Europe, France, Normandy, Rouen [Map]

Rouen, France is in Normandy [Map].

1153 Henry II visits his mother in Rouen

1154 Henry II Holds Easter at Rouen

1183 Death of Henry the Young King

1418 Siege of Rouen

1419 Surrender of Rouen

1431 Trial of Joan of Arc

1431 Execution of Joan of Arc

1431 French Coronation of Henry VI

1435 Death of John of Bedford

In 1087 Adelize Beaumont Oise died at Rouen, France [Map]. She was buried in the Chapter House, Abbey of Saint-Evroul, Saint-Evroult-Notre-Dame-du-Bois.

On 01 Jun 1134 Geoffrey Plantagenet Count Nantes was born to Geoffrey Plantagenet Duke Normandy (age 20) and Empress Matilda (age 32) at Rouen, France [Map] or Argentan. He a grandson of King Henry I "Beauclerc" England.

Henry II visits his mother in Rouen

Before Jan 1153 King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England (age 19) visited his mother Empress Matilda (age 50) in Rouen, France [Map] to seek funds for his impending invasion of England.

Henry II Holds Easter at Rouen

Around Mar 1154 King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England (age 20) returned to Rouen, France [Map] and met with his mother Empress Matilda (age 52), and his brothers. Eleanor of Aquitaine Queen Consort Franks and England (age 32) joined them to celebrate Easter with their first son William Plantagenet IX Count Poitiers who met his father for the first time aged around eight months.

In 1189 Geoffrey Chateaudun III Count Perche and Matilda Welf Countess Perche (age 17) were married at Rouen, France [Map]. She by marriage Countess Perche. She the daughter of Henry "Lion" Welf XII Duke Saxony III Duke Bavaria (age 60) and Matilda Plantagenet Duchess Saxony (age 32). He the son of Routrou Chateaudun IV Count Perche (age 54) and Matilda Blois Countess Perche. They were third cousin once removed. He a great x 2 grandson of King William "Conqueror" I of England. She a granddaughter of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England.

On 14 Nov 1189 William Mandeville 3rd Earl Essex Count Aumale died at Rouen, France [Map]. He was buried at Mortemar Abbey. Earl Essex extinct.

In Oct 1196 Raymond Rouerge Marquess Provence (age 39) and Joan Plantagenet Queen Consort Sicily (age 31) were married at Rouen, France [Map]. She by marriage Countess Toulose. She the daughter of King Henry "Curtmantle" II of England and Eleanor of Aquitaine Queen Consort Franks and England (age 74). He the son of Raymond Rouerge V Count Toulose and Constance Capet Countess Boulogne and Toulose. They were third cousin once removed.

On 04 Sep 1199 Joan Plantagenet Queen Consort Sicily (age 33) died at Rouen, France [Map]. She was buried at Fontevraud Abbey [Map].

In 1203 Arthur Plantagenet 3rd Duke Brittany (age 16) was murdered at Rouen, France [Map]. His half sister Alix Thouars Duchess of Brittany (age 1) succeeded 5th Countess Richmond. Her half-sister Eleanor "Fair Maid of Britanny" 4th Countess of Richmond (age 19), who was imprisoned from 1202 to her death, also used the title Countess of Richmond.

Chronicle of Gregory 1403-1419. 1418. And the King (age 31) layde sege unto the cytte of Reyne [Map]52, and that contynuyd tylle the xxiiij53 day of Janyver nexte aftyr.

Note 52. Rouen.

Note 53. Should be the 13th.

Siege of Rouen

Chronicle of Gregory 1403-1419. 1418. The same John Bryan [Sheriff of London] scheryve unto the ix day of Octobre, and thenne he dyde; and thenne John Pernys [J Parnasse] was chose sheryve for the year. And fro that day of Saynt Edward contynuyd the sege of Rone unto the xxiiij53 day of Janyver, as it is by-fore said; at the whiche day they of the cytte desyryd to trete. And the King (age 31) commaundyd the Erle of Warwyke, and the Erle of Salysbury, the lord Fehewe, Syr Watyr Hungerforde (age 39), Gylbert Houmfryvyle, John Vasquyes de Almada, and Robert54 Knyght, to trete whythe hem. And for the party of Roone [Map] [these folowyng]:55

first, it is accordyd that Syr Gy Butler, captayne of the cytte of Roone [Map], with the consentte of the nobylle cyttezyns and of othyr dwellynge and beyng in the same cytte and castelle a-bove said, whythe owt fraude or malyngnynge, what tyme aftyr the myddys of the xix day of this present monythe of Janyver, our said lord the King wylle that the cytte and the castelle too him or to his be delyveryd undyr maner and in forme whythe ynne wrytte.

Alle so it is accordyd that the day and the howre56 of that of the nobylle cyttezyns and othyr whatt soo evyr they be dwellynge and beynge in the fore said cytte and castelle shalle submyt them in alle thyngys to the grace of our excellent lord the kyng.

Alle so it is accordyd that fro this howre57 unto the reale and effectualle [yeldyng]58 of the said cytte and castelle, none of forsaid noble cyttezyns othyr othyr59 being in the same cytte and castelle shalle nought goo out of the said cytte and castelle without specyalle lyscens of our excellente lord the King.60

Alle so it is accordyd that fro this howre57 unto the delyverans of the cytte any61 of [th]e parteys shalle abstayne them from alle goodys62 of werre to make a yenste the othyr partys of hem. Alle so it is accordyde that the noble cyttezeyns and othyr beynge in the cytte and castelle shalle paye to our fore said lord the King CCC Ml scwtys of golde, where of alle way ij of them shalle be worthe an Englysche noble, or in stede of every scwte xxx grete blankys wyte, or xv grotys; of the whyche CCC Ml scwtys that one parte shalle be payde unto our sovereign lord the King, or unto his deputys, whythe ynne the cytte of Roone be-fore said, the xxij day of this present mony[th]e of Janyver, and the othyr halfe payde to our said lord or to his deputys in the feste of Syn Mathie the Apostylle nexte to come, that shalle be the xxiij63 day of Feverer, whythe out any delay i-hadde, &c.64

Alle so it is accordyde that every subgett of our said lord the King that nowe ben or were presoners to any person in the said cytte or castelle, and her pleggys, shall be utterly fre as a-yens thes personnys, and the summys that they ar boundyn ynne, at the day of this present trete and accorde.

Alle so it is accordyde that alle and every soudyer and stranger beynge in the said citte and castelle shalle swere on the Evaungelys of God be-fore there departyng, that they shall not bere armys a-gayne our said lord the King or any of hys, unto the first day of Janyver nexte to come, for no maner maundement [th]at to them of any maner person in contrary may be done or ennyode.65

Alle so it is accordyde that alle and every jewelle, relykys, and othyr goodys longgyng to the abbaye of Synt Kateryne, whythe ynne the same cytte and castelle, beyng alle hoolly, shalle be delyveryd unto him whom that the Kyng of Inglonde deputyn or ordeyn them to ressayve aftyr the delyveraunce of the sayd cytte.

Alle so it is accordyde that the fore said noble cyttezyns and othyr whythe in the said cytte and castelle beyng, shalle make the same cytte and castelle be-fore the said xix daye of this present monythe of Janyver suffycyantly and honestely to be made clene, and alle so honestly and diligently that alle the dede bodys newe dede or to ben dede in to that daye of delyveraunce of the cytte honestely and dylygently shalle ben beryd.

Alle soo it is accordyd that the for said noble cyttezyns and alle beynge in the said citte and castelle anon shalle receyve66 and don entre in to the same cytte and castelle alle and everyche beynge in the dychys67 of the said cytte that for penurye68 went out of the same cytte whom69 they shalle be holde to fede unto the xix day of Janyver above said, as they wylle answere unto Gode and the kyng; and out takyn them they shalle not ressayve non othyr personnys in to the same cytte or castelle unto the forsaid day without specyalle lyssens of our moste dowtfulle lord the Kyng of Inglonde. But yf hit happe any massyngere or harowde of armys of the adversy party of the King to come to the partys of [th]e gatys or dychys of the said castelle and cytte . . .70

Whiche71 artyculys and appoyntmentys, as it is before said, alle and every chone in maner as it is accordyd, the forsaid captaynys and the noble cyttezyns ande othyr whythe ynne the said castelle and citte being, welle and trewly whythe out any fraude or malygny72 to holdyn ande observe and kepe they be-hote, ande thoo two be kept and fullefyllyd they bynd them soo, but yf yt be falle our said moste doughtefulle lord the King, that God for bede, to ben ovyr come in the batayle to him i-made by Charlys his adversarye of Fraunce or the Duke of Burgayne, be-fore the for-said [xix]73 day of this present monythe of Janyver; for to sen74 alle way that [if]73 it be falle the forsaid Charlys adversary, othyr the Duke of Burgayne, or any othyr, to come to the sege of our King to remoeve75 fro the forsaid cytte, that nothyr the fore said captayne nor non of the cyttezyns, sowdyers, othyr othyr76 beyng whythe ynne the for said cytte or castelle, shalle goo owte, nor noo maner helpe they shalle delyverye nor lene to hem, so azens our lord the Kings comyng in nomaner a wyse.

Alle so, that alle thes maner of poynttementysse, covenauntys, and accordys, and every poynte as it is a fore said, welle and trewly and unbrokyn to be kepte; and for the more surete of the same covenauntys and accordys, the for said captayne, the noble cyttezyns, and othyr above said shalle ben takyn in this tyme anone into the hondys of our lord the King iiij schore notable plegys, where of xxty shalle be knyghtys and squyers, ande the remenaunte cyttezyns of the same cytte, att her owne coste to be sustaynyd. For the party sothely of our moste doutefulle lord ande King a-fore said, gracyusly and benyngly consederynge the meke submyttynge and yeldynge of the said citte and castelle above said, he hathe grauntyde that alle and everye person of what a-state or degre that he be of condycyon with ynne the said castelle [and cite]77 beyng, [excepte]77 sartayne personys with ynne expressyde, that wylle be-come legys and subgetys to our lord the King, and fro hensforthe wylle dwelle undyr his obessauns, they shalle have there herytagys and goodys, mevablis and unmevablys, whythe ynne his duche of Normandy constitute; and whiche that benne afore the day and date of this present letters by our fore said lord the King to78 othyr personys have nought be yovyn and grauntyde, excepte armours artyrlys a-bove sayd; makyng and doyng [for]77 her herytagys, and for her unmevabylle goodys to our for said lord the King, the services79 ther-of dewe and consuete, or to swere to whom suche maner of servyce of the graunte of our lord the King ought too long.

Alle so it is agrauntyd of our lord the King is be-halve, that alle the cyttezyns and dwellers of the cytte of Roone that nowe be, or in tyme to come shalle be, [and]80 shall have alle ande every franches, lybertes, and prevelegys [th]e whiche of worthely mynde be progenys of our lord the King, of kyngys of Inglonde, dukys of Normandye, to them and to his said cytte were grauntyde, in possessyon where [of]81 they were the first day that our lord the King a-fore said come by fore the said cytte; and alle so of more large grace of his benyngnyte hathe grauntyde, that the same cyttezyns and dwellers of the citte shalle have alle the lyberteys, and franches, and prevelegys, where they were in pos sessyons on the fore said first day of comynge of our lord the King before the cytte, of the graunte of his progenytourys of kyngys of Fraunce that were before tyme of Phylyppe Valeys, adversarye of our lord [the kyng].81

[Also it is grauntid and accordid in our lord] the kyngys behalve, that alle the strangers, sowdyers, and othyr in the fore said citte and castelle, beynge at this tyme nought wyllynge to be come leges of our lord the kyng, the for-said citte so yoldynne as hit is before said, to departe, living to our said lord the kyng all her armowrys, hors, artylyrs, and othyr thyngys, harneysse, and goodys, excepte the Normandys that wylle nought be lyges of our lord the King, [th]at thoo alle shalle a-byde presoners of our lord the kyng.

Alle so it is grauntyd in our lord the Kings behalve, that the werre and alle so schrewde speche that duryng the sege the folke and pepylle nemnyd, of what condycyon that they ben, ayens his ryalle soveraynyte, or whythe defame lyppys have spoke, our moste sovereign lord the kyng, of strenyger the day of parte82 mekely shalle be forgevynne, out take the personys that above in specyalle ben exceptyd.83

Alle so it is accordyd in our lord the kyngys be halve, that the for said soudyers and strongers be-fore this presentt trete and accorde, wyllyng for to departynne, our lord the kyng shalle ordaynne and make a sykyr and saffe condyte in form consuete.

And so the fore said cytte was yoldyd to our sovereign lord the King uppon Synt Wolstonys day.84 And aftyr that he gatte many townys and castellys, as it shalle aftyr this be wretyn alle the processe.

Note 53. Should be the 13th.

Note 54. Robert. Robesard, J.

Note 55. [these folowyng]. Omitted in MS.; supplied from J. Nevertheless it is clear there is a further omission, even in J.

Note 56. howre. The hof this word is struck out in all these places.

Note 57. See notee, p. 122.

Note 58. Omitted in MS.; supplied from J.

Note 59. So in MS. The first "othyr" seems to mean "or."

Note 60. This clause is repeated in the MS. with the variation, "non of the fore said cyttezyns or othyr."

Note 61. any. every, J.

Note 62. goodys. Evidently a transcriber's error for dedys. J. reads dede.

Note 63. xxiij. Should be 24th. See Rymer, ix. 665.

Note 64. Here several articles are omitted which may be seen in Rymer. They are given in the English in J.

Note 65. enjoined.

Note 66. receyve. resome, MS.; receyve, V.; receyven, J.

Note 67. or about diches, J.

Note 68. penurye. femurye, MS.; penurie, J. Vit. reads "fere."

Note 69. whom. whanne, MS.

Note 70. The conclusion of the sentence is omitted not only in our MS. but also in J. and V. In the Latin it is, "ipse in ipsa non recipietur, seu providebitur eidem per dominum nostrum Regem de salvo conductu."

Note 71. Whiche. The MS. has "with the" written as if it were the continuation of the previous sentence.

Note 72. malygny. malengyne, J.

Note 73. Omitted in MS.; supplied from J.

Note 74. for to sen, i. e. foreseen, provided.

Note 75. remoeve. remayne, MS., corrected from J.

Note 76. See page 123, notec.

Note 77. Omitted in MS.; supplied from J.

Note 78. to. and, MS.; corrected from J.

Note 79. services. sermoys, MS.

Note 80. This word is clearly superfluous.

Note 81. The end of this sentence and the beginning of the next are omitted in our MS., which runs on without a break from the word "lorde" to "the kyngys behalve' as if it were one sentence.

Note 82. of strenyger the day of parte. of steryng the day of pietie, J. These are strange corruptions. The Latin has ex instinctu Divinæ pietatis.

Note 83. They are mentioned in the preceding clause in the original treaty; but their names are omitted in the MS.

Note 84. 19th Jan.

Surrender of Rouen

On 19 Jan 1419 Rouen, France [Map] surrendered to King Henry V of England (age 32) after a sirge of six months.

Alain Blanchard, who had hanged English prisoners from the walls, was summarily executed.

In 1420 Richard Scrope 3rd Baron Scrope of Bolton (age 27) died at Rouen, France [Map]. His son Henry Scrope 4th Baron Scrope of Bolton (age 1) succeeded 4th Baron Scrope of Bolton.

On 10 Aug 1420 Thomas Fitzgerald 5th Earl Desmond (age 34) died at Rouen, France [Map].

French Coronation of Henry VI

Chronicle of Gregory 1431. 13 Dec 1431. And the xiij day of the same monythe he was crownyde at Parysse; for there he was worthely and ryally ressayvyd as they cowthe devyse whythe alle the statys of the towne. And there he hylde his feste raylly to alle maner of nacyons that were in that contre, that yf it plesyde them thedyr for to come. And in Syn Johnys day in the Crystysmasse weke the King remevyd towarde Roone [Map], and on the xij evyn he come unto Calys. Ande the xxix day of Janyver he londyd at Dovyr [Map].

In 1435 Louis of Luxembourg fled to English held Rouen, France [Map] when the French recovered Paris. He was appointed Archbishop Rouen. His niece Jacquetta of Luxemburg Duchess Bedford (age 20) married the English regent John Lancaster 1st Duke Bedford (age 45).

In 1437 Oliver St John (age 36) died at Rouen, France [Map].

In 1437 Oliver St John (age 91) died at Rouen, France [Map].

On 30 Apr 1439 Richard Beauchamp 13th Earl Warwick (age 57) died at Rouen, France [Map]. He was buried at St Mary's Church, Warwick [Map]. His son Henry Beauchamp 1st Duke Warwick (age 14) succeeded 14th Earl Warwick. Cecily Neville Duchess Warwick (age 15) by marriage Countess Warwick.

Chronicle of Gregory 1439. 30 Apr 1439. And the laste day of Aprylle deyde the Erle of Warwyke (age 57) at Roone [Map]. Ande the same year the Cardynalle Archebyschoppe of Yorke (age 59), the Byschoppe of Northewyche (age 51), the Byschoppe of Syn Davys and many othyr docters, and the Duke of Northefolke (age 23), the Erle of Stafford (age 36), the lord Bowcer, and the Lord Hungerforde (age 39), with a grete mayny, wente unto Calys; and they hadde the Duke of Orlyaunce (age 44) with them for to trete of pes by twyne Ingelonde and Fraunce. And there mette with them the grete lordys of Fraunce, that is to wyte, of spyrytualle and temporalle, the Archebyschoppe of Raynys (age 59), whythe many moo byschoppys, the Erle of Wendon (age 63), a the Bastarde of Orlyaunce (age 36), and many othyr lordys of Fraunce; and thedyr come the Byschoppe of Spayne and of Colayne, and many moo othyr dyvers contreys that com fro the Counselle of Basylle.

On 28 Apr 1442 King Edward IV of England was born to Richard Plantagenet 3rd Duke of York (age 30) and Cecily "Rose of Raby" Neville Duchess York (age 26) at Rouen, France [Map]. He was immediately baptised in a small side chapel at Rouen Cathedral [Map]. Some historians suggest the lack of grandeur indicates Edward IV may have been illegitimate whereas others suggest the baptism was typical for a country at war. Some historians also suggest Edward IV was illegitimate since his father Richard Plantagenet 3rd Duke of York (age 30) was away at the siege of Pontoise [Map] at the time of conception. Pontoise [Map] is some sixty miles from Rouen. There is straight road, an old Roman road known as the Chaussée Jules César, between the Pontoise and Rouen, now known as the D14. Easy for Richard to return to Rouen as and when he chose to. He a great x 2 grandson of King Edward III of England. Coefficient of inbreeding 2.42%.

On 17 May 1443 Edmund York 1st Earl of Rutland was born to Richard Plantagenet 3rd Duke of York (age 31) and Cecily "Rose of Raby" Neville Duchess York (age 28) at Rouen, France [Map]. He a great x 2 grandson of King Edward III of England. Coefficient of inbreeding 2.42%.

On 22 Apr 1444 Elizabeth York Duchess Suffolk was born to Richard Plantagenet 3rd Duke of York (age 32) and Cecily "Rose of Raby" Neville Duchess York (age 28) at Rouen, France [Map]. She a great x 2 granddaughter of King Edward III of England. Coefficient of inbreeding 2.42%.

Chronicle of Gregory 1450. 1450. Ande that same year was the moste pa[r]te of Normandy y-loste, and a Parlymentte was at Westemyster. In the mene whyle was the [city] of Eoon [Map], Mustarde Vylers, and Herflete i-loste by fore Crystysmasse, and thenne the Parlyment was prolongyd tylle aftyr Syn Hyllary is day. Ande at that tyme beyng many sowdyers at Portysmowthe [Map], the whyche haddyn take the kyngys (age 28) wagys for to pass ovyr the see. And anon aftyr Crystysmasse was sende unto the see syde the Prevye Sealle, whyche was callyd Mayster Adam Molaynys, to have take the monster [muster?] at the see syde, he beynge that tyme Byschoppe of Chychester. Ande for his covetysse, as it was reportyde, schippemen put him to dethe, and some mys-a-wysyd men of the sowdyers holpyn welle there-to. And this was done at Portysmouthe [Map].

On 17 Sep 1474 John Fitzwilliam (age 77) died at Rouen, France [Map].

On 09 Jun 1537 Louis Valois II Duke Longueville (age 27) died at Rouen, France [Map]. His son François Valois III Duke Longueville (age 1) succeeded III Duke Longueville.

Around 1565 Isaac Oliver was born in Rouen, France [Map].

In 1591 Thomas Coningsby (age 40) travelled to Rouen, France [Map] to be in attendance on Robert Devereux 2nd Earl Essex (age 25).

Evelyn's Diary. 18 Mar 1644. We lay this night at a village, called Magny. The next day, descending a very steep hill, we dined at Fleury, after riding five leagues down St. Catherine, to Rouen, France [Map], which affords a goodly prospect, to the ruins of that chapel and mountain. This country so abounds with wolves that a shepherd whom we met, told us one of his companions was strangled by one of them the day before, and that in the midst of his flock. The fields are mostly planted with pears and apples, and other cider fruits. It is plentifully furnished with quarries of stone and slate, and hath iron in abundance.

Evelyn's Diary. 21 Mar 1644. On Easter Monday, we dined at Totes, a solitary inn between Rouen, France [Map] and Dieppe, at which latter place we arrived. This town is situated between two mountains, not unpleasantly, and is washed on the north by our English seas.

In 1647 Ralph Hopton 1st Baron Hopton (age 50) moved to Rouen, France [Map] where he stayed with his uncle Arthur Hopton Diplomat (age 59).

On 09 Oct 1917 Henry Cecil Vane (age 35) died from wounds in a hospital at Rouen, France [Map]. He was buried at St Sever Cemetery. He has a memorial at St Mary's Church, Staindrop [Map].

Henry Cecil Vane: On 19 Sep 1882 he was born to Henry de Vere Vane 9th Baron Barnard and Catherine Sarah Cecil Baroness Barnard. On 25 Aug 1914 or 25 Oct 1914 Henry Cecil Vane and Enid Victoria Rachel Fane were married. She the daughter of Anthony Fane 13th Earl of Westmoreland.

Europe, France, Normandy, Rouen, Abbey of St Ouen [Map]

Flowers of History. 1072. Pope Alexander died on the last day of March, and was succeeded by Hildebrand, who took the name of Gregory. The same year, the monks of Saint Ouen [Map] came with a band of armed men, and attacked John, archbishop of Rouen, as he was celebrating mass, on the festival of the above-named saint. On which account it was decided in a council which was assembled in that city, over which William, king of England (age 44), presided, that the monks who were guilty of this crime, should be thrown into prison by the abbot.

Europe, France, Normandy, Rouen, Old Market Place [Map]

Chronicle of Gregory 1431. 23 May 1431. Ande the xxiij day of May the Pusylle (age 19) was brent at Rone [Map], and that was a pon Corpus Crysty evyn. [Note. The date here one week out; should be 30 May 1431]

On 30 May 1431 Joan of Arc (age 19) was burned at the stake witnessed by Cardinal Henry Beaufort (age 56) at the Old Market Place, Rouen [Map].

Europe, France, Normandy, Rouen Castle [Map]

On 09 Jan 1431 Joan of Arc (age 19) was tried at Rouen Castle [Map]. John Lancaster 1st Duke Bedford (age 41) and Henry Beauchamp 1st Duke Warwick (age 5) were present.

Chronicle of Gregory 1435. 14 Sep 1435. Ande that same year, the xiiij day of Septembyr, deyde the Duke of Bedforde (age 46), Regaunte of alle Fraunce, in the castelle of Rone [Map], bytwyne ij and iij in the mornynge; and his body is buryde in Nostre Dame Chyrche of Roone [Map]. And of his soule ande alle Crystyn soulys God have marcy, Amen.

On 14 Sep 1435 John Lancaster 1st Duke Bedford (age 46) died at Rouen Castle [Map] without legitimate issue. Duke Bedford, Duke Bedford, Earl Kendal and Earl Richmond extinct. Humphrey Lancaster 1st Duke Gloucester (age 44) became heir to the throne.

Europe, France, Normandy, Rouen Cathedral [Map]

On 11 Jun 1183 Henry the Young King (age 28) died at Castle of Martel clasping a ring his father had sent as a token of forgiveness. He was buried at Rouen Cathedral [Map].

Chronicle of Gregory 1435. 14 Sep 1435. Ande that same year, the xiiij day of Septembyr, deyde the Duke of Bedforde (age 46), Regaunte of alle Fraunce, in the castelle of Rone [Map], bytwyne ij and iij in the mornynge; and his body is buryde in Nostre Dame Chyrche of Roone [Map]. And of his soule ande alle Crystyn soulys God have marcy, Amen.

On 28 Apr 1442 King Edward IV of England was born to Richard Plantagenet 3rd Duke of York (age 30) and Cecily "Rose of Raby" Neville Duchess York (age 26) at Rouen, France [Map]. He was immediately baptised in a small side chapel at Rouen Cathedral [Map]. Some historians suggest the lack of grandeur indicates Edward IV may have been illegitimate whereas others suggest the baptism was typical for a country at war. Some historians also suggest Edward IV was illegitimate since his father Richard Plantagenet 3rd Duke of York (age 30) was away at the siege of Pontoise [Map] at the time of conception. Pontoise [Map] is some sixty miles from Rouen. There is straight road, an old Roman road known as the Chaussée Jules César, between the Pontoise and Rouen, now known as the D14. Easy for Richard to return to Rouen as and when he chose to. He a great x 2 grandson of King Edward III of England. Coefficient of inbreeding 2.42%.

Evelyn's Diary. 18 Mar 1644. The Cathedral Nôtre Dame [Map] was built, as they acknowledge, by the English; some English words graven in Gothic characters upon the front seem to confirm it. The towers and whole church are full of carving. It has three steeples, with a pyramid; in one of these, I saw the famous bell so much talked of, thirteen feet in height, thirty-two round, the diameter eleven, weighing 40,000 pounds.