Europe, France, Picardy, Calais [Map]

Calais is in Picardy.

1338 French Raid on Portsmouth

1347 Capture of Calais

1360 Treaty of Brétigny

1360 Release of King John II of France

1397 Lords Appellant

1397 Murder of Thomas of Woodstock

1460 January Raid on Sandwich

1460 June Yorkist Landing at Sandwich

1460 June Raid on Sandwich

1469 Marriage of George Duke of Clarence and Isabel Neville

1496 Perkin Warbreck Plot

1532 Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn Visit France

1539 Anne of Cleves Arrival at Calais

1558 Surrender of Calais

1696 Plot to Assassinate King William III

1338 French Raid on Portsmouth

On 24 Mar 1338 a large fleet of small French coastal ships sailed across the Channel from Cales [Map] and into the Solent where they landed and burnt the town of Portsmouth, Hampshire [Map].

On 12 Feb 1347 Maurice Berkeley (age 49) died at Calais [Map].

Capture of Calais

On 03 Aug 1347 the English captured Calais [Map] providing England with a French port for the next two hundred years. Thomas Beauchamp 11th Earl Warwick (age 34) commanded, John Lisle 2nd Baron Lisle (age 29), Richard Vache and Henry of Grosmont 1st Duke Lancaster (age 37) fought during the year long siege.

Treaty of Brétigny

On 08 May 1360 King Edward III of England (age 47) and King John "The Good" II of France (age 41), and their eldest sons Edward "Black Prince" (age 29) and the future King Charles V of France (age 21), ratified the Treaty of Brétigny at Calais [Map]. Louis Valois Anjou I Duke Anjou (age 20) and John Valois 1st Duke Berry (age 19) were given as hostages.

Philip "Bold" Valois II Duke Burgundy (age 18) was ransomed. The treaty confirmed lands held by King Edward III of England (age 47) including Aquitaine.

King John "The Good" II of France (age 41) was ransomed for three million écus being released after the payment of the first third.

Bishop William of Wykeham (age 40) was present.

The Treaty was signed on 24 Oct 1360 at Calais.

Release of King John II of France

On 30 Jun 1360 King John "The Good" II of France (age 41) left the Tower of London [Map] and proceeded to Eltham Palace, Kent [Map] where Queen Philippa (age 46) had prepared a great farewell entertainment. Passing the night at Dartford, Kent [Map], he continued towards Dover, Kent [Map], stopping at the Maison Dieu of St Mary at Ospringe, and paying homage at the shrine of St Thomas Becket at Canterbury [Map] on 04 Jul 1360. He dined with the Black Prince (age 30) at Dover Castle [Map], and reached English-held Calais [Map] on 08 Jul 1360.

In 1362 Louis Valois Anjou I Duke Anjou (age 22) escaped at Calais [Map].

In 1383 Bryan Stapleton (age 61) and Anne of Bohemia Queen Consort England (age 16) were divorced when in Calais [Map].

Froissart. 1397. You have before seen, in the course of this history, that king Richard of England (age 29) would not longer conceal the great hatred he bore his uncle of Gloucester (age 41), but had determined to have him cut off, according to the advice given him, setting it forth to be more advisable to destroy than be destroyed. You have likewise heard how the king (age 29) had rode to the castle of Pleshy [Map], thirty miles from London, and with fair words had cajoled the duke (age 41) out of his castle [Map], and was accompanied by him to a lane that led to the Thames, where they arrived between ten and eleven o'clock at night; and how the earl-marshal (age 28), who there lay in ambush, had arrested him in the king's name, and forced him towards the Thames, in spite of his cries to the king (age 29) to deliver him. He was conscious, that from the moment of his being thus arrested, his end was resolved on, and it was confirmed to him by the king (age 29) turning a deaf ear to his complaints, and riding on full gallop to London, where he lodged that night in the Tower [Map]. The duke of Gloucester (age 41) had other lodgings; for, whether he would or not, he was forced into a boat that carried him to a vessel at anchor on the Thames, into which he was obliged to enter. The earl-marshal (age 28) embarked also with his men, and, having a favourable wind and tide, they fell down the river, and arrived, late on the morrow evening, at Calais [Map], without any one knowing of it except the king's officers. [The earl-marshal (age 28), as governor, could enter Calais [Map] at all hours, without any one thinking it extraordinary: he carried the duke (age 41) to the castle, wherein he confined him.]

Lords Appellant

Before 08 Sep 1397 Thomas of Woodstock 1st Duke of Gloucester (age 42) was imprisoned in Calais [Map] to await trial for treason for being the leader of the Lords Appellant.

Murder of Thomas of Woodstock

Around 08 Sep 1397 Thomas of Woodstock 1st Duke of Gloucester (age 42) was murdered in Calais [Map] for his role as leader of the Lords Appellant. Duke Albemarle aka Aumale, Duke Gloucester, Earl Essex forfeit. His son Humphrey Plantagenet 2nd Earl Buckingham (age 16) succeeded 2nd Earl Buckingham.

Walter Clopton was part of the inquiry into his death the outcome of which is not known. A John Hall was executed for the murder.

Froissart. Around 08 Sep 1397. When the duke of Gloucester (age 42) saw himself confined in the castle of Calais [Map], abandoned by his brothers, and deprived of his attendants, he began to be much alarmed. He addressed himself to the earl-marshal (age 29): "For what reason am I thus carried from England and confined here? It seems that you mean to imprison me. Let me go and view the castle, its garrison, and the people of the town." "My lord," replied the earl (age 29), "I dare not comply with your demands, for you are consigned to my guard, under pain of death. The king (age 30) our lord is at this moment somewhat wroth with you; and it is his orders that you abide here a while, in banishment with us, which you must have patience to do, until we have other news, and God grant that it may be soon! for, as the Lord may help me, I am truly concerned for your disgrace, and would cheerfully aid you if I could, but you know the oath I have taken to the king, which I am bound in honour to obey." The duke of Gloucester (age 42) could not obtain any other answer. He judged, from appearances of things around him, that he was in danger of his life, and asked a priest who had said mass, if he would confess him. This he did, with great calmness and resignation, and with a devout and contrite heart cried before the altar of God, the Creator of all things, for his mercy. He was repentant of all his sins, and lamented them greatly. He was in the right thus to exonerate his conscience, for his end was nearer than he imagined. I was informed, that on the point of his sitting down to dinner, when the tables were laid, and he was about to wash his hands, four men rushed out from an adjoining chamber, and, throwing a towel round his neck, strangled him, by two drawing one end and two the other1. When he was quite dead, they carried him to his chamber, undressed him, and placed the body between two sheets, with his head on a pillow, and covered him with furred mantles. They then re-entered the hall, properly instructed what to say and how to act, and declared the duke of Gloucester (age 42) had been seized with a fit of apoplexy as he was washing his hands before dinner, and that they had great difficulty to carry him to bed. This was spoken of in the castle and town, where some believed it, but others not. "Within two days after, it was published abroad that the duke of Gloucester (age 42) had died in his bed at the castle of Calais; and, in consequence, the earl marshal (age 29) put on mourning, for he was nearly related to him, as did all the knights and squires in Calais.

Note 1. He was smothered with pillows, not strangled. Hall, one of the accomplices, made a particular confession of all the circumstances. See Parl Plac[?] viii p. 452. Ed.

Chronicle of Gregory 1403-1419. Before 25 Oct 1415. And thenne son aftyr the King (age 29) and his mayne ostyde from thens xxj dayes thorowe the realme of Fraunce towarde Caleys [Map]. And the Fraynysche men hyrde telle of his comyng that way, and they brake the bryggys there that the kyng shulde passe ovyr, and in so moche that17 he might not passe noo way but he moste nedys mete with the Fraynysche oste. And a-pon the Fryday, that is to saye, the day of Syn Cryspyn and Cryspynyany, alle the ryalle pouer of Fraunce come by-fore our King and his lytylle blessyd mayne. And thenne they sawe the Dolfynne whythe alle the lordys of France were by-fore our good King enbatellyd in iij batellys the nomber of iij schore Ml men of armys. And that was the fayryste syght of armyde men that evyr any man saye in any place.

Note 17. thatrepeated in MS.

In 1425 Ralph Boteler 6th and 1st Baron Sudeley (age 36) took muster at Calais [Map].

Chronicle of Gregory 1436. 1436. And that same year the Mayre of London sende, by the goode a-vyse and consent of craftys, sent sowdyers to Calys [Map], for it was said that the Duke of Burgone (age 39) lay sege unto Calis. And soo he dyd son aftyr, as ye shalle hyre here after. And at the Parlyment be-fore it was ordaynyde that the Duke of Yorke (age 24) shulde in to Fraunce with certayne lordys with him in stede of the Eegaunt. And whythe him went the Erle of Salysbury (age 36). Ande the Erle of Mortayne (age 30) wente to Calys [Map] son aftyr Estyr.

And the xiiij day aftyr he made a roode in to Flaunders, and he slowe and toke xv c [1500] of Flemmyngys, and many bestys; the nombyr is more thenne I canne certaynely reherse. And a-non aftyr the Duke of Burgone (age 39) layde his sege unto Calys whythe a strong ordynaunce and a mighty, with xl M [40000] men and moo. And they made grete bulworkys, and grete bastylys, and strong forty fycacy on.

Chronicle of Gregory 1438. 1438. And the same year there was a grete conselle at Calys [Map], there beynge in our party the Cardynalle Arche-byschoppe of Yorke (age 58) and many moo spirytualle and temporalle lordys. And on that othyr party the Duchyes of Burgone (age 40) and many moo lordys, bothe spyrytualle and temporalle.

by 1455 Andrew Trollope was appointed Master Porter of Calais [Map] which post he held until 1459.

Chronicle of Gregory 1459. 12 Oct 1459. The Erle of Saulysbury (age 59), the Erle of Warwycke (age 30), the Erle of Marche (age 17), Syr John Wenlocke (age 59), alle thes come unto Devynschyre to Syr John Denham (age 26), and alle thes by the conveynge of Syr John Denham (age 26); and they bought a smalle vesselle in that contray, an they were conveyde unto Garnesey [Map], ande from Garnesaye unto Calys [Map], for fere of dethe that they said was ymagenyde by the kyng and his lordys, and of her owne housolde mayny for her dystruccyon, the counselle and consent of King Harry the VI. Thes lordys departyd out of Ingelonde on Synt Edward is evyn, Synt Edward bothe King and confessoure, the xij day of Octobera, and they taryd at Calys xxxvj wekys.

Note a. This is really the date of the breaking up of their camp at Ludlow, not of their leaving England.

After 12 Oct 1459 Thomas Parr (age 52) fled to Calais [Map].

1460 January Raid on Sandwich

Calendars. 30 Oct 1459. Farnham Royal, Buckinghamshire [Map]. Commission of array to Richard Wydevyle of Ryvers (age 54), knight, and the sheriff of Kent in Kent, to resist Richard, duke of York (age 48), Edward Earl of March (age 17), Richard, Earl of Warwick (age 30), and Richard, Earl of Salisbury (age 59), and their accomplices, leagued in rebellion against the king and crown and allowed by certain persons having the keeping of the town and castle of Calais [Map] to enter the same contrary to the king's mandates, and now preparing to arouse congregations and insur rections in the said county; and appointment of the same to arrest all ships and other vessels late of the said Earl of Warwick and all the tackling thereof and to keep the same for the king's use. By K.

Wriothesley's Chronicle 1485-1509. 1492. This yeare the Kinge (age 34) went to Calis [Map] with a great armiei againste France, but the peace was made without battell.k.

Note i. 25,000 foot and 1,600 horse.

Note k. By the terms of this treaty, known as the Peace of Estaples, the French King engaged to pay 745,000 crowns down and 52,000 crowns yearly under the name of pension.

Hall's Chronicle 1492. While the commissioners were thus consulting on the marches of France, the King of England (age 35), as you have heard, was arrived at Calais [Map], where he prepared all things necessary for such a journey. And from thence he removed in four battles, near to the town of Boulogne  [Map], and there pitched his tents before the town, in a place propitious and convenient and determined to gene a great assault to the town. In the which fortress was such a garrison of warlike soldiers, that valiantly defended the town, and the same so replenished with artillery, and munitions of war, that the loss of the Englishmen assaulting the toun, should be greater damage to the realm of England, then the conquering and gaining of the same should be emolument or profit. Howbeit the King’s daily shot, razed and defaced the walls of the said town: but when every man was pressed and ready to give the assault, a sudden rumour rose in the army, that a peace was by the commissioners taken and concluded, which brute as it was pleasant and mellifluous to the Frenchmen, so it was to the English nation bitter, sore and dolorous because they were pressed and ready at all times to set on their enemies, and refused never to attempt any enterprise, which might seem either to be for their laud or profit: they were in great fumes, angry and evil content, railing and murmuring amongst themselves, that the occasion of so glorious a victory to them manifestly offered, was by certain conditions to no man, nor yet to the King commodious or profitable, refused, put by and shamefully slacked: But above all other diverse lords and captains, encouraged with desire of fame and honour, trusting in this journey to have won their spurs, which for to set themselves and their band the more gorgeously forward had mutuate [borrowed], and borrowed diverse and sundry sums of money, and for the repayment of the same, had mortgaged and impignorated [pawned] their lands and possessions, sore grudged and lamented this sudden peace, and return of them unthought of, and spoke largely against the Kinge’s doings, saying and affirming, that he as a man fearing and dreading the force and puissance of his enemies, had concluded an inconvenient peace without cause or reason: But the King as a wise man and most prudent prince, to assuage the indignation and pacify the murmur of the people, declared what damage and detriment, what loss and perdition of many noble Captains and strong soldiers must of necessity happen and ensue at the assault of a town, and especially when it is so well fortified with men and munitions, as the town of Boulogne at that present time was: protesting farther, that he might be justly accused and condemned of iniquity and untruth, except he did prefer the safeguard of their lives, before his own wealth, health and advantage.

Hall's Chronicle 1492. he had thus gathered and assembled his army, he sailed to Calais [Map] the sixth day of October, and there encamped himself, tarrying there a certain space to see his men harnessed and apparelled, that neither weapon nor any engine necessary for his journey should be neglected. At which place all the army had knowledge by the Ambassadors, which were newly returned out of Flanders (for they did not know of it before) that Maximilian could make no preparation for lack of money, and therefore there was no succour to be expected at his hand. At the which report, the Englishmen were nothing abashed nor dismayed, trusting so much to their own puissance and company: but yet they marvelled and wondered greatly that heard it related, that Maximilian receiving such great villainy not long before at the hand of King Charles, was not present to prick them forward, to cry and call, to move and excite the Englishmen, ye and if he had had six hundred bodies to put them all in hazard, rather than to leave the Englishmen, now setting upon his daily enemies and deadly adversaries. Albeit Maximilian lacked no heart and good will to be revenged, yet he lacked substance to continue war, for he could neither have money nor men of the drunken Flemings nor yet of the cracking Brabanders, so ungrateful people were they to their sovereign Lord.

Hall's Chronicle 1492. The King of England (age 35), maturely considering that Brittainy was clearly lost, and in manner irrecuperable, being now adjoined to the crown of France by marriage, which duchy, his whole mind was to defend, protect and confirm, and that Maximilian what for lack of money, and what for mistrust that he had in his own subjects, lay still like a dormouse nothing doing, perceiving also that it should be both to his people profitable, and to him great honour to determine this war without loss or bloodshed, appointed for commissioners the bishop of Exceter (age 40), and Gyles Lord Daubeney (age 41) to passe the seas to Calais [Map], to come with the Lord Cordes of articles of peace to be agreed upon and concluded.

When the commissioners were once met, they so ingeniously and effectively proceeded in, their great affairs, that they agreed that an amity and peace should be assented to and concluded, so that the conditions of the league should be equal, indifferent and acceptable to both parts as after shall be declared.

In 1493 Robert Radcliffe died at Calais [Map].

Perkin Warbreck Plot

On 24 Nov 1496 John Radclyffe 9th Baron Fitzwalter (age 44) was beheaded at Calais [Map] for trying to bribe his jailers. His son Robert Radclyffe 1st Earl of Sussex (age 13) succeeded 10th Baron Fitzwalter.

Around 17 Nov 1506 Anthony Browne (age 63) died at Calais [Map].

Around 19 Nov 1506 William Browne (age 73) died at Calais [Map].

In 1531 Thomas Molyneux was born in Calais [Map].

Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn Visit France

On 11 Nov 1532 Henry VIII (age 41) and Queen Anne Boleyn of England (age 31) met with King Francis I of France (age 38) at Calais [Map]. Henry Howard (age 16) was present.

Those listed as travelling with Henry and Anne include:

Thomas Manners 1st Earl of Rutland (age 40) and Eleanor Paston Countess Rutland (age 37).

William Stafford (age 24); this may have been when he first met Mary Boleyn (age 33).

Mary Boleyn (age 33)

Letters and Papers 1537. 14 Nov 1537. 1084. Honor Lady (age 43) to the Countess of Sussex.

Commendations to my lord (age 54) and you. I have received your letter and perceive your sorrow for the death of the Queen (deceased), yet her Grace was fortunate to live the day to bring forth such a prince. I perceive my lord and you have taken my daughter Anne (age 17) until, by your good suit, she may obtain place again. If she cannot I will send for her and recompense your charges. I did not send them to put you or any of my kin to charge, but to have them with the Queen. Where you write that but for your great charge of kin and other gentlewomen you would have taken Kateryn (age 15) too; it was never my mind to put you to any charge, yet if I were in England and you sent me even three or four I would accept them. I pray you prefer Anne (age 17) because she was sworn to the late Queen (deceased). Where it has pleased my Lord of Rutland (age 45) and my lady at your suit to take Kateryn (age 15) for the time, I trust they shall be no losers. "Very glad to hear of your great belly, beseeching God to make you a joyous mother." As shortly as I can I will send you your own, with some good wine which I trust ye shall have three weeks before Christmas. Calais [Map], 14 Nov.

In May 1539 Honor Bassett was born to John Bassett IV of Umberliegh (age 19) and Frances Plantagenet (age 20) at Calais [Map]. He a great grandson of King Edward IV of England.

Anne of Cleves Arrival at Calais

On 13 Dec 1539 Anne of Cleves (age 24) arrived at Calais [Map]. She was met by George Tailboys 2nd Baron Tailboys 10th Baron Kyme (age 16), Thomas Seymour 1st Baron Seymour (age 31) and William Fitzwilliam 1st Earl of Southampton (age 49).

In 1546 Edward Poynings was killed at Calais [Map].

After 20 Jan 1546 Stephen Vaughan Merchant (age 44) and Margery Unknown were married at Calais [Map].

Diary of Edward VI. 25 Feb 1551. Also mr. Auger2 had the charge for vitaylinge of Cales [Map].

2. Sir Anthony Aucher.

Diary of Edward VI. 20 Mar 1551. Certein new fortifications were devised to bee made at Cales [Map], that at Gravelin the water should be lett in in my ground, and so shoud fett a compas by the sixe bulwarkes to Guisnes, Hammes, and Newmanbridge, and that their should bee a wall of 8 foot hie and 6 brood of earth to keap out the water, and to make a great marice about the territorie of Cales 37 mUe long. Also for flankers at the kepe of Guisnes willed to be made, a thre-cornerde bulwark at the kepe, to kepe it. Furthermore, at Newmanbridg a massy wall to the French side there as was a greene. Besides, at the west gitie there should bee another gittie wich should defend the vitaylers of the towne alwayes frome shott from the sandhilles.3

Note 3. "Male xviij, 1551. Sir Maurice Dennys (age 43) threasorer of Callaice and the surveiour of the same were this daie before the lordes, with whom order was taken for the performance of the woorkes at Guisnes, of the sluces at Newneham bridge, of making the ditches for the defense of the lowe country, and for the mailing of the new peere in the havin of Callaice, according to the particular platts of the same." The surveyor was Thomas Petitt, as appears by another entry of the same date in the Council Book. One of the "platts" of Calais and its neighbourhood in the Cottonian volume Augustus I. ii. is a "Platt of the Lowe country at Calais," made in 37 Hen. VIII. "by me Thomas Pettyt:'' see the memoir on "Calais in the hands of the English," in the Chronicle of Calais, printed for the Camden Society, 1846, p. xxviii.

In May 1555 William Cecil 1st Baron Burghley (age 34) accompanied Cardinal Reginald Pole (age 55) at Calais [Map].

In May 1555 Cardinal Reginald Pole (age 55) travelled to Calais [Map].

Henry Machyn's Diary. 25 Nov 1556. The xxv day of November my lord of Pembroke (age 55) toke ys barge toward Cales [Map], and (unfinished).

Henry Machyn's Diary. 17 Mar 1557. The xvij day of Marche cam rydyng from kyng Phelype (age 29) from be-yond the see unto the court at Grenwyche [Map], to owre quen (age 41), with letters in post, my lord Robart Dudley (age 24), and after master Kemp of the preve chambur, that the kyng (age 29) wold com to Cales [Map] the xvij day of Marche; and the sam day dyd pryche a-for the quen the nuwe bysshope of Lynckolne doctur Watsun (age 42).

Henry Machyn's Diary. 05 Jul 1557. [The v day of July the King (age 30) took shipping at Dover, Kent [Map]] towarde Callys [Map], on hys jornay [toward Flanders].

In Jan 1558 Thomas Molyneux (age 27) was captured when Calais [Map] was seized. He was released on payment of 500 Crowns.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 02 Jan 1558. [The iij day of January came tidings to the Queen (age 41)] that the Frenche kyng (age 38) was [come to] Nuwnam bryge with a grett host of men [of war], and layd batheryng pessys unto ytt, and unto Rysse-banke [Map] by water, and to Cales [Map], [and] led grett batheryng peses to hytt, for ther wher [great shooting].

Henry Machyn's Diary. 04 Jan 1558. The iiij day of January the cete of London toke a v men to go to Calles [Map], of evere [craft,] to fynd boyth harnes, bowes, morespykes and [guns,] and men of ther charge and cost, and prest money, they cam to the quen('s) (age 41) nave [navy] of shypes.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 06 Jan 1558. The vj day of January thes men wher browght unto Leydenhalle [Map], and mustered afor my lord mayre and the althermen; and at after-none by iiij of the cloke they toke ther way to the Towrewarff [Map], and ther thay toke shypyng toward Callys [Map].

Note. P. 162. Musters in London. On the 6th Jan. the Privy Council sent "a letter to the maior of London that, albeite he was willed to send the vc. men levied in London to Dover, forasmuche as it is sithence considered here that they may with beste speede be brought to the place of service by seas, he is willen to sende them with all speede by hoyes to Queenburgh, where order is given for the receavinge and placing of them in the shippes, to be transported with all speede possible." (MS. Harl. 643, p. 198.)

Surrender of Calais

On 07 Jan 1558 the English surrendered Calais to the French following a one week siege. It had been in English hands since 1347. At 6am Thomas Wentworth (age 33), Governor of Calais, surrendered Calais [Map] to François de Lorraine-Guise, 2nd Duke of Guise (age 38), after a seven-day siege. Calais was the last English owned territory in France. The loss was a huge blow for Queen Mary I (age 41) and it is said that upon hearing the news she stated "When I am dead and opened, you shall find 'Philip' and 'Calais' lying in my heart" although the source for this is unknown.

Edward Grimston (age 50) was captured and imprisoned at the Bastille [Map].

Henry Machyn's Diary. 10 Jan 1558. [The x day of January heavy news came to En]gland, and to London, thatt the Fre[nch had won] Cales [Map], the wyche was the hevest tydy[ngs to London] and to England that ever was hard of, for lyke a trayter yt was sold and d[elivered unto] them the (blank) day of January; the duke of Guise (age 38) was cheyff capten, and evere man dyschargyd the town.

Note. Pp. 162, 163. Soldiers sent to Calais. The several parishes of the counties where musters took place were obliged to send their quota. Thus the churchwardens of St. Margaret's Westminster paid "for setting owt of soldyers the vijth day of January as apperethe by a bylle, iiijli. viijs. vijd. ob." "Item, for settyng forthe fyve soldyers to Portismothe the last yere of quene Mary xxxiijs. iiijd."

Henry Machyn's Diary. 08 Jan 1558. The viij day of January the marchandes of the stapull of Calles toke up c. and ode [odd] men to go toward Calles [Map] of ther cost.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 09 Jan 1558. The viij day of January thay toke shypyng at the Towre-warfe [Map] toward Calles [Map], and odur men of ware, and from odur plases to the see-ward, betwyn v and vj of the cloke at nyght.

On 09 Jan 1558 Walter Mildmay (age 37) was appointed treasurer of the forces sent to the relief of Calais [Map].

Evelyn's Diary. 10 Oct 1641. At our going off, the fort, against which our pinnace anchored, saluted my Lord Marshal (age 56) with twelve gi'eat guns, which we answered with three. Not having the wind favourable, we anchored that night before Calais [Map]. About midnight, we weighed; and, at four in the morning, though not far from Dover [Map], we could not make the pier till four that afternoon, the wind proving contrary and driving us westward; but at last we got on shore, October the 12th.

Evelyn's Diary. 11 Nov 1643. Having a reasonable good passage, though the weather was snowy and untoward enough, we came before Calais [Map], where, as we went on shore, mistaking the tide, our shallop struck on the sands, with no little danger; but at length we got off.

On 18 Aug 1647 Philip Stapleton (age 44) died at Calais [Map]. His illness was thought to be the plague, so he was buried immediately at the Protestant cemetery in Calais.

On 30 Aug 1649 Robert Heath (age 74) died in Calais [Map].

Evelyn's Diary. 27 Jun 1650. I made my will, and, taking leave of my wife (age 15) and other friends, took horse for England, paying the messenger eight pistoles for me and my servant to Calais [Map], setting out with seventeen in company well-armed, some Portuguese, Swiss, and French, whereof six were captains and officers. We came the first night to Beaumont; next day, to Beauvais, and lay at Pois, and the next, without dining, reached Abbeville [Map]; next, dined at Montreuil, and proceeding met a company on foot (being now within the inroads of the parties which dangerously infest this day's journey from St. Omers and the frontiers), which we drew very near to, ready and resolute to charge through, and accordingly were ordered and led by a captain of our train; but, as we were on the speed, they called out, and proved to be Scotchmen, newly raised and landed, and few among them armed. This night, we were well treated at Boulogne. The next day, we marched in good order, the passage being now exceeding dangerous, and got to Calais by a little after two. The sun so scorched my face, that it made the skin peel off.

Evelyn's Diary. 29 Jan 1652. Abundance of my French and English friends and some Germans came to take leave of me, and I set out in a coach for Calais [Map], in an exceedingly hard frost which had continued for some time. We got that night to Beaumont; 30th, to Beauvais; 31st, we found the ways very deep with snow, and it was exceedingly cold; dined at Pois; lay at Pernèe, a miserable cottage of miserable people in a wood, wholly unfurnished, but in a little time we had sorry beds and some provision, which they told me they hid in the wood for fear of the frontier enemy, the garrisons near them continually plundering what they had. They were often infested with wolves. I cannot remember that I ever saw more miserable creatures.

Evelyn's Diary. 01 Feb 1652. I dined at Abbeville [Map]; 2nd, dined at Montreuil [Map], lay at Boulogne; 3rd, came to Calais [Map], by eleven in the morning; I thought to have embarked in the evening, but, for fear of pirates plying near the coast, I dared not trust our small vessel, and stayed till Monday following, when two or three lusty vessels were to depart.

Evelyn's Diary. 01 Feb 1652. At Calais [Map], I dined with my Lord Wentworth (age 39), and met with Mr. Heath, Sir Richard Lloyd, Captain Paine, and divers of our banished friends, of whom understanding that the Count de la Strade, Governor of Dunkirk, was in the town, who had bought my wife's (age 17) picture, taken by pirates at sea the year before (my wife (age 11) having sent it for me in England), as my Lord of Norwich had informed me at Paris, I made my address to him, who frankly told me that he had such a picture in his own bedchamber among other ladies, and how he came by it; seeming well pleased that it was his fortune to preserve it for me, and he generously promised to send it to any friend I had at Dover; I mentioned a French merchant there and so took my leave.

Evelyn's Diary. 18 Aug 1654. Hence, we passed through a fenny but rich country to Hull [Map], situated like Calais [Map], modernly and strongly fortified with three block-houses of brick and earth. It has a good market place and harbor for ships. Famous also (or rather infamous) is this town for Hotham's refusing entrance to his Majesty. The water-house is worth seeing. And here ends the south of Yorkshire.

Pepy's Diary. 09 Apr 1660. This afternoon I first saw France and Calais [Map], with which I was much pleased, though it was at a distance. About five o'clock we came to the Goodwin [Map], so to the Castles about Deal [Map]; where our Fleet lay, among whom we anchored. Great was the shout of guns from the castles and ships, and our answers, that I never heard yet so great rattling of guns. Nor could we see one another on board for the smoke that was among us, nor one ship from another. Soon as we came to anchor, the captains came from on board their ships all to us on board. This afternoon I wrote letters for my Lord to the Council, &c., which Mr. Dickering was to carry, who took his leave this night of my Lord, and Balty (age 20) after I had wrote two or three letters by him to my wife and Mr. Bowyer, and had drank a bottle of wine with him in my cabin which J. Goods and W. Howe brought on purpose, he took leave of me too to go away to-morrow morning with Mr. Dickering. I lent Balty (age 20) 15s. which he was to pay to my wife. It was one in the morning before we parted. This evening Mr. Sheply came on board, having escaped a very great danger upon a sand coming from Chatham.

Pepy's Diary. 26 Jul 1662. This afternoon I had a letter from Mr. Creed, who hath escaped narrowly in the King's yacht, and got safe to the Downs after the late storm; and that there the King (age 32) do tell him, that he is sure that my Lord is landed at Callis [Map] safe, of which being glad, I sent news thereof to my Lord Crew, and by the post to my Lady into the country.

Pepy's Diary. 17 Oct 1666. After dinner took him and my wife and Barker (for so is our new woman called, and is yet but a sorry girle), and set them down at Unthanke's, and so to White Hall, and there find some of my brethren with the Duke of York (age 33), but so few I put off the meeting. So staid and heard the Duke (age 33) discourse, which he did mighty scurrilously, of the French, and with reason, that they should give Beaufort (age 50) orders when he was to bring, and did bring, his fleete hither, that his rendezvous for his fleete, and for all sluggs to come to, should be between Calais [Map] and Dover, Kent [Map]; which did prove the taking of La Roche[lle], who, among other sluggs behind, did, by their instructions, make for that place, to rendezvous with the fleete; and Beaufort (age 50), seeing them as he was returning, took them for the English fleete, and wrote word to the King of France (age 28) that he had passed by the English fleete, and the English fleete durst not meddle with him. The Court is all full of vests, only my Lord St. Albans (age 61) not pinked but plain black; and they say the King (age 36) says the pinking upon white makes them look too much like magpyes, and therefore hath bespoke one of plain velvet.

Pepy's Diary. 06 Dec 1667. By and by home with Sir J. Minnes (age 68), who tells me that my Lord Clarendon (age 58) did go away in a Custom-house boat, and is now at Calais [Map]: and, I confess, nothing seems to hang more heavy than his leaving of this unfortunate paper behind him, that hath angered both Houses, and hath, I think, reconciled them in that which otherwise would have broke them in pieces; so that I do hence, and from Sir W. Coventry's (age 39) late example and doctrine to me, learn that on these sorts of occasions there is nothing like silence; it being seldom any wrong to a man to say nothing, but, for the most part, it is to say anything. This day, in coming home, Sir J. Minnes (age 68) told me a pretty story of Sir Lewes Dives (age 68), whom I saw this morning speaking with him, that having escaped once out of prison through a house of office, and another time in woman's apparel, and leaping over a broad canal, a soldier swore, says he, this is a strange jade.... He told me also a story of my Lord Cottington, who, wanting a son, intended to make his nephew his heir, a country boy; but did alter his mind upon the boy's being persuaded by another young heir, in roguery, to crow like a cock at my Lord's table, much company being there, and the boy having a great trick at doing that perfectly. My Lord bade them take away that fool from the table, and so gave over the thoughts of making him his heir, from this piece of folly.

Pepy's Diary. 06 Dec 1667. Then home and to the office, where Captain Cocke (age 50) come to me; and, among other discourse, tells me that he is told that an impeachment against Sir W. Coventry (age 39) will be brought in very soon. He tells me, that even those that are against my Chancellor (age 58) and the Court, in the House, do not trust nor agree one with another. He tells me that my Chancellor (age 58) went away about ten at night, on Saturday last; and took boat at Westminster, and thence by a vessel to Callis [Map], where he believes he now is: and that the Duke of York (age 34) and Mr. Wren knew of it, and that himself did know of it on Sunday morning: that on Sunday his coach, and people about it, went to Twittenham, and the world thought that he had been there: that nothing but this unhappy paper hath undone him and that he doubts that this paper hath lost him everywhere that his withdrawing do reconcile things so far as, he thinks the heat of their fury will be over, and that all will be made well between the two [royal] brothers: that Holland do endeavour to persuade the King of France (age 29) to break peace with us: that the Dutch will, without doubt, have sixty sail of ships out the next year; so knows not what will become of us, but hopes the Parliament will find money for us to have a fleete. He gone, I home, and there my wife made an end to me of Sir R. Cotton's discourse of warr, which is indeed a very fine book.

In 1674 Robert Wright aka Villiers aka Danvers (age 49) died at Calais [Map].

1696 Plot to Assassinate King William III

Evelyn's Diary. 26 Feb 1696. There was now a conspiracy of about thirty knights, gentlemen, captains, many of them Irish and English Papists, and Nonjurors or Jacobites (so called), to murder King William (age 45) on the first opportunity of his going either from Kensington, or to hunting, or to the chapel; and upon signal of fire to be given from Dover Cliff to Calais [Map], an invasion was designed. In order to it there was a great army in readiness, men-of-war and transports, to join a general insurrection here, the Duke of Berwick (age 25) having secretly come to London to head them, King James (age 62) attending at Calais with the French army. It was discovered by some of their own party. £1,000 reward was offered to whoever could apprehend any of the thirty named. Most of those who were engaged in it, were taken and secured. The Parliament, city, and all the nation, congratulate the discovery; and votes and resolutions were passed that, if King William (age 45) should ever be assassinated, it should be revenged on the Papists and party through the nation; an Act of Association drawing up to empower the Parliament to sit on any such accident, till the Crown should be disposed of according to the late settlement at the Revolution. All Papists, in the meantime, to be banished ten miles from London. This put the nation into an incredible disturbance and general animosity against the French King and King James. The militia of the nation was raised, several regiments were sent for out of Flanders, and all things put in a posture to encounter a descent. This was so timed by the enemy, that while we were already much discontented by the greatness of the taxes, and corruption of the money, etc., we had like to have had very few men-of-war near our coasts; but so it pleased God that Admiral Rooke (age 46) wanting a wind to pursue his voyage to the Straits, that squadron, with others at Portsmouth, Hampshire [Map] and other places, were still in the Channel, and were soon brought up to join with the rest of the ships which could be got together, so that there is hope this plot may be broken. I look on it as a very great deliverance and prevention by the providence of God. Though many did formerly pity King James's condition, this design of assassination and bringing over a French army, alienated many o£ his friends, and was likely to produce a more perfect establishment of King William.

Evelyn's Diary. 01 Mar 1696. The wind continuing N. and E. all this week, brought so many of our men-of-war together that, though most of the French finding their design detected and prevented, made a shift to get into Calais [Map] and Dunkirk roads, we wanting fire-ships and bombs to disturb them; yet they were so engaged among the sands and flats, that 'tis said they cut their masts and flung their great guns overboard to lighten their vessels. We are yet upon them. This deliverance is due solely to God. French were to have invaded at once England, Scotland, and Ireland.

On 05 Sep 1819 Stillborn Hanover was born to King William IV of the United Kingdom (age 54) and Queen Adelaide of England (age 27) at Calais [Map].

On 16 Apr 1821 Ford Madox Brown was born to Ford Brown (age 41) and Caroline Madox (age 36) at Calais [Map].

The Times. 02 Feb 1907.

Their Majesties the King (age 65) and Queen (age 62), attended by the Countess of Gosford (age 51), the Hon. Charlotte Knollys (age 72), Captain the Hon. Seymour Fortescue, R.N (age 50), and Major F. Ponsonby, left the Palace this morning for the British Embassy, Paris.

Her Royal Highness the Princess Victoria (age 38) accompanied Their Majesties to Calais [Map], and proceeded to Christiania on a visit to Their Majesties the King (age 34) and Queen of Norway (age 37).

Lady Eva Dugdale and Colonel Sir Henry Knollys (age 66) (Comptroller and Private Secretary to Her Majesty the Queen of Norway (age 66) were in attendance upon Her Royal Highness. The King and Queen are travelling u the Duke and Duchess of Lancaster. The Countess of Gosford has succeeded Lady Alice Stanley as Lady in Waiting to Her Majesty.

The Prince of Wales (age 41), accompanied by Prince Edward of Wales (age 12), was present at Victoria Station, and took leave of the King (age 65) and Queen (age 62) on Their Majesties' departure for Paris. The Hon. Derek Keppel (age 43) was in attendance.

Hall's Chronicle 1492. When he had thus prudently consolate and appeased the minds of his men of war, he returned back again with his whole army, to the toun of Caieys [Map], where he began to smell certain secret smoke, which was like to turn to a great flame, without it were well watched and politicly seen to. For by the crafty invention and devilish imagination of that pestiforous serpent lady Margaret, Duchess of Burgundy, a new idol was set up in Flanders, and called Richard Plantagenet, second son to King Edward the 4th as though he had bene resuscitate from death to life, which sudden news more stack and fretted in his stomach, then the battle which now was set late forward and more pain he had (not without great jeopardy of himself) to appease and quench this new sprung conspiracy, then in making peace with the French King his enemy. And so he was content to accept and receive (and not to offer and give) the honest conditions of peace of his enemy proffered and oblated, except he would at one time make war, be the at home in his own country, and also in foreign and external nations. Wherefore King Henry foreseeing all these things before (and not without great counsel) concluded with the French King, to the intent that he being delivered of al outward enmity might the more quickly provide for the civil and domestical commotions, which he perceived well to be budding out. The conclusion of the peace was thus, y the peace should continue both their lives, and that the French King should pay to King Henry a certain sum of money in hand, according as the commissioners should appoint for his charges sustained in his journey:

Europe, France, Picardy, Calais, Exchequer

Holinshed's Chronicle 1539. 11 Dec 1539. The eleuenth daie of December at the turne pike on this side Graueling, was the ladie Anne of Cleue (age 24) receiued by the lord deputie (age 75) of the towne of Calis, and with the speares and horssemen belonging to the retinue there. When she came within little more than a mile of the towne of Calis, she was met by the erle of Southampton (age 49) high admerall of England, who had in his companie thirtie gentlemen of the kings houshold, as sir Francis Brian (age 49), sir Thomas Seimer (age 31), and others, beside a great number of gentlemen of his owne retinue clad in blue veluet, and crimsin satin, and his yeomen in damaske of the same colours. The mariners of his ship were apparelled in satin of Bridges, cotes & slops of the same colour. The lord admerall brought hir into Calis by Lanterne gate. There was such a peale of ordinance shot off at hir entrie, as was maruellous to the hearers. The maior presented hir with an hundred markes in gold, the merchants of the staple with an hundred souereignes of gold in a rich purse. She was lodged in the kings place called the Checker, and there she laie fifteene daies for want of prosperous wind.

Europe, France, Picardy, Calais, Guines

In 1200 Baldwin Guines III Count Guînes was born to Arnoul Guines II Count Guînes (age 30) and Beatrix Bourborg Countess Guînes at Guines.

Chronicle of Gregory 1459. After 14 Jan 1460. Ande Duke Harry of Somerset (age 23) was i-commaundyd to goo to Gyon, and soo he dyd, and full manly made sautys to Calys, ande ranne byfore Calys almoste dayly, and many a men were hurte by him and his men.

Around 05 Jun 1460 when the relief expedition led by Osbert Mountfort was ready to to leave Sandwich, Kent [Map] for Guines, waiting only for a fair wind, the Yorkists John Dynham 1st Baron Dynham (age 27), John Wenlock 1st Baron Wenlock (age 60), William Neville Baron Fauconberg (age 55) crossed from Calais and attacked Sandwich, Kent [Map] killing many of Osbert's men. Osbert Mountfort was captured. William Neville Baron Fauconberg (age 55) remained at Sandwich is preparation for the subsequent landing by Yorkist forces at the end of the month.

Around Oct 1495 John Radclyffe 9th Baron Fitzwalter (age 43) was imprisoned at Guines as a result of his joining the Perkin Warbeck Plot.

Europe, France, Picardy, Calais, Guines Castle

On 24 Mar 1460 Andrew Trollope was appointed Bailiff of Guines Castle. He was forced to surrender the castle to the Yorkists shortly after as a consequence of Osbert Mundeford not providing a relief force.

Calendars. Membrane 13d. 23 May 1460. Commission to Osbert Mountford and John Baker, esquires, ordered, Coventry, by advice of the council, to bring 200 men at arms and archers to Henry, duke of Somerset (age 24), for the safe keeping and defence of the castle and town of Guysnes and to resist the king's rebels and enemies, appointing them to arrest ships and vessels necessary herein and masters and mariners therefor.

Commission to Thomas Thorp, Thomas Kiriell (age 64), knight, John Cheyne, knight, Thomas Broun, knight, Henry Lowes, esquire, John Scot and Robert Home, to take the muster of the said Osbert Mountfort and John Baker and the said men at arms, and to certify the king thereof in Chancery.

Diary of Edward VI. 14 Jun 1550. The surveiour of Cales was sent to Cales [Map]3, first to rase the walls of Risbank [Map] toward the sandhilles, and after to make the wall massy again, and the round boulwerk to chang to a pointed on(e), wich should rone 26 foot into the see to beat the sandhilles, and to raise the mount. Secondly, to Newmanbrig1a to make a hie hulwerk in the middest, with flankers to beat throw al the straight, and also four sluses to make Cales haven better. Afterward he was bid to goe to Guisnes, where first he shuld take away the iiij-cornered bulwerk, to mak the outward wall of the kepe, and to fill the space betwen the keep and the said outward wall with the foresaid bulwerk, and to raise the old kepe that it might (beat ?) the town. Also he was bide to make Purton's bulwark wher it is now round without flankers both pointed, and also with 6 flankers to bete hard to the kepe.

Note 3. "June xiij. 1550. The commission given by the counsaill to the surveior of Calice tooching the fortifications there to be made.

"First, for the castell of Guisnez, he is appoinoted to go in hand withall according to the plott reformed and remaining with the counsaill, and to begin with the barbican of the keepe, then next to fynish Purton bulwarke, and a peece of Whetel's bulwarke, for the furniture whereof he shall take down the iiij-cornered bulwark for his quarrey, preserving the leade and timber for other the King's buildings thereabouts.

"He shall also repaire to Hames, there to make a plott of the present astate of it, and then another plott, adding that is necessary to be doonof newe according to th'instructions given him from hense.

"At Newneham bridge he shall make a square towre of xl foote platforme, and to eno-rosse the walle to Fraunce-ward, to be xxiiij foote thick; the reste to be taken doune at his discrecion, the stone and brioke to be emploied in those newe and other buildings, and the leade and timbre reserved to the King's majesties use in such other places as they shall neede.

"Further to make a skluse of iiij arches to let the sea in more largely for th'amending of the Haven, in such sorte as ij may serve for the continuall course of the water, and the other to serve for the surer stale or greater receiving of the water, as the case shall require.

"For Risebanke [Map] he is appointed to raise the walles of the same tmto such height as shall surmount the grounds without, and further to fortifie it according to the counsaiUes devise with aU expedicion possible. And likewise to fortifie Sercheours Towre as the counsaill hath devised." (Council Book.)

Note 1a. A fort out of Calais on the road to Boulogne; at this period usually called by the English Newnhambridge, but in earlier times Newlandbridge, and by the French Nieullet. See a note upon it in the introduction to The Chronicle of 'Calais, printed for the Camden Society, 1847, p. xxix.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 13 Jul 1551. The thirteenth day of July ded the old knyght and gentyll sir John [Wallop] (age 61) and knight of the noble order of the garter, and captain of the castle [of Guines], for he was a noble captain as ever was, the which I [pray] Jesus have mercy on his soul; and he was buried with standard and [banners] of his armes, coat armour, helmet, target of the garter, sw[ord,] and eight dozen of eschutcheons; and a marmed was his crest; and [in his] stead is chosen captain sir Andrew Dudley (age 44) knight of the ga[rter.]

Note. Death of sir John Wallop, K.G. He died and was buried at Guines. Full particulars of him will be found in Collins's Peerage, edit. 1779, v. 64, with an abstract of his will, dated May 22, 1551, in which he styled himself "lievtenant of the castill and countye of Guysnes." See "The Chronicle of Calais," p. 203.

Calais in the Hands of the English. The Castle Of Guisnes.

Europe, France, Picardy, Calais, Lanterne Gate

Holinshed's Chronicle 1539. 11 Dec 1539. The eleuenth daie of December at the turne pike on this side Graueling, was the ladie Anne of Cleue (age 24) receiued by the lord deputie (age 75) of the towne of Calis, and with the speares and horssemen belonging to the retinue there. When she came within little more than a mile of the towne of Calis, she was met by the erle of Southampton (age 49) high admerall of England, who had in his companie thirtie gentlemen of the kings houshold, as sir Francis Brian (age 49), sir Thomas Seimer (age 31), and others, beside a great number of gentlemen of his owne retinue clad in blue veluet, and crimsin satin, and his yeomen in damaske of the same colours. The mariners of his ship were apparelled in satin of Bridges, cotes & slops of the same colour. The lord admerall brought hir into Calis by Lanterne gate. There was such a peale of ordinance shot off at hir entrie, as was maruellous to the hearers. The maior presented hir with an hundred markes in gold, the merchants of the staple with an hundred souereignes of gold in a rich purse. She was lodged in the kings place called the Checker, and there she laie fifteene daies for want of prosperous wind.

Europe, France, Picardy, Calais, Newnham Bridge

Diary of Edward VI. 14 Jun 1550. The surveiour of Cales was sent to Cales [Map]3, first to rase the walls of Risbank [Map] toward the sandhilles, and after to make the wall massy again, and the round boulwerk to chang to a pointed on(e), wich should rone 26 foot into the see to beat the sandhilles, and to raise the mount. Secondly, to Newmanbrig1a to make a hie hulwerk in the middest, with flankers to beat throw al the straight, and also four sluses to make Cales haven better. Afterward he was bid to goe to Guisnes, where first he shuld take away the iiij-cornered bulwerk, to mak the outward wall of the kepe, and to fill the space betwen the keep and the said outward wall with the foresaid bulwerk, and to raise the old kepe that it might (beat ?) the town. Also he was bide to make Purton's bulwark wher it is now round without flankers both pointed, and also with 6 flankers to bete hard to the kepe.

Note 3. "June xiij. 1550. The commission given by the counsaill to the surveior of Calice tooching the fortifications there to be made.

"First, for the castell of Guisnez, he is appoinoted to go in hand withall according to the plott reformed and remaining with the counsaill, and to begin with the barbican of the keepe, then next to fynish Purton bulwarke, and a peece of Whetel's bulwarke, for the furniture whereof he shall take down the iiij-cornered bulwark for his quarrey, preserving the leade and timber for other the King's buildings thereabouts.

"He shall also repaire to Hames, there to make a plott of the present astate of it, and then another plott, adding that is necessary to be doonof newe according to th'instructions given him from hense.

"At Newneham bridge he shall make a square towre of xl foote platforme, and to eno-rosse the walle to Fraunce-ward, to be xxiiij foote thick; the reste to be taken doune at his discrecion, the stone and brioke to be emploied in those newe and other buildings, and the leade and timbre reserved to the King's majesties use in such other places as they shall neede.

"Further to make a skluse of iiij arches to let the sea in more largely for th'amending of the Haven, in such sorte as ij may serve for the continuall course of the water, and the other to serve for the surer stale or greater receiving of the water, as the case shall require.

"For Risebanke [Map] he is appointed to raise the walles of the same tmto such height as shall surmount the grounds without, and further to fortifie it according to the counsaiUes devise with aU expedicion possible. And likewise to fortifie Sercheours Towre as the counsaill hath devised." (Council Book.)

Note 1a. A fort out of Calais on the road to Boulogne; at this period usually called by the English Newnhambridge, but in earlier times Newlandbridge, and by the French Nieullet. See a note upon it in the introduction to The Chronicle of 'Calais, printed for the Camden Society, 1847, p. xxix.

The Maner of the Triumphe at Caleys and Bulleyn. And as concernyng ladyes and gentylwoman there1 was non there. And on frydaye folowynge the kynges came to Caleys. And the dolphyn with the cardynalles and all theyr gentylmen brought the kynges vnto the place where they fyrst mette and than departed. The frensshe king had great cariage2 for there came three hundred mules laden with stuffe. And3 whan they came to Caleys they were saluted with great melody what with gonnes and all other instrumentes and the ordre of the towne it was a heuenly syght for the tyme. First at Newnam bridge, four hundred shotte at the blockhous. Forty shot at Rycebanke toure [Map]. Three hundred shot within the towne of Caleys. Two thousand shot great and small besydes the shyppes it was all nombered three thousand shot. And at Bulleyn by estymation it past not two hundred shot but they were great peces. Also for the ordre of the towne there was set all seruynge men on the one syde in tawny cotes and sowdyours on the other syde all in cotes of reed and blewe with halberdes in theyr handes. And so the kynges came ryding in the myddes and so the frensshe kynge went to staple hall which is a pryncely hous and vpon saterday bothe the kynges rode to our lady chyrche to masse. And at after noone4 bothe theyr counselles sate togyder.

Note 1. The Second Edition omits: "there."

Note 2. Baggage.

Note 3. The Second Edition reads for: "And when they came to Calais" .... "And so commynge towarde Caleys the duke of Rychemonde accompanyed with bysshops and many other noble men that were not with the kyng at Bulieyn and all the kynges garde which were with all other meruaylously well horsed and trymde they stode in aplace appoynted in aray and good order in the way two mile out of Caleys where the frensshe kynge sholde come who saluted ye frensshe kynge with great honour in lykr maner as the kynge our mayster.

Note 4. For "after noone" the Second Edition reads, "after onne."

Europe, France, Picardy, Calais, Outtersteene Communal Cemetery

On 13 Oct 1914 Greville Arthur Bagot Chester (age 23) was killed in action at Hazelbrouck while leading his platoon in an attack on German rearguard, and was buried at Outtersteene Communal Cemetery, Calais. Lieutenant Chester's commanding officer wrote: "The Battalion was carrying out an attack on a German rearguard at Oulterstern, a small village a few miles east of Hazebrouk. Your boy's company was in front, and stood the brunt of the attack, and his Captain, Hume Kelly (who was himself killed a few days later), told me he behaved exceedingly well, and showed not only courage but common sense in leading his platoon. I personally am very sorry to lose him, for he was not only a thoroughly nice lad, but had the makings of a first rate office - willing, keen and reliable."

Europe, France, Picardy, Calais, Rysbank Tower [Map]

On 25 Jun 1460 Osbert Mountfort and two of his associates were beheaded on the sands at the foot of the Rysbank Tower [Map] by Yorkist sailors.

Diary of Edward VI. 14 Jun 1550. The surveiour of Cales was sent to Cales [Map]3, first to rase the walls of Risbank [Map] toward the sandhilles, and after to make the wall massy again, and the round boulwerk to chang to a pointed on(e), wich should rone 26 foot into the see to beat the sandhilles, and to raise the mount. Secondly, to Newmanbrig1a to make a hie hulwerk in the middest, with flankers to beat throw al the straight, and also four sluses to make Cales haven better. Afterward he was bid to goe to Guisnes, where first he shuld take away the iiij-cornered bulwerk, to mak the outward wall of the kepe, and to fill the space betwen the keep and the said outward wall with the foresaid bulwerk, and to raise the old kepe that it might (beat ?) the town. Also he was bide to make Purton's bulwark wher it is now round without flankers both pointed, and also with 6 flankers to bete hard to the kepe.

Note 3. "June xiij. 1550. The commission given by the counsaill to the surveior of Calice tooching the fortifications there to be made.

"First, for the castell of Guisnez, he is appoinoted to go in hand withall according to the plott reformed and remaining with the counsaill, and to begin with the barbican of the keepe, then next to fynish Purton bulwarke, and a peece of Whetel's bulwarke, for the furniture whereof he shall take down the iiij-cornered bulwark for his quarrey, preserving the leade and timber for other the King's buildings thereabouts.

"He shall also repaire to Hames, there to make a plott of the present astate of it, and then another plott, adding that is necessary to be doonof newe according to th'instructions given him from hense.

"At Newneham bridge he shall make a square towre of xl foote platforme, and to eno-rosse the walle to Fraunce-ward, to be xxiiij foote thick; the reste to be taken doune at his discrecion, the stone and brioke to be emploied in those newe and other buildings, and the leade and timbre reserved to the King's majesties use in such other places as they shall neede.

"Further to make a skluse of iiij arches to let the sea in more largely for th'amending of the Haven, in such sorte as ij may serve for the continuall course of the water, and the other to serve for the surer stale or greater receiving of the water, as the case shall require.

"For Risebanke [Map] he is appointed to raise the walles of the same tmto such height as shall surmount the grounds without, and further to fortifie it according to the counsaiUes devise with aU expedicion possible. And likewise to fortifie Sercheours Towre as the counsaill hath devised." (Council Book.)

Note 1a. A fort out of Calais on the road to Boulogne; at this period usually called by the English Newnhambridge, but in earlier times Newlandbridge, and by the French Nieullet. See a note upon it in the introduction to The Chronicle of 'Calais, printed for the Camden Society, 1847, p. xxix.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 02 Jan 1558. [The iij day of January came tidings to the Queen (age 41)] that the Frenche kyng (age 38) was [come to] Nuwnam bryge with a grett host of men [of war], and layd batheryng pessys unto ytt, and unto Rysse-banke [Map] by water, and to Cales [Map], [and] led grett batheryng peses to hytt, for ther wher [great shooting].

Henry Machyn's Diary. 13 Apr 1559. The xiij day whent to the Towere master Adelston, captain of Rysse-banke [Map], a hold of Cales.

The Maner of the Triumphe at Caleys and Bulleyn. And as concernyng ladyes and gentylwoman there1 was non there. And on frydaye folowynge the kynges came to Caleys. And the dolphyn with the cardynalles and all theyr gentylmen brought the kynges vnto the place where they fyrst mette and than departed. The frensshe king had great cariage2 for there came three hundred mules laden with stuffe. And3 whan they came to Caleys they were saluted with great melody what with gonnes and all other instrumentes and the ordre of the towne it was a heuenly syght for the tyme. First at Newnam bridge, four hundred shotte at the blockhous. Forty shot at Rycebanke toure [Map]. Three hundred shot within the towne of Caleys. Two thousand shot great and small besydes the shyppes it was all nombered three thousand shot. And at Bulleyn by estymation it past not two hundred shot but they were great peces. Also for the ordre of the towne there was set all seruynge men on the one syde in tawny cotes and sowdyours on the other syde all in cotes of reed and blewe with halberdes in theyr handes. And so the kynges came ryding in the myddes and so the frensshe kynge went to staple hall which is a pryncely hous and vpon saterday bothe the kynges rode to our lady chyrche to masse. And at after noone4 bothe theyr counselles sate togyder.

Note 1. The Second Edition omits: "there."

Note 2. Baggage.

Note 3. The Second Edition reads for: "And when they came to Calais" .... "And so commynge towarde Caleys the duke of Rychemonde accompanyed with bysshops and many other noble men that were not with the kyng at Bulieyn and all the kynges garde which were with all other meruaylously well horsed and trymde they stode in aplace appoynted in aray and good order in the way two mile out of Caleys where the frensshe kynge sholde come who saluted ye frensshe kynge with great honour in lykr maner as the kynge our mayster.

Note 4. For "after noone" the Second Edition reads, "after onne."

Europe, France, Picardy, Église Notre Dame de Calais [Map]

On 11 Jul 1469 George York 1st Duke of Clarence (age 19) and Isabel Neville Duchess Clarence (age 17) were married by Archbishop George Neville (age 37) at the Église Notre-Dame de Calais [Map] witnessed by Richard "Kingmaker" Neville Earl Warwick, 6th Earl Salisbury (age 40). She by marriage Duchess Clarence. She the daughter of Richard "Kingmaker" Neville Earl Warwick, 6th Earl Salisbury (age 40) and Anne Beauchamp 16th Countess Warwick (age 42). He the son of Richard Plantagenet 3rd Duke of York and Cecily "Rose of Raby" Neville Duchess York (age 54). They were first cousin once removed. He a great x 2 grandson of King Edward III of England. She a great x 3 granddaughter of King Edward III of England.