Europe, France, Normandy [Map]

Normandy is in France.

1057 Battle of Varaville

1066 Council of Lillebonne

1087 King William "The Conqueror" Dies King William II Succeeds

1119 Battle of Bremule

1135 Death of King Henry I

1174 Battle of Alnwick

1174 Treaty of Falaise

1202 Battle of Mirebeau

1346 Battle of Caen

1415 Siege of Harfleur

1557 Scarborough Castle Rebellion

1563 Wreck of The Greyhound

Europe, France, Normandy, Acquigny

Around 1164 Baudouin Acquigny was born to Roger Tosny (age 32) and Aude Chaumont at Acquigny. His birth date stated as "Around 1170" which would make him too young to father his son Roger whose birth year is "In 1180". Adjusted to 1164.

Europe, France, Normandy, Argentan

On 01 Jun 1134 Geoffrey Plantagenet Count Nantes was born to Geoffrey Plantagenet Duke Normandy (age 20) and Empress Matilda (age 32) at Rouen, France [Map] or Argentan. He a grandson of King Henry I "Beauclerc" England.

On 22 Jul 1136 William Plantagenet was born to Geoffrey Plantagenet Duke Normandy (age 22) and Empress Matilda (age 34) at Argentan or Angers [Map]. He a grandson of King Henry I "Beauclerc" England.

Europe, France, Normandy, Caen [Map]

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 1105. In this year, on the Nativity, held the King Henry (age 37) his court at Windsor Castle [Map]; and afterwards in Lent he went over sea into Normandy against his brother Earl Robert (age 54). And whilst he remained there he won of his brother Caen [Map] and Baieux; and almost all the castles and the chief men in that land were subdued. And afterwards by harvest he returned hither again; and that which he had won in Normandy remained afterwards in peace and subjection to him; except that which was anywhere near the Earl William of Moretaine (age 21). This he often demanded as strongly as he could for the loss of his land in this country.

On 26 Jul 1346 the English army attacked and took Caen [Map] killing around 5000 French soldiers and militia. Otho Holland (age 30) fought.

Chronicle of Gregory 1403-1419. 30 Jul 1417. Al so the same year the King saylyd unto Normandye the second tyme, ande he londyd on Lammas day by-syde Tooke in Normandye. And the same tyme the kyng wanne the towne of Tooke and assaylyd the castelle, the whyche castelle on Syn Lauerens evynne was yolde unto the King, and he gave it unto his brother the Duke of Clarens (age 28) whithe alle the lorschippys dependaunt there too; and thenne the Duke of Clarens (age 28) roode forthe to Cane [Map] whythe othyr lordys whythe hym. And one our Lady evyn, the Assumpcyon, he mustryd his men by-fore the towne of Cane [Map]; and the xij day of August the kyng layde sege to Cane, and that contynuyd tylle the day of the Natyvyte of our Lady nexte folowynge; uppon the same day the towne whythe grete sawte was yoldyd and wonne. And thenne the kyng layde sege unto the castelle, and that in shorte tyme was yoldyn unto the King; and whylys the kyng boode in Cane [Map], the Duke of Clarens (age 28) roode to Bayeux and wanne that. And the same year the kyng wanne Argentyne, bothe the towne and the castelle. And the kyng wanne Alansonne and many moo strong castellys and townys and strong abbeyes.

Chronicle of Gregory 1403-1419. 01 Nov 1417. Ande that same year the kyng (age 31) layde sege unto Faleys [Map] the first day of Novembre, and that sege contynuyde unto the xx day of Decembre, the year of grace Mlcccc xvij. Thenne the towne dysendyd for to trete whythe the King, and the kyng commyttyd the trety unto Thomas Erle of Saulysbury (age 29), and to Harry lord Fehewe, and to Syr Johnne Cornewale, and to Syr Wylliam Haryngdon (age 27), knyghtes and commyssyoners for his partye; and as for the party of the towne, Syr Wylliam Molene (age 39)25, Syr Gylberte Mounstrewys, lord of Fayete26, capytaynys of men of armys, and of the schotte whythe ynne the towne of Faleys, and whythe [them] 27 a pon the same trete, the lord of Gamulle;28 which29 parteys entretid30 ande a cordyd uppon the artyculys and poyntmentys aftyr folowyng.

Alle so hit is accordyd that alle the strongers that benne in the fore said towne of Faleys, the whyche before this tyme hathe ben founde agayne, and in the rystynge of, the King in tyme sythe his first comynge to his Duche of Normandye, were it at Cane [Map], or in any othyr of furtheresser, or that have benn with the King, or with any of his subgettys in his commaundementys, that alle suche strangerys shulle put them only in the kyngys grace and mercy of our sovereign lord the Kyng of Inglonde.

Fryste, that hit is accordyd that the secunde day of Janyver next folowynge they shulde yelde uppe [th]e towne be-for said of Faleys, whythe ynne the houre of terce, into the hondys and power of our sovereign lord the King, or in to the hondys of them be him commyttyde and assygnyde, yf soo be that they be nott rescwyde be batayle of the King her lorde, or Dolfyn, his eldyste sone, or by the Constabylle of Fraunce. And on that the kyng [to]31 setten or do settynne in the fore said towne suche32 warde and kepynge as hit schalle lyke hym.

Alle so it is accordyd that they shalle delyvery and yeldyn uppe33 alle the presoners, Englysche or any othyr, holdyng of owre lege lord the Kyng of Inglonde, the whiche that34 have benne presoners be fore35 the first daye a fore said, ande at the same daye of this present trete, and [that]36 non appechementt ben put up on none of them by her maysterys nowe at that this tyme [nor in tyme]37 to come, be it sommaunce38 requyrynge or askyng in any maner [matier]39 what soo evyr it be, but fynallye the for said maysterys shalle aquyntyn, renownsyn, and relessyn to her presoners her troughthys, her behestys, and hyre othysse, whyche that [the seid presoners mowen have made to heir maisters in eny maner, and that]37 whythe out fraude or malyngyne.

Alle so it is accordyd that the fore said capytaynys shulde delyvery out of the towne of Faleys in to the hondys of the commyssenaryours of our sovereign lord the Kyng of Inglonde, al thoo that were borne in Inglonde, Walys, and Yrlonde, or Gascoyne, whiche be-fore this tyme have holde whythe the party of Inglonde, and for this presentt tyme ben in this said towne of Faleys contrarye ayenste the kyng and his parteyes.

Alle so it is accordyd that non of the captaynys, nor burgessys, nor non othyr of the towne, shalle geve nor suffer for to be gevyn to them of the castelle of Faleys any strengthe of men, of armys, or of schotte, nor maner of socoure of armyrowrysse or artury, schottys, powder, gonnys, or any othyr comfort durynge the for said trete.

Alle so it is accordyd that noo captayne, ne none sowdyer, burgeys, ner comyner, nor non othyr beynge whythe ynne the said towne of Faleys, shalle ressayve or suffer to be ressayved or drawyn out of the castelle the captayne of the same castelle nor non othyr of the same garysonne thereynne beynge at40 this present tretys41. Ande alle soo they shulle nott drawe any42 of them of the castelle undyr the coloure of this presentt tretye.

Ande uppon this our sovereign lord the King of specyalle grace hathe grauntyd unto the forsaid captaynys, sowdyers, and othyr of the said towne, her horse, harneys, and alle her othyr goodys what evyr it be, owte-take artury, shotte, powders and gonnys, arblastrys, and bawderykys for arblastrys, whyche that shalle abyde stylle in the same towne, and alle wey for to sen that the straungers of whyche the seconde artycule makythe mensyon, nor shalle not emynucyon43 the pryvelegys and the benyfytys of this presentt artyculys.

Alle the for said captaynys have sworne a-pon her honowre that durynge the for said trete that they shalle not makyn nor suffyr to be made any brekyng, wastynge, nor be putt nor done a waye any of suche artyculys, shotte, or any othyr thyng be-fore said.

Alle so hit is accordyd that durynge the fore sayd trete noo maner of poyntment of the wallys of the towne shalle be made, but the wallys shalle be leve stylle lyke as they ben foundyn the first daye of this present trete.

Alle so it his accordyd that noo sowdyer nor stranger in the towne of Faleys shalle not make noo robory nor pylyage on the burgeysys of the towne of Faleys in noo maner, ande yf any suche evylle doers ben founde, that thenne the captaynys of men of armys and of shotte do ther on justyfyynge and execusion, or ellys that alle suche evylle doers shalle forfete hyre benyfys and her saffecondyte.

Alle so it [is] 44 accordyd that the said captaynys nor non othyr of the same towne shalle nought bere away, nor purlayne, nor suffer to ben i-purlaynyd or doo a-waye, any ornamentys, jewellys, or relyqwys of Hooly Chyrche, be they of the same towne or of any othyr relygyous out of [th]e towne, that perchaunce were brought unto the towne for dowte of warre or othyr wyse i-brought unto the towne.

Alle so hit is accordyde that the for said captaynys nor non othyr of her feleschyppe shalle nought ledyn nor bere, nor suffer for to be borne nor lede, out of the townye of Faleys, noo maner of goodys undyr the colowre of appyontementt, but oonly her owne propyr goode.

Alle so it is accordyd that alle the capitaynys whythe them of alle her company shalle a-voyde the towne of Faleys the secunde day of Janyver abovyn said by the sonne goynge downe, but yf that they were rescwyd as it is a-fore said. And our sovereign lord the King of Inglond of his specyalle grace hathe grauntyd to alle and to every burgeys of the towne of Faleys, that wylle dwelle and abyde stylle in the fore said towne, there to a-byde and dwelle, sykerly and surely and fully, whythe out any enpechyment uppon them to putte in body or in goodys, mevabylle or unmevabylle, as herytagys nor possessyons whythe ynne the fore said towne, but pessabylly rejoysynne as her propyr goodys at this tyme and in tyme to come, as they might done before the yelding upe of the same towne; be so alle way that they so wyllynge to dwelle and byde in the same towne be come legys and obedyaunte to our sovereign lord the Kyng of Inglonde and his ayrys.

45 Alle so it is accordyd that noo captayne, sowdyer, nor burgeys, nor comyner, nor non othyr whithe ynne the said towne of Faleys, shalle nought ressayvynne, nor suffer to ressayvynne, nor drawyn of the castelle of Faleys the captayne ther of, nor non of there garysons, nor non at this tyme there abydynge [in] 46 the for said chastelle, nor noo maner of goodys to them longyng undyr colowre and shadowe of goodys of the towne, nothyr undy[r] coloure of this presente trete.

Alle so it is accordyd that hangyng this presentte trety and appoyntement noo maner of warre shalle be made by-twyne them ande the oste of our sovereign lord the Kyng of Inglonde and them of the towne of Faleys47.

Alle so it is accordyd that the forsaid lordys and capytaynys of the towne of Faleys shalle take and delyvery xij of the jentyllyste knyghtys and squyers notablys in ostage, the whiche shalle be delyveryde a yenne at the daye that the forsaid lordys and capytaynys havyng fully her poyntys48. And for this trete and appoyntment welle and trewly [to]49 ben holdyn on our parte, the forsaide Thomas Erle of Salysbury, Harry lord Feehewe, John Cornewale and Wylliam Haryngdon, knyghtys, unto this sedylle (id est a bylle) of poyntmentt have sette to our selys for the grete50 affyrmacyon of trought. Gevynne be-fore the towne of Faleys, the xx day of the monythe of December and the year a-fore said.

The whyche towne in maner and forme as it is be-fore said was yoldynne to our sovereign lord the King of Inglonde [th]e seconde daye of Janyver as it was before lemytyd, ande the castelle be lefte stylle un-y[o]ldon unto the first daye of Fevyrer51; the whyche castelle was yoldynne the seconde daye of the monythe a-bove said, and delyveryd in maner and forme a-fore-said, &c.

Note 25. Molene. Melone in Vit. The name is Meulhou in Rymer.

Note 26. Fayete. Our MS. reads, lord of feyfty capytaynys; but Vit. more accurately, "lord Fayete, capteyns."

Note 27. Omitted in MS.; J. reads "hem."

Note 28. the lord of Gamulle. This reading is taken from J. The name is written in the same way on Norman Roll, 5 Hen. V., m. 2, from which the treaty is printed in Rymer, and perhaps it may be read, as Rymer reads it, "Ganville." Our MS. reads absurdly, "they of Gaunte." Perhaps the person intended was the Sire de Graville, who a few months later (4 July, 1418) disputed with the English the passage of the Seine at Pont de l'Arche.-Williams's "Gesta Henrici V.," 122

Note 29. which. with, MS.

Note 30. entretid. encresyd, MS.; corrected from J.

Note 31. Supplied from J.

Note 32. suche. The MS. reads "whiche," an evident error, which is corrected from Vit.

Note 33. "the town and," V.

Note 34. that. there, V.; that there, J.

Note 35. be forerepeated in MS.

Note 36. Supplied from J.

Note 37. Omitted in MS.; supplied from J. and V.

Note 38. J. reads, "be it to sommone, requiren, or asken."

Note 39. Omitted in MS.; supplied from V.

Note 40. at. and, MS.; at, J.

Note 41. tretys. tyme, J.; trete tyme, V.

Note 42. any. J. reads, "eny goodes of them of the castel undre the colour and shadowe of her owne goodes of the towne, ne undre the colour of this present trete."

Note 43. emynucyon. enjoie, J. A blank is left for the word in V.

Note 44. Omitted in MS.

Note 45. This is a repetition of a former article which will be found in its right place on p. 118.

Note 46. Omitted in MS.; supplied from J.

Note 47. J. adds, "forseen alweys that it be understanden that the castel of Faloys, ne non theryn, be comprehendid ne taken in this present abstinence."

Note 48. havyng fully her poyntys. han fulfillid here promyse, J.

Note 49. Omitted in MS.; supplied from J.

Note 50. grete. gretter, J.

Note 51. J. gives also the text (translated) of the articles for the surrender of the castle, which are dated on the 1st Feb., and of which the two first are printed in Rymer, ix. 541, in the original French. See Appendix.

Evelyn's Diary. 25 Mar 1644. We arrived at Caen [Map], a noble and beautiful town, situate on the river Orne, which passes quite through it, the two sides of the town joined only by a bridge of one entire arch. We lay at the Angel, where we were very well used, the place being abundantly furnished with provisions, at a cheap rate. The most considerable object is the great Abbey and Church, large and rich, built after the Gothic manner, having two spires and middle lantern at the west end, all of stone. The choir round and large, in the center whereof elevated on a square, handsome, but plain sepulcher, is this inscription:

Europe, France, Normandy, Caen, Church of St Pierre [Map]

1823. David Roberts (age 26). West front of the Church of St Pierre, Caen [Map].

Europe, France, Normandy, Saint Étienne de Caen [Map]

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 1087. In the same year also, before the Assumption of St. Mary, King William (age 59) went from Normandy [Map] into France with an army, and made war upon his own lord Philip, the king (age 34), and slew many of his men, and burned the town of Mante, and all the holy minsters that were in the town; and two holy men that served God, leading the life of anachorets, were burned therein. This being thus done, King William (age 59) returned to Normandy. Rueful was the thing he did; but a more rueful him befel. How more rueful? He fell sick, and it dreadfully ailed him. What shall I say? Sharp death, that passes by neither rich men nor poor, seized him also. He died in Normandy, on the next day after the Nativity of St. Mary, and he was buried at Caen in St. Stephen's minster [Map], which he had formerly reared, and afterwards endowed with manifold gifts. Alas! how false and how uncertain is this world's weal! He that was before a rich king (age 59), and lord of many lands, had not then of all his land more than a space of seven feet! and he that was whilom enshrouded in gold and gems, lay there covered with mould! He left behind him three sons; the eldest, called Robert (age 36), who was earl in Normandy after him; the second, called William (age 31), who wore the crown after him in England; and the third, called Henry (age 19), to whom his father bequeathed immense treasure. If any person wishes to know what kind of man he was, or what honour he had, or of how many lands he was lord, then will we write about him as well as we understand him: we who often looked upon him, and lived sometime in his court. This King William (age 59) then that we speak about was a very wise man, and very rich; more splendid and powerful than any of his predecessors were. He was mild to the good men that loved God, and beyond all measure severe to the men that gainsayed his will. On that same spot where God granted him that he should gain England, he reared a mighty minster, and set monks therein, and well endowed it. In his days was the great monastery in Canterbury built, and also very many others over all England. This land was moreover well filled with monks, who modelled their lives after the rule of St. Benedict. But such was the state of Christianity in his time, that each man followed what belonged to his profession-he that would. He was also very dignified. Thrice he bare his crown each year, as oft as he was in England. At Easter he bare it in Winchester, at Pentecost in Westminster, at midwinter in Glocester. And then were with him all the rich men over all England; archbishops and diocesan bishops, abbots and earls, thanes and knights. So very stern was he also and hot, that no man durst do anything against his will. He had earls in his custody, who acted against his will. Bishops he hurled from their bishoprics, and abbots from their abbacies, and thanes into prison. At length he spared not his own brother Odo, who was a very rich bishop in Normandy. At Baieux was his episcopal stall; and he was the foremost man of all to aggrandise the king (age 59). He had an earldom in England; and when the king (age 59) was in Normandy, then was he the mightiest man in this land. Him he confined in prison. But amongst other things is not to be forgotten that good peace that he made in this land; so that a man of any account might go over his kingdom unhurt with his bosom full of gold. No man durst slay another, had he never so much evil done to the other; and if any churl lay with a woman against her will, he soon lost the limb that he played with. He truly reigned over England; and by his capacity so thoroughly surveyed it, that there was not a hide of land in England that he wist not who had it, or what it was worth, and afterwards set it down in his book.110 The land of the Britons was in his power; and he wrought castles therein; and ruled Anglesey withal. So also he subdued Scotland by his great strength. As to Normandy, that was his native land; but he reigned also over the earldom called Maine; and if he might have yet lived two years more, he would have won Ireland by his valour, and without any weapons. Assuredly in his time had men much distress, and very many sorrows. Castles he let men build, and miserably swink the poor. The king (age 59) himself was so very rigid; and extorted from his subjects many marks of gold, and many hundred pounds of silver; which he took of his people, for little need, by right and by unright. He was fallen into covetousness, and greediness he loved withal. He made many deer-parks; and he established laws therewith; so that whosoever slew a hart, or a hind, should be deprived of his eyesight. As he forbade men to kill the harts, so also the boars; and he loved the tall deer as if he were their father. Likewise he decreed by the hares, that they should go free. His rich men bemoaned it, and the poor men shuddered at it. But he was so stern, that he recked not the hatred of them all; for they must follow withal the king's (age 59) will, if they would live, or have land, or possessions, or even his peace. Alas! that any man should presume so to puff himself up, and boast o'er all men. May the Almighty God show mercy to his soul, and grant him forgiveness of his sins! These things have we written concerning him, both good and evil; that men may choose the good after their goodness, and flee from the evil withal, and go in the way that leadeth us to the kingdom of heaven. Many things may we write that were done in this same year. So it was in Denmark, that the Danes, a nation that was formerly accounted the truest of all, were turned aside to the greatest untruth, and to the greatest treachery that ever could be. They chose and bowed to King Cnute, and swore him oaths, and afterwards dastardly slew him in a church. It happened also in Spain, that the heathens went and made inroads upon the Christians, and reduced much of the country to their dominion. But the king of the Christians, Alphonzo by name, sent everywhere into each land, and desired assistance. And they came to his support from every land that was Christian; and they went and slew or drove away all the heathen folk, and won their land again, through God's assistance.

Europe, France, Normandy, Calvados

Europe, France, Normandy, Calvados, Bayeux

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 1087. In the same year also, before the Assumption of St. Mary, King William (age 59) went from Normandy [Map] into France with an army, and made war upon his own lord Philip, the king (age 34), and slew many of his men, and burned the town of Mante, and all the holy minsters that were in the town; and two holy men that served God, leading the life of anachorets, were burned therein. This being thus done, King William (age 59) returned to Normandy. Rueful was the thing he did; but a more rueful him befel. How more rueful? He fell sick, and it dreadfully ailed him. What shall I say? Sharp death, that passes by neither rich men nor poor, seized him also. He died in Normandy, on the next day after the Nativity of St. Mary, and he was buried at Caen in St. Stephen's minster [Map], which he had formerly reared, and afterwards endowed with manifold gifts. Alas! how false and how uncertain is this world's weal! He that was before a rich king (age 59), and lord of many lands, had not then of all his land more than a space of seven feet! and he that was whilom enshrouded in gold and gems, lay there covered with mould! He left behind him three sons; the eldest, called Robert (age 36), who was earl in Normandy after him; the second, called William (age 31), who wore the crown after him in England; and the third, called Henry (age 19), to whom his father bequeathed immense treasure. If any person wishes to know what kind of man he was, or what honour he had, or of how many lands he was lord, then will we write about him as well as we understand him: we who often looked upon him, and lived sometime in his court. This King William (age 59) then that we speak about was a very wise man, and very rich; more splendid and powerful than any of his predecessors were. He was mild to the good men that loved God, and beyond all measure severe to the men that gainsayed his will. On that same spot where God granted him that he should gain England, he reared a mighty minster, and set monks therein, and well endowed it. In his days was the great monastery in Canterbury built, and also very many others over all England. This land was moreover well filled with monks, who modelled their lives after the rule of St. Benedict. But such was the state of Christianity in his time, that each man followed what belonged to his profession-he that would. He was also very dignified. Thrice he bare his crown each year, as oft as he was in England. At Easter he bare it in Winchester, at Pentecost in Westminster, at midwinter in Glocester. And then were with him all the rich men over all England; archbishops and diocesan bishops, abbots and earls, thanes and knights. So very stern was he also and hot, that no man durst do anything against his will. He had earls in his custody, who acted against his will. Bishops he hurled from their bishoprics, and abbots from their abbacies, and thanes into prison. At length he spared not his own brother Odo, who was a very rich bishop in Normandy. At Baieux was his episcopal stall; and he was the foremost man of all to aggrandise the king (age 59). He had an earldom in England; and when the king (age 59) was in Normandy, then was he the mightiest man in this land. Him he confined in prison. But amongst other things is not to be forgotten that good peace that he made in this land; so that a man of any account might go over his kingdom unhurt with his bosom full of gold. No man durst slay another, had he never so much evil done to the other; and if any churl lay with a woman against her will, he soon lost the limb that he played with. He truly reigned over England; and by his capacity so thoroughly surveyed it, that there was not a hide of land in England that he wist not who had it, or what it was worth, and afterwards set it down in his book.110 The land of the Britons was in his power; and he wrought castles therein; and ruled Anglesey withal. So also he subdued Scotland by his great strength. As to Normandy, that was his native land; but he reigned also over the earldom called Maine; and if he might have yet lived two years more, he would have won Ireland by his valour, and without any weapons. Assuredly in his time had men much distress, and very many sorrows. Castles he let men build, and miserably swink the poor. The king (age 59) himself was so very rigid; and extorted from his subjects many marks of gold, and many hundred pounds of silver; which he took of his people, for little need, by right and by unright. He was fallen into covetousness, and greediness he loved withal. He made many deer-parks; and he established laws therewith; so that whosoever slew a hart, or a hind, should be deprived of his eyesight. As he forbade men to kill the harts, so also the boars; and he loved the tall deer as if he were their father. Likewise he decreed by the hares, that they should go free. His rich men bemoaned it, and the poor men shuddered at it. But he was so stern, that he recked not the hatred of them all; for they must follow withal the king's (age 59) will, if they would live, or have land, or possessions, or even his peace. Alas! that any man should presume so to puff himself up, and boast o'er all men. May the Almighty God show mercy to his soul, and grant him forgiveness of his sins! These things have we written concerning him, both good and evil; that men may choose the good after their goodness, and flee from the evil withal, and go in the way that leadeth us to the kingdom of heaven. Many things may we write that were done in this same year. So it was in Denmark, that the Danes, a nation that was formerly accounted the truest of all, were turned aside to the greatest untruth, and to the greatest treachery that ever could be. They chose and bowed to King Cnute, and swore him oaths, and afterwards dastardly slew him in a church. It happened also in Spain, that the heathens went and made inroads upon the Christians, and reduced much of the country to their dominion. But the king of the Christians, Alphonzo by name, sent everywhere into each land, and desired assistance. And they came to his support from every land that was Christian; and they went and slew or drove away all the heathen folk, and won their land again, through God's assistance.

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 1105. In this year, on the Nativity, held the King Henry (age 37) his court at Windsor Castle [Map]; and afterwards in Lent he went over sea into Normandy against his brother Earl Robert (age 54). And whilst he remained there he won of his brother Caen [Map] and Baieux; and almost all the castles and the chief men in that land were subdued. And afterwards by harvest he returned hither again; and that which he had won in Normandy remained afterwards in peace and subjection to him; except that which was anywhere near the Earl William of Moretaine (age 21). This he often demanded as strongly as he could for the loss of his land in this country.

Chronicle of Gregory 1403-1419. 30 Jul 1417. Al so the same year the King saylyd unto Normandye the second tyme, ande he londyd on Lammas day by-syde Tooke in Normandye. And the same tyme the kyng wanne the towne of Tooke and assaylyd the castelle, the whyche castelle on Syn Lauerens evynne was yolde unto the King, and he gave it unto his brother the Duke of Clarens (age 28) whithe alle the lorschippys dependaunt there too; and thenne the Duke of Clarens (age 28) roode forthe to Cane [Map] whythe othyr lordys whythe hym. And one our Lady evyn, the Assumpcyon, he mustryd his men by-fore the towne of Cane [Map]; and the xij day of August the kyng layde sege to Cane, and that contynuyd tylle the day of the Natyvyte of our Lady nexte folowynge; uppon the same day the towne whythe grete sawte was yoldyd and wonne. And thenne the kyng layde sege unto the castelle, and that in shorte tyme was yoldyn unto the King; and whylys the kyng boode in Cane [Map], the Duke of Clarens (age 28) roode to Bayeux and wanne that. And the same year the kyng wanne Argentyne, bothe the towne and the castelle. And the kyng wanne Alansonne and many moo strong castellys and townys and strong abbeyes.

Europe, France, Normandy, Dieppe

On 25 Apr 1557 Thomas Stafford (age 24) sailed from Dieppe with two ships and over 30 men. He took Scarborough Castle [Map] and declared himself Protector of the Realm.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 03 Aug 1557. [The iij day of August the good ship called the Mary-Rose] of London, acompanyd [with the Maudlyn Dryvers, and a] smalle crayer of the Whest-contrey, commyng [by south] chansyd to mette with a Frencheman of war [of the burden] of x skore or ther bowth; the wyche Frenche shyp [had to] the nomber of ij C. men; and in the Mare-Rows xxii [men and ... ] bowys, the Maudelyn xviij, the barke of the West-contr[ey xij]. The MareRows saylyng faster then the French [man,] and so in-continent the Frenche shype sett upon the [other] ij shyps, whom seyng the master of the Mare-Rowse cast a-bowtt, and [set upon] the Frence shype, and borded her; and slew to the nomber of C men with the captayn or ever thatt the other came to the fyght; ther wher slayne in Mare-Rowse ij men, and one ded a senett after, and vj hurte wythe [the master,] whos name was John Couper. Then cam the men of the Mare-Rosse, and shott on pesse of ordenanse in[to the] Frenche shype('s) starne, and gahyng by here shott arow[s at the] Frenche-men; the Maudelyn dyd no more hurtt; [the] barke nothyng at all. Thus thay fought ij owrs [hours] [but at] the lengh the Frenche-men wher were of the[ir parts] and for-soke them, nott haveng men to gyde ther sayls; butt yff the Mare-Rosse had had men to enter the Frenche shype, and a setter on, they had browght her a-way [ere] the othur shypes had helpyd her. After-ward nuws was browght owt of Depe by a presoner that had payd hys ransom that 1. men was cared owt of the Frenche shype on barows to the surgayns, and the shype sore spoyllyd and hurtt.

Evelyn's Diary. 21 Mar 1644. On Easter Monday, we dined at Totes, a solitary inn between Rouen, France [Map] and Dieppe, at which latter place we arrived. This town is situated between two mountains, not unpleasantly, and is washed on the north by our English seas.

Evelyn's Diary. 13 Jul 1694. Lord Berkeley (age 31) burnt Dieppe and Havre de Grace with bombs, in revenge for the defeat at Brest. This manner of destructive war was begun by the French, is exceedingly ruinous, especially falling on the poorer people, and does not seem to tend to make a more speedy end of the war; but rather to exasperate and incite to revenge. Many executed at London for clipping money, now done to that intolerable extent, that there was hardly any money that was worth above half the nominal icon.

Europe, France, Normandy, Dénestanville

Around 1110 Reginald de Dunstanville Fitzroy 1st Earl Cornwall was born illegitimately to King Henry I "Beauclerc" England (age 42) and Sybilla Corbet (age 35) at Dénestanville.

Europe, France, Normandy, Estouteville

Robert III Stuteville was born to Robert Stuteville at Estouteville.

Europe, France, Normandy, Estrées la Campagne

Europe, France, Normandy, Eu

Europe, France, Normandy, Château d'Eu [Map]

On 20 Oct 1885 Prince Valdemar Glücksburg (age 26) and Princess Marie Orléans (age 20) were married in a civil ceremony at Château d'Eu [Map]. He the son of King Christian IX of Denmark (age 67) and Queen Louise Hesse-Kassel of Denmark (age 68). He a great x 3 grandson of King George II of Great Britain and Ireland.

Europe, France, Normandy, Falaise [Map]

In 1022 Beatrix Falaise Countess Eu was born to Father of Beatrix and Herleva in Falaise [Map].

Chronicle of Gregory 1403-1419. 01 Nov 1417. Ande that same year the kyng (age 31) layde sege unto Faleys [Map] the first day of Novembre, and that sege contynuyde unto the xx day of Decembre, the year of grace Mlcccc xvij. Thenne the towne dysendyd for to trete whythe the King, and the kyng commyttyd the trety unto Thomas Erle of Saulysbury (age 29), and to Harry lord Fehewe, and to Syr Johnne Cornewale, and to Syr Wylliam Haryngdon (age 27), knyghtes and commyssyoners for his partye; and as for the party of the towne, Syr Wylliam Molene (age 39)25, Syr Gylberte Mounstrewys, lord of Fayete26, capytaynys of men of armys, and of the schotte whythe ynne the towne of Faleys, and whythe [them] 27 a pon the same trete, the lord of Gamulle;28 which29 parteys entretid30 ande a cordyd uppon the artyculys and poyntmentys aftyr folowyng.

Alle so hit is accordyd that alle the strongers that benne in the fore said towne of Faleys, the whyche before this tyme hathe ben founde agayne, and in the rystynge of, the King in tyme sythe his first comynge to his Duche of Normandye, were it at Cane [Map], or in any othyr of furtheresser, or that have benn with the King, or with any of his subgettys in his commaundementys, that alle suche strangerys shulle put them only in the kyngys grace and mercy of our sovereign lord the Kyng of Inglonde.

Fryste, that hit is accordyd that the secunde day of Janyver next folowynge they shulde yelde uppe [th]e towne be-for said of Faleys, whythe ynne the houre of terce, into the hondys and power of our sovereign lord the King, or in to the hondys of them be him commyttyde and assygnyde, yf soo be that they be nott rescwyde be batayle of the King her lorde, or Dolfyn, his eldyste sone, or by the Constabylle of Fraunce. And on that the kyng [to]31 setten or do settynne in the fore said towne suche32 warde and kepynge as hit schalle lyke hym.

Alle so it is accordyd that they shalle delyvery and yeldyn uppe33 alle the presoners, Englysche or any othyr, holdyng of owre lege lord the Kyng of Inglonde, the whiche that34 have benne presoners be fore35 the first daye a fore said, ande at the same daye of this present trete, and [that]36 non appechementt ben put up on none of them by her maysterys nowe at that this tyme [nor in tyme]37 to come, be it sommaunce38 requyrynge or askyng in any maner [matier]39 what soo evyr it be, but fynallye the for said maysterys shalle aquyntyn, renownsyn, and relessyn to her presoners her troughthys, her behestys, and hyre othysse, whyche that [the seid presoners mowen have made to heir maisters in eny maner, and that]37 whythe out fraude or malyngyne.

Alle so it is accordyd that the fore said capytaynys shulde delyvery out of the towne of Faleys in to the hondys of the commyssenaryours of our sovereign lord the Kyng of Inglonde, al thoo that were borne in Inglonde, Walys, and Yrlonde, or Gascoyne, whiche be-fore this tyme have holde whythe the party of Inglonde, and for this presentt tyme ben in this said towne of Faleys contrarye ayenste the kyng and his parteyes.

Alle so it is accordyd that non of the captaynys, nor burgessys, nor non othyr of the towne, shalle geve nor suffer for to be gevyn to them of the castelle of Faleys any strengthe of men, of armys, or of schotte, nor maner of socoure of armyrowrysse or artury, schottys, powder, gonnys, or any othyr comfort durynge the for said trete.

Alle so it is accordyd that noo captayne, ne none sowdyer, burgeys, ner comyner, nor non othyr beynge whythe ynne the said towne of Faleys, shalle ressayve or suffer to be ressayved or drawyn out of the castelle the captayne of the same castelle nor non othyr of the same garysonne thereynne beynge at40 this present tretys41. Ande alle soo they shulle nott drawe any42 of them of the castelle undyr the coloure of this presentt tretye.

Ande uppon this our sovereign lord the King of specyalle grace hathe grauntyd unto the forsaid captaynys, sowdyers, and othyr of the said towne, her horse, harneys, and alle her othyr goodys what evyr it be, owte-take artury, shotte, powders and gonnys, arblastrys, and bawderykys for arblastrys, whyche that shalle abyde stylle in the same towne, and alle wey for to sen that the straungers of whyche the seconde artycule makythe mensyon, nor shalle not emynucyon43 the pryvelegys and the benyfytys of this presentt artyculys.

Alle the for said captaynys have sworne a-pon her honowre that durynge the for said trete that they shalle not makyn nor suffyr to be made any brekyng, wastynge, nor be putt nor done a waye any of suche artyculys, shotte, or any othyr thyng be-fore said.

Alle so hit is accordyd that durynge the fore sayd trete noo maner of poyntment of the wallys of the towne shalle be made, but the wallys shalle be leve stylle lyke as they ben foundyn the first daye of this present trete.

Alle so it his accordyd that noo sowdyer nor stranger in the towne of Faleys shalle not make noo robory nor pylyage on the burgeysys of the towne of Faleys in noo maner, ande yf any suche evylle doers ben founde, that thenne the captaynys of men of armys and of shotte do ther on justyfyynge and execusion, or ellys that alle suche evylle doers shalle forfete hyre benyfys and her saffecondyte.

Alle so it [is] 44 accordyd that the said captaynys nor non othyr of the same towne shalle nought bere away, nor purlayne, nor suffer to ben i-purlaynyd or doo a-waye, any ornamentys, jewellys, or relyqwys of Hooly Chyrche, be they of the same towne or of any othyr relygyous out of [th]e towne, that perchaunce were brought unto the towne for dowte of warre or othyr wyse i-brought unto the towne.

Alle so hit is accordyde that the for said captaynys nor non othyr of her feleschyppe shalle nought ledyn nor bere, nor suffer for to be borne nor lede, out of the townye of Faleys, noo maner of goodys undyr the colowre of appyontementt, but oonly her owne propyr goode.

Alle so it is accordyd that alle the capitaynys whythe them of alle her company shalle a-voyde the towne of Faleys the secunde day of Janyver abovyn said by the sonne goynge downe, but yf that they were rescwyd as it is a-fore said. And our sovereign lord the King of Inglond of his specyalle grace hathe grauntyd to alle and to every burgeys of the towne of Faleys, that wylle dwelle and abyde stylle in the fore said towne, there to a-byde and dwelle, sykerly and surely and fully, whythe out any enpechyment uppon them to putte in body or in goodys, mevabylle or unmevabylle, as herytagys nor possessyons whythe ynne the fore said towne, but pessabylly rejoysynne as her propyr goodys at this tyme and in tyme to come, as they might done before the yelding upe of the same towne; be so alle way that they so wyllynge to dwelle and byde in the same towne be come legys and obedyaunte to our sovereign lord the Kyng of Inglonde and his ayrys.

45 Alle so it is accordyd that noo captayne, sowdyer, nor burgeys, nor comyner, nor non othyr whithe ynne the said towne of Faleys, shalle nought ressayvynne, nor suffer to ressayvynne, nor drawyn of the castelle of Faleys the captayne ther of, nor non of there garysons, nor non at this tyme there abydynge [in] 46 the for said chastelle, nor noo maner of goodys to them longyng undyr colowre and shadowe of goodys of the towne, nothyr undy[r] coloure of this presente trete.

Alle so it is accordyd that hangyng this presentte trety and appoyntement noo maner of warre shalle be made by-twyne them ande the oste of our sovereign lord the Kyng of Inglonde and them of the towne of Faleys47.

Alle so it is accordyd that the forsaid lordys and capytaynys of the towne of Faleys shalle take and delyvery xij of the jentyllyste knyghtys and squyers notablys in ostage, the whiche shalle be delyveryde a yenne at the daye that the forsaid lordys and capytaynys havyng fully her poyntys48. And for this trete and appoyntment welle and trewly [to]49 ben holdyn on our parte, the forsaide Thomas Erle of Salysbury, Harry lord Feehewe, John Cornewale and Wylliam Haryngdon, knyghtys, unto this sedylle (id est a bylle) of poyntmentt have sette to our selys for the grete50 affyrmacyon of trought. Gevynne be-fore the towne of Faleys, the xx day of the monythe of December and the year a-fore said.

The whyche towne in maner and forme as it is be-fore said was yoldynne to our sovereign lord the King of Inglonde [th]e seconde daye of Janyver as it was before lemytyd, ande the castelle be lefte stylle un-y[o]ldon unto the first daye of Fevyrer51; the whyche castelle was yoldynne the seconde daye of the monythe a-bove said, and delyveryd in maner and forme a-fore-said, &c.

Note 25. Molene. Melone in Vit. The name is Meulhou in Rymer.

Note 26. Fayete. Our MS. reads, lord of feyfty capytaynys; but Vit. more accurately, "lord Fayete, capteyns."

Note 27. Omitted in MS.; J. reads "hem."

Note 28. the lord of Gamulle. This reading is taken from J. The name is written in the same way on Norman Roll, 5 Hen. V., m. 2, from which the treaty is printed in Rymer, and perhaps it may be read, as Rymer reads it, "Ganville." Our MS. reads absurdly, "they of Gaunte." Perhaps the person intended was the Sire de Graville, who a few months later (4 July, 1418) disputed with the English the passage of the Seine at Pont de l'Arche.-Williams's "Gesta Henrici V.," 122

Note 29. which. with, MS.

Note 30. entretid. encresyd, MS.; corrected from J.

Note 31. Supplied from J.

Note 32. suche. The MS. reads "whiche," an evident error, which is corrected from Vit.

Note 33. "the town and," V.

Note 34. that. there, V.; that there, J.

Note 35. be forerepeated in MS.

Note 36. Supplied from J.

Note 37. Omitted in MS.; supplied from J. and V.

Note 38. J. reads, "be it to sommone, requiren, or asken."

Note 39. Omitted in MS.; supplied from V.

Note 40. at. and, MS.; at, J.

Note 41. tretys. tyme, J.; trete tyme, V.

Note 42. any. J. reads, "eny goodes of them of the castel undre the colour and shadowe of her owne goodes of the towne, ne undre the colour of this present trete."

Note 43. emynucyon. enjoie, J. A blank is left for the word in V.

Note 44. Omitted in MS.

Note 45. This is a repetition of a former article which will be found in its right place on p. 118.

Note 46. Omitted in MS.; supplied from J.

Note 47. J. adds, "forseen alweys that it be understanden that the castel of Faloys, ne non theryn, be comprehendid ne taken in this present abstinence."

Note 48. havyng fully her poyntys. han fulfillid here promyse, J.

Note 49. Omitted in MS.; supplied from J.

Note 50. grete. gretter, J.

Note 51. J. gives also the text (translated) of the articles for the surrender of the castle, which are dated on the 1st Feb., and of which the two first are printed in Rymer, ix. 541, in the original French. See Appendix.

Herleva Falaise was born to Father of Beatrix and Herleva in Falaise [Map].

Europe, France, Normandy, Falaise Castle [Map]

On 13 Jul 1174 a small army commanded by Ranulf Glanville (age 62) with Hugh de Kevelioc Gernon 5th Earl Chester (age 27) surprised William "Lion" I King Scotland 1143-1214's army in a dawn raid known as the Battle of Alnwick near Alnwick, Northumberland [Map]. William "Lion" I King Scotland (age 31) was captured and imprisoned initially in Newcastle on Tyne Castle [Map]. He was subsequently moved to the more remote, and secure, Falaise Castle [Map].

In Dec 1174 William "Lion" I King Scotland (age 31), imprisoned at Falaise Castle [Map], signed the Treaty of Falaise by which he agreed King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England (age 41) was overlord of Scotland. He also agreed to marry a bride of Henry's (age 41) choosing. He married Ermengarde Beaumont Sarthe Queen Consort Scotland (age 4) twelve years later.

Simon Senlis 7th Earl Huntingdon 7th Earl of Northampton 1138 1184 7th Earl of Northampton (age 36) succeeded 7th Earl Huntingdon.

Europe, France, Normandy, Ferrières

Henry Ferrers was born at Ferrières.

Europe, France, Normandy, Fécamp

Europe, France, Normandy, Fécamp Abbey

Flowers of History. 1075. The same year, on Easter day, the above-named king William (age 47) gave his daughter Cecilia (age 19) to be dedicated to the service of God with devout solemnity in the church at Feschamp. Also king William cursed his son Robert (age 24), because he had often provoked him to anger, and in the bitterness of his soul he drove him from his sight and presence. And Robert at the end of his life found out undeniably how great was the effect of the paternal malediction, when having become blind, he was exposed to the hatred and persecution of his brothers, and so died miserably in prison.

William Normandy was a Monk at Fécamp Abbey.

Matilda Normandy Countess Flanders was a Nun at Fécamp Abbey.

Europe, France, Normandy, Gaillardbois Cressenville

On 20 Aug 1119 at the Battle of Bremule at Gaillardbois Cressenville King Henry I "Beauclerc" England (age 51) and his son William Adelin Normandy Duke Normandy (age 16) defeated the army of Louis "Fat" VI King France (age 37) who had invaded Normandy in support of William Clito Normandy Count Flanders (age 16) who claimed the Duchy of Normandy.

Europe, France, Normandy, Gisors

On 16 Aug 1421 John Wenlock 1st Baron Wenlock (age 21) received a grant of lands in the bailiwick of Gisors.

Effigy of King Richard I. THIS chivalrous monarch, the fame of whose personal courage has been handed down to posterity in his surname, Coeur de Lion, was the third son of Henry the Second, by Eleanor de Guienne, his queen, and was born at Oxford, at the royal palace there, in the year 1157. He was created Earl of Poitou and Duke of Aquitaine by his father, during his lifetime, and at his death in 1181 succeeded to the Crown of England. In his childhood he was contracted in marriage to Alice, daughter of Henry the Seventh, King of France [Note. A mistake for Louis VII]. This engagement was, however, never completed; her chastity lying under an imputation with his own father, he refused to ratify it, and gave £100,000. to King Philip, her brother, as a compensation for its non-performance. She became the wife of William Earl of Ponthieu, by whom she had issue Joan of Castile, mother of Queen Eleanor, wife of Edward the First. [Note. A mistake. William and Alice were the parent of Marie Montgomery Countess Ponthieu who was the mother of Joan Dammartin Queen Consort Castile and Leon who was the mother of Eleanor of Castile Queen Consort England]

His second wife [Note. A mistake? His first wife - he and Alice were only betrothed?] was Berengaria, or Berenquelle, daughter of Sanchez the Fourth, King of Navarre. She was married to Richard in 1190, at the Island of Cyprus, when on his way to the Holy Land, whither she accompanied him.

King Richard received the scrip and staff of pilgrimage from the Archbishop of Tours, and proceeding to Marseilles, embarked on the 7th August 1190, on his expedition to the Holy Land. His first exploit in his way was the capture of the city of Messina, in Sicily, in order to release his sister Joan, widow of William the Good, the late king of that island, then kept in confinement by Tancred, the bastard and usurper. Richard enforced his demands of remuneration for his sister's claims, by keeping possession of Messina until they were satisfied. These were, that Tancred should permit her to enjoy the dower settled on her by the late King her husband; that she should have, according to the custom of Sicilian queens, a chair of gold, a table of gold twelve feet in length and a foot and a half in breadth, two golden tressels to support the same, a silk tent in which two hundred knights might be entertained, twenty-four silver cups and as many dishes, six thousand measures of wheat, a proportionate quantity of barley and wine, an hundred armed galleys, properly appointed, and victualled for two years. Tancred compounded for these dues by the payment of twenty thousand ounces of gold to Richard as his sisters dower, twenty thousand more to Richard himself, to be quit of any further claims, besides a gift to him of four large ships and fifteen galleys. Setting sail from Sicily, accompanied by his mother Eleanor and his betrothed wife, his fleet was scattered in a tempest between the islands of Rhodes and Cyprus. The ship which contained his sister Joan and his intended bride, was barbarously excluded from sheltering in Cyprus by Isaac Comnenus, the reigning prince, who held it under the Greek emperors. Richard promptly avenged this affront, by subduing the island, taking Isaac prisoner, and ultimately transferring the sovereignty of Cyprus to Guy de Lusignan. Here Richard espoused his queen Berengaria. In the beginning of April 1191 Richard proceeded to the relief of the Christian army encamped before Acre. In his voyage he fell in with a Saracen dromond, or huge argosie, sent by Saladin, the brother of Saladin the Soldan of Babylon, laden with immense treasure, military stores, and provisions, and fifteen hundred warriors, for the succour of the Infidels besieged in Acre. Among the articles for offensive warfare were a quantity of the celebrated Greek fire, and vessels full of venomous serpents. This unwieldy vessel was promptly assailed on all sides by the King's light galleys; her bottom was pierced with holes by the augers of certain dextrous divers, and she was soon filled with water to her upper works. Thirteen hundred of her crew were consigned by the King's order to the waves; two hundred remained his prisoners. Richard arrived at Acre in the middle of June, with his gallant fleet of two hundred and fifty ships and sixty galleys, and aided so vigorously the combined forces of Christendom in the prosecution of the siege, that on the twelfth of the following July the city surrendered. The defection of Philip King of France did not damp the ardour of Richard: he marched against Jerusalem, and in sight of that city attacked and overthrew the caravan of Saladin, which came laden from Babylon, under an escort of ten thousand men. A truce being concluded with Saladin, Richard bent his steps homeward, to regulate the domestic concerns of his Realm, and to procure reinforcement for his crusading host. In his way he was shipwrecked near Aquileia, but getting safely to land he disguised himself as a merchant, and assuming the name of Hugh, was making his way through the Austrian dominions, when he was discovered and made prisoner by Leopold Duke of Austria, who owed him an old grudge for an indignity offered to his banner at Acre. Richard was given up by him to the Emperor of Germany, of whom he was obliged to purchase his liberty by a heavy ransom, 130,000 marks of silver. The old disagreement between Richard and Philip of France continuing unallayed, a war between them was the consequence, and Richard gave him a signal overthrow at the famous battle of Gisors, in Normandy, where the French king narrowly escaped with his life. The lion-hearted Richard on this occasion eminently displayed his intrepid character, and exclaimed after the held was won, "Not we but 'God and our Right' have vanquished France at Gisors;" the same emphatic words were by one of his successors coupled with the armorial ensigns of the British Crown.

Europe, France, Normandy, Guernon

Europe, France, Normandy, Harfleur

Chronicle of Gregory 1403-1419. 12 Aug 1415. And the xij day of Auguste the kyng saylyd towarde Arflewe, whythe Ml Ml sperys and moo;

Chronicle of Gregory 1403-1419. 16 Aug 1415. and the xvj day of the same monythe he londyd at Kytkawys, and the Satyrday he leyde sege unto the towne of Arflewe, and that was the Satyrday nexte aftyr of the Assompsyon of our Lady; and the sege contynuyd unto the Sonday nexte be fore the feste of Synt Mychelle, on the whiche Sonday the towne of Arflewe was delyveryd uppe to the kyng, that was xxij day of Septembre. But hit is to wyte that the Tewysday before, that is to saye the xvj day of the same monythe, at xij of the clocke whytheynne nyght, the lordys that were the capytaynys and governowrys of the towne, that is to wete the lord Gawcorte14, the lord Tutvyle, and moo othyr lordys, sende out herodys of armys unto the Duke of Clarens (age 26), prayng him at the reverens of God that he wolde of his hyghe lordeschippe that he wolde graunte them lyve and leve for to trete whythe what personys that the kyng wolde a-sygne unto hem; and the kyng at the reverens of God and at hyre requeste he assygnyde the Duke of Exceter [Note. Unclear as to who this is? Possibly Thomas Beaufort 1st Duke Exeter (age 38) who was created Duke the following year?], the lord Fehewe, and Syr Thomas Erpyngham (age 60), to hyre whatt they wolde say and desyre. And they desyryd that the kyng wolde nought warre on them fro that our of mydnyght unto the Sonday nexte aftyr the feste of Synt Mychell, and but it were rescwyd by batayle by that day by the Frenysche kyng or by the Dolfynne, ellys at that daye to delyver the towne unto the King, and they to have her lyvys and her goodys. Ande the kyng sende them worde yf that they wolde delivery the towne on the morne aftyr, be the our of mydnyght a bove said, without any condyscyon, he wolde accepte it, and in non othyr wyse he bade them for to trete. Ande yette the Fraynysche lordys prayde our lordys that they wolde fochesave to be-seche the King at the reverens of God and of our Lady that he wolde graunte them respyte fro the same Twysday at nyght unto the Sonday nexte aftyr tylle one owre aftyr none; and in the mayne tyme the lordys that were captaynys of the towne to come to the King whithe xxiiij knyghtys and squyers with hem, of the moste suffycyent men whithe in the towne, and they to be sworne on Goddys body opynly before alle the pepylle. But yf15 hit soo were that the Fraynysche King or the Dolfynne rescwyde them by that Sonday by the owre of none, othyr ellys a-non aftyr none, they for to delyvery the towne to the kyng and alle her bodys and goodys to don whythe them what so them evyr lyste, whythe16 any condiscyon. Whythe that the King sufferde them to sende unto Frauns viij personys out of the towne lettyng him wytte in what plytte that they stode yn, and the kyng grauntyd hem; and uppe the Wanysday by [th]e mone the lordys come owte, and xxij knyghtys and squyers whythe hem; and thenne come the prosessyon solempny and stately, whithe xxiiij copys of clothe of golde by-fore Goddys body, whythe many worschipfulle lordys, knyhtis, and squyers, and othyr multytude of pepylle from [th]e kyngys tente, solempny and stately as evyr was done suche a thyng be-for tyme. But the kyng was nott here present. And the Franysche lordys made thare her othys a-pon the sacrament; and, the othys done, the Fraynysche lordys were brought unto the kyngys tente, and there they dynyd in the kyngys halle, but in alle this tyme they sawe nought the King. And whanne that they hadde etyn they departyd and delyveryd to sartayne for to kepe yn ostage tylle the Sonday on none, as it was a cordyment i-made before tyme whenne that they toke her othys. And the Sonday at the same owre a-signyd the kyng hadde a tente phyght a-pone a hylle be-fore the towne, and there he sate in his estate, ryally, and alle his lordys aboute hym. And thenne come the Fraynysche lordys, with lxiiij whythe them of the moste suffycyentt men that were whythe yn the towne, to the kyngys owne propyr person, and delyveryd uppe the keyes of the towne and her boodys and her goodys to the Kings grace, whithe out any condyscyon. And this was the xxij day of Septembre, the year of our lord Ml cccc xv.

Note 14. Sawcortein our MS. by a misreading; Gawcourte in Vit.

Note 15. But if, i. e. unless.

Note 16. whythe. withoute, Vit.

Chronicle of Gregory 1435. Around 25 Dec 1435. Ande that same year, aboute Crystysmas, the Fraynysche parte gate a yenne Arflewe a and many moo othyr townys.

Europe, France, Normandy, La Vacherie

On 07 Dec 1816 Lieutentant-Colonel Henry Hollis Bradford (age 35) died at La Vacherie from wounds he had received at the Battle of Waterloo. He was buried at Storrington.

Europe, France, Normandy, Lassy

Around 1020 Hugh Lacy was born to Richard Lacy of Cromwellbotham at Lassy.

In 1045 Ilbert Lacy 1st Baron Pontefract was born to Hugh Lacy (age 25) at Lassy.

Walter Lacy was born to Hugh Lacy at Lassy.

Europe, France, Normandy, Le Bec Hellouin

Europe, France, Normandy, Le Bec Hellouin, Bec Abbey [Map]

On 10 Sep 1167 Empress Matilda (age 65) died. She was buried under the high alter at Bec Abbey [Map] during a service performed by Rotrou Newburgh Archbishop Rouen. Her tomb's epitaph reads 'Great by birth, greater by marriage, greatest in her offspring: here lies Matilda, the daughter, wife, and mother of Henry'.

Europe, France, Normandy, Le Havre

On 19 Mar 1563 the Greyhound was wrecked on its journey to Le Havre with the loss of around two-hundred lives.

Captain Thomas Finch (age 51) drowned.

Brothers John Wentworth (age 25) and James Wentworth (age 23) drowned.

Henry Machyn's Diary. 21 Mar 1563. The xxj day of Marche tydynges cam to the cowrt that on off the quen's shypes callyd the Grahond was lost gohyng to Nuwhavyn; the captayn was ser Thomas Fynche (deceased) knyghtt of Kent, and ys brodur and on of my lord Cobbam('s) brodur and ij of my lord Whentforth ('s) bredurne [John Wentworth (deceased) and James Wentworth (deceased)] and mony gentyll men and mynstorels; [one] of my lord of Warwyke('s) newys [nephews], and a good mastur; and mony [good] marenars and sawgears [soldiers] to the nombur of (blank)

Henry Machyn's Diary. 28 Jul 1563. The xxviij day of July was the great news that Newhaveyn by owr men and the Frenchmen .... mony a man slayne ther.

Europe, France, Normandy, Lillebonne

After 05 Jan 1066 King William "Conqueror" I of England (age 38) convened the Council of Lillebonne at Lillebonne to raise support for his claim to the English throne. The attendees are not known but likely to have included his companions at the subsequent Battle of Hastings including Roger "The Great" Montgomery 1st Earl of Shrewsbury and Bishop Odo of Bayeux.

Europe, France, Normandy, Louviers [Map]

Chronicle of Gregory 1403-1419. 1418. Ande aftyr Ester the kyng (age 31) layde sege unto Lovers [Map] ande wanne it, and aftyr that he wanne Pountte Large.

Europe, France, Normandy, Luce

Around 1052 Aveline de Goth was born in Luce.

Europe, France, Normandy, Lyons-la-Forêt [Map]

On 01 Dec 1135 King Henry I "Beauclerc" England (age 67) died at Lyons-la-Forêt, Normandy [Map]. The succession fell between Henrys daughter Empress Matilda (age 33) and Henry's nephew King Stephen I England (age 41), son of Adela Normandy Countess Blois (age 68) daughter of King William "Conqueror" I of England. The period from 1135 to 1153 during which the succession was fought over is known as The Anarchy.

Europe, France, Normandy, Mirebeau

Europe, France, Normandy, Mirebeau Castle

On 01 Aug 1202 King John "Lackland" of England (age 35) defeated the army of his nephew Arthur Plantagenet 3rd Duke Brittany (age 15) and Hugh Lusignan X Count Lusignan V Count La Marche (age 19) which was besieging John's mother Eleanor of Aquitaine Queen Consort Franks and England (age 80) at Mirebeau Castle. King John "Lackland" of England (age 35) took Arthur Plantagenet 3rd Duke Brittany 1187-1203's army by surprise capturing most. Arthur Plantagenet 3rd Duke Brittany (age 15) and, probably, his sister Eleanor "Fair Maid of Britanny" 4th Countess of Richmond (age 18), both of whom arguably had better claims to the throne than King John "Lackland" of England (age 35) were captured.

Europe, France, Normandy, Mortemar Abbey

On 14 Nov 1189 William Mandeville 3rd Earl Essex Count Aumale died at Rouen, France [Map]. He was buried at Mortemar Abbey. Earl Essex extinct.

Europe, France, Normandy, Neufmarché

Europe, France, Normandy, Ouilly Basset

On 20 Oct 1050 Thurston "The Norman" Basset was born at Ouilly Basset.

Europe, France, Normandy, Plessis

In 1068 William D'Aubigny 1st Baron Thirsk (age 58) died at Plessis. His son Roger "Pincerna aka Butler" D'Aubigny 2nd Baron Thirsk (age 32) succeeded 2nd Baron Thirsk.

Europe, France, Normandy, Taillebois

Around 1019 Reinfrid Taillebois was born at Taillebois.

In 1036 Ivo Taillebois was born to Reinfrid Taillebois (age 17) and Azeline Rie at Taillebois.

Europe, France, Normandy, Varaville

In 1057 at Varaville King William "Conqueror" I of England (age 29) defeated the army of King Henry I of France (age 48) and Geoffrey "Martel aka Hammer" Ingelger II Count Anjou during the Battle of Varaville. Henry and Geoffrey's army were fording the Dives River when the tide came in; only half of the army had crossed. William seized the opportunity and attacked.

Europe, France, Normandy, Épernon

On 25 Sep 1087 Simon Montfort (age 62) died at Épernon. His son Amaury Montfort (age 31) succeeded 2nd Seigneur Montfort.

Europe, France, Normandy, Évreux

On 03 Nov 1373 Joan Valois Queen Consort Navarre (age 30) died at Évreux.