's (age 51) going out, by a former promise of the Duke's (age 31), and offering to give as much as any for it. This put us all into a great dumpe, and so we went to Creed's new lodging in the Mewes, and there we found Creed with his parrot upon his shoulder, which struck Mr. Povy (age 51) coming by just by the eye, very deep, which, had it hit his eye, had put it out. This a while troubled us, but not proving very bad, we to our business consulting what to do; at last resolved, and I to Mr. Coventry (age 37), and there had his most friendly and ingenuous advice, advising me not to decline the thing, it being that that will bring me to be known to great persons, while now I am buried among three or four of us, says he, in the Navy; but do not make a declared opposition to my Lord FitzHarding (age 35).

Note 1. Henry Brouncker (age 38), younger brother of William, Viscount Brouncker, President of the Royal Society. He was Groom of the Bedchamber to the Duke of York (age 31), and succeeded to the office of Cofferer on the death of William Ashburnham in 1671. His character was bad, and his conduct in the sea-fight of 1665 was impugned. He was expelled from the House of Commons, but succeeded to his brother's title in 1684. He died in January, 1687.

Pepy's Diary. 19 Apr 1665. And so, being very pleasant at dinner, away home, Creed with me; and there met Povy (age 51); and we to Gresham College, where we saw some experiments upon a hen, a dogg, and a cat, of the Florence poyson1. The first it made for a time drunk, but it come to itself again quickly; the second it made vomitt mightily, but no other hurt.

Note 1. "Sir Robert Moray (age 57) presented the Society from the King (age 34) with a phial of Florentine poison sent for by his Majesty from Florence, on purpose to have those experiments related of the efficacy thereof, tried by the Society". The poison had little effect upon the kitten (Birch's "HISTORY"; vol. ii., p. 31).

Evelyn's Diary. 08 Jun 1665. I went again to his Grace, thence to the Council, and moved for another privy seal for £20,000, and that I might have the disposal of the Savoy Hospital for the sick and wounded; all which was granted. Hence to the Royal Society, to refresh among the philosophers.

Pepy's Diary. 21 Feb 1666. Thence with my Lord Bruncker (age 46) to Gresham College, the first time after the sicknesse that I was there, and the second time any met. And here a good lecture of Mr. Hooke's (age 30) about the trade of felt-making, very pretty. And anon alone with me about the art of drawing pictures by Prince Rupert's (age 46) rule and machine, and another of Dr. Wren's (age 42)1 but he says nothing do like squares, or, which is the best in the world, like a darke roome, [The camera obscura.] which pleased me mightily.

Note 1. Afterwards the famous Sir Christopher Wren (age 42). He was one of the mainstays of the Royal Society.

Evelyn's Diary. 22 Mar 1666. The Royal Society reassembled, after the dispersion from the contagion.

Evelyn's Diary. 01 Apr 1666. To London, to consult about ordering the natural rarities belonging to the repository of the Royal Society; referred to a Committee.

Evelyn's Diary. 11 Apr 1666. Dr. Bathurst (age 46) preached before the King (age 35), from "I say unto you all, watch"-a seasonable and most excellent discourse. When his Majesty (age 35) came from chapel, he called to me in the lobby, and told me he must now have me sworn for a Justice of Peace (having long since made me of the Commission); which I declined as inconsistent with the other service I was engaged in, and humbly desired to be excused. After dinner, waiting on him, I gave him the first notice of the Spaniards referring the umpirage of the peace between them and Portugal to the French King, which came to me in a letter from France before the Secretaries of State had any news of it. After this, his Majesty (age 35) again asked me if I had found out any able person about our parts that might supply my place of Justice of Peace (the office in the world I had most industriously avoided, in regard of the perpetual trouble thereof in these numerous parishes); on which I nominated one, whom the King (age 35) commanded me to give immediate notice of to my Lord Chancellor (age 57), and I should be excused; for which I rendered his Majesty (age 35) many thanks. From thence, I went to the Royal Society, where I was chosen by twenty-seven voices to be one of their Council for the ensuing year; but, upon my earnest suit in respect of my other affairs, I got to be excused-and so home.

Evelyn's Diary. 28 Aug 1666. Sat at the Star-chamber. Next day, to the Royal Society, where one Mercator, an excellent mathematician, produced his rare clock and new motion to perform the equations, and Mr. Rooke, his new pendulum.

Pepy's Diary. 14 Nov 1666. So took up my wife, her brother being yet very bad, and doubtful whether he will recover or no, and so to St. Ellen's [St. Helen's], and there sent my wife home, and myself to the Pope's Head, where all the Houblons were, and Dr. Croone1, and by and by to an exceeding pretty supper, excellent discourse of all sorts, and indeed [they] are a set of the finest gentlemen that ever I met withal in my life. Here Dr. Croone told me, that, at the meeting at Gresham College to-night, which, it seems, they now have every Wednesday again, there was a pretty experiment of the blood of one dogg let out, till he died, into the body of another on one side, while all his own run out on the other side2. The first died upon the place, and the other very well, and likely to do well. This did give occasion to many pretty wishes, as of the blood of a Quaker to be let into an Archbishop, and such like; but, as Dr. Croone says, may, if it takes, be of mighty use to man's health, for the amending of bad blood by borrowing from a better body.

Note 1. William Croune, or Croone, of Emanuel College, Cambridge, chosen Rhetoric Professor at Gresham College, 1659, F.R.S. and M.D. Died October 12th, 1684, and was interred at St. Mildred's in the Poultry. He was a prominent Fellow of the Royal Society and first Registrar. In accordance with his wishes his widow (who married Sir Edwin Sadleir, Bart.) left by will one-fifth of the clear rent of the King's Head tavern in or near Old Fish Street, at the corner of Lambeth Hill, to the Royal Society for the support of a lecture and illustrative experiments for the advancement of natural knowledge on local motion. The Croonian lecture is still delivered before the Royal Society.

Note 2. At the meeting on November 14th, "the experiment of transfusing the blood of one dog into another was made before the Society by Mr. King and Mr. Thomas Coxe upon a little mastiff and a spaniel with very good success, the former bleeding to death, and the latter receiving the blood of the other, and emitting so much of his own, as to make him capable of receiving that of the other". On November 21st the spaniel "was produced and found very well" (Birch's "History of the Royal Society", vol. ii., pp. 123, 125). The experiment of transfusion of blood, which occupied much of the attention of the Royal Society in its early days, was revived within the last few years.

Pepy's Diary. 28 Nov 1666. Here was Mr. Henry Howard (age 38), that will hereafter be Duke of Norfolke, who is admitted this day into the Society, and being a very proud man, and one that values himself upon his family, writes his name, as he do every where, Henry Howard of Norfolke.

Pepy's Diary. 07 Jan 1667. He tells me how the Parliament is grown so jealous of the King's being unfayre to them in the business of the Bill for examining Accounts, Irish Bill, and the business of the Papists, that they will not pass the business for money till they see themselves secure that those Bills will pass; which they do observe the Court to keep off till all the Bills come together, that the King (age 36) may accept what he pleases, and what he pleases to reject, which will undo all our business and the Kingdom too. He tells me how Mr. Henry Howard (age 38), of Norfolke, hath given our Royal Society all his grandfather's library: which noble gift they value at £1000; and gives them accommodation to meet in at his house, Arundell House [Map], they being now disturbed at Gresham College.

Evelyn's Diary. 09 Jan 1667. To the Royal Society, which since the sad conflagration were invited by Mr. Howard to sit at Arundel House [Map] in the Strand, who at my instigation likewise bestowed on the Society that noble library which his grandfather especially, and his ancestors had collected. This gentleman had so little inclination to books, that it was the preservation of them from embezzlement.

Pepy's Diary. 09 Jan 1667. Thence to Faythorne (age 51), and bought a head or two; one of them my Lord of Ormond's (age 56), the best I ever saw, and then to Arundell House [Map], where first the Royall Society meet, by the favour of Mr. Harry Howard (age 38), who was there, and has given us his grandfather's library, a noble gift, and a noble favour and undertaking it is for him to make his house the seat for this college. Here was an experiment shown about improving the use of powder for creating of force in winding up of springs and other uses of great worth. And here was a great meeting of worthy noble persons; but my Lord Bruncker (age 47), who pretended to make a congratulatory speech upon their coming hither, and in thanks to Mr. Howard (age 38), do it in the worst manner in the world, being the worst speaker, so as I do wonder at his parts and the unhappiness of his speaking.

Pepy's Diary. 30 May 1667. After dinner I walked to Arundell House [Map], the way very dusty, the day of meeting of the Society being changed from Wednesday to Thursday, which I knew not before, because the Wednesday is a Council-day, and several of the Council are of the Society, and would come but for their attending the King (age 37) at Council; where I find much company, indeed very much company, in expectation of the Duchesse of Newcastle (age 44), who had desired to be invited to the Society; and was, after much debate, pro and con., it seems many being against it; and we do believe the town will be full of ballads of it.

Evelyn's Diary. 30 May 1667. To London, to wait on the Duchess of Newcastle (age 44) (who was a mighty pretender to learning, poetry, and philosophy, and had in both published divers books) to the Royal Society, whither she came in great pomp, and being received by our Lord President at the door of our meeting-room, the mace, etc., carried before him, had several experiments shown to her. I conducted her Grace (age 44) to her coach, and returned home.

Pepy's Diary. 10 Aug 1667. After dinner I to the office, and there wrote as long as my eyes would give me leave, and then abroad and to the New Exchange, to the bookseller's there, where I hear of several new books coming out-Mr. Spratt's History of the Royal Society, and Mrs. Phillips's' poems. Sir John Denham's (age 52) poems are going to be all printed together; and, among others, some new things; and among them he showed me a copy of verses of his upon Sir John Minnes's (age 68) going heretofore to Bullogne to eat a pig1. Cowley (deceased), he tells me, is dead; who, it seems, was a mighty civil, serious man; which I did not know before. Several good plays are likely to be abroad soon, as Mustapha and Henry the 5th. Here having staid and divertised myself a good while, I home again and to finish my letters by the post, and so home, and betimes to bed with my wife because of rising betimes to-morrow.

Note 1. The collected edition of Denham's (age 52) poems is dated 1668. The verses referred to are inscribed "To Sir John Mennis being invited from Calice to Bologne to eat a pig", and two of the lines run "Little Admiral John To Bologne is gone"..

Evelyn's Diary. 31 Oct 1667. My birthday-blessed be God for all his mercies! I made the Royal Society a present of the Table of Veins, Arteries, and Nerves, which great curiosity I had caused to be made in Italy, out of the natural human bodies, by a learned physician, and the help of Veslingius (Professor at Padua), from whence I brought them in 1646. For this I received the public thanks of the Society; and they are hanging up in their repository with an inscription.

Pepy's Diary. 06 Nov 1667. Thence homeward, and called at Allestry's, the bookseller, who is bookseller to the Royal Society, and there did buy three or four books, and find great variety of French and foreign books. And so home and to dinner, and after dinner with my wife to a play, and the girl-"Macbeth", which we still like mightily, though mighty short of the content we used to have when Betterton (age 32) acted, who is still sick.

Pepy's Diary. 14 Nov 1667. Thence by coach took up my wife and girl, and so home, and set down Creed at Arundell House [Map], going to the Royal Society, whither I would be glad to go, but cannot.

Pepy's Diary. 21 Nov 1667. From this we fell to other discourse, and very good; among the rest they discourse of a man that is a little frantic, that hath been a kind of minister, Dr. Wilkins (age 53) saying that he hath read for him in his church, that is poor and a debauched man, that the College' have hired for 20s. to have some of the blood of a sheep let into his body; and it is to be done on Saturday next1. They purpose to let in about twelve ounces; which, they compute, is what will be let in in a minute's time by a watch. They differ in the opinion they have of the effects of it; some think it may have a good effect upon him as a frantic man by cooling his blood, others that it will not have any effect at all. But the man is a healthy man, and by this means will be able to give an account what alteration, if any, he do find in himself, and so may be usefull. On this occasion, Dr. Whistler told a pretty story related by Muffet, a good author, of Dr. Caius, that built Keys College; that, being very old, and living only at that time upon woman's milk, he, while he fed upon the milk of an angry, fretful woman, was so himself; and then, being advised to take it of a good-natured, patient woman, he did become so, beyond the common temper of his age. Thus much nutriment, they observed, might do. Their discourse was very fine; and if I should be put out of my office, I do take great content in the liberty I shall be at of frequenting these gentlemen's company. Broke up thence and home, and there to my wife in her chamber, who is not well (of those), and there she tells me great stories of the gossiping women of the parish-what this, and what that woman was; and, among the rest, how Mrs. Hollworthy is the veriest confident bragging gossip of them all, which I should not have believed; but that Sir R. Brookes (age 30), her partner, was mighty civil to her, and taken with her, and what not. My eyes being bad I spent the evening with her in her chamber talking and inventing a cypher to put on a piece of plate, which I must give, better than ordinary, to the Parson's child, and so to bed, and through my wife's illness had a bad night of it, and she a worse, poor wretch!

Note 1. This was Arthur Coga, who had studied at Cambridge, and was said to be a bachelor of divinity. He was indigent, and "looked upon as a very freakish and extravagant man". Dr. King, in a letter to the Hon. Robert Boyle (age 40), remarks "that Mr. Coga was about thirty-two years of age; that he spoke Latin well, when he was in company, which he liked, but that his brain was sometimes a little too warm". The experiment was performed on November 23rd, 1667, by Dr. King, at Arundel House, in the presence of many spectators of quality, and four or five physicians. Coga wrote a description of his own case in Latin, and when asked why he had not the blood of some other creature, instead of that of a sheep, transfused into him, answered, "Sanguis ovis symbolicam quandam facultatem habet cum sanguine Christi, quia Christus est agnus Dei" [Note. "Sheep's blood has some symbolic power, like the blood of Christ, for Christ is the Lamb of God."] (Birch's "History of the Royal Society", vol. ii., pp. 214-16). Coga was the first person in England to be experimented upon; previous experiments were made by the transfusion of the blood of one dog into another. See November 14th, 1666 (vol. vi., p. 64).

Pepy's Diary. 30 Nov 1667. Up, and to the office, where all the morning, and then by coach to Arundel House [Map], to the election of Officers for the next year; where I was near being chosen of the Council, but am glad I was not, for I could not have attended, though, above all things, I could wish it; and do take it as a mighty respect to have been named there. The company great, and the elections long, and then to Cary House, a house now of entertainment, next my Lord Ashly's (age 46); and there, where I have heretofore heard Common Prayer in the time of Dr. Mossum, we after two hours' stay, sitting at the table with our napkins open, had our dinners brought, but badly done. But here was good company. I choosing to sit next Dr. Wilkins (age 53), Sir George Ent, and others whom I value, there talked of several things. Among others Dr. Wilkins, talking of the universal speech, of which he hath a book coming out, did first inform me how man was certainly made for society, he being of all creatures the least armed for defence, and of all creatures in the world the young ones are not able to do anything to help themselves, nor can find the dug without being put to it, but would die if the mother did not help it; and, he says, were it not for speech man would be a very mean creature. Much of this good discourse we had. But here, above all, I was pleased to see the person who had his blood taken out. He speaks well, and did this day give the Society a relation thereof in Latin, saying that he finds himself much better since, and as a new man, but he is cracked a little in his head, though he speaks very reasonably, and very well. He had but 20s. for his suffering it, and is to have the same again tried upon him: the first sound man that ever had it tried on him in England, and but one that we hear of in France, which was a porter hired by the virtuosos. Here all the afternoon till within night. Then I took coach and to the Exchange [Map], where I was to meet my wife, but she was gone home, and so I to Westminster Hall [Map], and there took a turn or two, but meeting with nobody to discourse with, returned to Cary House, and there stayed and saw a pretty deception of the sight by a glass with water poured into it, with a stick standing up with three balls of wax upon it, one distant from the other. How these balls did seem double and disappear one after another, mighty pretty! Here Mr. Carcasse did come to me, and brought first Mr. Colwall, our Treasurer, and then Dr. Wilkins to engage me to be his friend, and himself asking forgiveness and desiring my friendship, saying that the Council have now ordered him to be free to return to the Office to be employed. I promised him my friendship, and am glad of this occasion, having desired it; for there is nobody's ill tongue that I fear like his, being a malicious and cunning bold fellow.

Buckingham Shrewsbury Duel

Pepy's Diary. 17 Jan 1668. Up, and by coach to White Hall to attend the Council there, and here I met first by Mr. Castle (age 39) the shipwright, whom I met there, and then from the whole house the discourse of the duell yesterday between the Duke of Buckingham (age 39), Holmes, and one Jenkins, on one side, and my Lord of Shrewsbury (age 45), Sir John Talbot (age 37), and one Bernard Howard (age 27), on the other side: and all about my Lady Shrewsbury (age 25)1, who is a whore, and is at this time, and hath for a great while been, a whore to the Duke of Buckingham (age 39). And so her husband (age 45) challenged him, and they met yesterday in a close near Barne-Elmes, and there fought: and my Lord Shrewsbury (age 45) is run through the body, from the right breast through the shoulder: and Sir John Talbot (age 37) all along up one of his armes; and Jenkins killed upon the place, and the rest all, in a little measure, wounded. This will make the world think that the King (age 37) hath good councillors about him, when the Duke of Buckingham (age 39), the greatest man about him, is a fellow of no more sobriety than to fight about a whore. And this may prove a very bad accident to the Duke of Buckingham (age 39), but that my Baroness Castlemayne (age 27) do rule all at this time as much as ever she did, and she will, it is believed, keep all matters well with the Duke of Buckingham (age 39): though this is a time that the King (age 37) will be very backward, I suppose, to appear in such a business. And it is pretty to hear how the King (age 37) had some notice of this challenge a week or two ago, and did give it to my Lord Generall (age 59) to confine the Duke (age 39), or take security that he should not do any such thing as fight: and the Generall trusted to the King (age 37) that he, sending for him, would do it, and the King (age 37) trusted to the Generall; and so, between both, as everything else of the greatest moment do, do fall between two stools. The whole House full of nothing but the talk of this business; and it is said that my Lord Shrewsbury's (age 45) case is to be feared, that he may die too; and that may make it much the worse for the Duke of Buckingham (age 39): and I shall not be much sorry for it, that we may have some sober man come in his room to assist in the Government. Here I waited till the Council rose, and talked the while, with Creed, who tells me of Mr. Harry Howard's' (age 39) giving the Royal Society a piece of ground next to his house, to build a College on, which is a most generous act. And he tells me he is a very fine person, and understands and speaks well; and no rigid Papist neither, but one that would not have a Protestant servant leave his religion, which he was going to do, thinking to recommend himself to his master by it; saying that he had rather have an honest Protestant than a knavish Catholique. I was not called into the Council; and, therefore, home, first informing myself that my Lord Hinchingbrooke (age 20) hath been married this week to my Lord Burlington's (age 55) daughter (age 23); so that that great business is over; and I mighty glad of it, though I am not satisfied that I have not a Favour sent me, as I see Attorney Montagu (age 50) and the Vice-Chamberlain have (age 58). But I am mighty glad that the thing is done.

Note 1. Anna Maria (age 25), daughter of Robert Brudenel, second Earl of Cardigan (age 60). Walpole says she held the Duke of Buckingham's (age 39) horse, in the habit of a page, while he was fighting the duel with her husband. She married, secondly, George Rodney Bridges, son of Sir Thomas Bridges of Keynsham, Somerset (age 51), Groom of the Bedchamber to Charles IL, and died April 20th, 1702. A portrait of the Countess of Shrewsbury, as Minerva, by Lely.

Evelyn's Diary. 24 Jan 1668. We went to stake out ground for building a college for the Royal Society at Arundel House [Map], but did not finish it, which we shall repent of.

Pepy's Diary. 12 Mar 1668. Up, and to the office, where all the morning, at noon home, and after dinner with wife and Deb., carried them to Unthanke's, and I to Westminster Hall [Map] expecting our being with the Committee this afternoon about Victualling business, but once more waited in vain. So after a turn or two with Lord Brouncker (age 48), I took my wife up and left her at the 'Change [Map] while I to Gresham College, there to shew myself; and was there greeted by Dr. Wilkins (age 54), Whistler, and others, as the patron of the Navy Office, and one that got great fame by my late speech to the Parliament. Here I saw a great trial of the goodness of a burning glass, made of a new figure, not spherical (by one Smithys, I think, they call him), that did burn a glove of my Lord Brouncker's (age 48) from the heat of a very little fire, which a burning glass of the old form, or much bigger, could not do, which was mighty pretty. Here I heard Sir Robert Southwell (age 32) give an account of some things committed to him by the Society at his going to Portugall, which he did deliver in a mighty handsome manner1. Thence went away home, and there at my office as long as my eyes would endure, and then home to supper, and to talk with Mr. Pelling, who tells me what a fame I have in the City for my late performance; and upon the whole I bless God for it. I think I have, if I can keep it, done myself a great deal of repute. So by and by to bed.

Note 1. At the meeting of the Royal Society on March 12th, 1668, "Mr. Smethwick's glasses were tried again; and his telescope being compared with another longer telescope, and the object-glasses exchanged, was still found to exceed the other in goodness; and his burning concave being compared with a spherical burning-glass of almost twice the diameter, and held to the fire, it burnt gloves, whereas the other spherical ones would not burn at all".-"Sir Robert Southwell (age 32) being lately returned from Portugal, where he had been ambassador from the King (age 37), and being desired to acquaint the society with what he had done with respect to the instructions, which he had received from them before his departure from England, related, that he had lodged the astronomical quadrant, which the society had sent to Portugal to make observations with there, with a body of men at Lisbon, who had applied themselves among other kinds of literature to mathematics" (Birch's "History of the Royal Society", vol. ii., p. 256).

Evelyn's Diary. 02 Apr 1668. To the Royal Society, where I subscribed 50,000 bricks, toward building a college. Among other libertine libels, there was one now printed and thrown about, a bold petition of the poor w--s [Note. whores] to Baroness Castlemaine (age 27).

Evelyn's Diary. 23 Jul 1668. At the Royal Society, were presented divers glossa petras, and other natural curiosities, found in digging to build the fort at Sheerness Isle of Sheppey [Map]. They were just the same as they bring from Malta, pretending them to be viper's teeth, whereas, in truth, they are of a shark, as we found by comparing them with one in our repository.

Pepy's Diary. 23 Sep 1668. At my office busy all the morning. At noon comes Mr. Evelyn (age 47) to me, about some business with the Office, and there in discourse tells me of his loss, to the value of £500, which he hath met with, in a late attempt of making of bricks1 upon an adventure with others, by which he presumed to have got a great deal of money: so that I see the most ingenious men may sometimes be mistaken.

Note 1. At the end of the year 1666 a Dutchman of the Prince of Orange's party, named Kiviet (age 41), came over to England with proposals for embanking the river from the Temple [Map] to the Tower with brick, and was knighted by the King (age 38). He was introduced to Evelyn (age 47), whom he persuaded to join with him in a great undertaking for the making of bricks. On March 26th, 1667, the two went in search of brick-earth, and in September articles were drawn up between them for the purpose of proceeding in the manufacture. In April, 1668, Evelyn subscribed 50,000 bricks for the building of a college for the Royal Society, in addition to £50 given previously for the same purpose. No more information on the subject is given in Evelyn's "Diary".

Pepy's Diary. 21 Oct 1668. At noon to dinner to Mr. Batelier's, his mother coming this day a-housewarming to him, and several friends of his, to which he invited us. Here mighty merry, and his mother the same; I heretofore took her for a gentlewoman, and understanding. I rose from table before the rest, because under an obligation to go to my Lord Brouncker's (age 48), where to meet several gentlemen of the Royal Society, to go and make a visit to the French Embassador Colbert (age 43), at Leicester House, he having endeavoured to make one or two to my Lord Brouncker (age 48), as our President, but he was not within, but I come too late, they being gone before: but I followed to Leicester House; but they are gore in and up before me; and so I away to the New Exchange, and there staid for my wife, and she come, we to Cow Lane [Map], and there I shewed her the coach which I pitch on, and she is out of herself for joy almost. But the man not within, so did nothing more towards an agreement, but to Crow's (age 51) about a bed, to have his advice, and so home, and there had my wife to read to me, and so to supper and to bed. Memorandum: that from Crow's, we went back to Charing Cross [Map], and there left my people at their tailor's, while I to my Lord Sandwich's (age 43) lodgings, who come to town the last night, and is come thither to lye: and met with him within: and among others my new cozen Creed, who looks mighty soberly; and he and I saluted one another with mighty gravity, till we come to a little more freedom of talk about it. But here I hear that Sir Gilbert Pickering is lately dead, about three days since, which makes some sorrow there, though not much, because of his being long expected to die, having been in a lethargy long. So waited on my Lord to Court, and there staid and saw the ladies awhile: and thence to my wife, and took them up; and so home, and to supper and bed.

Pepy's Diary. 24 Oct 1668. This morning comes to me the coachmaker, and agreed with me for £53, and stand to the courtesy of what more I should give him upon the finishing of the coach: he is likely also to fit me with a coachman. There comes also to me Mr. Shotgrave, the operator of our Royal Society, to show me his method of making the Tubes for the eyes, which are clouterly done, so that mine are better, but I have well informed myself in several things from him, and so am glad of speaking with him.

Evelyn's Diary. 18 Feb 1669. To the Royal Society, when Signor Malpighi (age 40), an Italian physician and anatomist, sent this learned body the incomparable "History of the Silk Worm".

Evelyn's Diary. 04 Mar 1669. To the Council of the Royal Society, about disposing my Lord Howard's library, now given to us.

Evelyn's Diary. 19 May 1669. At a Council of the Royal Society our grant was finished, in which his Majesty (age 38) gives us Chelsea College, and some land about it. It was ordered that five should be a quorum for a Council. The Vice-President was then sworn for the first time, and it was proposed how we should receive the Prince of Tuscany, who desired to visit the Society.

Evelyn's Diary. 21 Oct 1669. To the Royal Society, meeting for the first time after a long recess, during vacation, according to custom; where was read a description of the prodigious eruption of Mount Etna; and our English itinerant presented an account of his autumnal peregrination about England, for which we hired him, bringing dried fowls, fish, plants, animals, etc.

Evelyn's Diary. 08 Dec 1669. To London, upon the second edition of my "Sylva", which I presented to the Royal Society.

Evelyn's Diary. 30 Nov 1672. I was chosen Secretary to the Royal Society.

Evelyn's Diary. 01 Dec 1673. To Gresham College, whither the city had invited the Royal Society by many of their chief aldermen and magistrates, who gave us a collation, to welcome us to our first place of assembly, from whence we had been driven to give place to the City, on their making it their Exchange [Map] on the dreadful conflagration, till their new Exchange [Map] was finished, which it now was. The Society having till now been entertained and having met at Arundel House [Map].

In 1675 Henry Slingsby Master of the Mint (age 54) was expelled from the Royal Society for non-payment of dues.

Evelyn's Diary. 22 Mar 1675. He is author of the ingenious deductions from the bills of mortality, which go under the name of Mr. Graunt; also of that useful discourse of the manufacture of wool, and several others in the register of the Royal Society. He was also author of that paraphrase on the 104th Psalm in Latin verse, which goes about in MS., and is inimitable. In a word, there is nothing impenetrable to him.

Evelyn's Diary. 29 Apr 1675. I read my first discourse, "Of Earth and Vegetation", before the Royal Society as a lecture in course, after Sir Robert Southwell (age 39) had read his, the week before, "On Water". I was commanded by our President and the suffrage of the Society, to print it.

Evelyn's Diary. 28 Feb 1676. [Note. Date adjusted to 28 Feb since original entry stated 29 Feb when it isn't a leap year.] I dined with Mr. Povey (age 62), one of the Masters of Requests, a nice contriver of all elegancies, and exceedingly formal. Supped with Sir J. Williamson, where were of our Society Mr. Robert Boyle (age 49), Sir Christopher Wren (age 52), Sir William Petty (age 52), Dr. Holden, subdean of his Majesty's (age 45) Chapel, Sir James Shaen, Dr. Whistler, and our Secretary, Mr. Oldenburg (age 57).

Evelyn's Diary. 11 May 1676. I dined with Mr. Charleton, and went to see Mr. Montague's (age 37) new palace, near Bloomsbury, built by Mr. Hooke (age 40), of our Society, after the French manner.

Evelyn's Diary. 16 Apr 1678. I showed Don Emmanuel de Lyra (Portugal Ambassador) and the Count de Castel Mellor, the Repository of the Royal Society, and the Royal College of Physicians.

Evelyn's Diary. 29 Aug 1678. I was called to London to wait upon the Duke of Norfolk (age 50), who having at my sole request bestowed the Arundelian Library on the Royal Society; sent to me to take charge of the books, and remove them, only stipulating that I would suffer the Herald's chief officer, Sir William Dugdale (age 72), to have such of them as concerned heraldry and the marshal's office, books of armory and genealogies, the Duke being Earl Marshal of England. I procured for our Society, besides printed books, near one hundred MSS. some in Greek of great concernment. The printed books being of the oldest impressions, are not the less valuable; I esteem them almost equal to MSS. Among them, are most of the Fathers, printed at Basil, before the Jesuits abused them with their expurgatory Indexes; there is a noble MS. of Vitruvius. Many of these books had been presented by Popes, Cardinals, and great persons, to the Earls of Arundel and Dukes of Norfolk; and the late magnificent Earl of Arundel bought a noble library in Germany, which is in this collection. I should not, for the honor I bear the family, have persuaded the Duke to part with these, had I not seen how negligent he was of them, suffering the priests and everybody to carry away and dispose of what they pleased; so that abundance of rare things are irrecoverably gone.

Evelyn's Diary. 29 Aug 1678. Having taken order here, I went to the Royal Society to give them an account of what I had procured, that they might call a Council and appoint a day to wait on the Duke to thank him for this munificent gift.

On 01 Dec 1679 Abraham Hill (age 46) was elected Treasurer of the Royal Society which office he held until 30 Nov 1700.

Evelyn's Diary. 26 Feb 1680. To the Royal Society, where I met an Irish Bishop (age 53) with his Lady, who was daughter to my worthy and pious friend, Dr. Jeremy Taylor, late Bishop of Down and Connor; they came to see the Repository. She seemed to be a knowing woman, beyond the ordinary talent of her sex.

Evelyn's Diary. 30 Aug 1680. I went to visit a French gentleman, one Monsieur Chardin (age 36), who having been thrice in the East Indies, Persia, and other remote countries, came hither in our return ships from those parts, and it being reported that he was a very curious and knowing man, I was desired by the Royal Society to salute him in their name, and to invite him to honor them with his company. Sir Joseph Hoskins and Sir Christopher Wren (age 56) accompanied me. We found him at his lodgings in his eastern habit, a very handsome person, extremely affable, a modest, well-bred man, not inclined to talk wonders. He spoke Latin, and understood Greek, Arabic, and Persian, from eleven years' travels in those parts, whither he went in search of jewels, and was become very rich. He seemed about 36 years of age. After the usual civilities, we asked some account of the extraordinary things he must have seen in traveling over land to those places where few, if any, northern Europeans used to go, as the Black and Caspian Sea, Mingrelia, Bagdad, Nineveh, Persepolis, etc. He told us that the things most worthy of our sight would be, the draughts he had caused to be made of some noble ruins, etc.; for that, besides his own little talent that way, he had carried two good painters with him, to draw landscapes, measure and design the remains of the palace which Alexander burned in his frolic at Persepolis, with divers temples, columns, relievos, and statues, yet extant, which he affirmed to be sculpture far exceeding anything he had observed either at Rome, in Greece, or in any other part of the world where magnificence was in estimation. He said there was an inscription in letters not intelligible, though entire. He was sorry he could not gratify the curiosity of the Society at present, his things not being yet out of the ship; but would wait on them with them on his return from Paris, whither he was going the next day, but with intention to return suddenly, and stay longer here, the persecution in France not suffering Protestants, and he was one, to be quiet.

Evelyn's Diary. 30 Nov 1680. The anniversary election at the Royal Society brought me to London, where was chosen President that excellent person and great philosopher, Mr. Robert Boyle (age 53), who indeed ought to have been the very first; but neither his infirmity nor his modesty could now any longer excuse him. I desired I might for this year be left out of the Council, by reason my dwelling was in the country. The Society according to custom dined together.

Evelyn's Diary. 14 Sep 1681. Dined with Sir Stephen Fox (age 54), who proposed to me the purchasing of Chelsea College, which his Majesty (age 51) had sometime since given to our Society, and would now purchase it again to build a hospital [Map]; or infirmary for soldiers there, in which he desired my assistance as one of the Council of the Royal Society.

Evelyn's Diary. 24 Jan 1682. To the Royal Society, where at the Council we passed a new law for the more accurate consideration of candidates, as whether they would really be useful; also concerning the honorary members, that none should be admitted but by diploma.

Evelyn's Diary. 27 Jan 1682. This evening, Sir Stephen Fox (age 54) acquainted me again with his Majesty's (age 51) resolution of proceeding in the erection of a Royal Hospital for emerited soldiers on that spot of ground which the Royal Society had sold to his Majesty (age 51) for £1,300, and that he would settle £5,000 per annum on it, and build to the value of £20,000 for the relief and reception of four companies, namely, 400 men, to be as in a college, or monastery. I was therefore desired by Sir Stephen (age 54) (who had not only the whole managing of this, but was, as I perceived, himself to be a grand benefactor, as well it became him who had gotten so vast an estate by the soldiers) to assist him, and consult what method to cast it in, as to the government. So, in his study we arranged the governor, chaplain, steward, housekeeper, chirurgeon, cook, butler, gardener, porter, and other officers, with their several salaries and entertainments. I would needs have a library, and mentioned several books, since some soldiers might possibly be studious, when they were at leisure to recollect. Thus we made the first calculations, and set down our thoughts to be considered and digested better, to show his Majesty (age 51) and the Archbishop. He also engaged me to consider of what laws and orders were fit for the government, which was to be in every respect as strict as in any religious convent.

Evelyn's Diary. 24 Mar 1682. At the meeting of the Royal Society were exhibited some pieces of amber sent by the Duke of Brandenburg (age 62), in one of which was a spider, in another a gnat, both very entire. There was a discourse of the tingeing of glass, especially with red, and the difficulty of finding any red color effectual to penetrate glass, among the glass-painters; that the most diaporous, as blue, yellow, etc., did not enter into the substance of what was ordinarily painted, more than very shallow, unless incorporated in the metal itself, other reds and whites not at all beyond the superfices.

Evelyn's Diary. 05 Apr 1682. To the Royal Society, where at a Council was regulated what collections should be published monthly, as formerly the transactions, which had of late been discontinued, but were now much called for by the curious abroad and at home.

Evelyn's Diary. 12 Apr 1682. I went this afternoon with several of the Royal Society to a supper which was all dressed, both fish and flesh, in Monsieur Papin's (age 34) digestors, by which the hardest bones of beef itself, and Mutton, were made as soft as cheese, without water or other liquor, and with less than eight ounces of coals, producing an incredible quantity of gravy; and for close of all, a jelly made of the bones of beef, the best for clearness and good relish, and the most delicious that I had ever seen, or tasted. We ate pike and other fish, bones and all, without impediment; but nothing exceeded the pigeons, which tasted just as if baked in a pie, all these being stewed in their own juice, without any addition of water save what swam about the digestor, as in balneo; the natural juice of all these provisions acting on the grosser substances, reduced the hardest bones to tenderness; but it is best descanted with more particulars for extracting tinctures, preserving and stewing fruit, and saving fuel, in Dr. Papin's (age 34) book, published and dedicated to our Society of which he is a member. He is since gone to Venice with the late Resident here (and also a member of our Society), who carried this excellent mechanic, philosopher, and physician, to set up a philosophical meeting in that city. This philosophical supper caused much mirth among us, and exceedingly pleased all the company. I sent a glass of the jelly to my wife (age 47), to the reproach of all that the ladies ever made of their best hartshorn.

Evelyn's Diary. 31 May 1682. The Morocco Ambassador being admitted an honorary member of the Royal Society, and subscribing his name and titles in Arabic, I was deputed by the Council to go and compliment him.

Evelyn's Diary. 09 Aug 1682. The Council of the Royal Society had it recommended to them to be trustees and visitors, or supervisors, of the Academy which Monsieur Faubert did hope to procure to be built by subscription of worthy gentlemen and noblemen, for the education of youth, and to lessen the vast expense the nation is at yearly by sending children into France to be taught military exercises. We thought to give him all the encouragement our recommendation could procure.

Evelyn's Diary. 28 Nov 1682. I went to the Council of the Royal Society, for the auditing the last year's account, where I was surprised with a fainting fit that for a time took away my sight; but God being merciful to me, I recovered it after a short repose.

Evelyn's Diary. 18 Dec 1682. I sold my East India adventure of £250 principal for £750 to the Royal Society, after I had been in that company twenty-five years, being extraordinarily advantageous, by the blessing of God.

Evelyn's Diary. 08 Jun 1683. On my return home from the Royal Society, I found Mr. Wilbraham, a young gentleman of Cheshire.

Evelyn's Diary. 13 Jun 1683. To our Society, where we received the Count de Zinzendorp, Ambassador from the Duke of Saxony, a fine young man; we showed him divers experiments on the magnet, on which subject the Society were upon.

Evelyn's Diary. 30 Nov 1683. At the anniversary dinner of the Royal Society the King (age 53) sent us two does. Sir Cyril Wych (age 51) was elected President.

Evelyn's Diary. 30 Apr 1684. A Letter of mine to the Royal Society concerning the terrible effects of the past winter being read, they desired it might be printed in the next Part of their Transactions.

Evelyn's Diary. 28 Oct 1684. I carried Lord Clarendon thro' the Citty, amidst all the squibbs and Bacchanalia of the Lord Maior's shew, to ye Royal Society [at Gresham Coll.] where he was propos'd a member; and then treated him at dinner.

Evelyn's Diary. 27 Oct 1685. At the Royal Society an Urn full of bones was presented, dug up in an highway, whilst repairing it, in a field in Camberwell [Map] in Surrey; it was found intire with its cover, amongst many others, be liev'd to be truly Roman and antient. Sir Richd Bulkeley described to us a model of a charriot he had invented, wch it was not possible to overthrow in whatever uneven way it was drawn, giving us a wonderfull relation of what it had perform'd in that kind, for ease, expedition, and safety; there were some incon veniencies yet to be remedied - it would not contain more than one person; was ready to take fire every 10 miles, and being plac'd, and playing on no fewer than 10 rollers, it made a most prodigious noise, almost intolerable. A remedy was to be sought for these inconveniencies.

Evelyn's Diary. 10 Mar 1686. A Council of the Royal Society about disposing of Dr Ray's (age 58) book of Fishes, which was printed at the expence of the Society.

In Apr 1686 Isaac Newton (age 43) submitted Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy to the Royal Society.

Evelyn's Diary. 29 Nov 1688. I went to the Royal Society. We adjourned the election of a President to 23d of April, by reason of the public commotions, yet dined together as of custom this day.

In 1693 Thomas Povey (age 79) submitted a dissertation on the manufacture of brass to the Royal Society.

Evelyn's Diary. 07 Dec 1698. Being one of the Council of the Royal Society, I was named to be of the committee to wait on our new President (age 47), the Lord Chancellor, our Secretary, Dr. Sloane, and Sir R. Southwell (age 62), last Vice-President, carrying our book of statutes; the office of the President being read, his Lordship (age 47) subscribed his name, and took the oaths according to our statutes as a Corporation for the improvement of natural knowledge. Then his Lordship (age 47) made a short compliment concerning the honor the Society had done him, and how ready he would be to promote so noble a design, and come himself among us, as often as the attendance on the public would permit; and so we took our leave.

Evelyn's Diary. 03 May 1699. At a meeting of the Royal Society I was nominated to be of the committee to wait on the Lord Chancellor (age 44) to move the King (age 48) to purchase the Bishop of Worcester's library (Dr. Edward Stillingfleet).

Evelyn's Diary. 30 Nov 1700. At the Royal Society, Lord Somers (age 49), the late Chancellor, was continued President.

Evelyn's Diary. 21 Jan 1702. At the Royal Society there was read and approved the delineation and description of my Tables of Veins and Arteries, by Mr. Cooper, the chirurgeon, in order to their being engraved.

1746. The Royal Society held their Annual Dinner at the The Devil Tavern

On 09 Jun 1757 John Warburton (age 75) was ejected from the Royal Society for nonpayment of his subscription.

Evelyn's Diary. On the Restoration, we find him very frequently at Court; and he became engaged in many public employments, still attending to his studies and literary pursuits. Among these, is particularly to be mentioned the Royal Society, in the establishment and conduct of which he took a very active part. He procured Mr. Howard's library to be given to them; and by his influence, in 1667, the Arundelian Marbles were obtained for the University of Oxford.

Council of the Royal Society

Evelyn's Diary. 21 Aug 1662. I was admitted and then sworn one of the Council of the Royal Society, being nominated in his Majesty's (age 32) original grant to be of this Council for the regulation of the Society, and making laws and statutes conducible to its establishment and progress, for which we now set apart every Wednesday morning till they were all finished. Lord Viscount Brouncker (age 51) (that excellent mathematician) was also by his Majesty (age 32), our founder, nominated our first President. The King (age 32) gave us the arms of England to be borne in a canton in our arms, and sent us a mace of silver gilt, of the same fashion and size as those carried before his Majesty (age 32), to be borne before our president on meeting days. It was brought by Sir Gilbert Talbot (age 56), master of his Majesty's jewel house.

Evelyn's Diary. 05 Nov 1662. The Council of the Royal Society met to amend the Statutes, and dined together; afterward meeting at Gresham College, where was a discourse suggested by me, concerning planting his Majesty's (age 32) Forest of Dean with oak, now so much exhausted of the choicest ship timber in the world.

Curator of the Royal Society

Evelyn's Diary. 04 Mar 1664. Came to dine with me the Earl of Lauderdale (age 47), his Majesty's (age 33) great favorite, and Secretary of Scotland; the Earl of Teviot (age 38); my Lord Viscount Brouncker (age 53), President of the Royal Society; Dr. Wilkins (age 50), Dean of Ripon; Sir Robert Murray (age 56), and Mr. Hooke (age 28), Curator to the Society.

Secretary of the Royal Society

Before 1676 Henry Oldenburg (age 57) was appointed Secretary of the Royal Society.